This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Abnormal Behavior Term "abnormal behavior" is preferable to terms like mental illness or psychotic because psychologists typically agree that not all disorders have purely physical causes. Learning often contributes to behavioral problems (such as phobias and stress). The public understanding of abnormal behavior is fairly limited. Most people tend to be wary or even frightened when they encounter behavior which seems very atypical. Stigma behind mental illness. Because the boundary between normal and abnormal is so subjective, psychologists have developed diagnostic criteria.
DSM IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Used to diagnose mental illnesses Anxiety Disorders Anxiety is an emotion in which there is an unpleasant emotional state, which is characterized by physical arousal and feelings or tension, apprehension, and worry Anxiety Disorders are a category of mental disorders in which extreme anxiety and cause significant disruptions in the person’s cognitive, behavioral or interpersonal functioning The anxiety is not within a “normal” range is often irrational (there is nothing to worry about), it is uncontrollable (even if the person doesn’t want to worry), and it is disruptive (it interferes with relationships, a job, or school) Generalized Anxiety Disorder What is it? Generalized anxiety disorder is the name for excessive worry and fear about common activities or things, such as work, money, or health. Often, this anxiety is not linked to a specific cause or situation. Anxiety can become so overwhelming that it is difficult to carry on with normal daily activities.
Diagnostic Criteria: Excessive anxiety and worry (apprehensive expectation), occurring more days than not for at least 6 months, about a number of events or activities (such as work or school performance The person finds it difficult to control the worry The anxiety and worry are associated with three (or more) of the following six symptoms (with at least some symptoms present for more days than not for the past 6 months) 1. restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge 2. being easily fatigued 3. difficulty concentrating or mind going blank 4. irritability 5. muscle tension 6. sleep disturbance (difficulty falling or staying asleep, or restless unsatisfying sleep) What are the symptoms? The symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder range from feelings of being tense, constantly tired, afraid, and being unable to make decisions, to feeling restless and irritable. Physical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, chest pain, shaking, sweating, or muscle tension. Symptoms can cause difficulty with concentration, loss of sleep, missed work, and avoidance of social activities. Who gets it? 3 to 4% of the population has during the course of a year Usually begins in childhood or adolescence Affects more women than men
What causes it? A number of events can cause generalized anxiety disorder, although it is believed that some people are genetically predisposed to developing it. Other causes can include childhood psychological traumas, moving, changing jobs, divorce, or the death of a loved one. People who grow up in a family where constant worrying is the norm may learn this behavior. Sometimes a chemical imbalance in the brain cause problems with two neurotransmitters called dopamine and serotonin. Neurotransmitters are the brains chemical message carriers, but sometimes their messages can’t get through because the nerve cells
they talk to can’t answer for some reason. This causes an imbalance, and an imbalance of dopamine and serotonin can cause anxiety. What is the treatment? Generalized anxiety disorder can be treated very effectively with drugs and psychotherapy. Anti-anxiety drugs called benzodiazepinescan help ease the anxiety very quickly but are generally prescribed for only a short time, then tapered off slowly to prevent addiction. Antidepressant drugs may also be used. Psychotherapy can be very effective because it helps people look to the source of the anxiety and solve their underlying problems. Panic Disorder What is it? Panic attacks are usually 2 to 10 minute periods of intense feelings of fear, anxiety and physical discomfort that often seem to occur out of the blue. People often mistake these attacks for heart attacks or strokes. Common physical symptoms experienced are increased heart rate, sweating, nausea, and dizziness. Additionally people may feel as if they are losing self-control or may feel disconnected from their environment. First panic attacks are unexpected. This means that they happen in the absence of a stress or anxiety-provoking situation. Feeling anxiety during stressful times such as finals week is natural. However, when one has attacks of extreme anxiety during normal, non-stressful everyday activities, it might be a panic attack. Diagnostic Criteria: Recurrent unexpected Panic Attacks o (Criteria for Panic Attack: A discrete period of intense fear or discomfort, in which four (or more) of the following symptoms developed abruptly and reached a peak within 10 minutes: palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling or shaking, sensations of shortness of breath or smothering, feeling of choking, chest pain or discomfort etc.) At least one of the attacks has been followed by 1 month (or more) of one (or more) of the following: A. persistent concern about having additional attacks B. worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences (e.g., losing control, having a heart attack, "going crazy") C. a significant change in behavior related to the attacks
traveling by airplane. the individual has panic attacks. They may fear that they have a life-threatening illness that has not been diagnosed. such as quitting a job. According to the American Psychiatric Association. This often leads to phobias or irrational fears of certain places or objects. These episodes may be unexpected or may occur in specific situations. people are diagnosed with a panic disorder if they have reoccurring unexpected panic attacks and experience psychological distress as a result. that individual might develop a fear of being in that store. that person might anticipate a panic attack. When and Where Do Panic Attacks Occur? Panic attacks usually occur during waking hours. If they attempt to be in these situations. Most people develop this condition between late adolescence and the mid thirties. In panic disorder without agoraphobia. a medication) or a general medical condition (e. Who has it? About 1. but these are not all considered panic disorder. or even leaving the house by themselves..g." Others will make significant life changes. This phobia refers to anxiety about being in places where escape would be difficult..7% of the population in a given year Women twice as likely to have disorder Usually presents in young adulthood . but they may also happen while asleep.g. The Panic Attacks are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e. individuals with agoraphobia avoid situations such as being in a crowd. hyperthyroidism) or another disorder What Is The Difference Between A Panic Attack and Panic Disorder? Approximately 15% of the population will experience panic attacks at some time in their lives. which might then trigger one. Are There Different Types? Panic disorder can be divided into two types: panic disorder with agoraphobia and panic disorder without agoraphobia. Some people feel as if they are "going crazy. When in the same situation. a drug of abuse. Persons with panic disorders often continually worry about when their next attack will occur. As a result. For example if a person had a panic attack in a grocery store. Most often the person’s first attacks happen unexpectedly. without any specific phobias. they do so with considerable distress. but then become associated with the context in which they occurred.
