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David Willmore AP US - Pd. 5 27 March 2011 The Ordeal of Liberalism Chapter 31 Chapter Summary: The United States fought two wars during the 1960s. One was an assault on domestic ills— racism, poverty, insufficient education and health care. The other was the continuing war on communism. John F. Kennedy, the charismatic senator from Massachusetts, sensing a growing national restive mood, offered himself as a vigorous pro-active alternative to the more serene and reserved Eisenhower years. But after squeezing out one of the narrowest presidential victories in American history, and faced with a conservative Congress, Kennedy ultimately provided more inspiration than substance in fulfilling his New Frontier agenda. His assassination on November 22, 1963, at the age of forty-six, devastated the nation and rocked its self-confidence. Now the unfulfilled hopes of New Frontier supporters were placed in the hands of Lyndon Johnson, whose task was to carry through the martyred Kennedy’s Cold War liberalism. The enormously ambitious Johnson did much more than that. His Great Society attempted to do little less than fulfill the ideals of the “American dream” for all of its people. The first three years of the Johnson administration, during which time he won a landslide election in his own right, were incredibly productive. Landmark legislation was passed for civil rights, health care, public housing, the arts, employment and education opportunities, and the general expansion of welfare protections. But in the end it would be the other war, the war on communism, which would bring down Johnson, dismantle much of the Great Society, and even call into question many of the assumptions of liberalism. Throughout the 1960s, the shadows of the Cold War were lengthening over the nation. The 1961 debacle at the Bay of Pigs and the following year’s Cuban missile crisis, which brought the world to the brink of nuclear war, were precursors of the troubles that lay ahead. By the second half of the 1960s, the focus of American foreign policy had shifted halfway around the world. In Vietnam, the “ordeal of Cold War liberalism” would be played out. By the end of 1967 there were 510,000 US troops in Southeast Asia, and the Vietnam War had become the compelling issue in American politics. President Johnson, who never wanted the United States’ focus to be on Vietnam and yet had provoked conflict there to allow the massive escalation of American troops, was consumed by the unwinnable conflict. By 1968 the Great Society was in disarray. Liberals were no longer united; the public was polarized and disenchanted. To many, the nation seemed to be coming apart. Johnson would not even seek reelection. The stage was set for a Republican revival. Points for Discussion: 1. Compare the domestic reform goals of Kennedy and Johnson. How were they similar? How were they different? Who was more successful and why? Apart from its financial costs, why did many Americans lose faith in Great Society programs by the late 1960s? What has been the legacy of the Great Society to the nation? 2. Analyze the efforts of President Kennedy to diversify American foreign and military policy. Was he more successful in one area or another? Why? Did events in Cuba in 1961–1962 reflect those efforts at diversification? Should Kennedy be praised for the outcome of the 1962 missile crisis or criticized for bringing the United States to the brink of nuclear war? 3. How did the resistance of many southern whites to civil rights activities in the South ironically serve to help the cause of black civil rights? What role did television play in the rights movement? 4. What factors contributed to the passage of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965? Why were these legislative victories not enough to satisfy the aspirations of some blacks? How did they
