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math project and physics kuya bry2

math project and physics kuya bry2

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I.

ANALYTIC GEOMETRY
Analytic Geometry is a branch of algebra that is used to model geometric objects - points, (straight) lines, and circles being the most basic of these. Analytic geometry is a great invention of Descartes and Fermat. In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry, or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate and the principles of algebra and analysis. Analytic geometry is widely used in physics and engineering, and is the foundation of most modern fields of geometry, including algebraic, differential, discrete, and computational geometry. In plane analytic geometry, points are defined as ordered pairs of numbers, say, (x, y), while the straight lines are in turn defined as the sets of points that satisfy linear equations. From the view of analytic geometry, geometric axioms are derivable theorems. For example, for any two distinct points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), there is a single line ax + by + c = 0 that passes through these points. Its coefficients a, b, c can be found (up to a constant factor) from the linear system of two equations ax1 + by1 + c = 0 ax2 + by2 + c = 0, or directly from the determinant equation

However, no axiomatic theory may escape using undefined elements. In Set Theory that underlies much of mathematics and, in particular, analytic geometry, the most fundamental notion of set remains undefined. Geometry of the three-dimensional space is modelled with triples of numbers (x, y, z) and a 3D linear equation ax + by + cz + d = 0 defines a plane. In general, analytic geometry provides a convenient tool for working in higher dimensions.

Within the framework of analytic geometry one may (and does) model non-Euclidean geometries as well. For example, in plane projective geometry a point is a triple of homogenous coordinates(x, y, z), not all 0, such that (tx, ty, tz) = (x, y, z), for all t ≠ 0, while a line is described by a homogeneous equation ax + bx + cz = 0. In analytic geometry, conic sections are defined by second degree equations: ax² + bxy + cy² + dx + ey + f = 0. That part of analytic geometry that deals mostly with linear equations is called Linear Algebra. Cartesian analytic geometry is geometry in which the axes x = 0 and y = 0 are perpendicular. The components of n-tuple x = (x1, ... xn) are known as its coordinates. When n = 2 or n = 3, the first coordinates is called abscissa and the second ordinate.

II. DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO POINTS
The distance between two points, P, and P2, can be expressed in terms of their coordinates by using the Pythagorean Theorem. From your study of Mathematics, Volume 1, you should recall that this theorem is stated as follows: In a right triangle, the square of the length of the hypotenuse (longest side) is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides.

Let the coordinates of P, be (x),y,) and let those of P2 be (X2,Y2), as shown in figure 1-2. By the Pythagorean theorem,

Figure 1-2.-Distance between two points. where P1N represents the distance between x, and x2, P2N represents the distance between y1 and y2, and d represents the distance from P1 to P2. We can express the length of P1N in terms of x, and x2 and the length of P2Nin terms of y1 and y2 as follows:

Although we have demonstrated the formula for the first quadrant only, it can be proven for all quadrants and all pairs of points. EXAMPLE 1: In figure 1-2, x, = 2,x2 = 6, y, = 2, and y2 = 5. Find the length of d. SOLUTION:

This result could have been foreseen by observing that triangle P1NP2 is a 3-4-5 triangle. EXAMPLE 2: Find the distance between P 1 (4,6) and P2 (10,4). SOLUTION:

EXAMPLE 3: Find the distance between point (-1, -3) and the midpoint of the line segment joining (2, 4) and (4, 6). square root of.

We first find the coordinates of the midpoint M of the segment joining (2, 4) and (4, 6) M = [ (2 + 4) / 2 , (4 + 6) / 2 ] = (3, 5)

We now use the distance formula to find the distance between the points (-1, -3) and (3, 5) D = sqrt [ (3 - (-1)) 2 + (5 - (-3)) 2 ] = sqrt (80) = 4 sqrt (5)

III. DIVISION OF A LINE SEGMENT
Many times you may need to find the coordinates of a point that is some known fraction of the distance between P1 and P2. In figure 1-3, P is a point lying on the line joining P1 and P2 so that

If P should lie 1/4 of the way between P1 and P2, then k would equal 1/4. Triangles P1MP and P1NP2 are similar. Therefore,

Figure 1-3.-Division of a line segment.

Since

is the ratio that defines k 1 then

Therefore, P 1M = k(PIN) Refer again to figure 1-3 and observe that P1N is equal to X2- x,. Likewise, P 1M is equal to x - x1. When you replace P 1M and P1N with their equivalents in terms of x, the preceding equation becomes

By similar reasoning,

The x and y found as a result of the foregoing discussion are the coordinates of the desired point, whose distances from P1 and P2 are determined by the value of k. EXAMPLE 1: Given two points P1 and P2 in space find the point R dividing the line segment P1P2 in the ratio -2 : 1. Solution If R divides P1P2 in the ratio -2 : 1 then = -2 .

and CF. The formula for the position vector of the midpoint of a line segment then allows us to write . f and g respectively. if G is the point of intersection ofAD and BE. c. LetABC be any triangle. and then that the pointG divides each median in the ratio 2 : 1. b. consider the problem from classical geometry on the concurrency of the three medians of a triangle.The position vector is then equal to EXAMPLE 2: To illustrate the use of the formula for the division of a line segment in a certain ratio. E and F be the midpoints of the three sides of the triangle. BE. B. E. and the problem is to prove first that they are concurrent (that is. Solution Let the position vectors of A. The three medians are AD. C. For simplicity. D. d. e. F and G relative to some origin O be a. as shown in the diagram below. then CF also passes through G). the origin O and the seven position vectors are not drawn on the diagram. and let D.

and e. we obtain Now compare these expressions with the formula for the position vector (relative to O) of a point R on the line segment P1P2. and is a position vector of a point on BE. Finally. rearranging and dividing by 3. d. b. we seek an equation involving a. Since G is the point of intersection of these two lines. This can be obtained by eliminating c from the first two equations above. we see that These equations also show that G divides both AD and BE in the ratio 2 : 1. After multiplying by 2. to show that CF also passes through G.Since G is defined to be the point of intersection of AD and BE. observe that . It is clear that is the position vector of a point on AD.

