Table of Contents

Acknowledgements Abbreviations 0.1 Location and number of speakers 0.2 Brief overview of the Russian literary language 0.3 Dialects 1. Phonology 1.1 Orthography 1.2 Phonemic inventory 1.3. Vowels and Prosody 1.4 Consonants 1.5 Morphophonemic alternations 1.6 Pronunciations variants of CSR in Moscow and St. Petersburg 1.7 Tongue twisters and diction 2. Morphology 2.1 Inflectional morphology 2.2 Declension 2.3 Indeclinable Nouns 2.4 Other declensional desinences: singular 2.5 Declensional desinences: plural 2.6 Formation of the Genitive Plural 2.7 The semantics of the Russian case system 2.8 Adjectives 2.9 Pronouns 2.10 Numerals 2.11 Time expressions 2.12 Nondeclinables: Adverbs and prepositions 2.13 Derivational Morphology 2.14 Verbs 3. Syntax 3.1 Syntax and syntactic categories 3.2 Conditionals/Hypotheticals 3.3 Grammatical particles 3.4 Verbal government 3.5 Impersonal constructions 3.6 Proverbs and collocations 3.7 Use of profanity in CSR Bibliography 2 3 4 4 5 6 6 8 9 13 17 20 21 22 22 24 29 30 31 32 34 41 49 56 62 64 67 82 123 123 123 124 125 125 127 127 129


This project would not have been possible without the reviews and criticisms of several respected colleagues, including Ron Feldstein, Elena Maksimova and Irina Guliakova. My special thanks to Troy Williams for his assistance in editing, glossing and preparing a camera-ready manuscript.


A adj adv anim arc C CSR CSCR D f, fem G I inan L m, masc N n, neut pl sg V n/s PPP Ø // [] {} '' accusative adjective adverb animate archaic consonant Contemporary Standard Russian Contemporary Standard Colloquial Russian dative feminine genitive instrumental inanimate locative masculine nominative neuter plural singular vowel non-syllabic past passive participle zero desinence phonemic transcription phonetic transcription morphophonemic and morphological transcription English glosses


Karamzin was perhaps the most influential. Russian is the first or second language of over 455 million speakers (Crystal 1997: 449).”] Isačenko argues convincingly that one may begin to speak of a Russian literary language (which will later give rise to CSR) during a period from 1760-1825. Isačenko suggests that the name “Russian” be used for the written language only after the Tartar invasion and the destruction of Kiev (1980: 124). the other two being Ukrainian and Belorussian. Nikolaj Mixailovič Karamzin and Aleksandr Sergeevič Puškin were critical contributors to the development of what can be referred to as the modern Russian literary language. and may be used for official purposes in Kazakhstan and Ukraine. Recently ranked as the 4th most influential language in the world (Weber 1999: 22). dates that generally correspond with Karamzin’s life [1766-1825] (1980: 132-139). Lotman and Uspenskij (1975: 196-7. played a significant role in the development of the Russian language throughout its history with two periods of intensification. morphological and lexical changes. Socio. However. in fact. One may characterize the coexistence of Old Church Slavonic and the East Slavic vernacular as diglossic. [Prior to this period. the “Russian language” of the aristocracy that made the greatest impact on the Russian literary language.0. Old Church Slavonic. he suggests the term “East Slavic recension of Church Slavonic. but the overall number of lexical 4 . Since the breakup of the USSR.CSR) has remained generally stable. lebed’ (f > m). Russian continues to be one of the official languages of Kyrgyzstan and Belarus. where not only declensional and agreement gender have been (or are being) renegotiated (cf. is one of three contemporary East Slavic languages. 0.1 Location and number of speakers Russian is the official language of the Russian Federation and was the primary official language of the Soviet Union (cf. it has often been the case in Russian and Soviet scholarship that Puškin has been given most of the credit for the creation of a literary language and style (Vinogradov 1990: 6-7).and geolinguistic situation 0. but certainly reflects a number of phonological. a South Slavic language. 246) demonstrate the importance of French influence as a model of constructing a literary language in Russia and argue that it was. kofe (m > n)). one during the 11th-13th centuries and another during the Second South Slavic influence (also referred to as “Re-Bulgarization”) in the 14th century. This period of diglossia lasted well into the 18th century.2 Brief overview of the Russian literary language Russian. Maps 1 and 2). Over the past 200 years. The most significant of these changes is found in the lexicon. While the contributions of all 3 were significant. Mixail Vasiljevič Lomonosov. German also plays an important role in the formation of scientific terminology and lexicon during the 18th and 19th centuries (Isačenko 1980: 135). the Russian literary language (henceforth Contemporary Standard Russian . belonging to the Indo-European language family.

but are also restricted stylistically and occur primarily in media.borrowings has become significantly increased. 5 . According to Verbickaja (2001: 5). Western. a study published in 1965 by Avanesov and Orlova. especially in terms of consonant palatalization (cf.3-1. Such a massive influx of new lexical items has impacted areas of the phonological system of CSR. Kiparsky (1979: 21-25) divides the dialects of Russian into 3 major groups with a total of 8 subgroups: I.000 per year have been registered since 1986.4). 9. and a major survey of the Russian dialects under the direction of Edward Stankiewicz. Eastern. 0. The large majority of these lexemes are restricted not only to specialized vocabulary in areas like economics and technologies. Central Great Russian dialects III. North Great Russian dialects: Northern. Olonec. Northern CSR is considered to be formed from a combination of north and south Russian dialects (Meščerskij 1972). Vladimir-Volga II. 1. Eastern. South Great Russian dialects: Southern. it is necessary to point out that there has not been an adequate amount of scholarly study of the Russian dialects in the 20th century (Kiparsky 1979: 21).3 Dialects In order to appropriately introduce a description of the Russian dialects.000 lexical borrowings into CSR are registered for the period 1960-85. The general trend in linguistics conducted in the Russian Federation of the late 20th century is to emphasize the assimilation of dialects to the standard literary language and to characterize the remaining differences as either disappearing or substandard. Those studies that exist include most notably the 1915 study by Moscow Dialectological Commission. while almost 2.

1. Note that the features of Russian vocalic and consonantal phonemes will be discussed in 1.1 Orthography The following table gives the contemporary Cyrillic alphabet of CSR. The “name” of a particular letter is included below only for those graphemes that do not have phonetic value.g. The relationship between the alphabet and pronunciation in CSR is not phonemic as is found in Serbian Cyrillic (e. Phonology 1. compare Serbian српски and Russian сербский).4. 1 6 .2-1. and associates each grapheme with the appropriate IPA symbol. CYRILLIC А О У IPA a b v g d e/je o/jo1 ž z i j k l m n o p r s t u f x c č š šč The grapheme ё/ is not generally used in Russian texts printed in the USSR and Russian Federation. consisting of 33 graphemes.

and 4 of the group II vowels (я. and the “hard sign” was returned in that particular context. щ. Note also that rule (2) is qualitatively different for velars (phonetic) vs. In CSR texts printed in Russia.write e. that' as a relative pronoun vs. hushers (graphemic). not . CSR has distinctive. и. о.g. ч. ш. х. jirπ or a soft sign (ъ. indicate the presence of jot when preceded by a vowel. ё. The 3 major CSR vocalic-based spelling rules are: (1) Following the 5 consonants ж. write . interrogative pronoun). No Russian lexeme. (4) The pronoun 'you' [formal. е. (2) Nationalities. 2 7 . ы. ж. ь). The role of jot in CSR pronunciation will be discussed in detail in 1. it was possible to find the use of “hard signs” in word final position in some newspaper titles and signs as a chic reminder of pre-revolutionary times and status. е. у). write а or у.Ъ Ь Э Ю Я твёрдый знак -'hard sign' 2 π (еры) мягкий знак -'soft sign' e u/ju a/ja Group I vowels are represented by five graphemes (а. е. э. ё. г. the names of the months and days of the week are NOT capitalized in Russian unless they occur at the beginning of a sentence. ы. and the grapheme ё is seldom marked even when ambiguous (cf. The double apostrophe was a short-lived phenomenon. ё. ж. ч. ю)2 following prefixes or in compound words. whether native or borrowed. Note that the “hard sign” was eliminated in all positions after the 1917 Russian revolution and replaced by a double apostrophe (“) before group II vowels (я. During the last decade of the 20th century. щ. ц. (3) The pronoun 'I' (я) is only capitalized at the beginning of a sentence. strong mobile stress. ч. щ. ш. все/всё -'everyone/everything'). unstressed O may not occur in desinences (but may occur in roots) -. not я or ю. ю) obligatorily palatalize any preceding paired consonant. Group II vowels (я. may begin with a hard sign. и. ц. (3) Following the 8 consonants к. not phonemes. stress is only marked in those cases that may be ambiguous (e. [The rules as stated directly above are given in terms of graphemes.] Capitalization rules are simple: (1) Only capitalize the first word in a sentence and the first word in a title. ю) indicate the presence of jot in word initial position.7. plural] (вы)may be capitalized as a sign of respect ( ы) in official documents and correspondence. г. ш. (2) Following the 7 consonants к. х. что -'what.

most Russian phonologists and phoneticians in the former Soviet Union and the Russian Federation insist that there are 6 vowel phonemes. 4 The term “liquid” may be dropped in favor of two other terms to describe the Russian consonantal phonemes.2. Until the 1990’s. v’ z. r’ Some Russian phonologists use the symbol /š’:/ for /šč/. resulting in a total of 35 consonantal phonemes (Verbickaja 2001: 43). 3 8 . (x’) v. namely “lateral” (for l. d’ g. The 33 (or 36) consonantal phonemes of CSR are given in Table 1.1 The 5 vocalic phonemes of CSR are given in Table 1. where the 6th is /π/ (ы). (g’) _______________________________________________________________________ FRICATIVE f. some sources do not recognize /šč/ as a phoneme while giving full phonemic status to the palatalized velars. ы is phonologically predictable and these sounds do not occur in contrastive distribution.2. l’) and “trill” (for r. (k’) b. Given the fact that the occurrence of и vs. f’ s.1 below: FRONT CENTRAL BACK _____________________________________________ i u HIGH________________________________________ o ´ MID_________________________________________ a LOW_________________________________________ Note that the phonemes /o/ and /u/ are obligatorily lip-rounded. p’ t. t’ k. r’). they are not given here as distinct phonemes. l’ r.2 below: Place of articulation _____________________________________________________________________ bilabial labiodental dental palato-alveolar palatal velar Method of Formation _______________________________________________________________________ STOP p. 1. Leningrad-based phonologists opposed the Moscow school and supported a 5-phoneme model as given above. m’ n. However.2 Phonemic inventory 1. n’ _______________________________________________________________________ LIQUID4 l.2.2. b’ d. Unlike American and European Slavic linguists.2. s’ š šč 3 x. z’ ž _______________________________________________________________________ AFFRICATE c č _______________________________________________________________________ GLIDE j _______________________________________________________________________ NASAL m.1.

they are pronounced together with the prepositional object as one form (cf.' Other terms that are useful in the context of the Russian consonantal system are: (1) obstruents . but stress may retract to a prefix or even preposition. 1. unstressed vowels. {v sadu} . and that the stress may shift from one part of the lexeme to another (including prefix.'toward/onto oneself' => [nas’ib’a]). 'I haven’t spoken with them for a long time.>) or ending to stem (< --). and (2) resonants (or sonorants) including nasals. Compare the following: Я слышал. рука/руку запить/запил 'table' 'hand' 'to drink down/chase with a drink' город/ за город/ за городом год/ на год). mobile phonemic stress. The most common stress shifts are from stem to ending ( -. 'I don’t have the slightest wish to meet with her.' Я не понимаю. (unstressed relative pronoun что ) 'I heard that you don't want [to go] to school. Compare: стол/стола. 'city' 'year' Prepositions do not typically carry separate stress in CSR. they never like anything that I do. что тебе надо!? (stressed interrogative pronoun что ) 'I don't understand what you need!?' The negative particles /n’e/ and /n’i/ do not typically carry stress. The relative pronoun что 'what. Compare the following examples: A. Vowels and Prosody There are 5 vowel phonemes that occur under stress in CSR and a reduced system of 3 vowel phonemes that occur without stress in CSR. им всё равно ничего не нравится! 'No matter how hard I try. suffix. root. There is no vowel length nor vocalic tone/pitch in CSR. rather. {na s’eb’a} .3.' ак я ни стараюсь. что ты не хочешь в школу. fricatives and affricatives. No stress on negative particles Я с ними давно не говорила.' У меня нет ни малейшего желания встречаться с ней.1. that' /čto/ 'what' is not stressed. 9 . desinence).3.'in the garden' => [fsadu]. However. This implies that there will be a marked difference in the realization of stressed vs.1 Stress CSR has strong. glides. and liquids.including stops. there is phonemic stress. but /n’e/ may when used in certain impersonal constructions.

[p’isat’] [muka] vs. Stress on negative particle ам с тобой не о чем говорить! 'You and I have nothing to talk about!' Other word forms that do not ever carry stress are the interrogative and subjunctive (en)clitics /l’i/ and /bi/ (ли. [muka] ‘write’ vs.and post-tonic syllables. еня спрашивает.4. launch/(e)s'. i.). ‘pee’ ‘flour’ vs. е знаете ли ы.2 Vowel Reduction in CSR: akan’e and ikan’e The vowel system of CSR is reduced to 3 phonemes (/a. доктор/доктора -'physician/s' etc. stress is directly correlated with the desinence. ‘torture’ писать/писать мука/мука 1. In certain declensions. учитель/учителя -'teacher/s'.3. but there are exceptions [cf. It is possible to derive a stress model that adequately describes both nominal and verbal forms. бы). когда будет электричка? 'Do you know when the next train will arrive?' 2. For example. The following chart shows the phonemes and allophones that occur in a 4syllable grid: 10 . u/) in pre.B. ‘Anna’ (CSR does not typically show consonantal length. plural. (For examples of these systems. 1. очешь ли ты пойти на выставку? 'Do you want to go to the exhibition?' 3. masculine first declension nouns with a nominative plural in /a/ are always end stressed (cf. The placement of the interrogative (en)clitic requires it to occur between the first and second stressed word forms in the sentence (examples 1 & 2) or in the subordinate clause (example 3): 1. Examples of minimal pairs based on stress: она/Анна [ana] vs. (2) singular vs.4]) [p’isat’] vs. see Feldstein 1996: 199-215). катер/катера -'motor boat. будешь ли ты на заседании кафедры? 'Zhenya is asking whether you will be at the faculty meeting?' There are many elaborate stress systems that describe CSR. [ana] ‘she’ vs. All of these systems have in common the following distinctions: (1) mobile and fixed paradigms. профессор/ профессора -'professor/s'.

depending on the preceding consonant with the grapheme e (not with the grapheme я).'two steps' . 'naturally' 'building'.[dva šaga] or [dva šπga]. 5 11 . 1.[ks\žal’´niju] or [ks\žπl’´niju]). время 'brothers'. Akan’e (pronunciation of /a/) and ikan’e (pronunciation of /i/) are primarily of the nature of a phonological alternation in CSR. 'good' (L) Following sibilants (ж. Because of the relationship between orthography and vocalic phonemes (where there are 10 vowel graphemes for 5 vowel phonemes). we will note the occurrence of ekan’e (where unstressed /´/ is pronounced as /´/) in positions where ikan’e would be expected (cf. 'time' depending on its Position: Phonetic form: Cyrillic examples: pre-tonic or post-tonic desinence [i]6 [\] (or [i]) жена. естественно здание. лена 'still/yet'. Grapheme я: Here. unstressed e may function in the word: word -initial [ji] or [i] ещё. but they do include morphophonemic characteristics in certain desinences. but Verbickaja claims that the akan’e forms are more statistically frequent (2001: 115-122). o) \ ______________________________________________________________________ Front vowels5 (´) i i ´ i* /\ in endings ______________________________________________________________________ The first row is an example of akan’e and the second row is an example of ikan’e. 'field'. хорошем 'wife'. many definitions of akan’e and ikan’e mention orthographic renderings for clarity. поле. ц. ш. This alternative formulation is a more precise linguistic definition. depending on its function in the word: Position: Phonetic form: Cyrillic examples: word -initial [ji] язык 'language/tongue' Grapheme е: Here. 'despair' participate in akan’e or ikan’e.6). 'Elena' pre-tonic or post-tonic [i] объяснить. щ). the graphemes a and o may also participate in ikan’e (cf. Another way to characterize the two rows would be to substitute “non-high after hard consonants and word-initial” for “back vowels” and “non-high after palatalized consonants” for “front vowels”. desinence [\] братья. два шага . These forms are in free variation. ч. отчаяние 'to explain'. к сожалению -'unfortunately' . Later. 6 Either и or ы occur.PRE-PRETONIC PRETONIC TONIC POST-TONIC ______________________________________________________________________ Back vowels a a/o \ (a. unstressed я may participate in akan’e or ikan’e.