What is the treatment? Psychotherapy may be helpful for treating panic disorder by helping to develop coping and relaxation skills. Between one-third to one-half are also agoraphobic What are the causes? The precise causes of panic disorders are unknown. In panic disorder with agoraphobia. However.. The person recognizes that the fear is excessive or unreasonable. animals. 1. seeing blood). flying. . receiving an injection. The phobic situation(s) is avoided or else is endured with intense anxiety or distress. therapy can help reduce anxiety about the feared situation and help the person to function better. cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation (e. heights. Exposure to the phobic stimulus almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response. Some anti-anxiety medications such as benzodiazepines (Xanax and Valium) may also help treat panic disorder. There have been speculations about different biological causes for panic disorder such as an over-excited nervous system or carbon dioxide levels in the body. there is some evidence that panic disorders may be genetic. Specific Phobia What is it? Specific phobia is characterized by extreme fear of an object or situation that is not harmful under general conditions.g. which may take the form of a situationally bound or situationally predisposed Panic Attack. Examples include a fear of: • flying (fearing the plane will crash) • dogs (fearing the dog will bite/attack) • closed-in places (fear of being trapped) • tunnels (fearing a collapse) • heights (fear of falling) Diagnostic Criteria: Marked and persistent fear that is excessive or unreasonable.
There is no known cause. but are unable to overcome their emotion. and usually involves a kind of cognitive-behavioral therapy called desensitization or exposure therapy. people with phobias may not feel the need to seek treatment. but sometimes certain medications may be prescribed to help reduce anxiety symptoms before someone faces a phobic situation. The avoidance. In this. Who gets it? Specific phobias strike more than 1 in 10 people. What are the symptoms? People with specific phobias know that their fear is excessive. or distress in the feared situation(s) interferes significantly with the person's normal routine. Relaxation and breathing exercises also help to reduce anxiety symptoms. occupational (or academic) functioning. the duration is at least 6 months. patients are gradually exposed to what frightens them until the fear begins to fade. or home life. Unusual Phobias: SLIDE Amathophobia – fear of dust Anemophobia – fear of wind Ergophobia – fear of work or responsibility Erythrophobia – fear of red objects Phobophobia – fear of acquiring a phobia Triskaidekaphobia – fear of the number 13 . In individuals under age 18 years. When phobias interfere with a person's life. anxious anticipation. or social activities or relationships. or there is marked distress about having the phobia. although they seem to run in families and are slightly more prevalent in women. If the object of the fear is easy to avoid. The disorder is diagnosed only when the specific fear interferes with daily activities of school. work. treatment can help. Treatment for specific phobia: There is currently no proven drug treatment for specific phobias.
or images are a product of his or her own mind (not imposed from without as in thought insertion) Compulsions as defined by (1) and (2): 1. and (4): 1. recurrent and persistent thoughts.2. . these behaviors or mental acts either are not connected in a realistic way with what they are designed to neutralize or prevent or are clearly excessive At some point during the course of the disorder. people with OCD perform some action over and over again. counting. ideas. repetitive behaviors (e.g.. impulses. Diagnostic Criteria: Either obsessions or compulsions: Obsessions as defined by (1). To make these thoughts or images go away and to relieve the anxiety they cause. This is called a compulsion. ordering. over which they feel they have no control.. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) What is it? Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a type of anxiety disorder. checking) or mental acts (e. at some time during the disturbance. praying. For example. images. repeating words silently) that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession. or images. impulses. or images are not simply excessive worries about real-life problems 3.g. hand washing. called obsessions. or images that are experienced. (2). impulses. as intrusive and inappropriate and that cause marked anxiety or distress 2. the person has recognized that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable. People with OCD have repeated unwanted thoughts. the behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation. or according to rules that must be applied rigidly 2. impulses. or to neutralize them with some other thought or action 4. people with an obsession about germs might wash their hands over and over again to relieve their anxiety. (3). however. The person recognizes that the obsessive thoughts. or impulses. the person attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts. the thoughts.
