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ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

Analytic Geometry is a branch of algebra that is used to model geometric objects - points, (straight) lines, and circles being the most basic of these. Analytic geometry is a great invention of Descartes and Fermat. In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry, or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate and the principles of algebra and analysis. Analytic geometry is widely used in physics and engineering, and is the foundation of most modern fields of geometry, including algebraic, differential, discrete, and computational geometry. In plane analytic geometry, points are defined as ordered pairs of numbers, say, (x, y), while the straight lines are in turn defined as the sets of points that satisfy linear equations. From the view of analytic geometry, geometric axioms are derivable theorems. For example, for any two distinct points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), there is a single line ax + by + c = 0 that passes through these points. Its coefficients a, b, c can be found (up to a constant factor) from the linear system of two equations ax1 + by1 + c = 0 ax2 + by2 + c = 0, or directly from the determinant equation

However, no axiomatic theory may escape using undefined elements. In Set Theory that underlies much of mathematics and, in particular, analytic geometry, the most fundamental notion of set remains undefined. Geometry of the three-dimensional space is modelled with triples of numbers (x, y, z) and a 3D linear equation ax + by + cz + d = 0 defines a plane. In general, analytic geometry provides a convenient tool for working in higher dimensions.

Within the framework of analytic geometry one may (and does) model non-Euclidean geometries as well. For example, in plane projective geometry a point is a triple of homogenous coordinates(x, y, z), not all 0, such that (tx, ty, tz) = (x, y, z), for all t ≠ 0, while a line is described by a homogeneous equation ax + bx + cz = 0. In analytic geometry, conic sections are defined by second degree equations: ax² + bxy + cy² + dx + ey + f = 0. That part of analytic geometry that deals mostly with linear equations is called Linear Algebra. Cartesian analytic geometry is geometry in which the axes x = 0 and y = 0 are perpendicular. The components of n-tuple x = (x1, ... xn) are known as its coordinates. When n = 2 or n = 3, the first coordinates is called abscissa and the second ordinate.

**II. DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS
**

The distance between two points, P, and P2, can be expressed in terms of their coordinates by using the Pythagorean Theorem. From your study of Mathematics, Volume 1, you should recall that this theorem is stated as follows: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse (longest side) is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides.

Let the coordinates of P, be (x),y,) and let those of P2 be (X2,Y2), as shown in figure 1-2. By the Pythagorean theorem,

Figure 1-2.-Distance between two points. where P1N represents the distance between x, and x2, P2N represents the distance between y1 and y2, and d represents the distance from P1 to P2. We can express the length of P1N in terms of x, and x2 and the length of P2Nin terms of y1 and y2 as follows:

Although we have demonstrated the formula for the first quadrant only, it can be proven for all quadrants and all pairs of points. EXAMPLE 1: In figure 1-2, x, = 2,x2 = 6, y, = 2, and y2 = 5. Find the length of d. SOLUTION:

This result could have been foreseen by observing that triangle P1NP2 is a 3-4-5 triangle. EXAMPLE 2: Find the distance between P 1 (4,6) and P2 (10,4). SOLUTION:

EXAMPLE 3: Find the distance between point (-1, -3) and the midpoint of the line segment joining (2, 4) and (4, 6). square root of.

•

We first find the coordinates of the midpoint M of the segment joining (2, 4) and (4, 6) M = [ (2 + 4) / 2 , (4 + 6) / 2 ] = (3, 5)

•

We now use the distance formula to find the distance between the points (-1, -3) and (3, 5) D = sqrt [ (3 - (-1)) 2 + (5 - (-3)) 2 ] = sqrt (80) = 4 sqrt (5)

**III. DIVISION OF A LINE SEGMENT
**

Many times you may need to find the coordinates of a point that is some known fraction of the distance between P1 and P2. In figure 1-3, P is a point lying on the line joining P1 and P2 so that

If P should lie 1/4 of the way between P1 and P2, then k would equal 1/4. Triangles P1MP and P1NP2 are similar. Therefore,

Figure 1-3.-Division of a line segment.

Since

is the ratio that defines k 1 then

Therefore, P 1M = k(PIN) Refer again to figure 1-3 and observe that P1N is equal to X2- x,. Likewise, P 1M is equal to x - x1. When you replace P 1M and P1N with their equivalents in terms of x, the preceding equation becomes

By similar reasoning,

The x and y found as a result of the foregoing discussion are the coordinates of the desired point, whose distances from P1 and P2 are determined by the value of k. EXAMPLE 1: Given two points P1 and P2 in space find the point R dividing the line segment P1P2 in the ratio -2 : 1. Solution If R divides P1P2 in the ratio -2 : 1 then = -2 .

f and g respectively. LetABC be any triangle. as shown in the diagram below. then CF also passes through G). and the problem is to prove first that they are concurrent (that is. the origin O and the seven position vectors are not drawn on the diagram. and let D. The formula for the position vector of the midpoint of a line segment then allows us to write . b. e. E and F be the midpoints of the three sides of the triangle. F and G relative to some origin O be a. C. For simplicity. d.The position vector is then equal to EXAMPLE 2: To illustrate the use of the formula for the division of a line segment in a certain ratio. The three medians are AD. B. BE. consider the problem from classical geometry on the concurrency of the three medians of a triangle. D. Solution Let the position vectors of A. E. c. and CF. and then that the pointG divides each median in the ratio 2 : 1. if G is the point of intersection ofAD and BE.

we seek an equation involving a. and e. This can be obtained by eliminating c from the first two equations above. b. to show that CF also passes through G. d. observe that .Since G is defined to be the point of intersection of AD and BE. Finally. After multiplying by 2. It is clear that is the position vector of a point on AD. we obtain Now compare these expressions with the formula for the position vector (relative to O) of a point R on the line segment P1P2. we see that These equations also show that G divides both AD and BE in the ratio 2 : 1. and is a position vector of a point on BE. Since G is the point of intersection of these two lines. rearranging and dividing by 3.