.1).This shows that G lies on CF and divides CF in the ratio 2 : 1. Therefore. EXAMPLE 3: Find the coordinates of a point 1/4 of the way from P1(2. SOLUTION: Therefore. the value of (Io is 1/2.3) to P2(4. such that By similar reasoning. as required. When the midpoint of a line segment is to be found. point P is .

in the above figure. y = mx + b is the equation that represents the line and the slope of the line with respect to the x-axis which is given by tan q = m. y) and B(s. the subscripts on point A. y) are on the line y= mx + b : . this is the 'rise over run' concept. When the slope of the line is 0. The change in y whether up or down is divided by the change in x going to the right. you know that the line is horizontal and you know it's a vertical line when the slope of a line is undefined. Slope of a Line The slope of a straight line. A(x.y1 = m (x x1) You now have the slope-point form of the equation of a line. B and C indicate the fact that there are three points on the line.IV. y1) then y1 = mx1 + b or with subtraction y . In the Figure below. For instance. This is the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line. (m for slope? Seems to be the standard!) When the slope passes through a point A(x1. parallel and perpendicular lines are all explored interactively using an applet. You can also express the slope of a line with the coordinates of points on the line.

2). get y = –2(2) + 3 = –4 + 3 = – 1. Are these lines parallel. 5) and (2. The slope of the line is then calculated as: EXAMPLE 2: One line passes through the points (–4. Graphing the line. you can use the following for the equation of the line AB: The equations of lines with slope 2 through the points would be: For (-2. another line passes through the points (–3. perpendicular.y + 1 = 0 EXAMPLE 1: Find the slope of y = –2x + 3. -1) the equation would be: 2x . 2) and (0.1) the equation would be: 2x .y + 5 = 0. Picking x = 2. Then the points (–1. –1) are on the line y = –2x + 3. or neither? I'll find the slopes. .m = tan q = therefore. For (-1. 3). I get y = –2(–1) + 3 = 2 + 3 = 5. –2) and (3. it looks like this: Picking x = –1.

–4) and (–1. –7). . Example : Construct the locus of a point P at a constant distance of 2 cm from a fixed point Q. Solution: Construct a circle with centre Q and radius 2 cm. Copyright © Elizabeth Stapel 2006-2008 All Rights Reserved V.). or neither? I'll find the values of the slopes. Are these lines parallel. CONDITION 1 : A point P moves such that it is always m units from the point Q.EXAMPLE 3: One line passes through the points (0. Locus formed: A circle with centre Q and radius m. 0) and (–3. The Locus of a Moving Point When a point moves in a plane according to some given conditions the path along which it moves is called a locus. another line passes through the points (3. (Plural of locus is loci. perpendicular. 2).

Solution: Construct a perpendicular bisector of the line XY. CONDITION 3: A point P moves so that it is always m units from a straight lineAB. Locus formed: A perpendicular bisector of the line XY.CONDITION 2 : A point P moves such that it is equidistant form two fixed pointsX and Y. Example: Construct the locus of point P moving equidistant from fixed points X and Y and XY= 6 cm. . Locus formed: A pair of parallel lines m units from AB.

CONDITION 4: A point P moves so that it is always equidistant from two intersecting lines AB and CD.Example: Construct the locus of a point P that moves a constant distant of 2 cm from a straight line AB. Solution: . Construct the locus of point P such that it is always equidistant from AB and CD. Locus formed: Angle bisectors of angles between lines AB and CD. Example: The following figure shows two straight lines AB and CD intersecting at point O. Solution: Construct a pair of parallel lines 2 cm from AB.

Solution: Construct a pair of parallel lines 3 cm from line AB. The points of intersections are indicated by points X and Y. We could do this by constructing the locus for each of the conditions and then determine where the two loci intersect. Example : Given the line AB and the point Q. . find one or more points that are 3 cm from ABand 5 cm from Q.Construct angles bisectors of angles between lines AB and CD. INTERSECTION OF TWO LOCI Sometimes you may be required to determine the locus of a point that satisfies two conditions. Draw a circle with centre Q and radius 5 cm.

Construct the locus of a point which is 2 cm from P and equidistant from PQ and PS. The diagonal when extended intersects the circle at points A and B Note: A common mistake is to identify only one point when there could be another point which could be found by extending the construction lines or arcs. . Since PQRS is a square the diagonal PR would be the angle bisector of the angle formed by the lines PQ andPS. Solution: Construct a circle with centre P and radius 2 cm. Mark the points as A and B. Example: Given a square PQRS with sides 3 cm. as in the above examples.It means that the locus consists of the two points X and Y.

then area = ( /360) PI r2 if the angle is in radians.VI. then length = x (PI/180) x r if the angle is in radians. 3. then length = r x Area of Circle Sector: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees. equal to (the circumference) / (the diameter) of any circle.... diameter: the longest distance from one end of a circle to the other..141592. diameter = 2 x radius of circle Circumference of Circle = PI x diameter = 2 PI x radius where PI = = 3. Circle Definition: A circle is the locus of all points equidistant from a central point. radius: distance from center of circle to any point on it. origin: the center of the circle pi ( ): A number. Definitions Related to Circles arc: a curved line that is part of the circumference of a circle chord: a line segment within a circle that touches 2 points on the circle. Area of Circle: area = PI r2 Length of a Circular Arc: (with central angle ) if the angle is in degrees. k) and radius (r): (x-j)2 + (y-k)2 = r2 Equation of Circle: (polar coordinates) for a circle with center (0. then area = ( /2) r2 Equation of Circle: (cartesian coordinates) for a circle with center (j. tangent of circle: a line perpendicular to the radius that touches ONLY one point on the circle. sector: is like a slice of pie (a circle wedge). 0): r( ) = radius .141592. circumference: the distance around the circle..

2cr cos( . triangle ABC is a triangle inscribed inside the circle of center O and radius r = 10 cm. Solution to Problem : • If the center O is on AC then AC is a diameter of the circle and the triangle has a right angle at B (Thales's theorem). ) and radius a: r2 . k) and radius r: x(t) = r cos(t) + j y(t) = r sin(t) + k EXAMPLE 1: In the figure below. Find the lengths of AB and CB so that the area of the triangle is twice the shaded area.for a circle with center with polar coordinates: (c. If At is the area of triangle ABC and As the shaded area then .) + c2 = a2 Equation of a Circle: (parametric coordinates) for a circle with origin (j.