and vice versa. or usual social activities or relationships. and can last a lifetime. which usually results from a fear of harm to self or others. Other research has found that some parts of the brain work differently in people with OCD. due to a fear of germs. Their symptoms prevent them from living their lives fully and from having normal relationships with others. people with OCD may spend hours on compulsive behaviors. again to reduce anxiety or protect the person from some unfounded fear. there also appears to be a link between OCD and serotonin. What are the symptoms? Symptoms of OCD can range from mild to severe. However. Because certain drugs that affect the levels of serotonin in the brain are effective in treating OCD. OCD usually starts during childhood or the teenage years. Their symptoms do not interfere with everyday life. Who gets it? Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) occurs equally in men and women. or significantly interfere with the person's normal routine. The most common obsessions and compulsions of people with OCD include checking repeatedly. sexual thoughts. occupational (or academic) functioning. In severe cases. repeating a name or phrase or touching something a certain number of times to reduce anxiety. People may have obsessions without compulsions. however. People with OCD may also be preoccupied with religious feelings. in approximately 25% of all cases of OCD. and they may even successfully hide them from others. What is the treatment? A combination of medication and therapy are used to help symptoms. In most cases. and that something bad might happen if they don't act on them.3% of adult Americans have OCD. are time consuming (take more than 1 hour a day). hoarding items that are repeatedly counted or arranged. This condition can run in families. What causes it? The tendency toward OCD appears be inherited because. The obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress. and performing a series of steps in a certain order or doing them over and over until perfect. cleaning. This could be caused by a chemical imbalance or an overactive portion of the brain responsible for repetitive behavior. People with mild OCD may check repeatedly whether they've locked the door or turned off the light. and the need for order and symmetry. Certain medications called serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) . another family member also has the disorder. Approximately 2. deep down they are afraid that their fears might be real. people know their obsessions do not represent true dangers and realize their compulsive behavior is strange or bizarre.
If 18 or younger. 2. abnormal irritable mood most of the day. and the depressive symptoms go away for a short time only to return again. behavioral. for at least 2 weeks. and causes a loss of interest in things that were normally pleasurable to the patient. paroxetine. which can help control obsessivecompulsive behaviors. and physical functioning Treated with antidepressant medication Causes include genetic predisposition. and sertraline. nearly every day. However. Abnormal depressed mood (or irritable mood if a child or adolescent) [as defined in criterion A]. Chronic depression is long-lasting. these feelings are generally temporary. for at least 2 weeks. chemical imbalance or stress 1. Abnormal depressed mood most of the day. interferes with daily activities. These medications include fluoxetine. Major Depression What is it? Depression is a strong feeling of sadness. Abnormal loss of all interest and pleasure [as defined in criterion A2]. The patient is exposed to the obsessive thought. 1. for at least 2 weeks. . nearly every day. A technique called exposure and response prevention is often effective. when depression lasts longer. Many people experience depression in response to a loss or sad event. fluvoxamine. then taught ways to prevent the body's response to the anxiety. 3. an episode of depression usually lasts for six to nine months. In these cases. At least five of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2 week depressed period. While everyone experiences sadness at one time or another. Diagnostic Criteria: At least one of the following three abnormal moods which significantly interfered with the person's life: 1.regulate the brain's serotonin levels. 2. Therapy involves talking with someone who is trained in techniques for coping with stress and anxiety. nearly every day. Abnormal loss of all interest and pleasure most of the day. Mood Disorders Category of mental disorders in which a person has significant and chronic disruption in mood which cause impaired cognitive. it is termed chronic depression.
and significant levels of stress. Abnormal poor concentration or indecisiveness. Who gets it? People who have a family history of anxiety. Abnormal self-reproach or inappropriate guilt. or bipolar disorder 10% of adult Americans. decreased sex drive. Sleep disturbance. Appetite or weight disturbance. feelings of hopelessness. Factors that are known to contribute to depression are heredity. depression. difficulty . either: 4. What are the symptoms? The symptoms of chronic depression may come and go. Abnormal weight gain or increase in appetite. such as serotonin. Abnormal fatigue or loss of energy. 7. a chemical imbalance in the brain. the cause of chronic depression is often not known. low energy levels. Some of these neurotransmitters. The individual may begin to have difficulty sleeping. low selfesteem. with vague feelings of sadness that gradually build in intensity. Heredity refers to the fact that people who have family members with any type of depressive disorder are more likely to also experience depression. with periods of depression alternating with periods of no symptoms at all. restlessness. 10. either abnormal agitation or abnormal slowing (observable by others). or want to sleep more than usual. 11. are responsible for feelings of well-being. He or she may experience changes in eating habits. loss of interest in normal activities. 9. Activity disturbance. 6. either abnormal insomnia or abnormal hypersomnia. 8. Abnormal morbid thoughts of death (not just fear of dying) or suicide. Chronic depression usually begins gradually.3. Abnormal weight loss (when not dieting) or decrease in appetite. feelings of guilt for no reason. Studies of brain functioning have revealed a complex system of neurotransmitters that produce chemicals that transfer signals from nerve cell to nerve cell. 5. more than 19 million people in a given year Twice as many women as men What causes it? While depression is frequently a response to a sad or traumatic event.