the value of (Io is 1/2. as required.This shows that G lies on CF and divides CF in the ratio 2 : 1.3) to P2(4. such that By similar reasoning. When the midpoint of a line segment is to be found.1). EXAMPLE 3: Find the coordinates of a point 1/4 of the way from P1(2. . Therefore. point P is . SOLUTION: Therefore.

y) and B(s.IV. the subscripts on point A.y1 = m (x x1) You now have the slope-point form of the equation of a line. When the slope of the line is 0. y) are on the line y= mx + b : . For instance. This is the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line. y = mx + b is the equation that represents the line and the slope of the line with respect to the x-axis which is given by tan q = m. in the above figure. A(x. this is the 'rise over run' concept. Slope of a Line The slope of a straight line. You can also express the slope of a line with the coordinates of points on the line. parallel and perpendicular lines are all explored interactively using an applet. B and C indicate the fact that there are three points on the line. you know that the line is horizontal and you know it's a vertical line when the slope of a line is undefined. (m for slope? Seems to be the standard!) When the slope passes through a point A(x1. y1) then y1 = mx1 + b or with subtraction y . The change in y whether up or down is divided by the change in x going to the right. In the Figure below.

. or neither? I'll find the slopes. perpendicular. Then the points (–1. another line passes through the points (–3. 5) and (2.y + 5 = 0. –2) and (3.1) the equation would be: 2x . I get y = –2(–1) + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5. Graphing the line. Are these lines parallel. 2). 3). –1) are on the line y = –2x + 3. get y = –2(2) + 3 = –4 + 3 = – 1. The slope of the line is then calculated as: EXAMPLE 2: One line passes through the points (–4. -1) the equation would be: 2x .y + 1 = 0 EXAMPLE 1: Find the slope of y = –2x + 3. For (-1. 2) and (0. Picking x = 2. you can use the following for the equation of the line AB: The equations of lines with slope 2 through the points would be: For (-2.m = tan q = therefore. it looks like this: Picking x = –1.

–4) and (–1. another line passes through the points (3. Locus formed: A circle with centre Q and radius m. 0) and (–3. –7). (Plural of locus is loci. or neither? I'll find the values of the slopes. The Locus of a Moving Point When a point moves in a plane according to some given conditions the path along which it moves is called a locus. Are these lines parallel. Copyright © Elizabeth Stapel 2006-2008 All Rights Reserved V.). perpendicular. 2).EXAMPLE 3: One line passes through the points (0. Solution: Construct a circle with centre Q and radius 2 cm. Example : Construct the locus of a point P at a constant distance of 2 cm from a fixed point Q. . CONDITION 1 : A point P moves such that it is always m units from the point Q.

.CONDITION 2 : A point P moves such that it is equidistant form two fixed pointsX and Y. CONDITION 3: A point P moves so that it is always m units from a straight lineAB. Example: Construct the locus of point P moving equidistant from fixed points X and Y and XY= 6 cm. Locus formed: A perpendicular bisector of the line XY. Locus formed: A pair of parallel lines m units from AB. Solution: Construct a perpendicular bisector of the line XY.

Solution: . Locus formed: Angle bisectors of angles between lines AB and CD. Construct the locus of point P such that it is always equidistant from AB and CD. Solution: Construct a pair of parallel lines 2 cm from AB.Example: Construct the locus of a point P that moves a constant distant of 2 cm from a straight line AB. Example: The following figure shows two straight lines AB and CD intersecting at point O. CONDITION 4: A point P moves so that it is always equidistant from two intersecting lines AB and CD.

We could do this by constructing the locus for each of the conditions and then determine where the two loci intersect. Example : Given the line AB and the point Q. INTERSECTION OF TWO LOCI Sometimes you may be required to determine the locus of a point that satisfies two conditions. Solution: Construct a pair of parallel lines 3 cm from line AB. The points of intersections are indicated by points X and Y. find one or more points that are 3 cm from ABand 5 cm from Q.Construct angles bisectors of angles between lines AB and CD. . Draw a circle with centre Q and radius 5 cm.

The diagonal when extended intersects the circle at points A and B Note: A common mistake is to identify only one point when there could be another point which could be found by extending the construction lines or arcs. .It means that the locus consists of the two points X and Y. Since PQRS is a square the diagonal PR would be the angle bisector of the angle formed by the lines PQ andPS. Solution: Construct a circle with centre P and radius 2 cm. Mark the points as A and B. as in the above examples. Construct the locus of a point which is 2 cm from P and equidistant from PQ and PS. Example: Given a square PQRS with sides 3 cm.

circumference: the distance around the circle.. Area of Circle: area = PI r2 Length of a Circular Arc: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees.VI.. tangent of circle: a line perpendicular to the radius that touches ONLY one point on the circle. Definitions Related to Circles arc: a curved line that is part of the circumference of a circle chord: a line segment within a circle that touches 2 points on the circle.141592.. diameter: the longest distance from one end of a circle to the other.. diameter = 2 x radius of circle Circumference of Circle = PI x diameter = 2 PI x radius where PI = = 3. then length = x (PI/180) x r if the angle is in radians. then area = ( /2) r2 Equation of Circle: (cartesian coordinates) for a circle with center (j. sector: is like a slice of pie (a circle wedge).141592. Circle Definition: A circle is the locus of all points equidistant from a central point. then area = ( /360) PI r2 if the angle is in radians. radius: distance from center of circle to any point on it. k) and radius (r): (x-j)2 + (y-k)2 = r2 Equation of Circle: (polar coordinates) for a circle with center (0. then length = r x Area of Circle Sector: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees. 3.. 0): r( ) = radius . origin: the center of the circle pi ( ): A number. equal to (the circumference) / (the diameter) of any circle.

for a circle with center with polar coordinates: (c. k) and radius r: x(t) = r cos(t) + j y(t) = r sin(t) + k EXAMPLE 1: In the figure below. Find the lengths of AB and CB so that the area of the triangle is twice the shaded area. triangle ABC is a triangle inscribed inside the circle of center O and radius r = 10 cm. ) and radius a: r2 .) + c2 = a2 Equation of a Circle: (parametric coordinates) for a circle with origin (j. If At is the area of triangle ABC and As the shaded area then . Solution to Problem : • If the center O is on AC then AC is a diameter of the circle and the triangle has a right angle at B (Thales's theorem).2cr cos( .