At + As = (1/2) area of circle = (1/2) Pi 10 2 = 50 Pi 2 As + As = 50 Pi • Which gives.4 degrees (nearest tenth) or A = 74.5 Pi / 3 • Use calculator to solve for 2A. As = 50 Pi / 3 • Since triangle ABC has a right angle.6 degrees (nearest tenth) or A = 15. As = (1/2) * AB * CB = 200 cos (A) sin(A) = 100 sin (2A) = 50 Pi / 3 • The above equation gives. Two solutions 2A = 31.2 degrees . sin(A) = CB / AC = CB / 20 which gives CB = 20 sin (A) and cos(A) = AB / AC = AB / 20 which gives AB = 20 cos (A) • The area As might also be written as follows (using the identity sin(2A) = 2 sin (A) cos (A)). we now use the internal angle (to the triangle) A to write.At = 2 As • We also have.8 degrees 2A = 148. sin (2A) = 0.

8) = 5. EXAMPLE 2: The small square is inscribed inside the circle and the larger circle circumsrcibes the same circle.• We now calculate the lengths of AB and CB.24 (2 decimals) • The two solutions correspond to two congruent right triangles. Two solutions first solution AB = 20 cos (15.2) = 19.8) = 19. what is the ration A1 / A2? Solution to Problem : • If x is the size of one side of the small square. then its area A2 is given by A2 = x 2 • The diagonal d of the small square is given by d2 = x2 + x2 d = x sqrt (2) • d is also equal to the side of one side of the large square .2) = 5. If A1 is the area of the large square and A2 is the area of the small square.45 (2 decimals) and CB = 20 sin (74.24 (2 decimals) and CB = 20 sin (15.45 (2 decimals) second solution AB = 20 cos (74.

the calculated number 78. the unit for the area will be cm2. Find the area of this circle.5 only has meaning if we include the unit for it. Step 2 To calculate the area. A1 = ( x sqrt (2) ) 2 = 2 x 2 • Hence A1 / A2 = 2 x 2 / x 2 = 2 EXAMPLE 3: Given a circle with the radius of 5cm. we can calculate for A. Take π as 3. Since the radius is in cm.14. as shown below: Step 4 Now. After doing so. we can substitute π with 3. Similarly. Step 1 The picture below shows the circle with the radius of 5cm.• The area A1 of the large square A1 is given by. we can start with the formula for the area of a circle: Step 3 Since the radius is given as 5cm.5 cm2 . we can substitute r with 5. Hence: A = 78.14.

p). We take absolute value because distance is positive. In the following graph.Vertical Axis Adding to our diagram from above. The distance d from any point (x. radio telescopes. and from the origin to the directrix. The parabola is defined as the locus of a point which moves so that it is always the same distance from a fixed point (called the focus) and a given line (called thedirectrix).VII.g. The focal distance is |p| (Distance from the origin to the focus. we see that the distance d = y + p. The Formula for a Parabola . pay TV dishes.g. solar radiation collectors) or Radiation needs to be transmitted from a single point into a wide parallel beam (e. y) represents any point on the curve. The directrix is the line y = -p. Parabola The parabola has many applications in situations where: • • Radiation needs to be concentrated at one point (e. p) is the same as the distance from (x.) The point (x. y) to the focus (0. . y) to the directrix. headlight reflectors). • • • • • The focus of the parabola is at (0.

using the distance formula on the general points (0. we have Squaring both sides gives: (x − 0)2 + (y − p)2 = (y + p)2 Simplifying gives us the formula for a parabola: x2 = 4py In more familiar form. p) and (x. y). Parabolas with Horizontal Axis We can also have the situation where the axis of the parabola is horizontal: . we can write this as: where p is the focal distance of the parabola. with "y = " on the left. and equating it to our value d = y + p.Now.

there are many ways to define parabola. Parabola can be thought of as a limiting case of ellipse or hyperbola. A common definition defines it as the locus of points P such that the distance from a line (called the directrix) to P is equal to the distance from P to a fixed point F (called the focus). The impression that some parabola are more curved is because we are looking at different scale of the curve.In this case. Like ellipse and hyperbola. As a conics section. On the other hand. there are two or more values of y for each value of x. we have the relation: y2 = 4px [In a relation. part of a large circle appears to be a line may induce us to conclude that there are different shapes of circles. along with hyperbola and ellipse. Vertex of the parabola is the intersection of the parabola and its axis. Note that parabola is not a family of curves. a function only has one value of y for each value of x.] Parabola is a member of conic sections. Tracing a Parabola Tracing a Parabola The axis of a parabola is a line perpendicular to its directrix and passing its focus. . the eccentricity of Parabola is 1. Similarly.

1}. Invariant under certain Dilation Parabola have the property that when scaled (streching/shrinking) along a direction parallel or perpendicular to its axis. 1/4 t^2}. For the given formulas. focus is at {0. yf[t]} with vertex at Origin and focus along the y-axis. P is a point on parabola. (For example.F]]. -∞ < t < ∞ Cartesian: y == 1/4 x^2. Properties Point and Tangent Construction Let F be a given point and d be a give line. xf[t]^2/(4 yf[t]) }. but circle do not. Further.0}. line also have this property. its focus is {0. A streched line is still a line. the curve remain unchanged.t] Since length[segment[B. . Let t := LineBisector[B. Let b := Perpendicular[B.P]]==length[segment[P. t is the tangent at P.F].d]. vertexes is at {0.Formulas • • Parametric: {t. Let B := Point[d]. but a streched circle is no longer a circle) When a parabola is streched along the directrix “a” units and along the axis by “b” units. Given a parametrization of a parabola {xf[t]. the resulting curve is the original parabola scaled in both direction by “a^2/b”. Let P := Intersect[b.