respond to this? How had the movement changed by 1968? How did the Johnson administration specifically and white America generally respond to those changes? Why did President Johnson decide to expand America’s commitment in Vietnam into a fullscale war? Why was an American military victory in Vietnam so difficult, if not impossible, to obtain? What were the United States strategic problems in the war? On what basis did the Johnson administration seek to sell the Vietnam war to the American people? Why did the war become a “quagmire” for American policies? On what basis was Johnson criticized? Who seemed to understand the problems of this war better—Johnson or his critics? Why was the Tet offensive a critical turning point in the Vietnam War? Should it have been such an important turning point? Why or why not? Discuss the causes and consequences of a conservative “backlash” among the “silent majority” of Americans by 1968. How was this conservatism different from the conservatism of the 1950s? How was it similar? 21. 24th Amendment (1964) 22. “Freedom Summer” (1964) 23. Civil Rights Act (1964) 24. Selma March (1965) 25. Voting Rights Act (1965) 26. “Black Power” - Black Panthers 27. (Kerner) Commission on Civil Disorders 28. “Missile Gap” 29. “Flexible Response” 30. Bay of Pigs (1961) 31. Berlin Wall (1961) 32. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 33. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963) (“Hotline”) 34. “Wars of National Liberation” 35. National Liberation Front (NLF) 36. Viet Cong 37. “Ho Chi Minh Trail” 38. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964) 39. Tet Offensive (1968) 40. Dominican Republic crisis (1965)
Key Events, Terms & Concepts: 1. Election of 1960 2. “New Frontier” 3. Peace Corp 4. Alliance for Progress 5. Warren Commission 6. Election of 1964 7. “Great Society” 8. “War on Poverty” 9. Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) 10. Medicare & Medicaid 11. Head Start 12. Immigration Act of 1965 13. Elementary & Secondary Act of 1965 14. Immigration Reform Act (1965) 15. Democratic Convention (1968) 16. Election of 1968 • “Silent Majority” • “Peace with Honor” 17. Greensboro Sit-Ins (1960) 18. SNCC, CORE, SCLC 19. Freedom Riders (1961-62) 20. March on Washington (1963) Important People: 1. JFK 2. LBJ 3. Richard Nixon 4. Barry Goldwater 5. Robert McNamara 6. Dean Rusk 7. Sen. William Fullbright 8. Eugene McCarthy 9. RFK 10. Hubert Humphrey 11. Lee Harvey Oswald
12. Jack Ruby 13. James Meredith 14. MLK, Jr. 15. James Earl Ray 16. Malcolm X 17. Gov. George Wallace 18. Nikita Khrushchev 19. Fidel Castro 20. Ngo Dinh Diem
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Introduction A. Late 1950s 1. Growing restlessness a) Placid society 2. Growing pressures a) African Americans b) Minorities c) Women d) Song suppressed (1) Shake public life B. Restlessness 1. Turbulent era 2. Political leaders a) Popular movements b) Attack problems (1) Social (2) International 3. Framework a) Liberal policies II. Expanding the Liberal State A. John Kennedy 1. 1960 campaign a) Young candidates (1) “Active leadership” b) Republican (1) Uncontested (2) Vice President (a) Richard Nixon (3) Moderate reform 2. John Fitzgerald Kennedy a) Son (1) Joseph P. Kennedy (a) Wealthy (b) Powerful (c) Controversial (d) Former American ambassador i) Britain b) Campaign (1) Assumption (a) American people i) Uneasy ii) National course (2) Promised (a) Domestic reforms i) Ambitious (1) New Deal (b) Program i) “New Frontier” c) Traveled (1) Texas (a) Wife (b) Vice President i) Lyndon B. Johnson (2) Political appearances.