sin(A) = CB / AC = CB / 20 which gives CB = 20 sin (A) and cos(A) = AB / AC = AB / 20 which gives AB = 20 cos (A) • The area As might also be written as follows (using the identity sin(2A) = 2 sin (A) cos (A)).At = 2 As • We also have. As = (1/2) * AB * CB = 200 cos (A) sin(A) = 100 sin (2A) = 50 Pi / 3 • The above equation gives. sin (2A) = 0.5 Pi / 3 • Use calculator to solve for 2A.8 degrees 2A = 148.4 degrees (nearest tenth) or A = 74.2 degrees . we now use the internal angle (to the triangle) A to write. Two solutions 2A = 31. As = 50 Pi / 3 • Since triangle ABC has a right angle. At + As = (1/2) area of circle = (1/2) Pi 10 2 = 50 Pi 2 As + As = 50 Pi • Which gives.6 degrees (nearest tenth) or A = 15.

what is the ration A1 / A2? Solution to Problem : • If x is the size of one side of the small square.45 (2 decimals) and CB = 20 sin (74.24 (2 decimals) • The two solutions correspond to two congruent right triangles. then its area A2 is given by A2 = x 2 • The diagonal d of the small square is given by d2 = x2 + x2 d = x sqrt (2) • d is also equal to the side of one side of the large square .8) = 5.8) = 19. If A1 is the area of the large square and A2 is the area of the small square.24 (2 decimals) and CB = 20 sin (15.45 (2 decimals) second solution AB = 20 cos (74.2) = 5. Two solutions first solution AB = 20 cos (15.• We now calculate the lengths of AB and CB.2) = 19. EXAMPLE 2: The small square is inscribed inside the circle and the larger circle circumsrcibes the same circle.

as shown below: Step 4 Now. the unit for the area will be cm2. Step 1 The picture below shows the circle with the radius of 5cm. Take π as 3. the calculated number 78.14. Find the area of this circle. we can start with the formula for the area of a circle: Step 3 Since the radius is given as 5cm. we can calculate for A. Step 2 To calculate the area.5 cm2 . we can substitute r with 5. we can substitute π with 3.• The area A1 of the large square A1 is given by. Since the radius is in cm. Hence: A = 78. Similarly. A1 = ( x sqrt (2) ) 2 = 2 x 2 • Hence A1 / A2 = 2 x 2 / x 2 = 2 EXAMPLE 3: Given a circle with the radius of 5cm.5 only has meaning if we include the unit for it. After doing so.14.

y) to the focus (0. p) is the same as the distance from (x. y) to the directrix.g. y) represents any point on the curve. The focal distance is |p| (Distance from the origin to the focus. The directrix is the line y = -p. radio telescopes.VII. . solar radiation collectors) or Radiation needs to be transmitted from a single point into a wide parallel beam (e.Vertical Axis Adding to our diagram from above. p). • • • • • The focus of the parabola is at (0.g. and from the origin to the directrix. The parabola is defined as the locus of a point which moves so that it is always the same distance from a fixed point (called the focus) and a given line (called thedirectrix). headlight reflectors). Parabola The parabola has many applications in situations where: • • Radiation needs to be concentrated at one point (e. we see that the distance d = y + p. The distance d from any point (x. We take absolute value because distance is positive. The Formula for a Parabola . pay TV dishes.) The point (x. In the following graph.

we have Squaring both sides gives: (x − 0)2 + (y − p)2 = (y + p)2 Simplifying gives us the formula for a parabola: x2 = 4py In more familiar form. Parabolas with Horizontal Axis We can also have the situation where the axis of the parabola is horizontal: . we can write this as: where p is the focal distance of the parabola.Now. y). with "y = " on the left. using the distance formula on the general points (0. p) and (x. and equating it to our value d = y + p.

On the other hand.In this case. we have the relation: y2 = 4px [In a relation. there are two or more values of y for each value of x. Parabola can be thought of as a limiting case of ellipse or hyperbola. . The impression that some parabola are more curved is because we are looking at different scale of the curve. Similarly. As a conics section. Note that parabola is not a family of curves. the eccentricity of Parabola is 1. A common definition defines it as the locus of points P such that the distance from a line (called the directrix) to P is equal to the distance from P to a fixed point F (called the focus).] Parabola is a member of conic sections. along with hyperbola and ellipse. Vertex of the parabola is the intersection of the parabola and its axis. there are many ways to define parabola. part of a large circle appears to be a line may induce us to conclude that there are different shapes of circles. Tracing a Parabola Tracing a Parabola The axis of a parabola is a line perpendicular to its directrix and passing its focus. Like ellipse and hyperbola. a function only has one value of y for each value of x.

Formulas • • Parametric: {t. line also have this property. vertexes is at {0. Let B := Point[d]. Invariant under certain Dilation Parabola have the property that when scaled (streching/shrinking) along a direction parallel or perpendicular to its axis.d].F]]. t is the tangent at P. yf[t]} with vertex at Origin and focus along the y-axis.t] Since length[segment[B. the resulting curve is the original parabola scaled in both direction by “a^2/b”. Properties Point and Tangent Construction Let F be a given point and d be a give line.0}. its focus is {0.P]]==length[segment[P. xf[t]^2/(4 yf[t]) }. . P is a point on parabola. 1/4 t^2}.1}. Let b := Perpendicular[B. Further. focus is at {0. Given a parametrization of a parabola {xf[t]. (For example. A streched line is still a line. -∞ < t < ∞ Cartesian: y == 1/4 x^2.F]. the curve remain unchanged. For the given formulas. Let P := Intersect[b. Let t := LineBisector[B. but a streched circle is no longer a circle) When a parabola is streched along the directrix “a” units and along the axis by “b” units. but circle do not.