3. V1 = group I vowel. it is restricted to the following environments: (1) In native Slavic words. /kaf´/ = [kaf´]. it is possible to speak of four degrees of phonetic vocalic variations due to palatalization in the following environments: (Note: C = nonpalatalized consonant. Note that the phoneme /´/ is the only vowel that obligatorily palatalizes any preceding paired consonant. phonological alternation. thus resulting in an automatic. especially in the case of /o/ (cf. with no restrictions. and others). see Verbickaja (2001: 71-80). Exceptions There are also borrowed lexemes that do not allow for standard vowel reduction. паук 'spider'. 12 . /xr’izant´m/ = [xr’izant´m].Although the combination vowel + vowel (meaning two group I vowels in a row) is permitted in CSR. V = any vowel. The only exceptions to this rule are some (not all) foreign borrowings (cf.3. C’ = palatalized consonant. v + v may occur within the root (cf. наука . Due to the impact of palatalization on the phonetic realization of the vowels which their precede or follow. /s´ks/ = [s’´ks] or [s´ks]. never in the root. the vowel becomes more raised and fronted as the degree of palatalization increases. (2) In some foreign borrowings. 1.'science'). poet pronounced [po´t]). rad’io pronounced [rad’io]. /t´nn’is/ = [t´nn’is]. Other important examples that illustrate the range of allophonic realization due to the effects of palatalization are: это эти чуткий чуть пятка пять 'this' 'these' 'sensitive' 'almost' 'heel' 'five' /eto/ /et’i/ /čutkij/ /čut’/ /p’atka/ /p’at’/ [´t\] [et’i] [čutk’ij] [čüt’] [p’ætk\] [p’æt’] For a detailed discussion on the degrees of impact of palatalization on stressed and unstressed vowel. v + v may occur on morpheme boundaries only. V2 = group II vowel) Least palatalization CVC CVC’ C’VC Most palatalization C’VC’ А 'obscenity' А Ь 'mother' Я 'wrinkled' Я Ь 'wrinkle' /mat/ /mat’/ /m’at/ /m’at’/ [mat] [mat’] [m’æt] [m’æt’] In these instances.

š. (2) {mor’-o} pronounced [mor’\] or [mor’i] in the nominative singular). ž. there are isolated word forms where the nonpalatalized sibilants are pronounced as if palatalized (cf. may occur with graphemes сч/зч: исчезнуть -'to disappear' may be pronounced as [iš’:´znut’] or [isč´znut’]). However. č. not a flap. Moscow norms дождя -'rain' [daž’: a]. the desinence is an underlying. ткёт. palatalized/nonpalatalized: p/p’. z/z’. morphophoneme {o} (cf. but not in the first. especially names (cf. (1) {zdan’ij -o} 'building' pronounced [zdan’ij\]. b/b’. счастье .ткут ) and other examples in foreign borrowings. [For more information on the differences in Moscow/Petersburg pronunciation of CSR. voiced/voiceless: p/b. splashes' [brπž’ž’\t] {vs.'fortune. šč). The two most important distinctions in CSR consonants are: a. ёте -'Goethe'). счёт -'bill. 1. see section 1. первого -'first'. f/f’. 2. сегодня -'today'.. ткать -'to spin. a. Stops are not aspirated. i. š/ž . The consonant /r/ is a trill. его -'his'.] 13 .” the variant with ikan’e does occur in the speech of many speakers of CSR in the second example. The unpaired consonants (also called sibilants) in CSR (c. or basic. 3. 5. t/t’.e. but the actual result is not [i]. щётка -'brush'. s/z. In the case of the velars. weave': тку. etc. грузчик 'loader'. there is some controversy over the exact number of consonantal phonemes in CSR.2). The grapheme g is pronounced /v/ in genitive desinences and the genitive singular nonfeminine personal pronoun (cf. s/s’.2. more normative [dažd’a] and [brπžž\t] (Verbickaja 2001: 61-2). We maintain the same principle as articulated for vocalic phonemes.4. r/r’ (12 pairs [or 15 pairs if the velars are included]) 4. f/v.. š. where ikan’e might be expected. b. брызжет -'sprays.). m/m’. Also note that due to “spelling pronunciation. account'.In those desinences. дрожжи -'yeast' [drož’ž’i]. In addition. d/d’. k/g (6 pairs) b. yielding a total of 33. n/n’. it is commonly noted that Leningrad/Petersburg pronunciation demonstrates limited palatalization of /č/ compared to the rest of CSR (ibid.. but on occasion is still realized as [š’č] (cf. 1. šč ) are either hard (c. ž) [nonpalatalized] or palatalized (č.1 Aspects of consonant realization in CSR 1. v/v’.6. t/d. luck'). The consonant /šč/ (щ) is generally pronounced [š’:] (cf. ). l/l’. the palatalized variants are given in parentheses to acknowledge that there is one example where /k’/ occurs (cf. we only list as full-fledged phonemes those sounds that occur in contrastive distribution.4 Consonants As noted above (1. but [\]. ткёшь.

/s’s’/. /n’k/. sv’/. /šš/. /s’t’/.'Lord'. бухгалтер -'bookkeeper'. Consonant clusters are very restricted at the beginning of a word such that only those consonants that occur in prefixes may occur (cf. /zj/. /v’v’/. bookkeeping'). /z’m/. /n’č/. or [vot]. /čv/. dj/. /zv’/. /bv’/. CV. These rules include (Verbickaja 2001: 46-8): i. esp. /mb’/. шоссе -'highway'-[šas´]. VV). /n’t’/. /n’šč/) vii. /z’d’/. /pj/. alveopalatals or palatals (esp. esp. бухгалтерия -'accountancy. Type C’C’ most often occurs when both consonants are dentals. Of all of the possible combinations of vowels and consonants (CC. /z/. However. /fj/. obligatory voicing assimilation (except for /v/ and /v’/) ii. the first consonant cannot be a labial or velar (esp. /dv’/.6. Foreign borrowings do not generally violate the pronunciation of consonants (as sometime occurs with the unstressed vowels). r’k/) vi. There are fewer consonant clusters in stem final position. /n’t/. and of those that do occur. length is manifested as a delayed release of the velar stop) The majority of examples of lexemes in CSR with double consonants do not demonstrate any length in pronunciation (cf. 9. /z’z’/. осподи . [wot]. Word initial /v/ may be realized as more of a [w] in one specific lexeme: /vot/ (вот -'here') => 4 potential phonetic realizations in CSR speech [wo:t]. / č/ iii. /vj/. /z’/ may not combine in roots with /š/. /vv/. /z’b/. 7.[sovr’´m’´nπj]). VC. there are some Slavic based lexemes as well as foreign borrowings that require the voiced velar fricative [©] (cf. CSR shows considerable growth in the flexibility of consonant clusters if the type CC’. /tv’/. /s/. Type C’C is statistically infrequent and in those instances where it does occur. mj/ v. and /č/ iv. /s’/. esp. современный -'contemporary. /bj/. /žž/) viii. modern'. 8. /n’z’/. /zz/. /tj/. /ss/. Although CSR does not have phonemic consonantal length. especially the following: dental + labial. /sp’/ labial + labial. /n’d’/. CC is the most well-defined by a series of phonological rules. /t/ and /t’/ may not combine in roots with /c/. vb’/ dental + palatal. Jot + consonant never occurs in word initial position ix. 14 . /s’k/. [vo:t]. /bm’/. /n’s’/. /čt/. /ž/. /sm’/. there are occasions where one or two consonants are extended and exhibit length in pronunciations: юный песчаный к кому 'youthful' 'sandy' 'to/toward whom' [junnij] [p’i š:annij] [k:amu] (here. CC is the most frequent type.

yet'. Epenthetic /n/ occurs with any third person possessive pronoun that follows a preposition Compare: его/у него ей/ о ней 'his/ he has' 'to her/ about her' её/ про неё ему/к нему 'hers/ regarding her' 'to them/ toward them' 4. /v’/ may block assimilation (cf. ещё 'still. сад -'garden' [sat]. 3. Paired consonants automatically palatalize (soften) before /´/ except in a restricted list of borrowings and acronyms. In most cases. Loss of jot in word initial and intervocalic positions: One of the most marked changes in the phonological system of CSR is the increased loss of /j/ in word initial position and intervocalic position.2. and the 2nd and 3rd singular. Nsg > Gpl: песня/песен -'song/s'). 1st and 2nd plural of nonpast first conjugation (cf. and across lexical boundaries. 5. /iz-/. across morpheme boundaries. Compare: счастливый 'fortunate.1. футбол -'football' [fudbol]. attractive' поздно 'late' сердце 'heart' 15 . The loss of /j/ is variable from speaker to speaker. but the occurrence of /j/ loss in CSR speakers is continually increasing. (a) spelling of assimilations in prefixes Normal assimilation rules apply to prefix/stem boundaries. город -'city' [gor\t]). автобус -'bus' [aftobus]. There are isolated examples where stem final paired consonants show a hard/soft alternation in specific declensional forms (cf. Some of the most common examples include words beginning in /je/. твой -'your' [tvoj]). In consonant clusters consisting of 3 phonemes. 7.4. vowel + /i/. Phonological rules 1. lucky' прелестный 'darling. This type of assimilation is regressive (cf. как дела -'how are things'[kagd’ila]). знаешь -'you know'). one of the phonemes may not be pronounced in conversational CSR. Orthography does not generally reflect those assimilations (as in Serbian-Croatian) except with the prefixes /raz-/. Nsg > Npl: сосед/соседи -'neighbor/s'. it will be the middle one. столб -'stump' [stolp]. 6. /vz-/ (where the grapheme z > s) when followed by voiceless consonants. Voicing assimilation occurs within words. Word final devoicing: All paired consonants demonstrate an alternation of voiced > voiceless in word final position (cf. лена -'Elena'. (b) exceptions to voicing assimilation The consonants /v/. where only one phoneme is not pronounced. мои -'my'. 2.

we are dealing primarily with adjectives in -sk.) (Vinogradov 1960: 81). сейчас -'now' [š’:as]. In conversational CSR. вороньё -'carrioncrows'. s’.3 Consonant clusters In section 1. assimilation. etc. 2.4. but отъезд -'departure by vehicle'). etc. and /ndsk/. d’. She further points out that in over 80% of clusters tested in a recent study of 298 consonant clusters. /n’ + t’. Word length can extend to include as many as 8 syllables (primarily in relfexive participles in oblique case form).(cf. удостоверение -'proof. вообще -'in general' [vaš’: ´]. load'). страница -'page'. Other 4-phoneme consonant clusters include /stsk/. It is quite often the case that labials preceding /j/ are pronounced hard (cf. Note that if one of the sounds is not pronounced. 1.). /z’d’/. there may be considerable reduction in the number of phonemes actually pronounced in given lexemes (cf. баловство -'over-indulgence. In conversational CSR. č/. ванович -'Ivanovich' [Ivanπč]). although normal word length is 2-3 syllables (cf. судья -'judge'. The occurrence of consonant clusters with 2 or 3 consonants is quite common in CSR (cf. the general properties of the consonantal system of CSR were introduced. Permissible clusters and maximum length CSR allows up to 4 consonants in a row (cf. объём -'volume. while dentals + /j/ are palatalized on stem/ending boundaries but not on the prefix/stem boundary (cf. including preliminary remarks about standard consonant clusters. интересовавшимися -'with those who were interested'). семья -'family'. mischievousness'). z’. evidence'. /vstv/ in чувство -'emotion.4. educated speakers are pronouncing the first consonant of the cluster as hard. аспирантский 'graduate student'. /ntsk/. 16 . здравствуйте -'hello' [zdrast’´]. пью -'I drink'. финляндский -'Finnish'.but солнце 'sun' [drop the /l/] 1. Palatalization of consonant clusters CSR allows for consonant clusters to show varying degrees of palatalization such that CC” may be realized as C’C’ or CC”. Compare the following: дверь 'door' [dv’er’] пью 'I drink' [pj’u] степь 'steppe' [s’t’ep’] конский 'steed' [adj.] [konsk’ij] здесь 'here' [z’d’es’] пенсия 'pension' [p’en’s’ij\] Verbickaja (2001: 86) notes that there is a marked tendency in CSR to pronounce the first consonant of clusters with a final palatalized consonant as hard. feeling'. the initial /v/ may not be pronounced. гигантский -'gigantic'. it will always be the second phoneme of the cluster (t or d). строительство -'construction'. здравствуй -'hello'. consonant loss and compatibility of palatalized with nonpalatalized consonants. The exceptions to this trend were found in lexemes with the clusters /s’t’/. In each of these cases.1.