Bipolar II is marked by major depressive episodes and hypomanic periods. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders lists four separate categories of bipolar disorder: bipolar I. Diagnostic Criteria: Combination of Depressive and Manic episodes Manic Episodes: A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated. Drugs are used to treat the symptoms of sadness and to correct any chemical imbalances in the brain that contribute to depression. feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep) . Bipolar I is marked by manic episodes followed by periods of depression that may not be severe. or irritable mood. the individual may have thoughts of death. In contrast. and bipolar not-otherwisespecified (NOS). expansive. bipolar II. cyclothymia. who seem to expect failure and take no pleasure in anything. People with chronic depression are generally gloomy and extremely critical of themselves and others. decreased need for sleep (e. Bipolar Disorder What is it? Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness marked by mood shifts and episodes of depression and mania. People with chronic depression have at least two of these symptoms for a period of two years or more. inflated self-esteem or grandiosity 2. three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree: 1. Cyclothymia is defined as episodes of hypomania and depressive periods that do not reach major depressive proportions.g. lasting at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary). They are usually seen as extremely negative people. During the period of mood disturbance. Therapy helps to resolve any personal issues that may have caused the depression. What is the treatment? Chronic depression is commonly treated with a combination of drug and psychotherapy. In severe cases.. or milder episodes of mania.maintaining relationships. or may attempt suicide. 2. Bipolar NOS means that the bipolar state does not fit into the other categories. and difficulty concentrating.
3 million adults .g. excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e. engaging in unrestrained buying sprees. risk-taking. not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down) 6. significant change in appetite or body weight. at work or school.. sexual indiscretions. flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing 7. or other treatment) or a general medical condition (e. difficulty concentrating. having manic episodes in spring and summer months and depressive episodes in fall and winter. Depressive symptoms include: persistent sadness or irritability. very high selfesteem. Some bipolar patients’ episodes may coincide with seasonal changes. insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day 5. and distraction.3.g. or sexually) or psychomotor agitation 9.e. What are the symptoms? An adult with bipolar disorder will have unusual or extreme shifts in mood. loss of energy. distractibility (i. hypersexuality. decreased need for sleep. a drug of abuse. increase in goal-directed activity (either socially. hyperthyroidism). or foolish business investments) The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others. a medication. energy and behavior that could interfere significantly with normal life. suicidal thoughts. attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli) 8. psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others. more talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking 4. or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others. talking quickly and allowing no interruptions. loss of interest. or there are psychotic features.. Who gets it? 1% of the population – about 2. difficulty sleeping or excessive sleeping. increased energy. increased goal-directed activity. feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt. Manic symptoms include: extreme irritability or silliness. The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e...g.
It may be genetic. It is a disease that makes it difficult for a person to tell the difference between real and unreal experiences. anti-psychotics and anticonvulsants. the result of substance abuse – especially cocaine – or caused by the presence of calcium build-up in the cells. alogia. one or more major areas of .e. negative symptoms (i. to have normal emotional responses to others. Psychotherapy and counseling may be used in combination with medications. and to behave normally in social situations. disorganized speech (e. frequent derailment or incoherence) 4. Psychotic Disorders 1. or avolition) Social/occupational dysfunction: For a significant portion of the time since the onset of the disturbance. Men and women are equally likely to develop disorder Commonly develops from adolescence through the early twenties People who have family members with emotional disorders may be more susceptible to bipolar disorder Many patients with bipolar disorder have a history of substance abuse What causes it? There is no clear cause of bipolar disorder.. hallucinations 3.g. grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior 5. An individualized combination of the medications is determined in order to regulate the patient’s manic and depressive episodes. Treatment Bipolar disorder is treated with medications including a combination of mood stabilizing agents.. Diagnostic Criteria: Characteristic symptoms: Two (or more) of the following. affective flattening. to think logically. anti-depressants. each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated): 1. delusions 2. Schizophrenia What is it? Schizophrenia is a serious brain disorder.
It usually develops in adolescence.thoughts "jump" between completely unrelated topics (the person may talk nonsense) Catatonic behavior -. For example. Genetic Inheritance Closer the family member is to you that has the disease the more likely you are to develop it. However. They become isolated and withdrawn. At first.bizarre motor behavior marked by a decrease in reactivity to the environment. or self-care are markedly below the level achieved prior to the onset (or when the onset is in childhood or adolescence. the symptoms may not be noticed. or feeling things that are not there Disordered thinking -.hearing.false beliefs or thoughts with no basis in reality Hallucinations -. Usually the illness develops slowly over months or even years. The risk factors include a family history of schizophrenia. this is not the sole cause because even if both of your parents have the disease. How many people have it? Schizophrenia is thought to affect about 1% of the population worldwide. and they do not make or keep friends. or have trouble concentrating. academic. failure to achieve expected level of interpersonal. What are the symptoms? People with schizophrenia can have a variety of symptoms. interpersonal relations. seeing. may have trouble sleeping. or occupational achievement). As the illness progresses. people may feel tense. What causes it? Causes of schizophrenia: 1. you only have a 46% chance of developing it .an appearance or mood that shows no emotion No single characteristic is present in all types of schizophrenia. or hyperactivity that is unrelated to stimulus Flat affect -. psychotic symptoms develop: Delusions -.functioning such as work.