Now pick any other tangent x1. it will be cut into the same proportions. The figure shows three parabolas. Thus. above: Left. That is. b. c. Right: A photo of a car's headlight (Honda Civic 2000). the envelope of lines with a positive constant sum of intercepts is a segment of parabola. Now pick a arbitrary tangent x. c will cut x into segments with certain proportions. 3 parabolas with its reflection property. Tagents a. Tangents of parabola cutting other tangents into the same proportion. suppose you pick three tangents call them a. . b. Parabola with a Moving Light Source Tangents of Parabola Any set of tangents on the parabola will always cut a arbitrary tangent into the same proportion. two of which share a common focus.Optical Property A radiant point at the focus will reflect off the parabola into parallel lines.

. pedal with respect to its vertex is the cissoid of Diocles. Parabola and its normals. Note: this is not astroid. The envelope of the normals is the semicubic parabola. The left figure shows the line positions. Pedal The pedal of a parabola with respect to its focus is a line. Evolute and Semicubic Parabola The evolute of a parabola is the semicubic parabola. the right figure is rotated to visually show that it coincides with parabola in the standard position. because the lines that forms astroid as Trammel of Archimedes do not have the same positions as this.A segment of parabola formed by envelope of lines.

Inversion The inversion of a parabola with respect to its focus is a cardioid. EXAMPLE 1: What is the minimum value of the expression 2x2 – 20x + 17? Solution: . inversion with respect to its vertex is the cissoid of Diocles.

2 For x = -2. y = -3 (-2) – 12(.2. This xo-efficient of its x2 term is positive. Focus coincides with M. Let the equation of the parabola be y2 = 4ax.2) + 5 = 17.e. Therefore the minimum value of the expression 2x220x + 17 for any value of x is – 33. i.coefficient fo X^2 term)` = `-b/(2a)` = `(-(-12))/(2(-3))` = `12/-6` = -2. For x = 5. Let OX be along OM and OY parallel to MP. This function is defined by a second degree equation.Consider the function y = 2x2 – 20x + 17. `(-coefficient fo X term)/(2. The curve is symmetric with respect to the vertical line through its vertex. 17). `(-coefficient fo X term)/(2. y = 2(5)2 – 20(5) + 17 = . find the focus.33. Hence the coordinates of the vertex are (. This minimum value is assumed only when x = 5. 17). through the point (-2.point of PQ is M.. 0) = (4. the line x = -2 EXAMPLE 3: If a parabolic reflector is 16 cm in diameter and 4cm deep. Solution: let POQ be the vertical section of the reflector. Hence the curve is a parabola opening up ward. Solution: The curve is defined by a second degree equation. The coefficient of x2 term is negative. the mid-point of PQ . Mid .3x 2 – 12x + 5. 8) (8)2= 4a (4) or a = 4 Focus = (a. 0). EXAMPLE 2: Find the coordinates of maximum point of the curve y = . and locate the axis of symmetry.coefficient fo X^2 term)` = `-b/(2a)` =` (-(-20))/(2(2))` = `20/4` = 5. The coordinates of P are (4.

ELLIPSE In geometry. an ellipse (from Greek ἔλλειψις elleipsis. respectively. Elements of an ellipse The ellipse and some of its mathematical properties.VIII. obtained when the cutting plane is orthogonal to the cone's axis.[1] The semimajor axis (denoted by a in the figure) and the semiminor axis (denoted by b in the figure) are one half of the major and minor diameters. a "falling short") is a plane curve that results from the intersection of a cone by a plane in a way that produces a closed curve. An ellipse is also the locus of all points of the plane whose distances to two fixed points add to the same constant. or pairs of points whose midpoint is at the center of the ellipse. formed when the horizontal and vertical motions are sinusoids with the same frequency. Ellipses are closed curves and are the bounded case of the conic sections. These are sometimes called (especially in technical fields) the major and minor semi-axes. The distance between antipodalpoints on the ellipse.[6][7][8][9] . It is also the simplest Lissajous figure. which are simply intersections of the projective cone with the plane of projection. An ellipse is a smooth closed curve which is symmetric about its horizontal and vertical axes. and a minimum along the perpendicular minor axis or conjugate diameter. the curves that result from the intersection of a circular cone and a plane that does not pass through its apex. the other two (open and unbounded) cases are parabolas and hyperbolas.[2][3] the major and minor semiaxes. is maximum along the major axis ortransverse diameter. Ellipses also arise as images of a circle underparallel projection and the bounded cases of perspective projection. Circles are special cases of ellipses. [4][5] or major radius and minor radius.

which will become the ellipse's foci. and its tip will trace out an . to the length of the major axis or e = 2f/2a = f/a. Each of these two points is called a focus of the ellipse. the ellipse gets a more elongated shape. Refer to the lower Directrix section of this article for a second equivalent construction of an ellipse. and a pencil: Push the pins into the paper at two points. Move the pencil around. An ellipse can be drawn using two drawing pins. It tends towards a line segment (see below) if the two foci remain a finite distance apart and a parabola if one focus is kept fixed as the other is allowed to move arbitrarily far away. When the eccentricity is 0 the foci coincide with the center point and the figure is a circle. Pull the loop taut with the pencil's tip. while keeping the string taut. a loop and a pen. Tie the string into a loose loop around the two pins. so as to form a triangle. For an ellipse the eccentricity is between 0 and 1 (0<e<1). As the eccentricity tends toward 1. The distance ae from a focal point to the centre is called the linear eccentricity of the ellipse (f = ae). The sum of the distances from any point P on the ellipse to those two foci is constant and equal to the major diameter (PF1 + PF2 = 2a ). usually denoted by ε or e. Drawing ellipses The pins-and-string method Drawing an ellipse with two pins. The eccentricity of an ellipse. is the ratio of the distance between the two foci. a length of string.The foci of the ellipse are two special points F1 and F2 on the ellipse's major axis and are equidistant from the center point.