5.])(from гостья -'guest' (f.C/j + ^) Examples: гостий -'guest' [adj.1 Vowel/zero alternations in CSR 1.1 Fill vowels (vowel/zero alternations) in nouns: There are three fill vowels in the nouns of CSR . no. ристос воскрес! .In truth He is risen!'. /i/ (where /i/ is quite infrequent). not phonological alternations that are initially triggered within certain parts of speech and in terms of derivation and/or inflection. Epenthetic /o/ in prepositions and prefixes The phoneme /o/ is added to prepositions and prefixes when followed by consonant clusters. Voicing assimilation of consonant clusters . /´/.3. dismount' 'to/toward everything/ everyone' An additional /o/ may also appear in Old Church Slavonicisms that appear in CSR (cf.4.see 1.5 Morphophonemic alternations 1.5 below for details. See section 1. Basic rules for vowel/zero morphophonemic alternation: Fill vowel /e/: When consonant at end of stem is soft. семей -'families'.оистину воскрес! -'Christ is risen! .2. ascend' 'to descent.5.). всходить -'to ascend'). /j/ or /c/ (C/C’ + ^) Examples: день -'day'. 5. воскресений -'Sunday' 17 . it is nonetheless true that they are morphophonemic. 4. восходить -'to go back. Earths'./o/. Compare: ко мне во вторник во всём разойтись обойти изогнуть 'to/toward me' 'on Tuesday' 'in everything' 'to disperse' 'to circumvent' 'to bend' во ранции ото всего/ всех взойти сойтись ко всем/ всему 'in France' 'away from everything/ everyone' 'to mount. 2. The following is only one version of how the rules may be stated: I. земель -ground.1. 1. trace back' vs. Fill vowels (vowel/zero alternations) Although vowel/zero alternations are often defined in terms of the syntagmatic environment. друзей 'friends' Fill vowel /i/: When consonant at end of stem is /j/ and stress falls on preceding syllable (‘ .

šč (the 2nd being borrowed from OCS) z>ž s>š 7 Here.1. Three forms in CSR defy all of the rules given above: яйцо/яиц 'egg/s' полный/полон 'full' [adj. the fill vowel is underlying /o/ but written with the grapheme e due to the spelling rule. досок -'boards'.]/'deserving' [short form adj.1. 1.] достойный/ достоин 'deserving' [adj. žd (the 2nd being borrowed from OCS).]/'full' [short form adj.2 Short form adjectives in CSR only have the fill vowel /o/ (except for one exception given above).zovu -'I call').Fill vowel /o/: When consonant at end of stem if hard (C/C + ^) (i.5.b’eru -'I take'.3 Verbs in CSR have only the fill vowels /o/ and /e/ in inflection (cf. Additional rules for vowel/zero MP alternation: (a)Fill vowel /o/ (not /e/) if first consonant in CC is a velar.2 Consonant alternations in CSR Consonant mutations/alternations occur in word-formation.] (For more examples of vowel/zero alternations in CSR. {žd occurs in imperfective verbs in -aj. the remaining consonant mutations are: d > ž. 1. 1. Exceptions to vowel/zero rules stated above: 1. (b)The first consonant in CC automatically palatalizes before the fill vowel if it is a paired consonant. 18 . n/s verb class: brat’ -'take' . 2. or the root is monosyllabic. Other vowel/zero alternations in the conjugation and derived imperfective verbs of CSR will be discussed in the section on morphology. The most important set of mutations in CSR involves a velar/palatal alternation where: K >Č G > Ž (g > z occurs in one nominal form) X>Š In addition to the velars.e. softening of the first consonant of CC is blocked. see Townsend 1975: 60-80).5. everywhere else) Examples: окон -'windows'. девушек7 -'girls' II.but never in conjugation as a mutation of /d/} t > č. conjugation and synthetic comparative adjectives. If the final consonant of CC is a velar. zvat’ -'call' .5.

suffix is > šč st > šč c>č b > bl v > vl p > pl m > ml f > fl Consider the following examples of the mutations listed above: (Note in the case of comparative adjectives that in some instances the -k. shit' [vulg. *Also note there some forms are exceptional.] сук/сучья 'bough/s' молоко/молочко ‘milk’ Note that palatalization of the stem-final consonant may be gained or lost with certain suffix types: кресло/креслице дверь/дверца зеркало/зеркальце ‘armchair/armchair [endearing]’ ‘door/door [endearing]’ ‘mirror/small compact mirror’ 19 .) Verbs: видеть/вижу 'to see/ I see' платить/плачу 'to pay/ I pay' сказать/скажу 'to say/ I say' писать/пишу 'to write/ I write' хлестать/хлещу 'to whip/ I whip' искать/ищу 'to seek/ I seek' конец/кончить 'ending/ to end' могу/можешь 'I can/ you can' пеку/печёшь 'I bake/ you bake' махать/машу 'to wave/ I wave' любить/люблю 'to love/ I love' спать/сплю 'to sleep/ I sleep' сломить/сломлю 'to break down/ I break down' готовить/готовлю 'to prepare/ I prepare' графить/графлю 'to draw lines/ I draw lines' побеждать/победить 'to defeat' [imperfective]/ 'to defeat' [perfective aspect] посещать/посетить 'to visit' [imperfective]/ 'to visit' [perfective aspect] Nouns (plural declensional alternations and derivational forms): друг/друзья 'friend/s' собака/собачка/собачонка/собачоночка/собачина/собачища 'dog' [with other derivative forms] бляха/бляшка 'belt buckle.]/'buckle' нога/ножища 'leg/ leg' [aug.

]/ 'path.] путь/путёвый. especially in declensional and conjugational desinences and in the first pretonic syllable. Petersburg and Moscow. For a complete listing of the differences with accompanying analysis. Petersburg pronunciation.] степь/степной 'steppe' [n. usually identifies as many as 50 orthoepic and orthophonic differences between the two centers (Verbickaja 2001: 58). way' [n. I would add that there are still lexical differences between St. nearer' 'young/ younger' 'sharp. булка) {in St. (3) the specific pronunciation of the words дождь/дождя -'rain' as [došt’]. Petersburg and Moscow. only three are maintained with any regularity. including the usage of the words for ‘bread’ (хлеб. [dažd’a] becoming the norm for both St. high/ taller. хлеб -'bread' generally refers only to black bread}. 20 . (2) more instances of non-palatalized consonants preceding /e/ in foreign borrowings in St. проездной [билет]). Petersburg area.]/ 'steppe' [adj. Petersburg The literature on phonological variants between the two historical Russian capitals. путный 'path.6 Pronunciations variants of CSR in Moscow and St.церковь/церквушка мороз/морозец Comparative adjectives: тихий/тише близкий/ближе молодой/моложе резкий/резче редкий/реже громкий/громче высокий/выше широкий/шире сладкий/слаще* ‘church/church [endearing] ‘freezing weather/freezing weather’ 'quiet/ quieter' 'close. песок). near/ closer. Petersburg and Moscow. see Verbickaja 2000: 58-69). ‘sugar’ (сахар. These differences are: (1) more ekan’e in the St. harsher' 'rare/ rarer' 'loud/ louder' 'tall. higher' 'wide/ wider' 'sweet/ sweeter' There are also many examples of palatalization being lost or gained in stem final position in word-formation: царь/царский 'tsar [n. harsh/ sharper.] лесть/лестный 'flattery/ flattering' коммунальная квартира/коммуналка 'communal apartment/ communal apartment' ( аша)/ аня/ анька 'Sasha/ Sanya/ San'ka' аня/ анька 'Vanya/ Van'ka' 1. at the beginning of the twenty-first century. way' [adj. occurring in at least 68% of speakers tested.]/ tsar' [adj. However. Petersburg. St. and ‘transportation cards/passes’ ([единая] карточка.

' ла аша по шоссе и сосала сушку. речи .' ама мыла илу мылом. 'From the pounding of hooves. Below are some examples of the more commonly used forms: От топота копыт пыль по полю летит. техника . but Karla stole a clarinet from Karl. dust rises in the field.1. 'Sasha was walking along the road and sucking on a sushka.' The following are common articulation exercises for actors: му-мо-ма-мэ-ми-мы 'mu-mo-ma-me-mi-my' лу-ло-ла-лэ-ли-лы 'lu-lo-la-le-li-ly' пту-пто-пта-птэ-пти-пты 'ptu-pto-pta-pte-pti-pty' бду-бдо-бда-бдэ-бди-бды 'bdu-bdo-bda-bde-bdi-bdy' сту-сто-ста-стэ-сти-сты 'stu-sto-sta-ste-sti-sty' зду-здо-зда-здэ-зди-зды 'zdu-zdo-zda-zde-zdi-zdy' врлу-врло-врла-врлэ-врли-врлы 'vrlu-vrlo-vrla-vrle-vrli-vrly' 21 . actors and second language learners.'speech') in order to improve diction (including speed and articulation) for native speakers. Mila didn't like soap.' арл у лары украл кораллы.' апля чахла. 'Mother was washing Mila with soap.'warm ups'. 'The heron sneezed. the heron expired. 'Karl stole some coral from Karla. а лара у арла украла кларнет. the heron was parched.7 Tongue twisters and diction There are numerous examples in CSR of the use of tongue twisters (скороговорки) and pronunciation exercises (разминка . цапля сдохла.'technique'. цапля сохла. ила мыло не любила.

pronouns and past tense verb forms. the present and future tenses signal number and person. participles. Some Declension II nouns are epicene. adjectives.2.1 Inflectional morphology The inflectional morphology of CSR includes declension of nouns.) 2. and conjugation of verbs.3 Agreement and declensional gender It is not sufficient to look at the nominative case form of a noun to ascertain its gender. where G=A. пьяница -'drunkard'. etc.2 Animacy and gender Animacy in CSR is not coincident with biological animacy.). dative.5. see sections 1. numerals. but rather is a characteristic of masculine and feminine nouns that generally includes those lexemes that have human or animal referents. number and case. Finally. Agreement plays a significant role in signaling gender in nouns. Note that one may encounter certain masculine nouns that are semantically inanimate but behave decline like animate nouns in the accusative singular (cf. старина -'antiquity. number (singular. prepositions. A туза . уродище -'freak'. уродищ(е) -'freak'. some inanimate neuter nouns may behave as animates in the plural and exhibit G=A (cf. and pronominals. yielding a realignment in N and G inflectional endings in the accusative. городище -'site of an ancient town'. In plural declension. genitive.4).1 Nouns The declinable nouns of CSR are marked for gender (masculine. While all neuter nouns are treated as inanimate in the singular.1. instrumental). The gender of nouns may shift in derivation and in diachrony (see 2.1. жадина -'greedy person'. and case (nominative. 2. feminine.’ this is not reflective of the norm in CSCR. and a restricted list of substantival borrowings.0 Morphophonemic alternations For a complete list of the possible consonantal and vocalic morphophonemic alternations with examples. locative [also called prepositional]. neuter). чудовищ(е) -'monster'.2 in chapter one. gender and person such that the past tense signals gender and number. old man'). убийца -'murderer'.’ удья нам попалась хорошая! ‘We got a good judge!’ (if the judge is a woman) In derivation. some nonderivational lexemes have competing 22 .4-1. 2. and potentially signal either masculine or feminine gender (cf.‘ace’).1. animacy is signaled in the accusative case. plural [which includes forms that may only exist in either singular or plural]). Morphology 2.1. accusative. [Note that although several Russian dictionaries list only masculine gender for ‘judge. Gender distinctions are not signaled in agreement in the plural number.4. conjunctions. 2. судья -'judge'. The declensional system of CSR distinguishes gender. nouns may also exhibit two possible genders (m/f or m/n) (cf. where ‘judge’ is often used with feminine agreement by educated urban speakers]: Она хороший судья! ‘She’s a good judge. CSR verbal conjugation signals number. Animacy is distinctive in singular declension only in masculine I declension forms. псина -'dog flesh'. Nondeclinable forms include adverbs. adjectives. N туз.

haze' туфля/туфель 'shoe/shoes' Masculine or neuter (in CSCR) кофе 'coffee' какао 'cocoa' такси 'taxicab' Some nouns are suppletive or exhibit non-productive consonant changes at the stem boundary when comparing singular and plural forms. Ist declension masculine nouns will have two possible desinences in the locative {e. Note that although two endings potentially exist in the locative.1. people'. in fem.4 Gender and declension There are three declensions for nouns in the singular. чай/чая/чаю -'tea'). The most frequent examples include the following: человек/люди ребёнок/дети судно/суда друг/друзья сын/сыновья 'person/people' 'child/children' 'ship/s' 'friend/s' 'son/s' сук/сучья муж/мужья брат/братья сосед/соседи 'bough/s' 'husband/s' 'brother/s' 'neighbor/s' 2. рис/риса/рису -'rice'. and the general rule states that if an adjectival modifier is added to the noun phrase the /e/ ending must be used. III declension. curtain lace' шампунь 'shampoo' фильм(а) 'film' (fem. drape' вуаль 'veil.u} and genitive {a. N = A. A=G. The correlation between the three declensions and gender in CSR is as follows: 23 . u} cases (cf. нос/в носу -'nose'. Substantival case declensions in CSR display varying degrees of syncretism (e. was used up until the early 20th century) рояль 'grand piano' занавес(ь) 'curtain. In some instances. народ/народа/народу -'folk. II declension. in fem. in masc. animate nouns. G=D=L). The following list gives some of the more frequent lexical examples: Masculine or feminine глист(а) 'tape worm' лебедь 'swan' тюль 'tulle. in most cases the /e/ desinence is not used in CSR (в нашем саду -'in our garden'. L=D. сад/в саду/ в детском саду (саде) 'garden'. inanimate nouns.g.genders in CSR that may or may not involve a formal difference. is archaic) зал(а) 'hall' (fem. N=A. лес/в лесу -'forest'. берег/на берегу -'shore'. в собственном соку -'in one's own juice'). in masc.

Vowel-zero alternations are very common in nominal declension. Nominal declensions in CSR include both fixed and mobile stress paradigms. Also. Nominative feminine singular -a desinence: . However.2.t’ot’-a = тётя -‘aunt’).2 Declension The endings for these three nominal declensions are given below in morphophonemic transcription and then followed by examples in Cyrillic of each type. but does require a different grapheme (cf.стол/столе -'‘table’).1 Formation rule for cases of nouns The desinence is added directly onto the nominative stem. . Examples will also include stem/ending stress and mobile stress. Note that although the examples display both hard and soft stem nouns. In those instances where the nominative form has a desinence other than zero. there will instances where consonants may be modified or lost in’ig-a = книга -‘book’. there is the locative singular desinence -e. 2. this distinction does not affect the actual desinence morphophonemically (except in the genitive plural where the desinences are morphophonemically distinct). ________________________________________________________________________ SG I declension II declension III declension N -Ø/-o -a -Ø A inan=N. anim=A -u -Ø G -a -i -i D -u -e -i L -e/-i -e/-i -i I -om -oj -ju ________________________________________________________________________ 24 .I declension masc/neut II declension fem/masc III declension fem only The zero desinence occurs in some first declension and all third declension nouns in the nominative case. that desinence must be dropped before adding the case ending. N/L . Morphophonemic consonant mutations of the type commonly found in the West Slavic languages are not a principle of Russian nominal declension. which automatically softens preceding paired consonants (cf. 2.