Excessive Dopamine In excessive amounts may cause an increased chance of developing the disease. Paranoid Schizophrenia Preoccupation with one or more delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations. or flat or inappropriate affect.2. 2. disorganized or catatonic behavior. Catatonic Schizophrenics A type of Schizophrenia in which the clinical picture is dominated by at least two of the following: motoric immobility as evidenced by catalepsy (including waxy flexibility) or stupor excessive motor activity (that is apparently purposeless and not influenced by external stimuli) extreme negativism (an apparently motiveless resistance to all instructions or maintenance of a rigid posture against attempts to be moved) or mutism peculiarities of voluntary movement as evidenced by posturing (voluntary assumption of inappropriate or bizarre postures) . Drugs such as cocaine can cause too much dopamine to be produced or released in the brain. All of the following are prominent: disorganized speech disorganized behavior flat or inappropriate affect The criteria are not met for Catatonic Type. None of the following is prominent: disorganized speech. Environmental Factors Often if a person has a predisposition for the disease and they are presented a life situation that is more stress than they can handle. The drugs that are used to treat schizophrenia actually work by blocking the dopamine action in the brain What are the different types? SLIDE 1. they may develop the disease 3. Disorganized Schizophrenia 3.
or violates the rights of others. Sociopathic personality. This behavior is often criminal. Antisocial Personality Disorder Alternative names Psychopathic personality. Personality disorders are chronic behavioral and relationship patterns that interfere with a person's life over many years. exploits. To receive a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. emotions. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Catch all category Show symptoms of schizophrenia.antisocial What is it? Antisocial personality disorder is a psychiatric condition characterized by chronic behavior that manipulates. stereotyped movements. . a person must have first had behavior that qualifies for a diagnosis of conduct disorder during childhood. Personality disorder . but won’t fit in one category Who gets it? Between 1/3 and half of all homeless people have disorder About 1% of population Far more likely to be victims of violence and crime than to commit the acts themselves Only have an increased risk of violent behavior when untreated or engaging in substance abuse Personality Disorders Characterized with inflexible. prominent mannerisms. maladaptive patterns of thoughts. or behaviors that go across a range of personal and social situations Behaviors and emotions are constant over time Are different or odd compared to the person’s culture Usually these disorders show up during adolescence or early adulthood 1. or prominent grimacing echolalia or echopraxia 4.
as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt. use of aliases. . irritability and aggressiveness. but genetic factors and child abuse are believed to contribute to the development of this condition. failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest 2. They may be adept at flattery and at manipulating the emotions of others. deceitfulness. consistent irresponsibility. impulsivity or failure to plan ahead 4. steals. as indicated by three (or more) of the following: 1. and unsurprisingly. as indicated by repeated lying. People with antisocial personality disorder often have extensive substance abuse and legal problems. as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations 7. as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults 5. mistreated. or stolen from another What are the symptoms? A person with antisocial personality disorder: Breaks the law repeatedly Lies.Diagnostic Criteria: There is a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 18 years. People with an antisocial or alcoholic parent are increased risk. or conning others for personal profit or pleasure 3. Who gets it? About 3% of the male population and 1% of women Far more men than women are affected. the condition is common in prison populations. lack of remorse. What causes it? The cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. and fights often Disregards the safety of self and others Demonstrates a lack of guilt Had a childhood diagnosis (or symptoms consistent with) conduct disorder Individuals with antisocial personality disorder are often angry and arrogant but may be capable of superficial wit and charm. reckless disregard for safety of self or others 6.
irritability. recurrent suicidal behavior. identity disturbance: markedly and persistently unstable selfimage or sense of self 4. binge eating). What is the prognosis? Symptoms tend to peak during the late teenage years and early 20's and may improve on their own by a person's 40's. and chaotic relationships. substance abuse. impulsivity in at least two areas that are potentially selfdamaging (e. The efficacy of treatment for antisocial personality disorder is largely unknown. gestures. 2. and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. such as drug use. mood instability. sex. Diagnostic Criteria: A pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships. 2.How is it treated? Antisocial personality disorder is considered one of the most difficult of all personality disorders to treat. Personality disorders are chronic patterns of behavior that impair relationships and work.g.. Borderline Personality Disorder What is it? Borderline personality disorder is a condition characterized by impulsive actions. intense episodic dysphoria. selfimage. Individuals rarely seek treatment on their own and may only initiate therapy when mandated by a court.. frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment. drinking. 5. as indicated by five (or more) of the following: 1. or selfmutilating behavior 6. a pattern of unstable and intense interpersonal relationships characterized by alternating between extremes of idealization and devaluation 3. People with BPD are impulsive in areas that have a potential for self-harm. chronic feelings of emptiness . or anxiety usually lasting a few hours and only rarely more than a few days) 7. and affects.g. and other risk-taking behaviors. spending. or threats. reckless driving. affective instability due to a marked reactivity of mood (e.