. the envelope of lines with a positive constant sum of intercepts is a segment of parabola. suppose you pick three tangents call them a. Tangents of parabola cutting other tangents into the same proportion. c. The figure shows three parabolas. two of which share a common focus. it will be cut into the same proportions. That is. 3 parabolas with its reflection property.Optical Property A radiant point at the focus will reflect off the parabola into parallel lines. Right: A photo of a car's headlight (Honda Civic 2000). b. Now pick a arbitrary tangent x. c will cut x into segments with certain proportions. b. above: Left. Thus. Tagents a. Parabola with a Moving Light Source Tangents of Parabola Any set of tangents on the parabola will always cut a arbitrary tangent into the same proportion. Now pick any other tangent x1.

. Pedal The pedal of a parabola with respect to its focus is a line. Evolute and Semicubic Parabola The evolute of a parabola is the semicubic parabola. pedal with respect to its vertex is the cissoid of Diocles. Note: this is not astroid. The envelope of the normals is the semicubic parabola. The left figure shows the line positions. because the lines that forms astroid as Trammel of Archimedes do not have the same positions as this.A segment of parabola formed by envelope of lines. Parabola and its normals. the right figure is rotated to visually show that it coincides with parabola in the standard position.

Inversion The inversion of a parabola with respect to its focus is a cardioid. inversion with respect to its vertex is the cissoid of Diocles. EXAMPLE 1: What is the minimum value of the expression 2x2 – 20x + 17? Solution: .

Consider the function y = 2x2 – 20x + 17. Let the equation of the parabola be y2 = 4ax.2) + 5 = 17.point of PQ is M.2. Let OX be along OM and OY parallel to MP. y = 2(5)2 – 20(5) + 17 = . Mid . 8) (8)2= 4a (4) or a = 4 Focus = (a. and locate the axis of symmetry. 17). the mid-point of PQ . 17). This function is defined by a second degree equation.3x 2 – 12x + 5. This minimum value is assumed only when x = 5. Therefore the minimum value of the expression 2x220x + 17 for any value of x is – 33. 0) = (4. y = -3 (-2) – 12(. 0).coefficient fo X^2 term)` = `-b/(2a)` =` (-(-20))/(2(2))` = `20/4` = 5. Solution: let POQ be the vertical section of the reflector. `(-coefficient fo X term)/(2. The coordinates of P are (4. Hence the curve is a parabola opening up ward. Focus coincides with M.coefficient fo X^2 term)` = `-b/(2a)` = `(-(-12))/(2(-3))` = `12/-6` = -2.33. EXAMPLE 2: Find the coordinates of maximum point of the curve y = . Solution: The curve is defined by a second degree equation. the line x = -2 EXAMPLE 3: If a parabolic reflector is 16 cm in diameter and 4cm deep. The coefficient of x2 term is negative..e. i. 2 For x = -2. For x = 5. The curve is symmetric with respect to the vertical line through its vertex. `(-coefficient fo X term)/(2. This xo-efficient of its x2 term is positive. through the point (-2. find the focus. Hence the coordinates of the vertex are (.

or pairs of points whose midpoint is at the center of the ellipse. the other two (open and unbounded) cases are parabolas and hyperbolas. Ellipses are closed curves and are the bounded case of the conic sections.[6][7][8][9] . These are sometimes called (especially in technical fields) the major and minor semi-axes. a "falling short") is a plane curve that results from the intersection of a cone by a plane in a way that produces a closed curve. which are simply intersections of the projective cone with the plane of projection. An ellipse is a smooth closed curve which is symmetric about its horizontal and vertical axes. the curves that result from the intersection of a circular cone and a plane that does not pass through its apex. It is also the simplest Lissajous figure. obtained when the cutting plane is orthogonal to the cone's axis.VIII. Elements of an ellipse The ellipse and some of its mathematical properties. An ellipse is also the locus of all points of the plane whose distances to two fixed points add to the same constant. respectively. The distance between antipodalpoints on the ellipse. Ellipses also arise as images of a circle underparallel projection and the bounded cases of perspective projection. an ellipse (from Greek ἔλλειψις elleipsis.[1] The semimajor axis (denoted by a in the figure) and the semiminor axis (denoted by b in the figure) are one half of the major and minor diameters.[2][3] the major and minor semiaxes. is maximum along the major axis ortransverse diameter. and a minimum along the perpendicular minor axis or conjugate diameter. Circles are special cases of ellipses. formed when the horizontal and vertical motions are sinusoids with the same frequency. ELLIPSE In geometry. [4][5] or major radius and minor radius.

and a pencil: Push the pins into the paper at two points. It tends towards a line segment (see below) if the two foci remain a finite distance apart and a parabola if one focus is kept fixed as the other is allowed to move arbitrarily far away. usually denoted by ε or e.The foci of the ellipse are two special points F1 and F2 on the ellipse's major axis and are equidistant from the center point. An ellipse can be drawn using two drawing pins. Each of these two points is called a focus of the ellipse. a length of string. The distance ae from a focal point to the centre is called the linear eccentricity of the ellipse (f = ae). The sum of the distances from any point P on the ellipse to those two foci is constant and equal to the major diameter (PF1 + PF2 = 2a ). while keeping the string taut. Move the pencil around. is the ratio of the distance between the two foci. the ellipse gets a more elongated shape. Drawing ellipses The pins-and-string method Drawing an ellipse with two pins. When the eccentricity is 0 the foci coincide with the center point and the figure is a circle. to the length of the major axis or e = 2f/2a = f/a. As the eccentricity tends toward 1. Tie the string into a loose loop around the two pins. Pull the loop taut with the pencil's tip. a loop and a pen. The eccentricity of an ellipse. which will become the ellipse's foci. Refer to the lower Directrix section of this article for a second equivalent construction of an ellipse. so as to form a triangle. and its tip will trace out an . For an ellipse the eccentricity is between 0 and 1 (0<e<1).