4) 25 . anim=A inan=N. anim=A inan=N.masculine unpaired consonants 'person' 'pencil' 'hero' человек карандаш герой человека карандаш героя человека карандаша героя человеку карандашу герою человеке карандаше герое человеком карандашом героем люди людей людей людям людях людьми карандаши карандаши карандашей карандашам карандашах карандашами герои героев героиев героям героях героями 'American' американец американца американца американцу американце американцем американцы американцев американцев американцам американцах американцами 'scenery' сценарий сценарий сценария сценарию сценарии сценарием сценарии сценарии сценариев сценариях сценариям сценариями N A G D L I PL N A G D L I 8 -Ø occurs in some exceptional genitive plurals (cf.1. 2. anim=A -Ø/-ej -ej G -ov/-ej8 D -am -am -am L -ax -ax -ax I -am’i -am’i -am’i/’m’i ________________________________________________________________________ 2.2 Examples I declension .2.masculine paired consonants 'student' 'table' 'bullock' 'teacher' 'dictionary' N студент стол вол учитель словарь A студента стол вола учителя словарь G студента стола вола учителя словаря D студенту столу волу учителю словарю L студенте столе воле учителе словаре I студентом столом волом учителем словарём PL N студенты столы волы учителя словари A студентов столы волов учителей словари G студентов столов волов учителей словарей D студентам столам волам учителям словарям L студентах столах волах учителях словарях I студентами столами волами учителями словарями I declension .PL I declension II declension III declension N -i/-a -i -i A inan=N.

N A G D L I PL N A G D L I I declension 'window' окно окно окна окну окне окном окна окна окон окнам окнам окнами .neuter 'field' поле поле поля полю поле полем поля поля полей полям полях полями .feminine 'sister' сестра сестру сестры сестре сестре сестрой 'building' здание здание здания зданию здании зданием здания здания зданий зданиям зданиях зданиями 'freak' чудовище чудовище чудовища чудовищу чудовище чудовищем чудовища чудовищ чудовищ чудовищам чудовищах чудовищами 'lecture' лекция лекцию лекции лекции лекции лекцией лекции лекции лекций лекциям лекциях лекциями 'daughter' дочь дочь дочери дочери дочери дочерью N A G D L I PL N A G D L I II declension 'room' комната комнату комнаты комнате комнате комнатой комнаты комнаты комнат комнатам комнатах комнатами (and some masculine and epicene) 'murderer' 'article' 'book' убийца статья книга убийцу статью книгу убийцы статьи книги убийце статье книге убийце статье книге убийцей статьёй книгой статьи статьи статей статьям статьях статьями 'mother' мать мать матери матери матери матерью книги книги книг книгам книгах книгами сёстры убийцы сёстры убийцы сестёр убийц сёстрам убийцам сёстрах убийцах сёстрами убийцами N A G D L I III declension .feminine only 'church' 'square' 'door' церковь площадь дверь церковь площадь дверь церкви площади двери церкви площади двери церкви площади двери9 церковью площадью дверью 9 в/на двери but о двери 26 .

темя -'crown of the head' (3) masculine family names with the suffixes -ov. G: времён. ванов/ вановым -'Ivanov') (4) feminine family names with the suffixes -ova.PL N A G D L I церкви церкви церквей церквям церквях церквями площади площади площадей площадям площадях площадями двери двери дверей дверям дверях дверьми матери матерей матерей матерям матерях матерями дочери дочерей дочерей дочерям дочерях дочерьми 2. Note the following examples: столовая 'dining room. cafeteria' ванная 'bathroom' булочная 'bakery' пирожковая 'meat/vegetable pie shop' 27 . Included in this group are many Russian family names. бремя -'burden'. L: временам. I: путём) (2) neuter nouns ending in the grapheme я: (SG: N/A: время. стремя -'stirrup'. вымя -'udder'. I: временами -'time') Other neuter nouns with this declension include: имя -'name'. D: временам. G/D/L: пути. знамя -'banner'. семя -'seed'. G/D/L: времени. PL: N/A времена. пламя -'flame'. -ina utilize the pronominal declensional paradigm: 'this' 'Akhmatova' 'Axmadulina' N эта Ахматова Ахмадулина A эту Ахматову Ахмадулину G этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной D этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной L этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной I этой Ахматовой Ахмадулиной (5) Plural family names require adjectival desinences in all non-nominative case forms: 'Bulgakovs' N улгаковы A улгаковых G улгаковых D улгаковым L улгаковых I улгаковыми (6) There are several word forms in CSR that are formally adjectival but semantically behave as nouns.2.3 Exceptions within declensional paradigms: The major exceptions to the I declension given above are (1) the word путь .'path' (N/A: путь. -in require the adjectival desinence in the instrumental singular ( ушкин/ ушкиным -'Pushkin'. I: временем. племя -'tribe'.

).2 Animacy There are some neuter nouns that behave as animates in the genitive plural: чудовище/чудовищ -'monster'.2. олстой -'Tolstoy'. 2. spinning top' 'sleepyhead' 'blunderer' 'reveler' 'greedy pig' 'crybaby' 'sweet tooth' 'bigot' 'boor' 'untouchable' 'crammer' 'someone who is always losing/ forgetting things' 2.4 Stress in noun declensions For a thorough discussion of stress patterns in the singular and plural declensions of the Russian noun.1 Gender Some Russian nouns.5.примерочная парикмахерская 'fitting room' 'beauty salon' Family names: олстая. see Vinogradov 1960: 193-208 and Feldstein (1996:199-216).2.5 Grammatical Peculiarities of the Russian Noun 2.2.5. may signal either masculine or feminine agreement. орький -'Gorky'.2.2. Анненский -'Annensky' Many Russian adjectives in the neuter nominative form may also behave as nouns semantically: прошлое 'the past' настоящее 'the present' будущее 'the future' 2. called epicene. 2. яземский -'Vjazemsky'. (For other types of gender shifts and examples of multiple gender agreement that are possible in derivational morphology. cf. Examples (also see Vingradov 1960: 109): пьяница брюзга заика неряха ровня подлиза зевака бродяга злюка грязнуля тупица задира разиня лежебока ворюга тихоня 'drunkard' 'grumbler' 'stutterer' 'someone who is always losing things' 'equal' 'toady' 'idler' 'vagrant' 'shrew' 'dirty creature' 'fool' 'teaser' 'gawker' 'lazybones' 'thief' 'demure person' судья егоза калека юла соня растяпа гуляка хапуга плакса сластёна ханжа невежа недотрога зубрила растеряха 'judge' 'fidgeter' 'cripple' 'whirligig. страшилище/страшилищ -'horrible thing' 28 .

-u. These nouns. toponyms. This group includes both common and proper nouns and abbreviations.3 Number Nouns that only exist in singular form (primarily collective common nouns) Examples (also see Vinogradov 1960: 113-4): бельё 'linens' листва 'foliage' 'professorate' старьё 'old things' профессура 'strawberries' виноград 'grapes' клубника 'sugar' зелень 'greens' сахар родня 'kin' картошка 'potatoes' 'coal' мелочь 'small things' нефть Nouns that only exist in plural form (including common nouns.2. also Vingradov 1960: 116-18): алименты Альпы Афины лизнецы боты будни весы вилы ворота горелки деньги дети дрова дрожжи каникулы качели люди макароны мощи ножницы носилки 'alimony' 'Alps' 'Athens' 'Gemini' 'galoshes' 'workdays' 'scales' 'pitchfork' 'gate(s)' 'catch (game)' 'money' 'children' 'firewood' 'yeast' 'holiday(s)' 'swing' 'people' 'macaroni. watch' 'ink' 'chess' 'cabbage soup' 'tongs. most generally ending in -i. reflect case function syntactically via adjectival and verbal modifiers: ателье аку 'atelier' 'Baku' купе мадам 'train compartment' 'madam' 29 . the majority of which are foreign borrowings.5. pinchers' 2. litter' обои перила леяды похороны прятки роды санки сласти смотрины сумерки сутки усы хлопоты хлопья хоромы часы чернила шахматы щи щипцы 'wallpaper' 'banister. pasta' 'relic(s)' 'scissors' 'stretcher. Examples (cf. that do not decline.The masculine inanimate noun ‘ace’ behaves as an animate noun in the accusative singular: туз/туза 2. railing' 'Pleiades' 'funeral' 'hide-and-seek' 'kin' 'sledge' 'sweets' 'bridal shower' 'dusk' '24 hour period' 'moustache' 'trouble(s)' 'flake(s)' 'mansion' 'clock.3 Indeclinable Nouns There is a substantial number of Russian nouns. and constellations). -e or -o.

снег/снегу -'snow'.1 Locative -u Masculine nouns (generally monosyllabic) that demonstrate the locative in -u after the prepositions B . Compare the following examples: Я ел сыр.безе ессмертных бра ёте жалюзи жюри интервью кафе кенгуру кино кофе 'meringue' 'Bessmertnyx' (last name . sight'. быт/быту -'domestic life'.‘the immortal one’) 'wall lamp' 'Goethe' 'venetian blinds' 'jury' 'interview' 'cafe' 'kangaroo' 'cinema' 'coffee' У метро ОО пальто пари радио А такси билиси фортепиано 'Moscow State University' 'metro' 'U. нос/носу -'nose'. народу -'folk'. свету -'society'. оваленко -'Kovalenko'. рису -'rice'.N. also Vingradov 1960: 143-5): ад/аду -'hell'. смеху -'laughter'. снегу -'snow'. also Vingradov 1960: 141-143): бензину -'gasoline'. винограду -'grapes'. сад/саду -'garden'. хрену -'horseradish'.’ 30 . нарзану -'mineral water'.4. апиро -'Shapiro'. бой/бою -'battle'. шуму -'noise'. ход/ходу -'motion'. лимонаду -'lemonade'. пот/поту -'sweat'. рай/раю -'heaven'. салату -salad'. 2. борт/борту -'shipboard'. быть на хорошем счету -'to be in good standing'. табаку -'tobacco'. ‘I was eating the cheese. песку -'sand'.4. перцу -'pepper'. wager' 'radio' 'AIDS' 'USA' 'taxicab' 'Tbilisi' 'grand piano' The entire class of foreign feminine family names does not decline in Russian ( арко 'Sharko'. мидт -'Schmidt'). коньяку -'cognac'. at’ and HA . учеренко -'Kucherenko'. творогу -'tvorog cheese' Note that the -u genitive desinence cannot be used with non-negated imperfective verbs. цвет/цвету -'flower' There are also a number of set expressions that require the -u locative desinence: на лету -'in the air'. бок/боку -'side'. идти на поводу -'to be lead around by the nose' 2. чайку -'tea'. at’ (cf.2 Genitive -u Masculine nouns (generally monosyllabic) that demonstrate the genitive in -u (cf.' 'greatcoat' 'bet. хеидзе -'Mkheidze').4 Other declensional desinences: singular 2. вид/виду -'view. жиру -'fat'. весу -'weight'. сахару -'sugar'. мост/мосту -'bridge'. чесноку 'garlic'. чаю -'tea'. Masculine family names borrowed from Ukrainian or non-Slavic languages that end in a vowel generally do not decline (cf.‘in.‘on. бал/балу -'ball'. дыму 'smoke'. бред/бреду 'delirium'. берег/берегу -'shore'. сыру -'cheese'. соку -'juice'.

Christ. из. поясы/пояса -'belts (geog. города -'cities'. номера -'hotel rooms'.’ ‘I didn’t eat any cheese.1 Masculine nominative plural -a Masculine nouns that have a stressed -á nominative plural desinence (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 146-148): адреса -'addresses'. директора -'directors'.5.5 Declensional desinences: plural 2. цветы/цвета -'flowers/colors'. повара -'cooks'. снега 'snows'. мастера -'masters'. голоса 'voices'. also Vinogradov 1960: 142-143): из виду со смеху с голоду с испугу от ветру без спросу без шуму мало толку с жару дать маху говорить без умолку 'out of sight' 'from laughter' 'from hunger' 'from fright' 'from the wind' 'without permission' 'without noise/bother' 'senseless' 'from the heat' 'to miss a chance' 'to speak incessantly' из дому со страху с полу из лесу без разбору без риску ни слуху. 31 .2 There are some examples where the standard.’ The -u genitive desinence may also used in conjunction with the prepositions с. literary plural form requires -ы. Plato)/teachers'. катера -'launches'. рукава -'sleeves'.)/belts (clothing)'. паспорта -'passports'. ‘I ate some cheese. колокола -'bells'. приговоры/приговора -'sentences/condemnations'. Я не ел сыра. but each form represents a distinctive shift in reference (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 147): учители/учителя -'teachers (e. свитеры/свитера -'sweaters' 2. без and in set expressions (cf. but the colloquial form may demonstrate the occurrence of -á: договоры/договора -'agreements'. от. доктора -'doctors'.5. паруса -'sails'. ни духу не хватило духу с жиру беситься спору нет 'out of the house' 'from fear' 'from the floor' 'out of the forest' 'indiscriminately' 'without risk' 'nothing has been heard' 'didn't have enough strength.g.5. векселя -'drafts'. образы/образа -'images/icons'.Я поел сыру/сыра. шелка -'silks' 2. сорта -'sorts/types'.3 There are some examples where the standard. поезда -'trains'. берега -'shores'. breath' 'to lose perspective from excess wealth' 'there is no argument' 2. сторожа -'watchmen'. профессора 'professors'. literary nominative plural form allows either the -ы or -á desinences. глаза -'eyes'. бока -'sides.