ellipse. and the second pin at the opposite side of the rectangle on the major axis. Draw a circle centered on A. This length L can be calculated with the Pythagorean theorem. It may take a few tries to push just hard enough to make the ellipse fit the rectangle. Then draw the ellipse as above. If the ellipse is to be inscribed within a specified rectangle. a set square.B. it should fit snugly in the original rectangle. Place the foci on the major axis. Move the second pin to the other focus. To adjust the length of the string loop. Draw a horizontal line through the center of the rectangle.N on the paper. Mark three points A. whose radius is the short side A-D. these will be the major and minor axes of the ellipse. and a pencil: Draw two perpendicular lines M. The length L of this tangent is the distance between the foci. Unfortunately strings tend to be elastic so if you push harder on the pencil stretching the string more you will get a bigger ellipse.(A-D)squared) i.e. pushing less it will be smaller. insert a pin at one focus. Loop the string around the two pins and tie it taut. tangent to its four sides at their midpoints. B. this procedure is traditionally used by gardeners to outline an elliptical flower bed. square root of the long side of the rectangle squared minus short side squared. thus it is called the gardener's ellipse. As the tangent is at a right angles to the radius at the intersect of the tangent with the circle L equals square root ((A-B)squared . Other methods Trammel of Archimedes(ellipsograph) animation An ellipse can also be drawn using a ruler. in clockwise order. This will be the major axis of the ellipse. Using two pegs and a rope.D be the corners of the rectangle. C on the ruler. one must first determine the position of the foci and the length of the string loop: Let A. at distance L/2 from the center. with A-B being one of the long sides. From corner B draw a tangent to the circle.C. A->C being the length of the major axis .

The tip will trace out an ellipse. as expressed in terms using the flattening factor The distance from the center to either focus is ae. or simply . With the other hand.[10] The mechanism can be used with a routerto cut ellipses from board material. Mathematical definitions and properties In Euclidean geometry Definition In Euclidean geometry. With the exception of Mercury. or as the set of points such that the sum of the distances to two fixed points is constant. and two adjustable side pins (points A and B) that slide into two perpendicular slots cut into a metal plate. and B on line M. keep the pencil's tip on the paper. The mechanism is also used in a toy called the "nothing grinder".and B->C the length of the minor axis. Approximations to ellipses An ellipse of low eccentricity can be represented reasonably accurately by a circle with its centre offset. The ruler is replaced by a rod with a pencil holder (point C) at one end. With one hand. all the planets have an orbit whose minor axis differs from the major axis by less than half of one percent. The equivalence of these two definitions can be proved using the Dandelin spheres. To draw the orbit with a pair of compasses the centre of the circle should be offset from the focus by an amount equal to the eccentricity multiplied by the radius. move the ruler on the paper. The trammel of Archimedes or ellipsograph is a mechanical device that implements this principle. Eccentricity The eccentricity of the ellipse (commonly denoted as either e or ε) is (where again a and b are one-half of the ellipse's major and minor axes respectively) or. turning and sliding it so as to keep point Aalways on line N. following point C of the ruler. an ellipse is usually defined as the bounded case of a conic section.

This property (which can be proved using the Dandelin spheres) can be taken as another definition of the ellipse. Refer to the illustration on the right. The ratio of these two distances is the eccentricity of the ellipse. e=PF/PD. Besides the well known ratio e=f/a. The ellipse is a special case of the hypotrochoid when R=2r. Area The area enclosed by an ellipse is πab. Ellipse as hypotrochoid An ellipse (in red) as a special case of the hypotrochoid with R=2r. it is also true that e=a/d.Directrix Each focus F of the ellipse is associated with a line parallel to the minor axis called a directrix. If the ellipse is given by the implicit equation Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 = 1. . The distance from any point P on the ellipse to the focus F is a constant fraction of that point's perpendicular distance to the directrix resulting in the equality. then the area is . where (as before) a and b are one-half of the ellipse's major and minor axes respectively.

we can use: .Circumference C of an ellipse is: where the function E is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. The exact infinite series is: or For computational purposes a much faster series where the denominators vanish at a rate is given by:[11] A good approximation is Ramanujan's: or better approximation: For the special case where the minor axis is half the major axis.

EXAMPLE 1: Given the following equation 9x2 + 4y2 = 36 a) Find the x and y intercepts of the graph of the equation. x2 / 22 = 1 Solve for x. d) Sketch the graph of the equation. c) Find the length of the major and minor axes. Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 36 9x2 / 36 + 4y2 / 36 = 1 x2 / 4 + y2 / 9 = 1 x2 / 22 + y2 / 32 = 1 We now identify the equation obtained with one of the standard equation in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an ellipse with a = 3 and b = 2 (NOTE: a >b) . the angle subtended as a function of the arc length. Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts. is given by an incomplete elliptic integral. as a function of the angle subtended. See also: Meridian arc#Meridian distance on the ellipsoid The inverse function. the arc length of a portion of the circumference.or the better approximation More generally.[citation needed] Chords The midpoints of a set of parallel chords of an ellipse are collinear. is given by the elliptic functions. x2 = 22 . b) Find the coordinates of the foci.

c = ± (5)1/2 The foci are F1 (0 . . The minor axis length is given by 2 b = 4. c 2 = 32 . -(5)1/2) c) The major axis length is given by 2 a = 6. y2 = 32 y=±3 b) We need to find c first. y2 / 32 = 1 Solve for y. c 2 = a 2 .b2 a and b were found in part a). (5)1/2) and F2 (0 .22 c2 = 5 Solve for c. find extra points if needed and sketch.x=±2 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts. d) Locate the x and y intercepts.

Also find the equation of directives of an ellipse.1) and (0.directrices .-b) => (0.a2 = √3 .-1) The vertices (0.the length of latus rectum and the equation of the latus rectum of the equation of the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 + 4y2 + 2x + 16y + 13 = 0.-c) => (0. 3x2 + 2y2 = 6 x2/2 + y2/3 = 1 (by dividing by 6) Since b > a.the co ordinates of foci and vertices .b)and (0. 4. and the eccentricity of the ellipse 3x2 + 2y2 = 6.axis and the minor axis is along x-axis Major axis = 2b = 2√3 so b =√3 Minor axis = 2a = 2√2 so a =√2 C = √b2 . Solution: Deriving at ellipse problem related to length of axes and directive.√3)and (0.foci .b/e => y=3 and y= -3 EXAMPLE 3: Find the ellipse eccentricity centre. please follow the below steps. . verticals .EXAMPLE 2: Find the length of major and minor axes . 3. Equation of direction y = b/e and y = .c) and (0. 2. the major axis lie along x-axis and the minor axis lie along y .-√3) Eccentricity = 1/√3 6. 5. Length of Ellipse major axis = 2√3 Length of Ellipse minor axis = 2√2 The foci are (0.2 = 1 e = c/b = 1/√3 1.