overdosing. intense anger or difficulty controlling anger (e. Risk factors for BPD include abandonment issues in childhood or adolescence. stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms What are the symptoms? Relationships with others are intense and unstable. and poor communication within the family. transient. Medications can help to level mood swings and to treat depression or other disorders which may accompany this condition. frequent displays of temper. Such people also typically view themselves as victims of circumstance and take little responsibility for themselves or their problems. BPD patients may also have uncertainties about their identity or selfimage. substance abuse. sexual relationships. Other symptoms include: Frequent displays of inappropriate anger Recurrent suicidal gestures such as wrist cutting. constant anger. Other Disorders . swinging wildly from love to hate and back again. They tend to see things in terms of extremes. Peer reinforcement of appropriate behavior may be more successful than one-on-one counseling because difficulties with authority figures often prevent learning in such situations.g.. or self-mutilation Feelings of emptiness and boredom Intolerance of being alone Impulsiveness with money. sexual abuse. Group therapy can also be helpful in modifying specific impulsive behaviors. binge eating. inappropriate. or shoplifting What causes it? The cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. recurrent physical fights) 9. disrupted family life. either all good or all bad. Who gets it? About 2% of the population Women are 2 to 4 times more likely to develop disorder What is the treatment? Self-destructive behavior can be changed in social and therapeutic environments such as group therapy.8. People with BPD will engage in frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment.
Diagnostic Criteria: Either (1) or (2): Six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: 1. often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly 4. over-activity.g. often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat . pencils. Attention Deficit Disorder What is it? ADD is a problem with inattentiveness. often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities 3. often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e. ADD affects school performance and relationships with others. Parents of children with ADD are often exhausted and frustrated. learning disabilities. dislikes. often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork. or appear along with. 9. impulsivity. sleep deprivation.. school assignments. Every child suspected of having ADD deserves a careful evaluation to sort out exactly what is contributing to the concerning behaviors. often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork. For these problems to be diagnosed as ADD. or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork or homework) 7. often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities 6. they must be out of the normal range for the child's age and development. or a combination. or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions) 5. Depression. books. tic disorders. often avoids. or tools) 8. chores. ADD. toys. or other activities 2. and behavior problems may be confused with. work. is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli is often forgetful in daily activities Six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivityimpulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Hyperactivity 1.1.
.g. or occupational functioning. there is little or no solid evidence for many remedies marketed to parents. However. These children handle neurotransmitters (including dopamine. supplements. Who gets it? Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder of childhood. academic. show that the brains of children with ADD are different from those of other children. butts into conversations or games) Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7 years. It is diagnosed much more often in boys than in girls. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social. is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor" 6.2. and chiropractic manipulation. including herbs.. often interrupts or intrudes on others (e. often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults. serotonin.5% of school aged children. What is the treatment? Alternative remedies have become quite popular. often talks excessively Impulsivity 1. often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected 3. and adrenalin) differently from their peers. it seems to be set in motion early in life as the brain is developing. may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness) 4. affecting an estimated 3 . Whatever the specific cause may be. often has difficulty awaiting turn 3. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e. What causes it? Scientific studies. . using advanced neuroimaging techniques of brain structure and function. often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly 5. ADD is often genetic. often blurts out answers before questions have been completed 2. at school [or work] and at home).g.
qualitative impairment in social interaction. interests. The following may also help: Limit distractions in the child's environment. Medications should not be used just to make life easier for the parents or the school. There are now several different classes of ADD medications that may be used alone or in combination. It affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills. (2)... Provide one-on-one instruction with teacher. interests. qualitative impairments in communication as manifested by at least one of the following: . and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. bringing. or achievements with other people (e. Autism What is it? Autism is a complex developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life. Autism is a spectrum that encompasses a wide continuum of behavior. A related.g. or pointing out objects of interest) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment. with at least two from (1). by a lack of showing. and one each from (2) and (3): 1. or achievements with other people (e. Make sure the child gets a healthy. body postures. and gestures to regulate social interaction failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment. as manifested by at least two of the following: marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze. with plenty of fiber and basic nutrients. milder condition is Asperger's syndrome. or pointing out objects of interest) 2. facial expression. by a lack of showing. Diagnostic Criteria: A total of six (or more) items from (1). though it is some times diagnosed much later. varied diet. bringing. and (3). Symptoms may vary from quite mild to quite severe.Children who receive both behavioral treatment and medication often do the best. 2. The core features include impaired social interactions. impaired verbal and nonverbal communication. Make sure the child gets enough sleep.g.
may be present.. with onset prior to age 3 years: (1) social interaction. or (3) symbolic or imaginative play. as manifested by at least one of the following: encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus apparently inflexible adherence to specific. People with autism may perform repeated body movements. the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative modes of communication such as gesture or mime) in individuals with adequate speech. smell. and pretend play. marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language lack of varied. hearing. Some children with autism appear normal before age 1 or 2 and then suddenly "regress" and lose language or social skills they had previously gained. What are the symptoms? Most parents of autistic children suspect that something is wrong by the time the child is 18 months old and seek help by the time the child is 2 (though the diagnosis is usually not made until long after that). hand or finger flapping or twisting. for . or total lack of. In some. Individuals may also experience sensitivities in the senses of sight. restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior. nonfunctional routines or rituals stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e. and activities. social interactions. delay in. interests. or taste.toward others or self -. This is called the regressive type of autism. Such children. spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level 3. show unusual attachments to objects or have unusual distress when routines are changed. (2) language as used in social communication.g. touch. Children with autism typically have difficulties in verbal and nonverbal communication. or complex whole-body movements) persistent preoccupation with parts of objects Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas. aggression -.