лагери/лагеря -'camps'. If there is a zero ending in the nominative singular. G. listing below for both regular forms and exceptions).1. then there will be a zero ending in the genitive plural.5. sg. ш) or jot.6 Formation of the Genitive Plural The genitive plural is considered to be the most complex of the Russian cases in terms of formation. ш. pl. N. пропуски/пропуска -'blanks.6. листы/листья . Pay special attention to the frequency of vowel-zero alternations in those forms with a zero desinence. if there is a non-zero ending in the nominative singular. There are some notable exceptions (cf. крендели/кренделя -'krendel biscuits'. /identification cards'. 2. редакторы/редактора -'editors'.O. then there will be a non-zero ending in the genitive plural.проводы/провода -'seeing someone off/wires'. see 1. волосы/волоса -'hairs'. For a detailed description of the vowelzero alternation. студент -'student' студентов -'students' герой -'hero' героев -'heroes' стол -'table' столов -'tables' учитель -'teacher' учителей -'teachers' рубль -'ruble' рублей -'rubles' карандаш -'pencil' карандашей -'pencils' этаж -'floor. 2. levels' 10 -ov is represented in Cyrillic as -ов. -ov. accounts'. -ев. literary nominative plural form is in free variation and allows either the -ы or -á desinences without a shift in reference (cf also Vinogradov 1960: 147): годы/года -'years'. Note the following diagram: Desinence: NOMINATIVE SINGULAR GENITIVE PLURAL -a/-o -0 -0 -ov. absence of a desinence in the nominative singular. level' этажей -'floors. счёты/счета -'abacus/bills. This principle was originally discovered by R. кузовы/кузова -'baskets'. Jakobson (1956/1984: 135-140). -ej). The complexity of the genitive plural involves not only a broader range of desinental choices than is typical of the CSR case system (3 endings: zero. корректоры/корректора -'proofreaders'. ёв 32 .‘sheets of paper/leaves’.5. The desinence -ej is selected if the stem-final consonant is soft (palatalized or palatal) or the nonpalatalized hushers ж.4 There are some examples where the standard. слесари/слесаря -'lathe workers' 2. but also the principle of selection that is determined by the presence vs. -ej10 The desinence -ov is selected if the stem-final consonant is hard (excluding ж. отпуски/отпуска -'work leaves'.1 Examples Note the following examples.

cuisine' статья -'article' семья -'family' здание -'building' лекция -'lecture' площадь -'square' мышь -'mouse' церковь -'church' воскресенье -'Sunday' день -'day' земля -'earth.6.‘bottoms’ буёв -'buoys' писем -'letters. N. ground' деревня -'village' отец -'father' словарей -'dictionaries' африканцев -'Africans' платьев -'dresses' доньев . sg. N. ребёнок дети детей 'child/children' человек люди людей 'person/people' сын сыновья сыновей 'sons/s' муж мужья мужей 'husband/s' брат братья братьев 'brother/s' сосед соседи соседей 'neighbor/s' раз разы раз 'time. occasion/s' ботинок ботинки ботинок 'high shoe/s' солдат солдаты солдат 'soldier/s' грузин грузины грузин 'Georgian/s' англичанин англичане англичан 'Englishman/men' мать матери матерей 'mother/s' дочь дочери дочерей 'daughter/s' 33 . ground' деревень -'villages' отцов -'fathers' 2. pl.)’ буй -'buoy' письмо -'letter.2 A list of the more frequent irregular genitive plurals is given below.‘bottom (of ocean. missives' кресел -'easy chairs' озёр -'lakes' сестёр -'sisters' дочек -'daughters' досок -'boards' студенток -'students' [f. missive' кресло -'easy chair' озеро -'lake' сестра -'sister' дочка -'daughter' доска -'board' студентка -'student' [f. glass.] карт -'maps' ламп -'lamps' девушек -'girls' копеек -'kopecks' кухонь -'kitchens. etc. pl.словарь -'dictionary' африканец -'African' платье -'dress' дно . G. cuisines' статей -'articles' семей -'families' зданий -'buildings' лекций -'lectures' площадей -'squares' мышей -'mice' церквей -'churches' воскресений -'Sundays' дней -'days' земель -'Earths.] карта -'map' лампа -'lamp' девушка -'girl' копейка -'kopeck' кухня -'kitchen.

7 The semantics of the Russian case system The category of case in Slavic is a phenomenon that indicates the relationship between nouns and noun phrases to verbs. Although rarely mentioned. There is one particular syntactic context where the nominative is required that may seem counter intuitive to the English speaker. It is used for most (but not all) grammatical subjects. namely 'Let him smoke' .глаз чулок сапог судно море поле тётя дядя песня спальня друг имя время деньга ------- глаза чулки сапоги суда моря поля тёти дяди песни спальни друзья имена времена деньги каникулы глаз чулок сапог судов морей полей тётей дядей песен спален друзей имён времён денег каникул 'eye/s' 'stocking/s' 'boot/s' 'boat. (Historically. помидор/помидоров). and may be used after the preposition за (cf.. the nominative case is used in apposition (where a common noun is followed by a more specific proper name). ёва 34 . vessel/s' 'sea/s' 'field/s' 'aunt/s' 'uncle/s' 'song/s' 'bedroom/s' 'friend/s' 'name/s' 'time/s' 'money [sg. penetrating both morphology and syntax. 2. Formally.1 Nominative The nominative case functions primarily as the naming case.]/money' 'holidays' There are also examples of free variation in genitive plural forms where two endings are possible (cf.) Finally. to other noun phrases and to other parts of the syntagm. but this is no longer a viable option in CSR. 2.coll. The case system is one of the most robust structures of the grammar of CSR. Specific verbs and prepositions may require a particular case or set of cases.усть он курит. In order to achieve a deep understanding of the Russian case system. The nominative form is typically given as the dictionary form of the word. The fundamental functions of the Russian cases will be given below in the order of the direct (N/A) and oblique (G/D/L/I) forms.. the proper name may be in the nominative regardless of the case form of its antecedent common noun (cf. килограмм/килограммов. there will be a short discussion of the so-called vocative form in CSR. 1958). only nouns and adjectives signal case via a group of well-defined desinences. an accusative/genitive was possible. For a detailed discussion of the markedness values of the Russian cases.7. depending on the semantic focus. In these instances. see Jakobson (1935. то это за глупость? -'What kind of nonsense is this?'). it is imperative to become acquainted with the range of reference and meaning that is available to each of the cases and to the system as a whole. it is often used as the simple predicate with verbs 'be'.

Verbs with the particle -ся are not used with the accusative case.етербургские ведомости» -'Lyova works at the newspaper "Saint Petersburg Times"'). there will occasionally be instances that seem counterintuitive to L1 speakers of nonSlavic languages (cf. Although the use of the accusative case following most transitive verbs in CSR is trivial. treat' 'become mad' 'cover' 'rely upon' 'squander' 'agree' 'complain' 'play'11 'fall in love' 'act' бросаться вступать превращаться 'throw oneself' 'enter. However. 'The children always obey the teacher. become' When playing an instrument.папа): ети всегда слушаются воспитательницу. suggest' разделять 'divide' размениваться 'look. The accusative case is one of the most prevalent forms for the objects of transitive verbs in CSR.' Common verbs that require the accusative case (with a preposition): preposition на -'on/onto' 'throw/foist oneself' влиять. the verbal government changes to HA + locative case. gaze' соглашаться смотреть указывать 'gesture. repetitions of a time frame and following quantifiers of time like 'all' and 'every' (всю неделю -'for the whole week'.мать.7. engage' 'turn into.2 Accusative The accusative case gives a meaning of directionality or extension.' ова боится ру. 2. бросаться действовать 'act' поступать доносить 'inform. 35 . moved upon or created as a result of the verbal process. The accusative case is highly correlated with motion towards or onto an object and is the primary case for time expressions covering the smallest units of measured time to periods as large as weeks. ‘Listen to me!’ requires an accusative in CSR: лушай меня!). namely the verbs 'obey' (only accusative forms are possible with animates) and 'fear' (accusative form is required when used with names or certain common nouns like ‘mother’ . 'Vova fears Ira. denounce' злиться 'become angry' накрывать сердиться полагаться намекать 'refer.работает в газете « анкт. каждую среду -'every Wednesday'). there are 2 notable exceptions to this rule. мама and ‘dad’ . indicate' жаловаться обижаться 'become offended' preposition в -'in/into' играть влюбляться поступать 11 'influence' 'act. целую неделю -'for an entire week'. Forms in the accusative are acted upon.

'Whose books is this? . adjectives in the genitive plural [except adjectives modifying feminine nouns may be in the nominative plural]. 3. The verb иметь -‘have’ does occur in CSR. 'I recently had a book appear in print' У него нет денег на велосипед. 3. на -'on. 'He doesn’t have money to buy a bike' У нас с тобой много общего.7. This prepositional construction у with the genitive case is the predominant form for expressing ownership or ‘having’.Это ашина книга. Possession is designated by putting the possessor or the object one belongs to in the genitive case: Это книга брата. but its range of usage is much more restricted than the у construction. несколько -'a few. 'That’s brother’s book' Она студентка нашего университета. 4 and any numerals ending in 2. столько -'so many') and the following numerals must be used with the genitive case: 2. 'You and I have a lot in common' BUT: Я имею в виду два возможных варианта. into'. мало -'little. behind'. под -'under'. сколько -'how much. 'She’s a student of our university' Another construction showing possession requires the preposition followed by a genitive case form.It’s Sasha’s book' Он маменькин/мамочкин сынок.The following prepositions must be used with the accusative: через 'across. through' сквозь 'through' The following prepositions may be used with the accusative when motion or directionality is involved or comparison: в -'in. 5-10 and any numerals ending in 5-9 or 0 require that the following noun phrase be in the genitive plural. 36 . 4 require that the following noun be in the genitive singular. onto'. off of'. с -'from. how many'. за -'for. few'. quantification and negation. several'. У меня недавно вышла книга. many'. о/об 'about. немного -'a little'. over'. over. 'I have in mind two possible options' There are restrictions to this usage when the possessor is a member of a class of proper names and/or common nouns ending in -a (both masculine and feminine) that allow for augmentation by the suffix -in-: ья это книга? . 2. 'He’s a momma’s boy' Nouns modified by adverbs of quantity (много -'much.3 Genitive The genitive case is dominant in signaling three basic concepts: possession.

наесться 'have one's fill of food'). не будет -'will not be' and after many negated transitive verbs. free oneself' остерегаться отделяться 'separate. Common verbs that require either the genitive or accusative case (without a preposition): дожидаться -'await'. take пугаться composed of' fright' страшиться 'be in fear of' спасаться 'escape. The other common case found with на. not ‘onto’. от -'away from'. вокруг -'around'. мимо -'past'. снаружи -'from the outside'. Common verbs that require the genitive case (with or without a preposition): 'be careful. до -'up to'. search'. просить -'request'. including modals). achieve' достигать 'attain' желать 'wish' зависеть 'depend' избавляться 'free oneself' избегать 'run away from.-ся is the instrumental (cf. touch'. following'. alongside' The following prepositions may be used with the genitive case: с -'from.7. shake off' oneself' отличаться 'stand out. надышаться -'inhale'. suffer. не было -'was not'. cautious' бояться 'fear' беречься добиваться 'obtain. бояться -'fear' The following prepositions must be used with the genitive: из -'out of'. concern' лишаться 'deprive' 'worry. distance отделываться 'get rid of. ждать -'wait for'. nature and weather. вместо -'in place of'. искать -'seek. хотеть -'want'. save oneself' Note that it will often be the case that verbs with the prefix на. the secondary object of a transitive verb (often animate). после -'after. following'. напиться -'have one's fill of drink'. praise'). hearing). натерпеться -'be through withstanding. около -'in the vicinity of'. наслушаться -'have one's fill of listening'.and the reflexive particle -ся require an object in the genitive case (cf. требовать -'demand'. без 'without'. flee' касаться 'touch on. вследствие -'as a result of. be cautious' освобождаться 'liberate. be 'be startled. напиваться 'drink one's fill' мучиться torment oneself' наслушаться 'hear one's fill' опасаться 'fear. нахвалиться -'extol.With the negative нет -'is not'. the genitive case is required. внутри -'within'. off of'. вдоль -'along. or the goal of a verb of motion where the focus is on motion ‘toward’ or ‘along’. доставать -'reach. между -'between' 2. отставать 'remain behind' differentiate' состоять 'consist. and more broadly in constructions where a verbal infinitive is required.4 Dative The dative case functions primarily as the case of the actor in impersonal constructions (especially in the semantic context of physical and psychological human states. у -'near'. avoid' 'beware. especially verbs of perception (seeing. 37 .

' 'The bus doesn’t usually run on our street. to change (accusative)'. ам помочь? то купил тебе эту книгу? автра мы едем к друзьям на дачу.' ы испортил ему жизнь. надоедать -'become bored'.не нездоровится. показывать 'show.’ Common verbs that require the dative case (with or without a preposition): 'applaud' верить 'believe' аплодировать звонить 'call' мстить 'avenge' 'be dangerous' готовиться 'prepare oneself' вредить возражать 'object' завидовать 'envy' отвечать 'answer' объяснять 'explain' относиться 'relate to' охладеть 'grow cold. direct'. ‘He happens to be my brother. предлагать -'suggest'. 'She stepped on my foot. appear' Common verbs that require either the dative case or the accusative case resulting in a different meaning of the verb: изменять -'to cheat (dative). say'. 'You have ruined his life. report' Common verbs that require the dative case of the experiencer (which appears as the logical subject in English translations of these Russian verbs): нравиться -'be pleasing to'. сообщать -'inform. посылать -'send'. отправлять -'send off.' Он мне приходится братом. аме холодно. 'I’m not well' 'Mom is cold' 'My brother is doing badly' 'Can I help you?' 'Who bought you that book?' 'We’re going to our friends’ dacha tomorrow. to mix (accusative)' 38 . lose interest' 'change. present'. мешать -'to bother (dative). рату очень плохо. дарить -'give. indicate'. Автобус обычно не ходит по нашей улице. казаться -'seem. говорить -'speak.' There are syntactic constructions in CSR that require a dative of possession. hand over'. alter' подчиняться 'submit' перемениться 'become accustomed' противоречить 'contradict' привыкать радоваться 'be glad (about)' симпатизировать 'sympathize' 'empathize' советовать 'counsel' сочувствовать удивляться 'be amazed at' улыбаться 'smile' Common verbs that require the dative case of the receiver and the accusative case of the thing received: давать -'give. понадобиться -'become necessary'. where the possessor is expressed as a personal pronoun in the dative case (and not a possessive pronoun or a genitive case form): Она наступила мне на ногу.