N on the paper. Using two pegs and a rope. pushing less it will be smaller. this procedure is traditionally used by gardeners to outline an elliptical flower bed. A->C being the length of the major axis .(A-D)squared) i.D be the corners of the rectangle. Unfortunately strings tend to be elastic so if you push harder on the pencil stretching the string more you will get a bigger ellipse. This will be the major axis of the ellipse. It may take a few tries to push just hard enough to make the ellipse fit the rectangle. these will be the major and minor axes of the ellipse. at distance L/2 from the center. Move the second pin to the other focus. To adjust the length of the string loop. Other methods Trammel of Archimedes(ellipsograph) animation An ellipse can also be drawn using a ruler. and the second pin at the opposite side of the rectangle on the major axis. whose radius is the short side A-D. Then draw the ellipse as above. insert a pin at one focus. a set square. square root of the long side of the rectangle squared minus short side squared. tangent to its four sides at their midpoints. From corner B draw a tangent to the circle. B. Draw a horizontal line through the center of the rectangle. C on the ruler. one must first determine the position of the foci and the length of the string loop: Let A. Mark three points A. Place the foci on the major axis. Loop the string around the two pins and tie it taut.e. The length L of this tangent is the distance between the foci. with A-B being one of the long sides. thus it is called the gardener's ellipse.C. it should fit snugly in the original rectangle.B. in clockwise order. This length L can be calculated with the Pythagorean theorem. As the tangent is at a right angles to the radius at the intersect of the tangent with the circle L equals square root ((A-B)squared . If the ellipse is to be inscribed within a specified rectangle. and a pencil: Draw two perpendicular lines M. Draw a circle centered on A.ellipse.

Eccentricity The eccentricity of the ellipse (commonly denoted as either e or ε) is (where again a and b are one-half of the ellipse's major and minor axes respectively) or. With the other hand. The equivalence of these two definitions can be proved using the Dandelin spheres. move the ruler on the paper. The mechanism is also used in a toy called the "nothing grinder". and B on line M. or as the set of points such that the sum of the distances to two fixed points is constant.[10] The mechanism can be used with a routerto cut ellipses from board material. The trammel of Archimedes or ellipsograph is a mechanical device that implements this principle. To draw the orbit with a pair of compasses the centre of the circle should be offset from the focus by an amount equal to the eccentricity multiplied by the radius. Mathematical definitions and properties In Euclidean geometry Definition In Euclidean geometry. as expressed in terms using the flattening factor The distance from the center to either focus is ae. Approximations to ellipses An ellipse of low eccentricity can be represented reasonably accurately by a circle with its centre offset. keep the pencil's tip on the paper. The tip will trace out an ellipse. following point C of the ruler. turning and sliding it so as to keep point Aalways on line N. With the exception of Mercury. all the planets have an orbit whose minor axis differs from the major axis by less than half of one percent. With one hand.and B->C the length of the minor axis. an ellipse is usually defined as the bounded case of a conic section. The ruler is replaced by a rod with a pencil holder (point C) at one end. and two adjustable side pins (points A and B) that slide into two perpendicular slots cut into a metal plate. or simply .

Ellipse as hypotrochoid An ellipse (in red) as a special case of the hypotrochoid with R=2r. The distance from any point P on the ellipse to the focus F is a constant fraction of that point's perpendicular distance to the directrix resulting in the equality. The ratio of these two distances is the eccentricity of the ellipse. The ellipse is a special case of the hypotrochoid when R=2r. it is also true that e=a/d. e=PF/PD. This property (which can be proved using the Dandelin spheres) can be taken as another definition of the ellipse.Directrix Each focus F of the ellipse is associated with a line parallel to the minor axis called a directrix. Besides the well known ratio e=f/a. . Refer to the illustration on the right. where (as before) a and b are one-half of the ellipse's major and minor axes respectively. If the ellipse is given by the implicit equation Ax2 + Bxy + Cy2 = 1. Area The area enclosed by an ellipse is πab. then the area is .

we can use: .Circumference C of an ellipse is: where the function E is the complete elliptic integral of the second kind. The exact infinite series is: or For computational purposes a much faster series where the denominators vanish at a rate is given by:[11] A good approximation is Ramanujan's: or better approximation: For the special case where the minor axis is half the major axis.

EXAMPLE 1: Given the following equation 9x2 + 4y2 = 36 a) Find the x and y intercepts of the graph of the equation. d) Sketch the graph of the equation. the angle subtended as a function of the arc length. x2 = 22 .or the better approximation More generally. x2 / 22 = 1 Solve for x. See also: Meridian arc#Meridian distance on the ellipsoid The inverse function. Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 36 9x2 / 36 + 4y2 / 36 = 1 x2 / 4 + y2 / 9 = 1 x2 / 22 + y2 / 32 = 1 We now identify the equation obtained with one of the standard equation in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an ellipse with a = 3 and b = 2 (NOTE: a >b) . the arc length of a portion of the circumference. b) Find the coordinates of the foci.[citation needed] Chords The midpoints of a set of parallel chords of an ellipse are collinear. Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts. is given by the elliptic functions. as a function of the angle subtended. is given by an incomplete elliptic integral. c) Find the length of the major and minor axes.

c 2 = a 2 . c 2 = 32 .x=±2 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts. . The minor axis length is given by 2 b = 4. y2 = 32 y=±3 b) We need to find c first. c = ± (5)1/2 The foci are F1 (0 . find extra points if needed and sketch. -(5)1/2) c) The major axis length is given by 2 a = 6. (5)1/2) and F2 (0 . d) Locate the x and y intercepts. y2 / 32 = 1 Solve for y.22 c2 = 5 Solve for c.b2 a and b were found in part a).

c) and (0.b)and (0. verticals . the major axis lie along x-axis and the minor axis lie along y .directrices .axis and the minor axis is along x-axis Major axis = 2b = 2√3 so b =√3 Minor axis = 2a = 2√2 so a =√2 C = √b2 . 2.1) and (0. 4.-√3) Eccentricity = 1/√3 6.the length of latus rectum and the equation of the latus rectum of the equation of the latus rectum of the ellipse x2 + 4y2 + 2x + 16y + 13 = 0.a2 = √3 .the co ordinates of foci and vertices . 3.EXAMPLE 2: Find the length of major and minor axes . 3x2 + 2y2 = 6 x2/2 + y2/3 = 1 (by dividing by 6) Since b > a. please follow the below steps. Also find the equation of directives of an ellipse. Equation of direction y = b/e and y = .-1) The vertices (0. Solution: Deriving at ellipse problem related to length of axes and directive. .b/e => y=3 and y= -3 EXAMPLE 3: Find the ellipse eccentricity centre.foci .-c) => (0. and the eccentricity of the ellipse 3x2 + 2y2 = 6. 5. Length of Ellipse major axis = 2√3 Length of Ellipse minor axis = 2√2 The foci are (0.-b) => (0.2 = 1 e = c/b = 1/√3 1.√3)and (0.