What causes it? Autism is a physical condition linked to abnormal biology and neurochemistry in the brain. Language and cognitive abnormalities are more common in relatives of autistic children. medications. autism was thought to be a mental illness caused by bad parenting. An identical twin is far more likely to also have autism than a fraternal twin or another sibling would be -. appropriate early intervention greatly improves the outcome for most young children with autism. including applied behavior analysis. eating disorders in this country are very common . In the past. Treatment is most successful when geared toward the individual's particular needs.all of these facts suggest a strong genetic influence on the condition. music therapy.to 10-20%. speech/language therapy and vision therapy.example. and lifestyle do not seem to affect the risk of autism. physical therapy. Chromosomal abnormalities and other neurological problems are also more common in families with autism. The exact causes of these abnormalities remain unknown. which has since been rejected. but the risk of a couple having a second autistic child increases more than 50 times -. Visual aids are often helpful. sensory integration. Autism affects boys 3 to 4 times more often than girls. Most programs will build on the interests of the child in a highly structured schedule of constructive activities.2% of children. Genetic factors seem to be important. autism affects up to 0. No scientific evidence supports this idea. Possible Stuff: Eating Disorders There are many motivations behind why we eat and drink Unfortunately. Family income. What is the treatment? Intensive. Who gets it? In the general population. occupational therapy. A variety of effective therapies are available. education. but this is a very active area of research. people do not always eat or not eat for the right reasons Therefore. will refuse to wear "itchy" clothes and become unduly distressed if forced because of the sensitivity of their skin.
in men levels of sex hormones fall i) Often seen with depression. and division of foods into "good/safe" and "bad/dangerous" categories j) Person may have low tolerance for change and new situations. or ineffective attempts to cope with. the demands of a new life stage such as adolescence. and peculiar behaviors such as compulsive rituals. becomes hungry and binges again d) Like anorexia. k) Dieting may represent avoidance of. or fasts to get rid of the calories c) Diets when not bingeing. may fear growing up and assuming adult responsibilities and an adult lifestyle. strange eating habits. people with bulimia believe that self-worth requires being thin e) Weight may be normal or near normal unless anorexia is also present f) Also seen with depression. menstrual periods stop. person binge eats and feels out of control while eating b) Vomits.1. withdrawal. irritability. May be overly engaged with or dependent on parents or family. feelings of loneliness and emptiness . Anorexia Nervosa a) Person refuses to maintain normal body weight for age and height b) Usually starts with dieting that eventually becomes an obsession c) Weighs 85% or less than what is expected for age and height d) Person denies the dangers of low weight e) Is terrified of becoming fat f) Is terrified of gaining weight even though s/he is markedly underweight g) Reports feeling fat even when very thin h) In women. 2. exercises. Bulimia Nervosa a) Diet-binge-purge disorder. misuses laxatives.
and build Health reasons may be the cause. sexual adventurousness. paper. they have great difficulty talking about their feelings. height.g. self-doubt. and body build Morbid or malignant obesity is weight in excess of 100 pounds above that expected for age. chalk. alcohol and drug abuse. also seen in children and adults with seizer disorders. sand. shoplifting. and other kinds of risk-taking behavior. anxiety etc. burnt matches Most often seen in pregnant or nursing women. e. 3.. height. but may also be caused by psychological problems like depression. and deeply buried anger. 64% of American adults are overweight or obese Body Image Survey Results How does America’s obsession with body image contribute to eating disorders? Recent study (4. h) Impulse control may be a problem. buttons.g) Feeling unworthy.000. Pica Rare eating disorder that has been documented throughout time Characterized by a compulsive craving for inedible substances such as clay. Obesity SLIDE Person’s that weigh more than 20% above expected weight for age.. not representative) found that 89% of women want to lose weight and 22% of men say they want to gain weight 15% of women and 11% of men say they would sacrifice more than 5 years of their life to be the weight they want . mental retardation or psychosis Cause is not known. not shown to be connected with a specific deficiency 4. which almost always include anxiety. Person acts with little consideration of consequences. laundry starch. depression. dirt.
• Emory University psychology professor Frans de Waal observes that their frequent and varies sexual behavior seems to serve important social functions. During the cyclical period known as estrus. sex is biologically determined and triggered by hormonal changes in the female. the female animal will often actively signal her willingness to engage in sex – as the owner of any unneutered cat or dog that’s “in heat” can testify.” Indeed. sex becomes less biologically determined and more subject to learning and environmental influences. Engaging in sex is essential to the survival of the human species. • As you go up the evolutionary scale. the Greek word estrus means “frantic desire. not just when the female is fertile. there are differences between sex and other basic motives. such as hunger. sex serves important social functions.Some women are choosing not to have children because pregnancy will make them fat Sexual abuse is a significant contributor to body dissatisfaction Sexual Behavior • How would you categorize sexual behavior in terms of motivation? Psychologists consider the drive to have sex a basic human motive. Sex is not limited to fulfilling . such as monkeys and apes. but it is not essential to the survival of any specific person. In other words. Roughly translated. you’ll die if you don’t eat. sex takes place only when the female is in estrus. Sex also becomes less limited to the goal of reproduction. a female animal is fertile and receptive to male sexual advances. in some primate species. sex can occur at any time. • One rare species of chimplike apes. the bonobos of the Congo. moving from relatively simple to more complex animals. But what exactly motivates that drive? Obviously. They also engage in oral sex. but you won’t die if you don’t have sex (you just might think you will) • What motivates sexual behavior? • In most animals. For example. but not all. In many. exhibit a wide variety of sexual behaviors. and homosexual encounters. For one thing. defining and cementing relationships among the members of the primate group. species. they have sex face-to-face which is rare. In these species.