обо всём . The list of prepositions used with the locative is relatively more restricted than with the other cases. due to' 'along. concerning' (о followed by consonant or jot. присоединяться -'join. i. make a mistake' 'understand. приучать -'train. harass'. toward'. confess' 'be disappointed' основываться отражаться специализироваться 'play' (instrument) 'be based. owing to'.7. and only one of the five prepositions is used exclusively with the locative. вопреки -'in spite of. despite' The following prepositions may be used with the dative case: по -'along' 2.‘about everything’] 'in the presence of. обо followed by a pronominal with initial consonant cluster [cf. обо мне -‘about me’. приближаться -'get closer'. find fault'. 'marry' (for males) настаивать останавливаться сосредоточивать(ся) 'insist' 'stop. благодаря 'thanks to. придираться -'nag. concentrate' 'conclude.(both with and without the reflexive particle -ся) may require an object in the dative case (cf. acclimate'. associate') The following prepositions must be used with the dative: к -'to. u. приставать 'impose. founded' 'reflect. dissemble' 'be composed' 39 . тосковать -'be melancholy' при по Common verbs that require the locative case (always with a preposition): на: играть жениться. at' (nouns derived from verbs or nouns denoting processes often require на instead of в) 'in. at' 'about. remain' 'specify. e.5 Locative The locative case (also referred to as the prepositional case) is the only case in CSR that is realized exclusively in conjunction with prepositions. присматриваться -'inspect. during the reign of. прислушиваться 'listen attentively to'. look closely'. agree' 'reflect. o. reverberate' 'admit.Note that it will often be the case that verbs with the prefix при. The meaning of the locative case is related directly to the meaning of the preposition with which it is used: на в о/об/обо 'on. reverberate' 'specialize' в: заключаться отражаться признаваться разочаровываться нуждаться ошибаться разбираться состоять 'need' 'err. об followed by a. about' used with the verbs скучать -'be bored'.

have' 'date.6 Instrumental The instrumental case is used for the agent of an action.специализироваться участвовать 'specialize' 'participate' убеждаться 'be certain' The following prepositions must be used with the locative: при -'near. enjoy' общаться 'converse. utilize' развлекаться 'amuse oneself' ругаться 'curse' руководить 'govern. advise' смеяться 'laugh' 40 .” The instrumental is often used with verbs of being and becoming and is prominent in giving the agent in passive constructions. Отец был солдатом во время войны. meet with' владеть 'command. Этот вопрос обсуждается историками.7.' 'Vitya wants to become president. manner or means of performing an action. горь любит играть с ирой в теннис. ельзя есть суп вилкой! аша пишет карадашом.' Common verbs that require the instrumental case (with or without a preposition): болеть 'be sick. The use of the instrumental without a preposition is often translated as “by means of” versus the use of the instrumental following the preposition с meaning “together with. 'Igor’ likes to play tennis with Kira. jeer' наслаждаться 'savor. на -'on' 2. regarding'. value' драться 'fight' дорожить 'sacrifice' заниматься 'study. appear' махать 'wave' хлопать 'slam' 'reconcile oneself' наблюдать 'observe' мириться насмехаться 'mock.' 'That novel was written by my sister. в -'in'. render' работать 'work as' пользоваться 'use. о/об -'about'. итя хочет стать президентом.' 'That question is being discussed by historians. busy жертвовать oneself' извиняться 'beg forgiveness. fraternize' обмениваться 'exchange places' переписываться 'correspond' оказываться 'grant. in the vicinity of'. знакомиться 'become acquainted' excuse oneself' 'be interested' издеваться 'mock' интересоваться любоваться 'admire' казаться 'seem.' 'You can’t eat soup with a fork!' 'Masha writes with a pencil.' 'My father was a soldier during the war. Этот роман был написан моей сестрой. rule' встречаться 'be proud' делиться 'share' гордиться 'treasure. обо -'about' The following prepositions may be used with the locative case: по -'about. rule' служить 'serve as' следить 'watch after' следовать 'follow' советоваться 'counsel. ill' обладать 'possess.

Long form adjectives inflect for case. emulate' 'consider oneself' 'divert oneself' 'rule. In the plural forms. there is. Katyusha' иш! -'Misha' ит! -'Rita' юсь! -'Lyusya' сюш! -'Ksyusha' арин! -'Marina' ядь еть! .7 Vocative There is generally no mention of a vocative case in the literature on CSR. look after' 'boast. brag' 'be' становиться торговать(ся) управлять ухаживать хвалиться быть (infinitive or past tense) 'become' 'barter. above' The following prepositions may be used with the instrumental case: с -'with'.8 Adjectives 2. for'. underneath' 2. аш! ань! ур! ашуль! -'Sasha' ( but never with related forms like анёк. ашок) ен! енусь! енуль! -'Lena' (but never with related forms like Алёна. над -'over.1 Adjectives of positive degree Adjectives of positive degree in CSR fall into two major types: long forms and short forms.8. 41 .7. This zero desinence is used only with a limited list of derivative proper names (usually having no more than 2 syllables) and a very restricted list of common nouns. in front of'. под -'under. a special morphological form with a zero ending used as an address form.соревноваться считаться увлекаться править хвастаться являться 'compete. number and gender. еночка) р! -'Ira' ам! -'mama' ап! -'papa' ёнь! -'Lyonya' юд! -'Lyuda' вет! -'Sveta' аль! -'Valya' ен! -'Gena' ёш! -'Lyosha (for Alyosha)' ать! атюш! -'Katya.‘Aunt Masha’ 2. swagger' 'be' The following prepositions must be used with the instrumental: перед -'before. deal' 'govern' 'nurse. in fact. only number and case are reflected. However.‘Uncle Petya’ ёть аш! . за -'behind. Short form adjectives only exist in the predicate nominative form and inflect for gender and number. command' 'boast. The following paradigms demonstrate the range of possibilities of adjectival declension.

Long form adjectives: SINGULAR Hard-stem masculine 'big' 'good' N большой хороший A N/G G большого хорошего D большому хорошему L большом хорошем I большим хорошим Hard-stem N A G D L I Soft-stem N A G D L I feminine 'strong' сильная сильную сильной сильной сильной сильной/ сильною masculine 'evening' вечерний N/G синего вечернего синему вечернему синем вечернем синим вечерним 'blue' синий 'strong' сильный сильного сильному сильном сильным feminine 'big' большая большую большой большой большой большой/ большою neuter 'big' большое большое большого большому большом большим 'good' хорошая хорошую хорошей хорошей хорошей хорошей/ хорошею ‘strong’ сильное сильное сильного сильному сильном сильным 'good' хорошее хорошее хорошего хорошему хорошем хорошим feminine 'autumn' осенняя осеннюю осенней осенней осенней осенней/ осеннею 'strong' сильные сильных сильным сильных сильными neuter 'morning' утреннее утреннее утреннего утреннему утреннем утренним Long form adjectives: PLURAL Hard-stem 'big' 'good' N большие хорошие A N/G G больших хороших D большим хорошим L больших хороших I большими хорошими 42 .

Note the following examples более интересный роман 'a more interesting novel' менее толстая книга 'a less thick book' более широкое окно 'a wider window' менее приятные люди 'less pleasant people' 43 .Soft-stem N A G D L I 'blue' синие синих синим синих синими 'evening' вечерние N/G вечерних вечерним вечерних вечерними 'autumn' осенние осенних осенним осенних осенними 2. consisting of two parts: более/менее ‘more. denote animal names.8. .бóльно -'sick. painful'). or end in the suffix -sk. see Vinogradov 1960: 292-93. adj. great' хорош/хороша/хорошо/хороши -'good' силён/сильна/сильно/сильны -'strong' Soft-stem синь/синя/сине/сини -'blue' Note that the neuter short form adjective is formally indistinguishable from the typical adverb except in those instances where the word stress may differ (cf. For more information on restrictions in the formation of comparative adjectives. Adjectives that give ordinal numerals. 2. the comparative adjective is analytic in nature. Modifiers of attributive or predicative comparative adjectival phrases include the equivalent for ‘a lot’: намного In attributive usage. less’ + positive adjective. adverb . denote temporal qualities. or end in the suffix -skdo not have short forms.8.2 Short form adjectives: singular and plural nominative Adjectives that give ordinal numerals.3 Comparative degree of adjectives Comparative adjectives have distinct forms in order to express attributive versus predicative syntactic functions.больнó. Hard-stem masc/fem/neut/pl велик/велика/велико/велики -' not form comparatives.

ст » щ. ей. х » ш.suffix: (г » ж. consonant cluster or -k. д » ж.ы говорили про намного более серьёзную проблему 'We talked about a much more serious problem' There are four synthetic comparative adjectives that occur in attributive usage: лучший 'better' худший 'worse' меньший 'smaller' больший 'bigger' [Note that the stress is distinctive between the positive большой and comparative больший] In predicative usage. is also possible and occurs in CSR in songs and poetry: круглый » круглее 'round/er' трудный » труднее 'difficult/ more difficult' красный » краснее 'red/der' светлый » светлее 'light/er' (color) прямой » прямее 'straight/er' острый » острее 'sharp/er' интересный » интереснее 'interesting/more interesting' глупый » глупее 'dumb/er' симпатичный » симпатичнее 'nice/r' серьёзный » серьёзнее 'serious/ more serious' приятный » приятнее 'pleasant/ more pleasant' сильный » сильнее 'strong/er' дружный » дружнее 'friendly/ier' быстрый » быстрее 'fast/er' холодный » холоднее 'cold/er' новый » новее 'new/er' умный » умнее 'smart/er' тёплый » теплее 'warm/er' весёлый » веселее 'happy/ier' добрый » добрее 'good/better' старый » старее vs. к » ч. An older form of the desinence. the comparative is synthetic and has two possible forms: (1) -ee desinence with accompanying stress shift to the ending in roots of two syllables or less (with some exceptions) and no stem modification. в » вл): жаркий » жарче 'hot/ter' большой » больше 'big/ger' громкий » громче 'loud/er' толстый » толще 'fat/ter' 44 . older [of people] худой » худее 'thin/ner' красивый » красивее 'pretty/ier' (2) -e ending with accompanying consonant mutation of stem-final consonant. т » ч. старше 'old/er' [of things] vs.

з » ж): плохой » хуже 'bad/worse' старый » старше 'old/er' хороший » лучше 'good/better' малый/маленький » меньше 'small/er' высокий » выше 'tall/er' мелкий » мельче 'shallow/er' далёкий » дальше 'far/farther' долгий » дольше 'long/er' близкий » ближе 'near/er' редкий » реже 'rare/r' узкий » уже 'narrow/er' сладкий » слаще 'sweet/er' широкий » шире 'wide/r' глубокий » глубже 'deep/er' When comparing two things using predicative forms. 45 . complexity) 'dear/er' 'strict/er' 'quiet/er' 'simple/r' 'frequent/ more frequent' 'young/er' 'expensive/ more expensive' 'sharp/er' 'tight/er' 'dry/ier' 'rich/er' 'steep/er' 'thick/er' (viscosity) 'clean/er' Some comparatives with the -e desinence are more exceptional in their formation. ‘Ol’ga is smarter than Tanya.’ (the object compared is in the genitive case) (2) Ольга умнее. чем атьяна.лёгкий » легче дорогой » дороже строгий » строже тихий » тише простой » проще частый » чаще молодой » моложе (или младше) дешёвый » дешевле резкий » резче тугой » туже сухой » суше богатый » богаче крутой » круче густой » гуще чистый » чище 'light/er' (weight. or more unexpected consonant mutations (including с » ш. including suppletive forms.’ (the object compared may be in any case and is obligatorily preceded by -'than') Note that type 1 may only be used when the head phrase of the comparison is in the nominative case. In those instances where either type 1 or 2 are syntactically possible. ‘He is older than my father. suffix loss. the following constructions are possible: (1) Он старше моего отца.

g. The synthetic forms are more restricted than was seen with comparative synthetic forms.’) are: (a) stems ending in a consonant other than /k.айш. к » ч. g. kindest' отвратительнейший 'most despicable' (b) stems ending in /k. Synthetic superlative adjectives also utilize on occasion a prefix наи. Type 2 is preferred when the head phrase contains a verb other than the zero copula ‘to be’: Preferred: горь играет лучше. type 1 is preferred. see Vinogradov 1960: intensify the degree: наиважнейший наикрасивейший наичистейший наистрожайший (устар. height.. х » ш): широчайший 'widest' высочайший 'tallest' мельчайший 'shallowest' глубочайший 'deepest' мягчайший 'softest' редчайший 'rarest' сладчайший 'sweetest' тончайший 'thinnest' тишайший 'quietest' величайший 'greatest' строжайший 'strictest' For more information on restrictions in the formation of superlative adjectives. -'Igor' plays better than Sasha' Possible: горь играет лучше аши. чем аша. -'Igor' plays better than Sasha' 2. when comparing qualities that are more intrinsic to the objects (age. x/ require the suffix .there may be semantic constraints that will dictate preference.) 'most important' 'most beautiful' 'cleanest' 'strictest' (archaic) 46 .).. etc.(г » ж. (1) The rules and desinences for synthetic superlative adjectives (which are also sometimes treated as comparatives meaning ‘ a most. For example..ейш-: красивейший 'prettiest' прекраснейший 'most excellent' великолепнейший 'most splendid' добрейший 'nicest' богатейший 'richest' приятнейший 'nicest.4 Superlative adjectives exhibit both analytic and synthetic formation patterns.8. x/ require the suffix .

-ин. where the desinence is -j.’): самый + positive adjective самый красивый самая умная самое большое самые приятные 'most attractive' 'most intelligent' 'largest' 'most kind' Stress in adjectival declensions: For a thorough discussion of stress patterns in all degrees and forms of adjectives. 47 . Beyond these two major options..Modifiers of attributive or predicative comparative adjectival phrases include the equivalent for ‘a lot’: наиболее наиболее интересный роман 'a much more interesting novel' наиболее удобный диван 'a much more comfortable couch' наиболее необходимое из одежды 'a much more necessary piece of clothing' In addition to the forms given above. (3) the /i/ in the masculine singular desinence is a fill vowel. there are four forms with the prefix наи. pronominal adjectives obligatorily have one of the following suffixes: (1) a stem-final jot suffix (2) a possessiving suffix in /-ov/ or /-in/ (Cyrillic -ов. In addition to the use of the genitive case.5 Pronominal possessive adjectives As was noted in the discussion on case.based on comparative adjectival forms: наилучший наихудший наибольший наименьший 'best' 'worst' 'biggest' 'smallest' (2) Rules for analytic formation of superlatives (available in all cases. 2. see Vinogradov 1960: 321-325.. -ев. Unlike the qualitative and relational adjectives discussed above. there is a third class of adjectives that can show possession. numbers and genders and often translated as ‘the most. the genitive case can be used to show possession in specific constructions.8. The pronominal possessive adjectives in CSR are called as such based on their declensional paradigm. -ын) Note that the instrumental feminine singular has two potential forms. CSR has a full complement of possessive pronouns that can also be used instead of the genitive case. the second of which is used primarily in verse.

Note the following semantic differences in pronominal adjectives vs. non-overlapping meanings. кошачий -'feline'. 'maternal' мамин N/A мамина мамину мамином маминым neut. sg. щенячий -'puppy'. лягушачий -'froggy'. волчий -'lupine'. казачий -'Cossack'. sg. and some common nouns relating to professions. nationality. sg. отцова отцову отцовой отцовой отцовой отцовой/ отцовою fem. овечий -'sheep'. or male/female (девичий -'girlish'. собачий -'canine'. птичий -'bird'). sg. sg. божье божье божьего божьему божьем божьим neut.N A G D L I masc. мамино мамино мамина мамину мамином маминым fem. 'godly' божий N/A божьего божьему божьем божьим masc. In some instances. sg. медвежий -'ursine'. лисий -'leonine'. заячий -'rabbit'. отцово отцово отцова отцову отцовом отцовым neut. рыбачий -'fish'. 'paternal' отцов N/A отцова отцову отцовом отцовым masc. sg. one may find potentially competing adjectival forms with very specific. мужичий -'manly'. sg. plural божьи N/A божьих божьим божьих божьими plural отцовы N/A отцовых отцовым отцовых отцовыми plural N A G D L I N A G D L I мамина мамины мамину N/A маминой маминых маминой маминым маминой маминых маминой/ мамиными маминою Other common possessive pronominal adjectives include forms derived from animal names (cf. sg. божья божью божьей божьей божьей божьей/ божьею fem. other possessive adjectival forms: мамин друг/мамина подруга 'mom’s friend' материнская любовь 'a mother’s love' 48 . садовничий -'gardener'). коровий -'bovine'.