y = 0 => x = ± √3.2 => x = 1 or .2 So the vertices are (1. y = 0 => x + 1 = ± √3 so. Where a = 2 . -2) The equation of the directrices are x = ± a/e = ± 4/√3 => x + 1 = ± 4/√3 so x = -1 – 4/√3 The length of latus rectum is 2b2/a = 2/2 =1 The equation of the latus rectum are x = ae so x = -1-√3 IX. y = b tan(t) .Solution: (x2 + 2x + 1) + 4(y2 + 4y + 4) . -2) and (-1-√3.y2/b2 = 1 or parametrically: x = a sec(t). THE HYPERBOLA Hyperbola Cartesian equation: x2/a2 .-2) .-2) The foci are x = ± c. x = -1+√3 or -1-√3 y + 2 = 0 => y = -2 Foci (-1 + √3.3 And y = 0 => y + 2 = 0 so y = .b2) = √3 . The cetre is mid point of two vertices (-1.-2) and (-3. y = 0) => x + 1 = 2 or x + 1 = .1 . e = c/a = √3/2 Vertices are (x = ± 2.16 + 13 = 0 (x + 1) 2 + 4(y + 2) 2 = 4 (x + 1) 2/4 + (y+2) 2/1 = 1 Let x = x + 1 and y = y + 1 This is of the form ( x2/a2) + (y2/b2) = 1 . b = 1 c = √(a2 .

the semiminor axis of the . Thus. then Therefore c > a > d. then the foci lies farther from the origin than the directrices. Figure 2-17.A hyperbola is a conic section with an eccentricity greater than 1. Since e is greater than 1 for a hyperbola. they are true for the hyperbola as well as for an ellipse.-The hyperbola. The formulas And developed in the section concerning the ellipse were derived so that they are true for any value of eccentricity. if the center of symmetry of a hyperbola is the origin. An inspection of figure 2-17 shows that the curve never crosses the Y axis. Thus the solution for the value of b. According to this analysis.

at the origin. since c = a e . In other words. yields no real value for b. b is an imaginary number. The solution of this equation for y gives . which was developed in the section on the ellipse: and since we have This is a standard form for the equation of a hyperbola with its center. we can square both sides of the the above equation. O. This can easily be seen from the equation since c > a for a hyperbola.ellipse. Now we can use this equation to obtain the equation of a hyperbola from the following equation. and since the square of an imaginary number is a negative real number we write or and. However.

The distance from the line bx . The .y1) is on the curve. The curve. the absolute values for x.a.0).11) gives us As the point (x1. the vertices of the hyperbola. therefore. and y. will increase and the distance.y1) is chosen farther and farther from the center of the hyperbola. The two straight lines can be used to illustrate an interesting property of a hyperbola.ay = 0 to the point (x1. A similar result can easily be derived for the line bx + ay = 0.which shows that y is imaginary only when x2 < a 2. its coordinates satisfy the equation which may be written or Now substituting this value into equation (2. will approach zero. They are very important in tracing a curve and studying its properties. lies entirely beyond the two lines x = ± a and crosses the X axis at V1 (a. d.y1) on the curve is given by Since (x1. which are usually written are called the asymptotes of the hyperbola. The lines of equation (2.0) and V2( .10).

Its asymptotes are the lines by . The focal chord of a hyperbola is equal to . and the constant difference is 2a. the equation of the hyperbola will read This equation represents a hyperbola with its transverse axis on the Y axis. figure 2-18. The transverse axis is of length 2a and is the distance between the intersections (vertices) of the hyperbola with its focal axis. The nomenclature of the hyperbola is slightly different from that of an ellipse. Whenever the foci are on the Y axis and the directrices are lines of the form y = ± k. asymptotes of a hyperbola. and the equations of the asymptotes. .-Using asymptotes to sketch a hyperbola. length of the focal chord. where k is a constant. directrices. The conjugate axis is of length 2b and is perpendicular to the transverse axis. The fixed points are thefoci. are the diagonals of the rectangle whose center is the center of the curve and whose sides are parallel and equal to the axes of the curve.ax = 0 and by +ax=0 or The properties of the hyperbola most often used in analysis of the curve are the foci.Figure 2-18. Another definition of a hyperbola is the locus of all points in a plane such that the difference of their distances from two fixed points is constant.

16y2 = 144 a) Find the x and y intercepts. The value of c is either determined from the formula or the formula Figure 2-17 also shows that the directrices are the lines hyperbolas open upward and downward. (c.0) when the equation of the hyperbola is in the form If the equation were the foci would be the points (0. b) Find the coordinates of the foci. discussion as . Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 144 9x2 / 144 .y2 / 9 = 1 . c) Sketch the graph of the equation. in the case where the . if possible.0) and FZ ( .c.16y2 / 144 = 1 x2 / 16 . or.c) and (0. of the graph of the equation. This was also given earlier in this EXAMPLE 1: Given the following equation 9x2 . -c).Figure 2-17 shows that the foci are given by the points F.

Find extra points (if necessary) set x = 6 and find y 9(6)2 . x2 / 42 = 1 Solve for x.16y2 = 144 F1 (5 . . x2 = 42 x= ± 4 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts. c=±5 The foci are c) 1 . 0) . c2 = 42 + 32 c2 = 25 Solve for c.(b/a) x and y = (b/a) x and plot them.x2 / 42 . c 2 = a 2 + b2 a and b were found in part a).Find the asymptotes y = .y2 / 32 = 1 NO y intercepts since the above equation does not have real solutions. b) We need to find c first.plot the x intercepts 3 . Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts. 0) and F2 (-5 . y = -(3/4) x and y = (3/4) x 2 .y2 / 32 = 1 We now compare the equation obtained with the standard equation (left) in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an hyperbola with a = 4 and b = 3.

