# A SEMINAR REPORT ON

EDDY CURRENT BRAKING SYSTEM &
CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS USING THE LINEAR HALBACH ARRAY

1|P ag e

Electrical Controls system. 3.1 characteristic analysis of eddy-current brake system using the linear halbach array 5. 6 Advantage 7 Conclusion 8 Bibilography.CONTENTS Abstract 1. 1.2 Thermal Dynamics. Installation Location. Characteristics of Eddy current Brakes. 4.1. 2. 5. Introduction 1. 2|P ag e .1 Circular Eddy Current Brake. Working principle.1 General Characterstics. 5.2 Linear Eddy Current Brake. 5.

eddy current distribution. is responsible for slowing an object. In this paper. which apply pressure on two separate objects. we give analytical formulas considering end effects for its magnetic field.The results given here are purely analytic. such as a train or a roller coaster etc. and in turn either heat or electricity. Unlike the friction brakes. and conductivity.ABSTRACT This paper presentation explores the working principle of eddy current brake mechanism. An eddy current brake. forces according to the secondary relative permeability. linear Halbach magnetized mover is applied to eddy current braking system for high speed. For such a breaker. 3|P ag e . which can be analysed by Maxwell 3D Transient solver. like a conventional friction brake. eddy current brakes slow an object by creating eddy currents through electromagnetic induction which create resistance.

the current swirls in such a way as to create a magnetic field opposing the change. Because of the tendency of eddy currents to oppose. During braking. electrons swirl in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. generating eddy currents in the wheels. producing a smooth stopping motion. such as kinetic energy.1 CIRCULAR EDDY CURRENT BRAKE: Electromagnetic brakes are similar to electrical motors. In many applications the loss of useful energy is not particularly desirable. the metal wheels are exposed to a magnetic field from an electromagnet. The magnetic interaction between the applied field and the eddy currents acts to slow the wheels down. to do this in a conductor. There are two basics types of Eddy current brake as follows(1) Circular eddy current brake. When electromagnets are used. the stronger the effect. One is in the brakes of some trains. control of the 4|P ag e . but there are some practical applications.INTRODUCTION An eddy current is a swirling current set up in a conductor in response to a hanging magnetic field. (2) Linear eddy current brake 1. eddy currents cause energy to be lost.1. More accurately. which is generally much less useful. By Lenz's law. meaning that as the train slows the braking force is reduced. and a magnetic field between the rotor and the coil creates a resistance used to generate electricity or heat. nonferromagnetic metal discs (rotors) are connected to a rotating coil. eddy currents transform more useful forms of energy. The faster the wheels are spinning. into heat.

which are being magnetized alternating as south and north magnetic poles. When the magnet is moved along the rail. N700 Series Shinkansen abandoned eddy current brakes in favour of regenerative brakes since 14 of the 16 cars in the trainset used electric motors.INSTALLATION LOCATION 5|P ag e .braking action is made possible by varying the strength of the magnetic field. providing braking force. The net result is to convert the motion of the rotors into heat in the rotors. which works against the movement of the magnet. which then generates electrical tension (Faraday's induction law). exerting only a vertical pull on the rail. It does not move along the rail. This magnet does not touch the rail. and causes eddy currents. thus creating a horizontal force component. Japanese Shinkansen trains had employed circular eddy current brake system on trailer cars since 100 Series Shinkansen. 2. as with the magnetic brake. A braking force is possible when electric current is passed through the electromagnets. The movement of the metal through the magnetic field of the electromagnets creates eddy currents in the discs. However. it generates a nonstationary magnetic field in the head of the rail. The linear eddy current brake consists of a magnetic yoke with electrical coils positioned along the rail. 1. but is held at a constant small distance from the rail (approximately seven millimeters). These eddy currents generate an opposing magnetic field. which then resists the rotation of the discs. These disturb the magnetic field in such a way that the magnetic force is diverted to the opposite of the direction of the movement. hence in French the eddy current brake is called the "frein à courants de Foucault".2 LINEAR EDDY CURRENT BRAKE: The principle of the linear eddy current brake has been described by the French physicist Foucault.