Although a woman’s fertility is regulated by monthly hormonal cycles. sex is used to increase group cohesion. but others quickly lose all interest in sex. removal of the testes (castration) typically causes a steep drop in sexual activity and interest. • Of course. Until the 1950s. which produce the female sex hormone estrogen.the purpose of reproduction. According to de Wall. When human males experience lowered levels of testosterone because of illness or castration. she experiences little or no drop in sex interest. Even when a woman’s ovaries. Castration causes a significant decrease in levels of testosterone. although the decline is more gradual in sexually experienced animals. of course. and decrease tension that might be caused by competition for food. these hormonal changes seem to have only a slight effect on a female’s sex drive. If these glands are removed or malfunction. the female animals’ sexual interest returns. When supplemental testosterone is administered. causing testosterone levels to become abnormally low. Most of the testosterone in a woman’s body is produced by her adrenal glands. not war. Nor is the motivational goal of sex limited to reproduction.” • In humans. • In male animals. although the effects vary among individuals. In many nonhuman female mammals. the hormone response for male sexual development. removal of the ovaries results in a complete loss of sexual activity. sexual behavior is greatly influenced by cultural and social factors (Culture and Human Behavior reading) • The Stages of Human Sexual Response • The human sexual response cycle was first mapped by sex research pioneers William Masters and Virginia Johnson during the 1950s and 1960s. • Testosterone is also involved in female sexual motivation. info about sexual response had been gathered by observing behavior of different . a similar drop in sexual interest tends to occur. Some men continue to lead a normal sex life for years. sex is not limited to a female’s fertile period. injections of testosterone restore the sex drive. however. are surgically removed or stop functioning during menopause. sexual interest often wanes. Among the bonobos. avoid conflict. the bonobos’ motto seems to be ‘Make love. If injections of estrogen and other female sex hormones are given. Thus in both men and women. sexual motivation is biologically influenced by the levels of the hormone testosterone in the body. In castrated men who experience a loss of sexual interest. the woman’s sex drive returns.
• Stage 2: Plateau – Pulse and Breathing rates continue to increase. Most male and females describe orgasm as an intensely pleasurable experience. But many women are capable of experience multiple orgasms. • Stage 4: Resolution – Following orgasm.animal species. breathing rates increase. Masters and Johnson felt that a more diret approach was needed to further the understanding of human sexual anatomy and physiology. as do the muscles in and around the penis as the male ejaculates. putting pressure on the penis during intercourse. degree of arousal fluctuates. in the name of science. blood shifts to the genitals. 90% of Americans have married SLIDE . Their findings. rapid rise in blood pressure. clitoris withdraws under the clitoral hood but remains very sensitive to stimulation. Vaginal entrance tightens. and tends to increase with age.000 episodes of sexual activity in their laboratory. this period varies widely. If sexual stimulation continues following orgasm. Vaginal lubrication continues. blood pressure and heart rate reach their peak. published in 1966. indicated that the human sexual response could be described as a cycle with four stages. Arousal slowly subsides and returns to normal levels. Thus. and her vagina becomes lubricated in preparation for intercourse. women may experience additional orgasm within a short period of time. testes increase in size. Nipples and breast may also become enlarged. Survey of National Health and Social Life (1994) Important findings: • • Half of people 30 to 50 had five or more partners By age 30. Massters and Johnson observed hundreds of people engage in more than 10. The male experiences a refractory period. producing an erect penis and swelling of the clitoris in the female. Vast majority of men experience one intense orgasm. muscles in the vaginal walls and the uterus contract rhythmically. both sexes tend to experience a warm physical “glow” and a sense of well-being. • Stage 1: Excitement – beginning of sexual arousal. during which he is incapable of having another erection or orgasm. During Stage 1 & 2. The female’s vaginal lips expand and open up. • Stage 3: Orgasm – shortest phase. Majority of actual intercourse occurs at this stage.
1/3 have sex a few times a year or not at all 43% of women and 31% of men reported sexual problems (low sex drive. arousal problems. premature ejaculation. 1/3 a few times a month. inability to achieve orgasm. problems achieving or maintaining an erection Sexual Orientation • • • Estimated 7 to 15 million Americans are gay Evidence suggests that genetics play a role Research found a small cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus is half the size in homosexuals compared to heterosexuals Research also found that homosexuality is not a result of unpleasant early heterosexual experiences or an abnormal relationship between the child and parents Both men and women homosexuals are less likely then heterosexuals to engage in gender-specific behaviors in childhood Homosexuality is no longer considered a sexual disorder by doctors and psychologists • • • .• • 1/3 have sex two or more times/week.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.