Children refer to all adults beyond the immediate family as вы. In recent years.9. The traditional presentation of pronouns in the Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 385-406) include 8 categories: personal.9 Pronouns The following section describes pronouns in CSR. reflexive. two numbers (singular. Once adulthood is reached. The basis for inclusion in this category is primarily a semantic one. plural.1 Personal and reflexive pronouns The Russian pronouns distinguish three persons (first. it is less trivial to determine appropriate 2nd person pronominal usage. Once a relationship between interlocutors has been established. Examples of each type will be given below. 2. interrogative-relative. In many instances. and 6 cases (with some syncretism). there is among certain groups a more relaxed attitude about the usage of the familiar form instead of the formal one. one of the parties verbally requests permission to change from the 2nd plural вы to the 2nd singular ты. the use of вы is required when speaking to teachers. The sociolinguistic parameters of its usage include referents that are children. members of the immediate family (regardless of age). second. definite. The second person plural is also used as a singular in “formal” discourse. demonstrative. (Refer to the section of reflexive verbs to find a more detailed discussion of the semantic differences between the reflexive personal pronoun себя and the bounded reflexive verbal particle -ся). some accusative. 49 . Formally. negative and indefinite. In school. The full declensional paradigms of the CSR personal and reflexive pronouns are given below. ты is also used as the “familiar” form.9. third) and a reflexive (oneself) that refers to all persons. there are also examples of suppletive forms.2 The use of the second person pronouns In addition to its generic meaning as the second person singular pronouns. professors and employers. genitive. all locative case forms. In the case of the personal pronouns. three genders in the third person only. N A G D L I 'I' я меня меня мне мне мной 'you(sg)' ты тебя тебя тебе тебе тобой 'he/it' он его его ему нём им 'it' оно его его ему нём им 'she/it''we' она мы её нас её нас ей нам ней нас ей нами 'you(pl)' вы вас вас вам вас вами 'they' они их их им них ими 'self' --себя себя себе себе собой 2. pronominal usage may be negotiated as mentioned directly above. possessive. Note that the third person singular and plural forms require an epenthetic /n/ following a preposition (cf.2. Note that the reflexive personal pronoun never occurs in the nominative case and always refers back to the subject of the sentence or clause. many of the so-called pronouns given below are of a mixed nominal-adjectival declension. and people of one’s own age up through high school and including university. university or the work place. dative and instrumental forms).

У тебя есть своя машина? -'Do you have your own car?'). 50 . gender.5 Usage of the reflexive possessive pronoun The reflexive pronoun is required most specifically in predicates when referring to third person pronominal forms as subjects (cf. её -'her'. The third person possessive pronouns are formally identical to the accusative/genitive form of the third person personal pronouns (его -'his'. The masculine and neuter forms of the first/second persons and reflexives are syncretic.9. it is also possible to find reflexive pronouns in instances where the reflexive modifies the grammatical subject (cf. possessive pronouns are omitted in instances where possession is obvious. locative and instrumental. воя ноша не тянет -'One’s own burden is not heavy'.9. The first singular я is never capitalized except at the beginning of a sentence. dative. 'my' 'our' 'one’s own' m n f m n f m n f N мой моё моя наш наше наша свой своё своя A N/G моё мою N/G наше нашу N/G своё свою G моего моей нашего нашей своего своей D моему моей нашему нашей своему своей L моём моей нашем нашей своём своей I моим моей нашим нашей своим своей 'your' (sg) m n f твой твоё твоя N/G твоё твою твоего твоей твоему твоей твоём твоей твоим твоей 'your' (pl) m n ваш ваше N/G ваше вашего вашему вашем вашим f ваша вашу вашей вашей вашей вашей 'his/its' 'her/its' 'their' m/n f pl его её их его её их его её их его её их его её их его её их N A G D L I 2. the formal ы must be written with a capital letter wherever it occurs in a sentence. It is typical for English speakers to overuse possessive pronouns in Russian. However. Он поехал на своей машине -'He took his own car'). Feminine forms of the first/second persons and reflexives are syncretic in 4 cases: genitive. воя рубашка ближе к телу -'One’s own shirt is closer to the body'. 2. In normal Russian speech. их 'their') and do not further decline.3 Capitalization of the second person formal pronoun In writing.4 Possessive and reflexive pronouns The possessive pronouns (also referred to as possessive pronominal adjectives) reflect all three persons including the reflexive.9. The use of a capital letter in the second person ы is unique in Russian pronouns. number and case. Он свой человек -'He’s one of us/our kind of guy'.2. ать не разрешает мне пить пиво -'My mother won’t let me drink beer'). including reflexive possessive pronouns. especially when speaking of family members (cf.

о котором говорит ева? 'Do you know the student Seva is speaking about?' . the genitive form of что may be used as a subject or object and the pronunciation of the nominative form may be [чо] (spelled чё) .' 'The friends discussed their (individual) plans. BUT: ети рассказали о своих планах. case and number. рузья обсуждали их планы.9.Which one?' какой: акая прекрасная погода! 'What fabulous weather!' ай мне какую-нибудь книгу! 'Give me a book' (any one). . Compare the following examples: рузья обсуждали свои планы.' 'The friends discussed their (common) plans. N A G D L I 'who' (always masculine) кто кого кого кому ком кем 'what' (always neuter) что что чего чему чём чем 2. In colloquial Russian. The interrogative personal pronoun что may also function as a relative pronoun (see the following section). . the syntactic agreement with кто may on rare occasions be feminine (cf.There is more flexibility is the use (or non-use) of the reflexive possessive pronoun in Russian with third-person plural subjects. ети рассказали об их планах 'The kids told about their own plans.Это моя сестра. Also in colloquial Russian. 51 .оторая? '-That’s my sister. The other interrogative and relative pronouns include the following: который: ы знаешь студента. not the expected [што] (spelled что).' 2.9.6 Interrogative personal pronouns Note the declension of the Russian pronouns 'who' (кто) and 'what' (что).7 Interrogative possessive pronouns and relative pronouns The interrogative possessive pronoun 'whose' reflects gender. These pronouns are gendered (masculine and neuter respectively). 'Who is that' (fem) кто такая?).' 'The kids told about their (someone else’s) plans.

that' m n f pl какой какое какая какие N/G какое какую N/G какого какой каких какому какой каким каком какой каких каким какой какими N A G D L I Although generally restricted to set expressions. с каковым цепной медведь кланяется «господам» по приказанию своего вожатого ( ушкин). 'I know that he wants to call you.9.No way!' 2. что он хочет.' ам! Я хочу поехать с друзьями кататься на лыжах! . 'I am the same now as before.' каковой: ерестов отвечал с таким же усердием.Это ашина книга.8 Definite pronouns Of the several lexemes for 'all. Note the difference in stress. there is semantic ambiguity between the personal pronouns 'everything' (всё) and 'everyone' (все) and the neuter singular and plural forms of 'all. whole. one of them (весь/всё/вся/все) has a pronominal declension (given below). the stem-final consonant (palatalized vs. the archaic кой is also used in CSR: ы всё делаешь кое-как! 'You do everything half-assed. Due to formal syncretism.It’s Sasha’s book.' Я знаю. таков и ныне я. 'Whose book is this? . что он хочет тебе позвонить.каков: аков я прежде был.' чей: ья это книга? . nonpalatalized) and in usage between the intensifiers 'self. [See section on superlative adjectives for the meaning of 'most' with самый.' что: ай ему (то). 'Give him what he wants. entire'.] 52 .и в коем случае! 'Ma! I want to go skiing with friends! . entire'.' 'whose' m n f чей чьё чья N/G чьё чью чьего чьей чьему чьей чьём чьей чьим чьей 'which. the very' (сам/самый). 'Berestov answered with the same conviction as a chained bear that bows to the gentlemen at the command of his master. know -.ну как её зовут? ы знаешь кто .кто-то. one will find demonstrative pronouns called demonstrative pronominal adjectives because of their declension.' ачинай с самого начала. . the contemporary Russian demonstrative pronouns form a specific class of two distinct forms (immediate and more distant).what’s her name? She used to live below us. -'Let me help you with the dishes. These forms translate as both 'this' and 'that' or even 'the' in English.' . 'Yesterday I saw -.она жила этажом ниже. and additionally form compounds with the neuter nominative form . However. -No need. каждый -'every'.е надо. всяческий -'all kinds of'. 'about some kind of .' Я пожала руку самому арышникову! 'I shook the hand of Baryshnikov himself!' чера я видел эту самую .' .о каком-то [cf. with 'something' . 'someone' . In some grammars. the occurrence of тот implies a second element (or an этот) to which it is being compared. I’ll wash them myself..то (cf.. and while many contemporary Slavic languages still maintain this connection (cf.с чем-то. Macedonian toj).'self' m n сам само N/G само самого самому самом самим f сама саму самой самой самой самой pl сами N/G самих самим самих самими f самая самую самой самой самой самой 'all/entire' m n f весь всё вся весь всё всю всего всей всему всей всём всей всем всей pl самые N/G самых самым самых самыми pl все N/G всех всем всех всеми N A G D L I N A G D L I 'the very' m n самый самое N/G самое самого самому самом самым Other examples in this class include всякий -'any'. 'Start from the very beginning.9. Я сама всё помою. 53 .9 Demonstrative pronouns Although the third person personal pronouns in CSR were historically derived from the class of demonstratives. section on indefinite pronouns for more information]).авай я тебе помогу с посудой.

in some grammars. 2. No new declensional types are introduced in this section. see Dolgova and Maksimova (1996: 217-233). Note the following examples: никто: икто не хочет об этом думать! 'No one wants to think about that!' ы ни с кем не общаемся.9. Note some of the more common ones: то да сё о том.are detached when used with prepositions.' 54 . Each of these forms requires a negated verb form that. However. there is the so-called archaic сей that occurs in many expressions in CSR.10 Negative and indefinite pronouns To complement the interrogative and definite pronouns there are two groups of negative and indefinite pronouns.N A G D L I 'this/that/the' m n f pl этот это эта эти N/G это эту N/G этого этой этих этому этой этим этом этой этих этим этой этими 'that/that kind of' m n f такой такое такая N/G такое такую такого такой такому такой таком такой таким такой pl такие N/G таких таким таких такими 'this/that/the' m n f тот то та N/G то ту того той тому той том той тем той pl те N/G тех тем тех теми N A G D L I In addition to these forms.and не. is characterized as a double negative. the prefixes ни. о сём сию минуту не от мира сего до сих пор на сей раз 'this and that' 'about this and that' 'this very minute' 'not of this world' 'until now' 'for/at this time' For more information on contemporary usage of ‘sej’. 'We don’t hang out with anyone.

'Your opinion is absolutely irrelevant in this matter.It’s a tie.' некий: екий престранный гражданин обратился ко мне с вопросом.' екто по имени орис тебе звонил сегодня.' некоторый: Я сидела некоторое время. что они всегда правы. ничто не забыто! 'No one and nothing is forgotten!' ничто: Она ничего не понимает! 'She doesn’t understand anything!' Он ни о чём не думает. 'I sat for a while. 'He saw something unusual.икто не забыт.' ничей: . -'What’s the score? Who’s winning? . а потом пошла спать.' никакой: воё мнение не имеет никакого значения в этом деле.' екоторые люди считают. 'He isn’t thinking about anything. 'There’s no point in studying.ичья.' ечего нам заниматься! ас всё равно провалят.' некто/нечто: Он видел нечто необычное. They’re going to flunk us anyway. 'Some people think that they are always right.акой счёт? чью пользу? . and then I went to bed.' -нибудь: то-нибудь мне звонил вчера? 'Did anyone call me yesterday?' 55 .' некого/нечего: екому позвонить! 'There’s no one to call. 'Someone by the name of Boris called you today. 'A certain strange citizen approached me with a question.

' etc. Sorry. and correspond to each of the cardinal numbers. 'What are you thinking about? . One other unique feature of compound numerals is the fact that all parts decline. disposable' [cf. одноразовый шприц . means 'one-time. звини. number and gender.' -либо: ы слышали что-либо об этом фильме? 'Have you heard anything about this movie?'12 -то: то-то должен знать ответ на мой вопрос! 'Someone should know the answer to my question.я с кем-то уже договорилась о встрече. one time') is used for 'one. but excluding 'ninety' and 'one hundred') are third declension feminine nouns. 'two' distinguishes masculine/neuter vs. three. is not used often in CSR.' The adjectival form. 'There’s some maniac following me. distinguish case.О чём-то очень важном.'disposable syringe']. 'Bring us something from France. these forms are often quite specific and definite: 12 56 . agree with the head noun of the phrase. Note the following examples using ordinals: This form. four'.' 2. The numeral 'one' is pronominal in form and occurs in 3 genders and 2 numbers. In counting. Note that although listed by the Russian Academy grammar as an indefinite pronoun. ordinal: first). разовый.' акой-то маньяк меня преследует.' 'forty. Ordinal numbers are required in a different range of contexts that one might expect coming from a non-Slavic language perspective. Ordinal numerals are adjectival in form.' -О чём думаешь? .] One numerical symbol will be given to the left for both cardinal and ordinal numerals instead of English words for both (cardinal: one. but is still found in dictionaries when listing verbal government. feminine and is similar in declension to 'three' and 'four' (although 'three' and 'four' do not distinguish gender).' 'thirty. the word form раз (which also means 'once.10 Numerals Cardinal numerals in CSR are declined and have a unique declension for 'two. I’ve already made plans to meet someone else. Most other numerals ('five' to 'twenty. 'I can’t meet with you now. Note that 'third' is the only ordinal numeral in CSR that has a pronominal declension.' Я не смогу с тобой встретиться сейчас . [Refer to the section on hard-stem adjectives for examples of ordinal declension.ривези нам что-нибудь из ранции. although very popular in literary texts through the early 20th century.Something very important.

третьи четвёртый пятый шестой седьмой восьмой девятый десятый одиннадцатый двенадцатый тринадцатый четырнадцатый пятнадцатый шестнадцатый семнадцатый восемнадцатый девятнадцатый двадцатый двадцать первый двадцать второй двадцать третий двадцать четвёртый двадцать пятый тридцатый сороковой пятидесятый шестидесятый семидесятый восемидесятый девяностый сотый сто первый сто второй сто третий сто четвёртый сто пятый сто десятый 57 .' Оля приехала пятого вечером.' Уже восьмой час! 'It’s after seven (o’clock). первые второй третий.' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 102 103 104 105 110 CARDINAL один/одно/одна/одни. первая. третья. 'Tomorrow is the 17th of August.автра будет семнадцатое августа. первое. 'I graduated in 2001. раз два/две три четыре пять шесть семь восемь девять десять одиннадцать двенадцать тринадцатый четырнадцать пятнадцать шестнадцать семнадцать восемнадцать девятнадцать двадцать двадцать один двадцать два/две двадцать три двадцать четыре двадцать пять тридцать сорок пятьдесят шестьдесят семьдесят восемьдесят девяносто сто сто один/одна/одно сто два/две сто три сто четыре сто пять сто десять ORDINAL первый. третье. 'Olya arrived on the evening of the fifth.' Я окончил университет в две тысячи первом году.

