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Attitude Measurement

• Questionnaire-self reporting-reactions
• Observation-overt reaction-
• Physiological reaction- sweating,eye
dilation,voice pitch
Measuring Attitudes
• Non disguised,non structured technique
• Depth interviews-open questions, probing
• Focus groups
• Ideal for exploratory research
Attitude towards tea
• Color-light, dark, medium, golden
• Flavor,aroma,sweetness
• Leaf, powder,bags
• Social drinking, habit forming,for children
• Separate tea, milk, sugar or mixed
• Brands preferred
Disguised Non Structured
• Word association
• Sentence completion
• Story completion
• Pictures
• Cartoons
• Better than non disguised only as in some
cases respondents would not answer if they
knew the issues.
Disguised Structured
• Non structured are slow costly can be subjective
• Disguised questions help respondents open up
• Questions not easy to answer correctly, have to
guess the answers
• For example,”how much does it cost to send a
letter in your firm”
• Eliminate subjective answers and their
Structured Non disguised
• Good for measuring attitudes towards product
• Main attributes of the product
• Benefits from the product
• Better while measuring than disguised for
• Standard attitude scale-scaling system
Scaling Systems
• Ordinal scaling –simplest for attitude
measurements in MR-widely used
• It measures /compares the characteristics of
different products
• It does not tell the degree of favorability of
different rankings.
• Rate TV sets-x=1, y=2, z=3
Interval scales
• Besides ranking they tell about the rank
position in equal units 1-2-3-4-5-6
• 6 is not double of 3 as there is no zero
Ratio Scale
• When measurement starts with zero, ratio
comparisons can be made
• Results can be given in percentages
• Can be shown on a pie chart
Self Rating Scale
• Simplest ordinal scale-, yes /no answers/no
• Graphic rating scale most widely used in
BAD (1-2-3-4-5)
• Ranking scale-for several brands
Indirect scales
• Scaling attitudes is difficult
• Indirect scales provide a series of attitude
statements for respondents to agree or
• Thurstone scale-equal-appearing intervals
on concepts
Thurstone Scale
• Large number of statements
• 20 refiners put them in to 11 piles 1-5, unfavorable scale 6
neutral, 7-11 favorable ascending order
• Eliminate extremes
• Scale value –number of piles in which with median
• Select one or two statements from each pile for final scale-
narrowest range –most reliable
• Thurstone scale time consuming not much used for MR
Likert Scale
• Attitude related statements
1. Strongly agree
2. Fairly strongly
3. Agree
4. Undecided
5. Disagree
6. Disagree fairly strongly
7. Very strongly
8. Do not know
Filter Coffee rate on scale of 1-5

• I like
• Is a mess to make
• Is bad for BP
• Is expensive
• Contains caffeine not good for health
Multi dimensional scale
• Perceptual mapping
• Consumer perception
• Positioning different products
• Determine number of dimensions consumers use
• Nature of dimensions
• Locate brand as per consumer perception
• Consumer perception on relevant dimensions
• Data analysis in several ways
• Unified comprehensive data
• Cross tabultion
• Simple correlation
• Scalogram
• Factor analysis