(3) Presidential motorcade (a) Dallas i) 22 Nov. 1963 (b) Shot i) Throat ii) Head (c) Rushed to hospital i) Pronounced dead. 3. Lee Harvey Oswald a) Arrested (1) For shooting (2) Later that day b) Murdered (1) Dallas nightclub owner (a) Jack Ruby (2) 2 days late (3) Being moved 4. Warren Commission report a) Ignored evidence (1) Wider conspiracy (2) Murders. B. Lyndon Johnson 1. Kennedy assassination a) National trauma b) Defining event (1) Old enough to be aware 2. Johnson a) Native (1) “Hill country” (2) West Texas b) Majority leader (1) U.S. Senate c) Effort d) Ambition. 3. 1963 - 1966 a) Impressive legislative (1) Since Franklin D. Roosevelt 4. “Great Society” 5. Record Democratic majorities a) Both houses b) Swept into office (1) Margin of victory (a) 61% c) Fulfill (1) Goals C. The Assault on Poverty 1. Welfare program a) Medicare (1) Provide federal aid (a) Elderly (2) Medical expenses. b) 1965 (1) 20 year debate (a) National health assistance
(b) “Socialized medicine” c) Benefits (1) Available (a) All elderly Americans (2) Regardless (a) Need d) Shifted responsibility (1) Paying fees (2) Patient -> government. 2. Centerpiece a) Office of Economic Opportunity b) New programs (1) Educational (2) Employment (3) Housing (4) Healthcare c) Community Action (1) Provided jobs (a) Poor people (b) Experience i) Administrative ii) Political work d) $3 billion (1) First 2 years e) Reduced poverty D. Cities, Schools, and Immigration 1. The Housing Act of 1961 a) $4.9 billion (1) Federal grants (a) Cities (2) Preservation (a) Open spaces (3) Development (a) Mass transit (4) Subsidization (a) Middle-income housing 2. Department of Housing and Urban Development a) New cabinet agency b) 1966 c) Secretary (1) Robert Weaver (2) 1st African American (a) In cabinet d) Model Cites program (1) Federal subsidies (2) Urban redevelopment (a) Pilot programs 3. Circumvent objections a) Federal control of schools b) Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (1) Subsequent measures. 4. Federal expenditures a) Education b) Technical training
c) $5 -> $12 billion d) 1964 -> 1967 5. Immigration Act of 1965 a) Strict limit (1) # newcomers (a) Each year (b) 170,000 b) Eliminated (1) “National origins” (a) 1920s (2) Preference (a) Northern Europe (b) Over i) Other parts of world E. Legacies of the Great Society 1. 1964 a) Passage (1) $11.5 billion tax cut (2) First proposed (a) 1962 (b) Kennedy (3) Increased federal deficit (4) Substantial economic growth (a) Next several years (b) Made up i) Revenue initially lost 2. Great Society program a) High cost b) Deficiencies c) Failures d) Inability (1) Find revenues to pay e) Growing disillusionment (1) Federal efforts (a) Solve social problems III. The Battle for the Racial Equality A. Expanding Protests 1. John F. Kennedy a) Sympathetic (1) Racial justice b) Not committed crusader. 2. February 1960 a) Black college students b) Greensboro, North Carolina c) Sit-in (1) Segregated lunch counter (2) Woolworth’s d) Following weeks (1) Similar demonstrations (2) Throughout South e) Many merchant (1) Integrated facilities. 3. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) a) Kept spirit of resistance alive
b) “Freedom rides”. (1) 1961 (2) Interracial group of students (3) Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) (4) Traveling by bus (a) Throughout South (5) Force desegregation (a) Bus stations. c) Workers (1) Through black communities (2) Remote rural areas (3) Encourage blacks (a) Challenge obstacles i) Voting (1) Jim Crow laws ii) Social customs 4. Martin Luther King, Jr. a) April, 1961 b) Series of nonviolent demonstrations c) Birmingham, Alabama (1) Unsurpassed (2) Commitment to segregation (3) Eugene “Bull” Connor (a) Police Commissioner (b) Break up peaceful marches i) Arrests ii) Attack dogs iii) Tear gas iv) Cattle prods v) Fire hoses (4) Governor George Wallace (a) Prevent enrollment i) Black Students ii) University of Alabama 5. Medgar Evers a) NAACP official b) Murdered – Mississippi B. A National Commitment 1. Generate support a) Legislation b) Dramatize (1) Power of growing movement c) 200,000+ demonstrators (1) March on Washington (a) Mall (b) Washington, D.C. (c) August, 1963 (2) Lincoln Memorial (3) Greatest civil rights demonstration (a) “I have a dream” (b) High water mark d) Kennedy (1) No criticisms = support 2. Early 1964