electromagnetic brakes have better heat dissipation capability to avoid problems that friction brakes face. the retarders help to extend the life span of the regular brakes and keep the regular brakes cool for emergency situation. The brake is fitted into the chassis of the vehicle by means of anti-vibration mounting. The development of this invention began when the French company Telma. 3. electromagnetic brakes have been mounted in the transmission line of vehicles. So the application of the retarder does not affect the temperature of the regular brakes.WORKING PRINCIPLE The working principle of the electric retarder is based on the creation of eddy currents within a metal disc rotating between two electromagnets. Due to its specific installation location (transmission line of rigid vehicles). If the current exciting the electromagnet is varied by a rheostat. Typically.Electromagnetic brakes work in a relatively cool condition and satisfy all the energy requirements of braking at high speeds. If the electromagnet is not energized. the rotation of the disc is free and accelerates uniformly under the action of the weight to which its shaft is connected. The practical location of the retarder within the vehicle prevents the direct impingement of air on the retarder caused by the motion of the vehicle. When the electromagnet is energized. completely without the use of friction. Any air flow movement within the chassis of the vehicle is found to have a relatively insignificant effect on the air flow around tire areas and hence on the temperature of both front and rear discs. the braking torque varies in direct proportion to the value of the current. In that way. It was the Frenchman Raoul Sarazin who made the first vehicle application of eddy current brakes. which sets up a force opposing the rotation of the disc. 6|P ag e . The propeller shaft is divided and fitted with a sliding universal joint and is connected to the coupling flange on the brake. the rotation of the disc is retarded and the energy absorbed appears as heating of the disc.

permit independent cooling of the arrangement. energized separately in groups of four. The stator assembly is 9 supported resiliently through anti-vibration mountings on the chassis frame of the vehicle. A transient solution with time-stepping is necessary. (2) A fine mesh is required due to very small skin depths. The coils are made up of varnished aluminum wire mounded in epoxy resin. which are integral to the disc. 7|P ag e .associated with Raoul Sarazin. developed and marketed several generations of electric brakes based on the functioning principles described above (Reverdin. skin effects and motion induced eddy currents must be considered simultaneously.1 Block diagram of Eddy current Brake The simulation eddy current brakes is difficult because. (3) A multiple domain eddy current regions are needed including master/slave boundaries. which provide the braking force when subject to the electromagnetic influence when the coils are excited. A typical retarder consists of stator and rotor. The stator holds 16 induction coils. The rotor is made up of two discs. (1)Physical effects such as nonlinear saturation. Careful design of the fins. Fig 1. 1974).

sinusoidal. They can be analysed by Maxwell 3D Transient solver .Which is well suited for magnetic problems with motion.The results from three unique simulations will be shown while pointing out the challenges of each design and the methodology needed to allow the simulation to be successful Collaborative. It also considers motioninduced eddy currents and time-diffusion of magnetic field.Solves transient magnetic fields caused by time-varying or moving electrical sources and permanent magnets. and transient voltages or currents. The excitation can be DC. Fig 1.2(a) 8|P ag e . It uses both linear and nonlinear materials. An external schematic circuit is available and considers skin and proximity effects.

The use of an automatic control must be coupled with a cut-off system operating at very low vehicle speed in order to prevent energization of the retarder while the vehicle is stationary with the driver maintaining pressure on the brake pedal.Fig: 1. that creates a permanent magnetic field. 4.(b). the contacts are switched on successively over the slack movement of the brake pedal.2 (a). This control has five positions: the first is ‘off’. The rotation of the light blue rotor.ELECTRIC CONTROL SYSTEM The energization of the retarder is operated by a hand control mounted on the steering column of the vehicle.2(c) Fig 1. Both the manual control and the automatic control activate four solenoid contractors in the relay box.model set up for eddy current brake simulation by using Maxwell 3-D transient solver The Red coils are fed by a continuous DC current. and rotor use the same non linear iron.2 (b) Fig : 1. This hand-control system can be replaced by an automatic type that can operate mechanically through the brake pedal.Poles. and the four remaining positions increase the braking power in sequence. In this case.(c). which in turn close the four groups of coil 9|P ag e . produces FOUCAULT’scurrents that brake the device. blooming.