if possible.y2 / 32 = 1 We now compare the equation obtained with the standard equation (left) in the review above and we can say that the given equation is that of an hyperbola with a = 4 and b = 3. -3(5)1/2 / 2) are on the graph of the hyperbola.16y2 = 144 . Also because of the symmetry of the graph of the hyperbola. 3(5)1/2 / 2) and (6. Set y = 0 in the equation obtained and find the x intercepts.16y2 = 144 a) Find the x and y intercepts. EXAMPLE 2: Given the following equation 9x2 . b) Find the coordinates of the foci. -3(5)1/2 / 2) are also on the graph of the hyperbola. the points (-6..324 y2 = 45 / 4 Solve for y y = 3(5)1/2 / 2 and y = . of the graph of the equation.3(5)1/2 / 2 so the points (6.y2 / 9 = 1 x2 / 42 . 3(5)1/2 / 2) and (-6. x2 / 42 = 1 . Solution a) We first write the given equation in standard form by dividing both sides of the equation by 144 9x2 / 144 .16y2 / 144 = 1 x2 / 16 .

b) We need to find c first.Find Major Axis. Now coordinates offoci are (h-ae. . c2 = a2 + b2 a and b were found in part a).0) and (2.0) and (h+ae. c2 = 42 + 32 c2 = 25 Solve for c. So centre of the hyperbola is (0.Solve for x.y2 / 32 = 1 NO y intercepts since the above equation does not have real solutions. 0) EXAMPLE 3: The foci of a hyperbola are given by (-2. c=±5 The foci are F1 (5 . . 1 Directrices are given by x=h+a/e and x =h-a/e or x =a/e or -a/e here a/e =3/2 Multiplying these two we get a^2 = 3 or a = root 3 So 2a = 2√3 = Major axis. 0) and F2 (-5 . x2 = 42 x=±4 Set x = 0 in the equation obtained and find the y intercepts... .0) Since h =0 we get ae =2. Solution: The mid point of the foci are (0.0) directrices are x =3/2d x=3/2.0).0).

an aspect of electromagnetism. each has two sides or ends called north-seeking and south-seeking poles. The unifying frame for these two forces is called electromagnetic theory (see Electromagnetic Radiation).e. indicating the close relationship between electricity and magnetism. when freely suspended. the iron itself acquires the same ability to attract other pieces of iron. Columbus used it when he crossed the Atlantic ocean. HISTORY OF STUDY The phenomenon of magnetism has been known of since ancient times. an oxide of iron that has the property of attracting iron objects. originally those near the city of Magnesia. Around 1600 William Gilbert. near the points defining the axis around which the Earth turns). The most familiar evidence of magnetism is the attractive or repulsive force observed to act between magnetic materials such as iron. and also the early Chinese knew about strange and rare stones (possibly chunks of iron ore struck by lightning) with the power to attract iron. More subtle effects of magnetism. II. and Chinese. are found in all matter. and unlike poles attract. with its magnetic poles some distance away from its geographic ones (i. When a piece of iron is stroked with lodestone. proposed an explanation: the Earth itself was a giant magnet.INTRODUCTION Magnetism. Like poles repel one another. Magnetic forces are produced by the motion of charged particles such as electrons. however. In recent times these effects have provided important clues to the atomic structure of matter. The mineral lodestone (see Magnetite). one of the fundamental forces of nature. and around 1000 the Chinese found that such a needle. noting not only that the needle deviated slightly from exact north (as indicated by the stars) but also that the deviation changed during the voyage. was known to the Greeks.Magnetism I. The magnets thus produced are polarized—that is. The ancient Greeks. A steel needle stroked with such a "lodestone" became "magnetic" as well. physician to Queen Elizabeth I of England. pointed north-south. Romans. The magnetic compass soon spread to Europe. .

served to explain the properties of strongly magnetic materials such as lodestone. which was based on the atomic structure of matter. and by the French physicist Dominique François Jean Arago. later verified Michell's observation with high precision. the English geologist John Michell invented a balance that he used in the study of magnetic forces. . and through a series of experiments. Gilbert applied scientific methods to the study of electricity and magnetism. III. which showed a connection between electricity and magnetism. who postulated the existence of an internal. Langevin's theory was subsequently expanded by the French physicist Pierre Ernst Weiss. In 1819 an important discovery was made by the Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted. who predicted the existence of electromagnetic waves and identified light as an electromagnetic phenomenon. In the 13th century. who had measured the forces between electric charges. “molecular” magnetic field in materials such as iron. the inverse effect to that found by Oersted: Oersted showed that an electric current creates a magnetic field. The full unification of the theories of electricity and magnetism was achieved by the English physicist James Clerk Maxwell. who magnetized a piece of iron by placing it near a current-carrying wire. This theory is an early example of the description of large-scale properties in terms of the properties of electrons and atoms. He pointed out that the earth itself behaves like a giant magnet. was followed up by the French scientist André Marie Ampère. while Faraday showed that a magnetic field can be used to create an electric current. the theories of electricity and magnetism were investigated simultaneously. who found that a magnetic needle could be deflected by an electric current flowing through a wire. Subsequently. In 1831 the English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that moving a magnet near a wire induces an electric current in that wire. Subsequent studies of magnetism were increasingly concerned with an understanding of the atomic and molecular origins of the magnetic properties of matter. Magnetic Bodies. He showed that the attraction and repulsion of magnets decrease as the squares of the distance from the respective poles increase. In 1905 the French physicist Paul Langevin produced a theory regarding the temperature dependence of the magnetic properties of paramagnets (discussed below). ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY In the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb. until the English physicist and physician William Gilbert published his book Of Magnets. when combined with Langevin's theory. His discoveries stood for nearly 300 years.The compass was first used for navigation in the West some time after AD1200. in 1750. This concept. and the Great Magnet of the Earth in 1600. This discovery. important investigations of magnets were made by the French scholar Petrus Peregrinus. who studied the forces between wires carrying electric currents. he investigated and disproved several incorrect notions about magnetism that were accepted as being true at the time.