a) Johnson b) Pressure (1) Public (2) Private c) Supporters (1) ⅔ majority (a) Close debate (b) End filibuster i) Southern senators (2) Senate (a) Comprehensive civil rights bill (b) Passed C. The Battle for Voting Rights 1. Summer of 1964 a) 1000s civil rights workers (1) Black (2) White (3) Northern (4) Southern (5) Through South (a) Primarily Mississippi. b) “Freedom summer” (1) Violent response (a) Southern whites. 2. Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party a) Alternative b) State party organization c) Seated as observers (1) Party reforms (a) Later d) Regular party (1) Retained official standing. 3. March 1965 a) Major demonstration b) Selma, Alabama c) Right of blacks (1) Register to vote. d) 2 northern whites (1) Murdered (2) Minister (a) Beaten to death (3) Detroit housewife (a) Shot (b) Drove along highway i) Night ii) Black passenger 4. The Civil Rights Act of 1965 a) “Voting Rights Act” b) Federal protection (1) Exercise right to vote D. The Changing Movement 1. 1966 a) 69% blacks
(1) Metropolitan areas b) 45% (1) Outside South 2. ½+ American non-whites a) Lived in poverty (1) Beginning of 1960s b) Black unemployment (1) 2x Whites 3. Next decade a) Affirmative action (1) Virtually all institutions (2) Federal government 4. Organizers a) Chicago campaign b) Direct national attention (1) Housing (2) Employment (3) Discrimination (a) Northern industrial cities c) Similar campaigns (1) Legal racism (2) South E. Urban Violence 1. Before Chicago campaign a) Urban poverty (1) National attention (2) Violence (a) Black neighborhoods (b) Major cities 2. Large race riot a) Since World War II b) 1965 c) Watts section (1) Los Angeles d) Anger e) Week of violence (1) 34 people dead (a) 28 black f) Quelled (1) National Guard 3. Televised reports a) Alarmed (1) Millions of Americans b) New urgency c) Growing doubt (1) Whites (a) Embraced racial justice 4. Commission on Civil Disorders a) Created by president (1) Response b) Celebrated report c) Spring of 1968 (1) Massive spending (2) Eliminate
(a) Abysmal conditions (b) Ghettoes F. Black Power 1. Disillusioned a) Ideal b) Peaceful change (1) Cooperation with whites c) New approach (1) Philosophy (2) “Black power” d) Impact (1) Social (2) Psychological (3) Racial pride (a) African Americans (b) Society i) Dominant culture (1) Blacks (2) Inferior to whites (4) Growth (a) Black studies i) Schools ii) Universities 2. Traditional black organizations a) Emphasized cooperation (1) Sympathetic whites b) NAACP c) Urban League d) King’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference e) Competition (1) Radical groups (a) Oakland, California (b) Black Panther Party i) Defend black right ii) Violence G. Malcolm X 1. Detroit a) Once-obscure b) Black nationalist group (1) Nation of Islam (2) Prominence (3) Founded 1931 (a) Wali Farad (b) Elijah Poole (4) Blacks (a) Take responsibility i) Own lives (b) Discipline (c) Strict codes i) Behavior (d) Reject dependence i) Whites. 2. Influential spokesman a) Younger blacks