CHARACTERISTIC OF ELECTROMAGNETIC BRAKES 5. This is most likely to occur while a vehicle descending a long gradient at high speed. By using the electromagnetic brake as supplementary 10 retardation equipment. The installation of an electromagnetic brake is not very difficult if there is enough space between the gearbox and the rear axle. It does not need a subsidiary cooling system. and the potentially “brake fade” problem could be avoided. it was proved that the electromagnetic brake assumed 80 percent of the duty which would otherwise have been demanded of the regular service brake (Reverdin 1974).circuits within the electric brake at either 24 volts or 12 volts. the electromagnetic brake prevents the dangers that can arise from the prolonged use of brakes beyond their capability to dissipate heat. as appropriate (Reverdin 1974 and Omega Technologies). It does not rely on the efficiency of engine components for its use. From the foregoing. The electromagnetic brake also has better controllability. and at least three times the braking power of an exhaust brake (Reverdin 1974). The exhaust brake is an on/off device and hydrokinetic brakes have very complex control system. In research conducted by a truck manufacturer. 10 | P a g e . Furthermore. The brake linings would last considerably longer before requiring maintenance. as do exhaust and hydrokinetic brakes. The electromagnetic brake control system is an electric switching system which gives it superior controllability. These performance of electromagnetic brakes make them much more competitive candidate for alternative retardation equipments compared with other retarders. the friction brakes can be used less frequently. it is apparent that the electromagnetic brake is an attractive complement to the safe braking of heavy vehicles. 5. and therefore practically never reach high temperatures.1 GENARAL CHARACTERSTICS: It was found that electromagnetic brakes can develop a negative power which represents nearly twice the maximum power output of a typical engine.

the end effect should be necessarily accounted for . furthermore. the braking system with a linear Halbach magnetized mover develops a higher braking force because of the strong flux density [2]For high-speed linear braking system. the late Klaus Halbach. a magnetic drag force occur [3]In the characteristic analysis of linear braking system with magnet for high speed.5. An eddy current braking system of high speed railway is developed because of the adhesion limit. and these "onesided flux" structures were initially described by him as a "curiosity".1 CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF EDDY-CURRENT BRAKE SYSTEM USING THE LINEAR HALBACH ARRAY: HALBACH ARRAY A Halbach array is a special arrangement of permanent magnets that augments the magnetic field on one side of the array while cancelling the field to near zero on the other side. As a result. a physicist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. 11 | P a g e . Linear eddy current braking system are used in magnetic train to avoid the abrasion of mechanical disc brake [1] The eddy-cur-levitation applications and in high-speed vehicles in order to rent braking system with dc-excited magnet inherently needs the power supply and has the consequent power losses. although he recognised at the time the potential for significant improvements in magnetic tape technology. the attraction force decreases notably with speed and.a braking system has a high efficiency due to no power losses and a high power/weight ratio. the magnetic field is enhanced on the bottom side and cancelled on the top side The effect was discovered by Mallinson in 1973. In the 1980s.1. In the diagram. invented the Halbach array to focus accelerator particle beams. If the dc-excited magnetic poles are replaced with permanent magnet. In particular. dynamic end effects are caused by the relative motion between the mover of a finite length and an infinitely long secondary.