" appearing in the night skies of places like Alaska and Norway. fast streaming particles and processes which energize them. magnetism is measured in terms of magnetic moments—a magnetic moment is a vector quantity that depends on the strength and orientation of the magnetic field. a region known as the Earth's magnetosphere. sense much more: radiation belts. The theory of atomic structure of Danish physicist Niels Bohr. on the basis of the newly-developed quantum mechanics (see Quantum Theory). (At the atomic level. But beyond the dense atmosphere. All these are described in the sections that follow. Hans Christian Oersted. IV. The Magnetosphere On Earth one needs a sensitive needle to detect magnetic forces. and the configuration of the object that produces the magnetic field. and electric and magnetic phenomena rather than gravity determine its structure. for example. Satellites in space. Then a Danish scientist. and a region exists around the Earth where they dominate the environment. while demonstrating to friends the flow of an electric current in a wire. however. noticed that the current caused a nearby compass needle to move. But what is magnetism? Until 1821. and out in space they are usually much. Iron magnets are a very special case.) The German physicist Werner Heisenberg gave a detailed explanation for Weiss's molecular field in 1927. and the polar aurora or "northern lights. who concluded that the nature of magnetism was quite different from what everyone had believed. The American physicists Samuel Abraham Goudsmit and George Eugene Uhlenbeck showed in 1925 that the electron itself has spin and behaves like a small bar magnet. or in compounds containing these elements. which Ampere was also able . only one kind of magnetism was known. such forces have a much bigger role. We call it the Earth's magnetosphere Only a few of the phenomena observed on the ground come from the magnetosphere: fluctuations of the magnetic field known as magnetic storms and sub storms. magnetic structures. The new phenomenon was studied in France by Andre-Marie Ampere. Other scientists then predicted many more complex atomic arrangements of magnetic moments. the one produced by iron magnets. with diverse magnetic properties. magnetic properties were explored in greater and greater detail. It was basically a force between electric currents: two parallel currents in the same direction attract. in oposite directions repel. provided an understanding of the periodic table and showed why magnetism occurs in transition elements such as iron and the rare earth elements. much weaker. That region contains a mix of electrically charged particles.After Weiss's theory.

field lines are compressed earthward. Imagine a compass needle freely suspended in three dimensions. Such magnetismmust be produced by electric currents. We can trace in space (in our imagination. but the term field lines is now in common use.. magnetic fields are produced in the rarefied gas of space.. in the Earth's magnetosphere. currents also flow through space and modify this pattern: on the side facing the Sun. Similarly." Faraday called them lines of force. the lines remain very close to the "dipole . What Oersted saw. Magnetic Field Lines Michael Faraday. Compass needles outlining field lines Field lines of a bar magnet are commonly illustrated by iron filings sprinkled on a sheet of paper held over a magnet. V. in the glowing heat of sunspots and in the molten core of the Earth. field lines of the Earth start near the south pole of the Earth. but finding how those currents are produced remains a major challenge. curve around in space and converge again near the north pole. However. while on the night side they are pulled out into a very long "tail. Near Earth. In nature. credited with fundamental discoveries on electricity and magnetism (an electric unit is named "Farad" in his honor). however. at least!) the lines one obtains when one "follows the direction of the compass needle. near a magnet or an electrical current.to explain. also proposed a widely used method for visualizing magnetic fields." like that of a comet.

as well as electric currents (and certain radio-type waves). like the grain in a piece of wood. A map of the magnetic field lines of the magnetosphere. VI. suggested that they could undergo wave motion. tells at a glance how different regions are linked and many other important properties. derived by Maxwell. in contrast. Electromagnetic Waves Faraday not only viewed the space around a magnet as filled with field lines. like beads on a wire. placed this notion on a firm mathematical footing. a direction in which ions and electrons. spreading with the speed of light.pattern" of a bar magnet. Such a modified space is now known as an electromagnetic field. and Maxwell correctly guessed that this actually was light and that light was in fact an electromagnetic wave. like the one displayed above (from a mathematical model of the field). In space research. including in it electrical forces as well as magnetic ones. Their basic equations. His younger contemporary. Today electromagnetic fields (and other types of field as well) are a cornerstone of physics. because electrons and ions tend to stay attached to them. they have a much broader significance. motion from one line to another is more difficult. however. can easily move. even becoming trapped when conditions are right. the great Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. To Faraday field lines were mainly a method of displaying the structure of the magnetic force. so named because of its two poles. Magnetic field lines from an idealized model. . even if it was a complete vacuum. they define an "easy direction" in the rarefied gas of space. but also developed an intuitive (and perhaps mystical) notion that such space was itself modified. Because of this attachment.

powerful magnets are crucial to a variety of modern technologies. The electromagnet. thus serving as the units of the binary number system used in computers. is the basis of the electric motor and the transformer. Depending on this direction. the development of new magnetic materials has also been important in the computer revolution. Computer memories can be fabricated using bubble domains. In more recent times. from radio (very long waves. an important diagnostic tool used . visible light. relatively low frequency) to microwaves. the bubble indicates either a one or a zero. x-rays and gamma rays (very short waves. for example. soon afterwards. These domains are actually smaller regions of magnetization that are either parallel or antiparallel to the overall magnetization of the material. In addition to the atomic-sized magnetic units used in computers. infra-red. Nowadays a wide variety of such waves is known. are observed to come from such sources and are the signatures of high-energy electrons there. extremely high frequency).Heinrich Hertz in Germany. Magnetic materials are also important constituents of tapes and disks on which data are stored. APPLICATIONS Numerous applications of magnetism and of magnetic materials have arisen in the past 100 years. produced such waves by electrical means. Other such waves have been detected from the magnetospheres of distant planets. too. the Sun and the distant universe. Radio waves produced in our magnetosphere are often modified by their environment and tell us about the particles trapped there. ultra-violet. VII. X-rays. Powerful magnetic fields are used in nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. in the first laboratory demonstration of radio waves. large.

reducing friction. Pasay City PHYSICS: MAGNETISM Submitted by: Bryan M. Superconducting magnets are used in today's most powerful particle accelerators to keep the accelerated particles focused and moving in a curved path. Mark Gerald Dadivo .by doctors. Almonidovar Submitted to: Engr. Scientists are developing magnetic levitation trains that use strong magnets to enable trains to float above the tracks. Republic of the Philippines Philippine State College of Aeronautics Piccio Garden. Villamor.

Pasay City Analytical Geometry Submitted by: Bryan M. Villamor. Mark Gerald Dadivo . Almonidovar Submitted to: Engr.Republic of the Philippines Philippine State College of Aeronautics Piccio Garden.

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