Solution: (x2 + 2x + 1) + 4(y2 + 4y + 4) . Where a = 2 .-2) . e = c/a = √3/2 Vertices are (x = ± 2. b = 1 c = √(a2 .-2) and (-3. x = -1+√3 or -1-√3 y + 2 = 0 => y = -2 Foci (-1 + √3. THE HYPERBOLA Hyperbola Cartesian equation: x2/a2 .1 . y = b tan(t) .2 So the vertices are (1.3 And y = 0 => y + 2 = 0 so y = .b2) = √3 . -2) The equation of the directrices are x = ± a/e = ± 4/√3 => x + 1 = ± 4/√3 so x = -1 – 4/√3 The length of latus rectum is 2b2/a = 2/2 =1 The equation of the latus rectum are x = ae so x = -1-√3 IX. The cetre is mid point of two vertices (-1.16 + 13 = 0 (x + 1) 2 + 4(y + 2) 2 = 4 (x + 1) 2/4 + (y+2) 2/1 = 1 Let x = x + 1 and y = y + 1 This is of the form ( x2/a2) + (y2/b2) = 1 . y = 0 => x + 1 = ± √3 so.-2) The foci are x = ± c.y2/b2 = 1 or parametrically: x = a sec(t). y = 0) => x + 1 = 2 or x + 1 = .2 => x = 1 or . y = 0 => x = ± √3. -2) and (-1-√3.

According to this analysis. An inspection of figure 2-17 shows that the curve never crosses the Y axis. if the center of symmetry of a hyperbola is the origin. Since e is greater than 1 for a hyperbola. Thus the solution for the value of b. The formulas And developed in the section concerning the ellipse were derived so that they are true for any value of eccentricity.A hyperbola is a conic section with an eccentricity greater than 1. Thus. then Therefore c > a > d. the semiminor axis of the . they are true for the hyperbola as well as for an ellipse.-The hyperbola. then the foci lies farther from the origin than the directrices. Figure 2-17.

since c = a e . Now we can use this equation to obtain the equation of a hyperbola from the following equation. However. and since the square of an imaginary number is a negative real number we write or and.ellipse. we can square both sides of the the above equation. The solution of this equation for y gives . which was developed in the section on the ellipse: and since we have This is a standard form for the equation of a hyperbola with its center. yields no real value for b. b is an imaginary number. This can easily be seen from the equation since c > a for a hyperbola. at the origin. In other words. O.

y1) on the curve is given by Since (x1. The distance from the line bx . The lines of equation (2. A similar result can easily be derived for the line bx + ay = 0. the vertices of the hyperbola.ay = 0 to the point (x1. the absolute values for x.a. and y. They are very important in tracing a curve and studying its properties.which shows that y is imaginary only when x2 < a 2. The curve. will increase and the distance. lies entirely beyond the two lines x = ± a and crosses the X axis at V1 (a. The two straight lines can be used to illustrate an interesting property of a hyperbola.y1) is on the curve. its coordinates satisfy the equation which may be written or Now substituting this value into equation (2. will approach zero. d.11) gives us As the point (x1.y1) is chosen farther and farther from the center of the hyperbola.0) and V2( . which are usually written are called the asymptotes of the hyperbola.10).0). The . therefore.

directrices. where k is a constant. . Its asymptotes are the lines by . The conjugate axis is of length 2b and is perpendicular to the transverse axis. The nomenclature of the hyperbola is slightly different from that of an ellipse.-Using asymptotes to sketch a hyperbola.ax = 0 and by +ax=0 or The properties of the hyperbola most often used in analysis of the curve are the foci. length of the focal chord. and the equations of the asymptotes. Whenever the foci are on the Y axis and the directrices are lines of the form y = ± k. are the diagonals of the rectangle whose center is the center of the curve and whose sides are parallel and equal to the axes of the curve. The transverse axis is of length 2a and is the distance between the intersections (vertices) of the hyperbola with its focal axis. and the constant difference is 2a. asymptotes of a hyperbola. Another definition of a hyperbola is the locus of all points in a plane such that the difference of their distances from two fixed points is constant.Figure 2-18. The fixed points are thefoci. the equation of the hyperbola will read This equation represents a hyperbola with its transverse axis on the Y axis. The focal chord of a hyperbola is equal to . figure 2-18.

0) and FZ ( . (c. in the case where the .16y2 / 144 = 1 x2 / 16 .0) when the equation of the hyperbola is in the form If the equation were the foci would be the points (0.y2 / 9 = 1 . b) Find the coordinates of the foci.Figure 2-17 shows that the foci are given by the points F.c. The value of c is either determined from the formula or the formula Figure 2-17 also shows that the directrices are the lines hyperbolas open upward and downward. or. Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 144 9x2 / 144 .16y2 = 144 a) Find the x and y intercepts. of the graph of the equation. -c). This was also given earlier in this EXAMPLE 1: Given the following equation 9x2 .c) and (0. if possible. c) Sketch the graph of the equation. discussion as .

Find extra points (if necessary) set x = 6 and find y 9(6)2 . x2 = 42 x= ± 4 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts. 0) and F2 (-5 . .x2 / 42 . y = -(3/4) x and y = (3/4) x 2 . c2 = 42 + 32 c2 = 25 Solve for c.plot the x intercepts 3 . Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts. c=±5 The foci are c) 1 .(b/a) x and y = (b/a) x and plot them.y2 / 32 = 1 NO y intercepts since the above equation does not have real solutions. c 2 = a 2 + b2 a and b were found in part a). x2 / 42 = 1 Solve for x.y2 / 32 = 1 We now compare the equation obtained with the standard equation (left) in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an hyperbola with a = 4 and b = 3.16y2 = 144 F1 (5 . b) We need to find c first. 0) .Find the asymptotes y = .