b) Intelligence c) Oratorical skills d) Uncompromising opposition (1) Racism (2) Oppression. e) Did not (1) Advocate violence f) Insisted (1) Black people (a) Defend themselves 3. Died a) 1965 b) Black gunmen (1) Orders (a) Nation of Islam c) Assassinated (1) New York IV. "Flexible Response and the Cold War" A. Diversifying Foreign Policy 1. Kennedy administration a) Convinced (1) Counter communist aggression (a) Flexible i) Atomic weapons ii) Defense strategy iii) Eisenhower Administration b) Unsatisfied (1) Ability (2) Meet communist threats (a) “Emerging areas” (b) Third World (3) Struggle against communism (a) Future. 2. Agency for International Development a) USAID b) Coordinate foreign aid. 3. Peace Corps a) Young Americans b) Volunteers c) Work (1) Developing areas. 4. Bay of Pigs a) April 17, 1961 b) Approval c) 2,000 men (1) Armed exiles (2) Bay of Pigs (a) Cuba (3) Expected (a) American air support (b) Spontaneous uprising i) Cuban people ii) Did not occur (4) Easily crushed
(a) 2 days B. Confrontations with the Soviet Union 1. Aftermath a) Bay of Pigs b) Kennedy (1) Vienna (2) June, 196 (3) Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev 2. Before dawn a) August 13, 1961 b) East German government (1) Directives from Moscow c) Wall (1) East + West Berlin. 3. Berlin Wall a) 30 years b) Physical symbol (1) Conflict (a) Communist (b) Noncommunist 4. Cuban Missile Crisis a) October 14 (1) Aerial reconnaissance photos (2) Clear evidence (a) Soviets (b) Cuba (c) Sites i) Offensive nuclear weapons b) October 22 (1) Blockade (a) Naval (b) Air (c) Around Cuba (2) “Quarantine” (a) Against all offensive weapons C. Johnson and the World 1. Lyndon Johnson a) Entered presidency b) Limited experience (1) International affairs 2. Dominican Republic a) Assassination b) Repressive dictatorship (1) General Rafael Trujillo c) Four years (1) Struggle for dominance d) Spring 1965 (1) Conservative military regime (a) Collapse (2) Revolt (a) Nationalist Juan Bosch (3) 30,000 troops deployed (a) 1966 election i) Withdrawn
3. Foreign policy a) Dominated (1) Civil war (a) Vietnam (b) American involvement i) United States V. The Agony of Vietnam A. The First Indochina War 1. Vietnam a) Long history (1) Independent kingdom (2) Major power (a) Regional (3) Subjugated province (a) China b) People (1) Proud (a) Past glory (2) Painfully aware (a) Years of subjugation 2. Mid-19th century a) Colony of France (1) Reassert control 3. Fall of 194 a) Collapse of Japan b) Before western powers (1) Return c) Vietminh (1) Vietnam independent nation (2) Nationalist government (3) Ho Chi Minh (a) Hanoi d) 4 years (1) “First Indochina War” (2) Truman+ Eisenhower (a) Support French military campaign i) Against Vietminh (3) 1954 (a) US: i) 80% war costs B. Geneva and the Two Vietnams 1. International conference a) Geneva b) Settle (1) Korean dispute (2) Other controversies (3) Fate of Vietnam 2. Secretary of State Dulles a) Reluctantly attended (1) Left early (2) Disliked (a) Negating w/ Communists (3) United States not a party 3. Vietnam
a) Temporarily portioned (1) 17th parallel b) Vietminh (1) North Vietnam c) Pro-western regime (1) South Vietnam C. America and Diem 1. U.S a) Stepped into vacuum b) Principal benefactor (1) New government (2) South c) Ngo Dihn Diem 2. The NLF a) National Liberation Front (1) Viet Cong (2) Allied (a) North Vietnamese (3) “Pupped regime” b) 1960 (1) Resumed military operations (a) Second Indochina War 3. Buddhist crisis a) Monks (1) Doused w/ gasoline (a) Set selves on fire (b) Photographers (c) Television cameras b) Alarming c) Embarrassing d) Kennedy Administration (1) Reconsider commitment (2) Unwilling (a) Permit fall of South Vietnam D. From Aid to Intervention 1. Lyndon Johnson a) Inherited (1) Substantial American commitment (2) Anticommunist South Vietnam 2. Intervention a) South Vietnam b) Consistent (1) American foreign policy (2) 20 years 3. August 1964 a) American destroyers (1) Patrol (2) International waters (3) Gulf of Tonkin (a) Attacked (b) By North Vietnamese i) Torpedo boats. E. The Quagmire 1. Continuous stream