2.1 Schematic of eddy current braking system. 2 Eddy-current braking system using linear Halbach array. 1) The flux density distribution in the air gap is symmetric to the center of the secondary in the transverse direction(direction as shown in Fig. Fig 2.2(a) Magnetostatic field distribution in the transverse direction. fig 2.2(a) fig 2.2(a).2 (b) Magnetostatic field distribution in the longitudinal direction. Fig 2. FIELD EQUATIONS: 12 | P a g e . B.2(b). the following assumptions are made.)and sinusoidal in the longitudinal direction ( direction.1 Fig 2. 2. 2.1.2(b) Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig 2.) 2) The induced currents in the secondary vary sinusoidally along the transverse direction.A. MODEL AND ASSUMPTIONS In order to obtain an analytical solution of the eddy-current braking system with a linear Halbach array mover shown in Fig.

and d is the field penetration depth. υ is the relative mover speed. the drag and attraction force variation with speed is calculated and ploted in fig 4(c) 13 | P a g e .” For a fixed low value of the secondary conductivity. the air-gap reaction field fulfils the equations Where σ is the electric conductivity of the secondary. for the speed is high. respectively.in fig 3 shows the magnetostatic field distribution due to magnet source Fig 3 : Magnetostatic field distribution due to magnet source. These phenomena are called “end effect.According to the above assumptions. C. Fig.SIMULATION RESULTS ACCORDING TO THE SECONDARY PERMEABILITY AND CONDUCTIVITY: Using three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element analysis. The solution of (3) takes the forms. 4(a) and fig 4(b) shows how the transverse eddy-current density and absolute value of air-gap flux density longitudinal distributions vary for two different speeds. the eddy current density increases and the air-gap flux density has a nonuniform distribution. It can be seen that. For a fixed value of the secondary conductivity and permeability.

14 | P a g e . (a) Distributions of the eddy current density in the transverse direction and (b) flux density in the longitudinal direction 5. The major part of the heat energy is imparted to the ventilationg air which is circulating vigorously through the fan of the heated disc. the curie temperature of the disc material could never been reached(Reverdin 1974). 4.Fig 4 (a) Fig 4 (b) Fig. The electromagnetic brakes has excellent heat dissipation efficiency owing to the high temperature of the surface of the disc which is being cooled and also because the flow of air through the centrifugal fan is very rapid. Therefore.2 THERMAL DYNAMICS Thermal stability of the electromagnetic brakes is achieved by means of the convection and radiation of the heat energy at high temperature.

no parts need to be replaced.The practical location of the electromagnetic brakes prevents the direct impingement of air on the brakes caused by the motion of the vehicle. electromagnetic brakes have better thermal dynamic performance than regular friction brakes.no moving parts hence no friction. 5. Low maintainance cost. Due to its special mounting location and heat dissipation mechanism. Can be activated at will via electrical signal. These are non mechanical.ADVANTAGE Advantage Of Eddy Current Brake are as follows: 1. 15 | P a g e . 4. Fully resettable. 2. Any air flow movement within the chassis of the vehicle is found to have a relatively 12 insignificant effect on the air flow and hence temperature of both front and rear discs. 3. 6. Operates at any rotational speed.

they have been widely used on heavy vehicles where the ‘brake fading’ problem is serious. 16 | P a g e .7. It was observed that the air-gap flux density has a nonuniform distribution for the high speed. Based on analytical 2-D field solutions considering dynamic end effect. the magnetic field. Comparisons between numerical simulations and experimental data were also presented. eddy current distribution. CONCLUSION With all the advantages of electromagnetic brakes over friction brakes. A Halbach magnetized mover was applied to a high-speed eddy current braking system. and forces according to the secondary relative permeability and conductivity were presented. The same concept is being developed for application on lighter vehicles.

no. Member. 38.eddycurrentprojects. www. 5. september 2002 2. www. Sung-Ho Lee. vol.Bibilography 1. and SangSub Jeong IEEE transactions on magnetics.org 4. 17 | P a g e . “Analysis of Eddy Current Brakes using Maxwell 3D Transient” -Valeo Telma Electrical System.wikipedia. IEEE. Characteristic Analysis of Eddy-Current Brake System Using the Linear Halbach Array -Seok-Myeong Jang.com 3.