. x2 / 42 = 1 . if possible.16y2 = 144 a) Find the x and y intercepts. -3(5)1/2 / 2) are also on the graph of the hyperbola.16y2 = 144 . 3(5)1/2 / 2) and (-6. the points (-6. Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts. Also because of the symmetry of the graph of the hyperbola.324 y2 = 45 / 4 Solve for y y = 3(5)1/2 / 2 and y = .16y2 / 144 = 1 x2 / 16 . b) Find the coordinates of the foci.y2 / 9 = 1 x2 / 42 . -3(5)1/2 / 2) are on the graph of the hyperbola.3(5)1/2 / 2 so the points (6. Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 144 9x2 / 144 . EXAMPLE 2: Given the following equation 9x2 . 3(5)1/2 / 2) and (6.y2 / 32 = 1 We now compare the equation obtained with the standard equation (left) in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an hyperbola with a = 4 and b = 3. of the graph of the equation.

y2 / 32 = 1 NO y intercepts since the above equation does not have real solutions. Now coordinates offoci are (h-ae. ..0). .0). 0) EXAMPLE 3: The foci of a hyperbola are given by (-2. b) We need to find c first. So centre of the hyperbola is (0. 1 Directrices are given by x=h+a/e and x =h-a/e or x =a/e or -a/e here a/e =3/2 Multiplying these two we get a^2 = 3 or a = root 3 So 2a = 2√3 = Major axis.Solve for x. 0) and F2 (-5 . c2 = 42 + 32 c2 = 25 Solve for c..0) directrices are x =3/2d x=3/2.Find Major Axis.0) Since h =0 we get ae =2. Solution: The mid point of the foci are (0.0) and (h+ae.0) and (2. . c=±5 The foci are F1 (5 . c2 = a2 + b2 a and b were found in part a). x2 = 42 x=±4 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts.

The most familiar evidence of magnetism is the attractive or repulsive force observed to act between magnetic materials such as iron. The mineral lodestone (see Magnetite). Like poles repel one another. Romans. indicating the close relationship between electricity and magnetism. The ancient Greeks. HISTORY OF STUDY The phenomenon of magnetism has been known of since ancient times. each has two sides or ends called north-seeking and south-seeking poles. when freely suspended. and also the early Chinese knew about strange and rare stones (possibly chunks of iron ore struck by lightning) with the power to attract iron. pointed north-south. physician to Queen Elizabeth I of England. The magnetic compass soon spread to Europe. proposed an explanation: the Earth itself was a giant magnet. . II. A steel needle stroked with such a "lodestone" became "magnetic" as well. near the points defining the axis around which the Earth turns). are found in all matter. the iron itself acquires the same ability to attract other pieces of iron.e. Columbus used it when he crossed the Atlantic ocean. The unifying frame for these two forces is called electromagnetic theory (see Electromagnetic Radiation). When a piece of iron is stroked with lodestone. noting not only that the needle deviated slightly from exact north (as indicated by the stars) but also that the deviation changed during the voyage.Magnetism I. and around 1000 the Chinese found that such a needle. In recent times these effects have provided important clues to the atomic structure of matter. one of the fundamental forces of nature. Magnetic forces are produced by the motion of charged particles such as electrons. with its magnetic poles some distance away from its geographic ones (i. an oxide of iron that has the property of attracting iron objects. and Chinese. and unlike poles attract.INTRODUCTION Magnetism. Around 1600 William Gilbert. however. More subtle effects of magnetism. The magnets thus produced are polarized—that is. was known to the Greeks. an aspect of electromagnetism. originally those near the city of Magnesia.

who studied the forces between wires carrying electric currents. important investigations of magnets were made by the French scholar Petrus Peregrinus. who postulated the existence of an internal. while Faraday showed that a magnetic field can be used to create an electric current. when combined with Langevin's theory. This discovery. The full unification of the theories of electricity and magnetism was achieved by the English physicist James Clerk Maxwell. who magnetized a piece of iron by placing it near a current-carrying wire. and by the French physicist Dominique François Jean Arago. served to explain the properties of strongly magnetic materials such as lodestone.The compass was first used for navigation in the West some time after AD1200. He showed that the attraction and repulsion of magnets decrease as the squares of the distance from the respective poles increase. until the English physicist and physician William Gilbert published his book Of Magnets. the inverse effect to that found by Oersted: Oersted showed that an electric current creates a magnetic field. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY In the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He pointed out that the earth itself behaves like a giant magnet. In 1831 the English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that moving a magnet near a wire induces an electric current in that wire. he investigated and disproved several incorrect notions about magnetism that were accepted as being true at the time. the English geologist John Michell invented a balance that he used in the study of magnetic forces. Gilbert applied scientific methods to the study of electricity and magnetism. The French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb. In 1819 an important discovery was made by the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted. and the Great Magnet of the Earth in 1600. Subsequent studies of magnetism were increasingly concerned with an understanding of the atomic and molecular origins of the magnetic properties of matter. In 1905 the French physicist Paul Langevin produced a theory regarding the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of paramagnets (discussed below). and through a series of experiments. In the 13th century. Subsequently. later verified Michell's observation with high precision. which showed a connection between electricity and magnetism. This theory is an early example of the description of large-scale properties in terms of the properties of electrons and atoms. who predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves and identified light as an electromagnetic phenomenon. which was based on the atomic structure of matter. in 1750. . His discoveries stood for nearly 300 years. was followed up by the French scientist André Marie Ampère. who had measured the forces between electric charges. Magnetic Bodies. who found that a magnetic needle could be deflected by an electric current flowing through a wire. the theories of electricity and magnetism were investigated simultaneously. III. Langevin's theory was subsequently expanded by the French physicist Pierre Ernst Weiss. This concept. “molecular” magnetic field in materials such as iron.