a) Optimistic reports (1) American (a) Military commanders (b) Government officials (c) Others 2. “Attrition” a) Strategy (1) Unites States (a) Inflict i) Causalities ii) Damage iii) Enemy (1) Unable (2) Unwilling (3) Continue struggle 3. End of 1967 a) Every identifiable target (1) Strategic importance (2) North Vietnam (3) Destroyed. 4. American strategy a) “Pacification” program (1) Push Viet Cong (a) Regions (2) Pacify region b) Winning “hearts and minds” F. The War at Home 1. “Teach-ins” a) University campuses b) University of Michigan (1) 1965 c) National debate (1) War (2) Before (a) Inside government 2. Opposition to war a) Central issue b) Left-wing politics c) Culture (1) Colleges (2) Universities VI. The Traumas of 1968 A. The Tet Offensive 1. January 31, 1968 a) 1st day (1) Vietnamese New Year (a) “Tet" b) Communist forces (1) Attack (a) Enormous (b) Concerted (c) American strongholds i) South Vietnam. B. The Political Challenge
1. March 31 a) Johnson (1) Television (a) Limited halt i) Bombing ii) North Vietnam (b) Withdrawn i) Presidential contest 2. Robert Kennedy a) Entered campaign (1) Champion (a) Democratic primaries 3. Hubert Humphrey a) Support (1) President Johnson (2) Party leaders (3) Delegations (a) Not popular primaries (b) State organizations b) Frontrunner C. The King and Kennedy Assassinations 1. April 4 a) Martin Luther King, Jr. (1) Shot, killed (2) Standing on balcony (a) Motel b) James Earl Ray (1) Captured (a) 3 days later (2) No apparent motive (3) Hired by others (a) Never revealed identity c) Days after (1) Major riots (a) 60+ cities (b) 43 dead (c) 3000 injured (d) 27,000 arrested 2. 2 months following a) Robert Kennedy (1) Continued presidential campaign (a) Nomination (2) June 6 (a) Ballroom i) Los Angeles hotel ii) Acknowledge victory (b) Departure i) Shot in head (1) Shrine Shrine (a) Young Palestinian (b) Enraged (c) Pro-Israeli remarks (c) Died i) Early next morning
(3) Shaped (a) “Kennedy Legacy” (4) Set of ideas (a) Central (b) American liberalism. (5) Passions (a) Death i) Shattering experience ii) Many Americans 3. Presidential campaign a) Continued gloomily b) Chicago (1) August (2) Turbulent convention (a) Debated i) Antiwar plank (3) Antiwar protests (a) Bloody riot (b) Tear gas (c) Billy clubs (d) Televised to nation i) “The Whole world is watching” (4) Hubert Humphrey (a) Nomination effectively worthless D. The Conservation Response 1. George Wallace a) Established (1) 1963 (2) Leading spokesman (a) Defense of segregation b) Governor of Alabama (1) Block admission (a) Black students (b) University of Alabama. c) 1964 (1) Democratic presidential primaries (a) Surprisingly well (b) 20% 2. Richard Nixon a) “Silent majority” (1) Order (2) Stability b) “Middle America” (1) Tired (a) Obligation i) Poor (b) Sacrifices i) Racial justice ii) Judicial reforms (1) Help criminals (2) Stability (3) Law and order (4) Government (5) Retrenchment
(6) “Peace with honor” (a) Vietnam c) Commanding lead (1) Diminished (a) Doubts i) Character 3. Election of 1968 a) Nixon 43.4% b) Humphrey 42.7% c) 500,000 vote margin VII. Conclusion A. 20th century 1. Images a) Powerful b) Enduring c) 1960s B. Traumatic assassination 1. John F. Kennedy a) Captured imagination b) Symbolize rising idealism C. Political innovation 1. “Great Society” a) LBJ b) Expanded federal government 2. Welfare D. Civil Rights movement 1. Legal victories 2. 2 civil rights acts a) Dismantled Jim Crow system 3. Ended a) Legalized segregation b) Disfranchisement 4. Awakened a) Expectations (1) Equality (a) Social (b) Economic (c) Unfulfilled 5. Interracial crusade a) Militant b) Confrontational c) Separatist movement E. Idealism 1. White youth a) Angry rebellion (1) Culture (2) Politics b) Student protest (1) Rocked nation F. Vietnam 1. Small commitment -> large, disastrous military commitment 2. Destroyed LBJ a) Shook faith of millions b) Millions of death
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