We call it the Earth's magnetosphere Only a few of the phenomena observed on the ground come from the magnetosphere: fluctuations of the magnetic field known as magnetic storms and sub storms. only one kind of magnetism was known. such forces have a much bigger role. All these are described in the sections that follow. That region contains a mix of electrically charged particles. Hans Christian Oersted. The new phenomenon was studied in France by Andre-Marie Ampere. The American physicists Samuel Abraham Goudsmit and George Eugene Uhlenbeck showed in 1925 that the electron itself has spin and behaves like a small bar magnet. much weaker. and a region exists around the Earth where they dominate the environment. however. or in compounds containing these elements. magnetic structures. in oposite directions repel. magnetism is measured in terms of magnetic moments—a magnetic moment is a vector quantity that depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field. which Ampere was also able . IV. a region known as the Earth's magnetosphere.) The German physicist Werner Heisenberg gave a detailed explanation for Weiss's molecular field in 1927. fast streaming particles and processes which energize them. Satellites in space. But what is magnetism? Until 1821. (At the atomic level. noticed that the current caused a nearby compass needle to move. Then a Danish scientist. and the polar aurora or "northern lights. and out in space they are usually much. But beyond the dense atmosphere. Iron magnets are a very special case. It was basically a force between electric currents: two parallel currents in the same direction attract. magnetic properties were explored in greater and greater detail. Other scientists then predicted many more complex atomic arrangements of magnetic moments. while demonstrating to friends the flow of an electric current in a wire. who concluded that the nature of magnetism was quite different from what everyone had believed. sense much more: radiation belts.After Weiss's theory. The theory of atomic structure of Danish physicist Niels Bohr. and the configuration of the object that produces the magnetic field. with diverse magnetic properties. provided an understanding of the periodic table and showed why magnetism occurs in transition elements such as iron and the rare earth elements." appearing in the night skies of places like Alaska and Norway. and electric and magnetic phenomena rather than gravity determine its structure. on the basis of the newly-developed quantum mechanics (see Quantum Theory). The Magnetosphere On Earth one needs a sensitive needle to detect magnetic forces. the one produced by iron magnets. for example.

the lines remain very close to the "dipole . V. credited with fundamental discoveries on electricity and magnetism (an electric unit is named "Farad" in his honor). at least!) the lines one obtains when one "follows the direction of the compass needle. but finding how those currents are produced remains a major challenge. however. Imagine a compass needle freely suspended in three dimensions. Similarly. in the glowing heat of sunspots and in the molten core of the Earth. Magnetic Field Lines Michael Faraday. curve around in space and converge again near the north pole. However. near a magnet or an electrical current." Faraday called them lines of force. also proposed a widely used method for visualizing magnetic fields. while on the night side they are pulled out into a very long "tail. Compass needles outlining field lines Field lines of a bar magnet are commonly illustrated by iron filings sprinkled on a sheet of paper held over a magnet.to explain. Near Earth. What Oersted saw. Such magnetismmust be produced by electric currents.. In nature. but the term field lines is now in common use.. field lines of the Earth start near the south pole of the Earth. We can trace in space (in our imagination. in the Earth's magnetosphere. currents also flow through space and modify this pattern: on the side facing the Sun. field lines are compressed earthward." like that of a comet. magnetic fields are produced in the rarefied gas of space.

His younger contemporary. Electromagnetic Waves Faraday not only viewed the space around a magnet as filled with field lines. like the one displayed above (from a mathematical model of the field). placed this notion on a firm mathematical footing. they define an "easy direction" in the rarefied gas of space. in contrast. like beads on a wire. the great Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. but also developed an intuitive (and perhaps mystical) notion that such space was itself modified. derived by Maxwell. even becoming trapped when conditions are right. Today electromagnetic fields (and other types of field as well) are a cornerstone of physics. however. and Maxwell correctly guessed that this actually was light and that light was in fact an electromagnetic wave. they have a much broader significance. Because of this attachment. In space research. . tells at a glance how different regions are linked and many other important properties. suggested that they could undergo wave motion. as well as electric currents (and certain radio-type waves). VI. can easily move. including in it electrical forces as well as magnetic ones.pattern" of a bar magnet. spreading with the speed of light. To Faraday field lines were mainly a method of displaying the structure of the magnetic force. Magnetic field lines from an idealized model. like the grain in a piece of wood. a direction in which ions and electrons. even if it was a complete vacuum. so named because of its two poles. Their basic equations. because electrons and ions tend to stay attached to them. motion from one line to another is more difficult. A map of the magnetic field lines of the magnetosphere. Such a modified space is now known as an electromagnetic field.

Radio waves produced in our magnetosphere are often modified by their environment and tell us about the particles trapped there. produced such waves by electrical means. infra-red.Heinrich Hertz in Germany. Computer memories can be fabricated using bubble domains. the bubble indicates either a one or a zero. are observed to come from such sources and are the signatures of high-energy electrons there. the Sun and the distant universe. x-rays and gamma rays (very short waves. is the basis of the electric motor and the transformer. visible light. These domains are actually smaller regions of magnetization that are either parallel or antiparallel to the overall magnetization of the material. an important diagnostic tool used . ultra-violet. large. Nowadays a wide variety of such waves is known. soon afterwards. Other such waves have been detected from the magnetospheres of distant planets. Depending on this direction. for example. extremely high frequency). in the first laboratory demonstration of radio waves. X-rays. relatively low frequency) to microwaves. Magnetic materials are also important constituents of tapes and disks on which data are stored. the development of new magnetic materials has also been important in the computer revolution. Powerful magnetic fields are used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. too. thus serving as the units of the binary number system used in computers. powerful magnets are crucial to a variety of modern technologies. In more recent times. APPLICATIONS Numerous applications of magnetism and of magnetic materials have arisen in the past 100 years. VII. from radio (very long waves. In addition to the atomic-sized magnetic units used in computers. The electromagnet.

Mark Gerald Dadivo .by doctors. Almonidovar Submitted to: Engr. Superconducting magnets are used in today's most powerful particle accelerators to keep the accelerated particles focused and moving in a curved path. Scientists are developing magnetic levitation trains that use strong magnets to enable trains to float above the tracks. Villamor. reducing friction. Republic of the Philippines Philippine State College of Aeronautics Piccio Garden. Pasay City PHYSICS: MAGNETISM Submitted by: Bryan M.

Republic of the Philippines Philippine State College of Aeronautics Piccio Garden. Pasay City Analytical Geometry Submitted by: Bryan M. Almonidovar Submitted to: Engr. Villamor. Mark Gerald Dadivo .

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