000.120 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2000 3000 10.000.000 1.000 1.000 100.000 сто двадцать двести триста четыреста пятьсот шестьсот семьсот восемьсот девятьсот тысяча две тысячи три тысячи десять тысяч сто тысяч миллион миллиард сто двадцатый двухсотый трёхсотый четырёхсотый пятисотый шестисотый семисотый восьмисотый девятисотый тысячный двухтысячный трёхтысячный десятитысячный стотысячный миллионный миллиардный Cardinal numeral declensions: N A G D L I N A G D L I N A G D L I m n один одно N/G одно одного одному одном одним пять пять пяти пяти пяти пятью f одна одну одной одной одной одной pl одни N/G одних одним одних одними двенадцать двенадцать двенадцати двенадцати двенадцати двенадцатью m/n f два две N/G двух двум двух двумя двадцать двадцать двадцати двадцати двадцати двадцатью три N/G трёх трём трёх тремя сорок сорок сорока сорока сорока сорока четыре N/G четырёх четырём четырёх четырьмя сто сто ста ста ста ста восемь восемь восьми восьми восьми восьмью/ восемью пятьдесят пятьдесят пятидесяти пятидесяти пятидесяти пятьюдесятью восемьдесят восемьдесят восьмидесяти восьмидесяти восьмидесяти восьмьюдесятью девяносто девяносто девяноста девяноста девяноста девяноста тысяча тысячу тысячи тысяче тысяче тысячью/ тысячей тысячи тысячи тысяч тысячам тысячах тысячами 58 .000.

'They left for Israel at the end of the 1970’s. 4 + genitive plural adjective and genitive singular noun (Note: If the referent of 2/3/4 is feminine. This tendency is recognized and noted in the 1960 Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 369). what remains most stable is the obligatory reflection of case in the final numeral of the phrase. compound numerical expressions. especially in complex. the following rules apply: 1 + nominative singular adjective and nominative singular noun 2. while the use of the distinct forms of 'years' (лет/годов) is semantically determined: ы живём на улице ороховой уже тридцать лет. people' and 'years. Note the following examples with case forms given in the order of their frequency based on a survey of 100 educated urban speakers of CSR: [For more information on this point. с миллионом друзей/кошек/долларов 'with a million friends/cats/dollars' (all nouns following the numeral are genitive plural) 59 . 'We’ve been living on Goroxova Street for 30 years. thousand. then the case following the numeral must match the case of the numeral itself: с пятью моряками 'with five sailors' о десяти рефератах 'concerning/about ten research papers' между ста щенками 'in between a hundred puppies' In CSR. 25-30. несколько).' Они уехали в зраиль в конце семидесятых годов. then the adjective may be nominative plural. 35-40.' If the numeral is in an oblique case. An addition tension occurs in case choice in phrases with a large numerical value (hundred. 3. see Andrews 1996b: 131-140. only the form человека/человек (gen. there is a growing disparity in the way in which speakers decline or fail to decline numerals. etc. However. + genitive plural adjective and genitive plural noun There are two distinct genitive plural forms for the word 'persons.) 5-20.' In the first case.] respectively) may be used after numerals (never людей) and some adverbs of quantity (сколько.1 Case usage with numerals When a cardinal numeral is in the nominative form (including accusatives that are identical to nominatives).sg/gen.10. million) between the genitive and the case of the phrase itself.N A G D L I двести N/G двухсот двумстам двухстах двумястами триста четыреста N/G N/G трёхсот четырёхсот трёмстам четырёмстам трёхстах четырёхстах тремястами четырьмястами пятьсот восемьсот пятьсот восемьсот пятисот восьмисот пятистам восьмистам пятистах восьмистах пятьюстами восьмьюстами 2.

the Russian Academy Grammar notes that collective numeral forms may occur as high as 18 (1960: 379). со ста друзьями/кошками/долларами 'with a hundred friends/cats/dollars' (instrumental form is obligatory with animates and preferred with inanimates) 2. All collective numerals are end-stressed in the oblique cases. Notice that the forms for 'both' are also not end-stressed in oblique-case forms like all other collective numerals and require the genitive singular in the nominative/accusative cases.10.'two children') and are optional when talking about male groups or animals (cf. оба/обе . The use of collective numerals is obligatory when modifying nouns that only exist in the plural (cf. Other commonly used expressions of collectives include the following prepositional phrases that are now written as one word and some other collective numerical forms are given below. All collective numerals used in non-oblique case forms require the genitive plural of the noun phrase that it modifies. двое часов .2. с тысячью долларов 'with a thousand dollars' (genitive form is preferred almost to the exclusion of the instrumental) 5. с тысячью друзьями/друзей 'with a thousand friends' (instrumental form is preferred over genitive) 3. there are also 2 forms for 'both' (where one is masc/neuter and the other feminine). двое детей .'two watches'. '2' N двое A N/G G двоих D двоим L двоих I двоими '3' трое N/G троих троим троих троими 'both' m. Collective numerals are never used to refer to exclusively female groups.‘both’ In addition to the typical collective numerals with no gender distinctions.2 Collective numerals Collective numerals refer to groups of something as one whole. с тысячью кошек/кошками 'with a thousand cats' (genitive form is preferred slightly over instrumental) 4.трое братьев и пятеро щенков 'three brothers and five puppies'). although in speech the forms for 2-8 are the most common. These examples are merely the tip of the iceberg: 60 . When consulting literary works for examples.n / f оба/обе N/G обоих/обеих обоим/обеим обоих/обеих обоими/обеими '4' четверо N/G четверых четверым четверых четверыми '5' '7' пятеросемеро N/G N/G пятерых семерых пятерым семерым пятерых семерых пятерыми семерыми Обои is the commonly heard substandard form of 'both' in colloquial speech.

S.] The nominative/accusative forms require that the following noun be in the genitive singular.feminine vs. “dozen”) 'three rubles' 'three-horse carriage. In all oblique cases.3 Fractions and halves The numeral 'one and a half' in CSR.вдвоём втроём вчетвером впятером вдвойне втройне пяток пятак десяток яйц трёшка/трёха тройка 'the two of us together' 'the three of us together' 'the four of us together' 'the five of us together' 'two times more' 'three times more' 'five of a kind' (usually eggs) 'five kopecks' 'a box of ten eggs (metric for the U. по нескольку месяцев по шесть человек в ряд 'Everyone got one pencil. [In some instances. while the oblique cases require plural agreement in the oblique case (cf.полтора/полторы.' не меньше полутора суток . like 'both' and 'two. Fractions are expressed in a combination of cardinal and ordinal numeral types. Note the following examples: одна десятая девять пятнадцатых половина три пятых N A G D L I 'two thirds' две третьих две третьих двух третьих двум третьим двух третьих двумя третьими 'one tenth' 'nine fifteenths' 'one half' (which declines like a regular 2nd decl.' 'for several months at a time' 'six people to a row' 61 . a grade of 'C'' 2. three-piece suit. non-feminine (m/n) -.10.полутора. one may still see and hear the older genitive form полуторы when used with feminine nouns.' distinguish two genders in the nominative/accusative -.) 'three fifths' 'three fifths' три пятых три пятых трёх пятых трём пятым трёх пятых тремя пятыми Distribution of quantities is used with the preposition по followed by the dative case with 'one' and по followed by the accusative (which looks nominative) case with quantities larger than one: аждый получил по одному карандашу. полтора часа 'one and a half hours.'no less than one and a half 24-hour periods'). there is a single form -.

] A. When actual dates are involved. акой сегодня день? (nom. екунда. о сколько? ( котором часу?) 'At what time?' 2:00 4:15 10:30 1:50 B + accusative case: в два часа в четыре пятнадцать/в четверть пятого/в пятнадцать пятого в десять тридцать/в пол-одиннадцатого/в половине одиннадцатого в час пятьдесят/без десяти два 2. какой день? (B + acc.' 3.'Seconds. When seen from this perspective. there is a clear correlation between units of time up to a week. C. there is the addition of certain genitive constructions.11 Time expressions Expressing time in CSR is best presented as a progression from smaller to larger time units. etc. and from a week to larger units (months. час . including the obligatory use of the genitive case in dates that include the day. Hours' A. When telling time. years.00 with a period.) ретьего.] HA + locative а какой неделе? 'In/during what week?' на этой неделе 'this week' 62 . 'What day is it?' 'Today’s Wednesday. where the accusative case is required.2.'Weeks' [The most commonly missed time expression by English-speaking L2 learners of CSR.) егодня среда. neuter) егодня девятое.) Note the following examples: 1. еделя . The seasons of the year and times of the day generally require the instrumental case. train stations. there are two conventions: (1) schedule time using the 24-hour clock used in media. колько времени? ( оторый час?) 'What time is it?' 5:00 6:20 9:30 4:45 Nominative case of numeral: пять часов (CSR uses 5. акое сегодня число? (nom. (Both conventions will be listed under 1 A and B in the order given above. and (2) normal time telling used by speakers in everyday life. акого числа? (gen. ень и число .) о вторник.' 'On what date?' 'On the 3rd.' 'On what day?' 'On Tuesday. B. not a semi-colon) шесть двадцать/двадцать минут седьмого девять тридцать/ полдесятого/половина десятого четыре сорок пять/ без четверти пять/ без пятнадцати пять B. centuries) where the locative case is required. Minutes.' 'What is the date?' 'The 9th.'Days and Dates' [Note that CSR does not capitalize months or days. D. airports. month and year. минута.

'When was Evgenij Ivanovich born? . 'I had an strange dream last night.'Years' B + locative каком году? (тысяча девятьсот) девяностом году две тысячи первом году две тысячи седьмом году 'In which year?' 'In 1990' 'In 2001' 'In 2007' 6. летом. на закате. in the evening. весной.'Months' [The months from September to February are end-stressed. during the day. Seasons and times of the day (instrumental) осенью.He was born on January 20th (or February 1st in the old style). summer. year combined (genitive) огда вгений ванович родился? . 1884. Day. March to August are stemstressed.' 7. at night' BUT: на заре. на рассвете 'at dawn/dusk.) по понедельникам 'on Mondays' Other time expressions using different prepositions (or no preposition) with the accusative case: 63 . winter' утром.Он родился двадцатого января (или первого февраля по старому стилю) тысяча восемьсот восемьдесят четвёртого года. зимой 'in the fall. spring.] B + locative каком месяце? 'In which month?' феврале 'In February' ноябре 'In November' апреле 'In April' 5. at dawn' (HA + locative) Also note that Russian is very specific about the difference between 'evening' and 'night. од . month. днём. at dusk. есяц . вечером.' where 'night' is after midnight until dawn: егодня ночью мне приснился странный сон.на прошлой/той неделе на следующей/будущей неделе 'last week' 'next week' 4. ночью 'in the morning.' The dative plural is also possible for times of day or days of the week: по вечерам 'in the evenings' по утрам 'in the mornings' по ночам 'late at night' по средам 'on Wednesdays' (Note the stress variation in this form.

others are combined with prepositions.12 Nondeclinables: Adverbs and prepositions Adverbs are formed very simply from adjectival stems by merely dropping the desinence and adding -/o/: красивый/красиво 'pretty' простой/просто 'simple' трудный/трудно 'difficult' In some instances.колько раз в день? ять раз в месяц. Petersburg a week already.' иза ответила нам в две секунды.' ы едем в итер уже неделю. or formed from verbs or verbal adverbs. adverbs may have forms with hard. 'How many times a day?' 'Five times a month.. 'Liza answered us in two seconds..) ы едем в итер на неделю. аз в год(у). Petersburg for a week. искренне 'sincerely' It is common practice is the Russian Academy Grammar (1960: 611-626) to consider a broad range of forms in the adverbial class. until’ от ушкина до улгакова с девяти до пяти с пятого по десятое сентября ‘from Pushkin to Bulgakov’ ‘from nine to five’ ‘from September 5th through the 10th’ 2. 'We are going to St.' еня написал письмо за полчаса.' Time spans: ‘from . 'Zhenya finished writing the letter in 30 minutes. rudely' вслух 'out loud' наяву 'in the flesh' где 'where' всегда 'always' навсегда 'forever' всюду 'everywhere' наотрез 'abruptly' 64 . pronouns and numerals. Note the following examples: пулей 'like a bullet' налево 'to the left' певуче 'song-like' вшестером 'all six together' лёжа 'while lying down' молча 'silently' шутя 'jokingly' по-твоему 'in your opinion. according to you. the locative is used in colloquial CSR.' 'Once a year' (Here. Petersburg in a week.' ы едем в итер через неделю.'We are going to St. adjectives. the way you do things' по-свински 'like a pig. Some of these forms are declined nouns. 'We’ve been on the road to St.and soft-stems: искренний/искренно.

Consider the following examples: отите ещё винца? 'Would you like some more wine?' ай мне ещё чаю/чая. while the first one is more evaluative and characterizes the amount of work as much less. the second answer is neutral. not much' 'how many. 'Lots of kids were swimming in the pool.' ай нам ещё десять минут поиграть.' 'I have a bit of work/ just a little. not at all. without thinking through' 'quietly on the side' 'many. У тебя много работы? 'Do you have lots of work?' ет. немного.' ет. 'Give use another 10 minutes to play. 'Give me some more tea. есять человек мне звонили сегодня вечером.' Adverbs of quantity and verbal agreement: The singular is generally used (which means neuter past tense and 3rd person singular for present and future). no spare time' 'a little bit. how much' 'several' 'not any' 'so many. just a bit' 'barely' 'on purpose. Adverbs of quantity require the genitive case (usually plural. so much' 'I have very little work/I haven’t got enough work. but the plural may be possible in some instances where a greater emphasis is on the individuality of the members of the group. but the singular is also used with certain lexemes that are reluctant to pluralize). 'No. not many. not much. much' 'few.' Here. 65 . немножко.' Remember: The genitive plural of ‘people’ after cardinal numerals and the adverbs of quantity сколько and несколько is человек. a little. intentionally' (negative meaning) 'like a hothead. The adverb ещё -'still. yet' also acts as an adverb of quantity in some contexts.' ного детей плавало в бассейне.' Adverbs of quantity много мало.напрямую впритык чуть-чуть еле-еле назло сгоряча втихаря 'directly' 'really tight. немножко сколько несколько нисколько столько У меня мало работы. 'No. немного. У меня немного работы. 'Ten people called me this evening.

'What’s up with this idiot?'). near. Prepositions play a major role in verbal government. (2) prepositions that are not preverbs. having' G сквозь с(о) 'together with. until. while others may be used with multiple cases to express different meanings. around. during' L вопреки над(о) 'above.' 'right before' cases D I/G I 'along.] Below is a list of commonly used prepositions divided into three types: (1) prepositions that are also preverbs. то это за глупость/глупости? .'What kind of nonsense is this?' то это за идиот? . upon' [in distribution . at the moment of. into. (3) preverbs that are not prepositions. 66 . but there is one usage of the preposition за that requires a nominative form (singular or plural) of the noun phrase (cf. but certain ones do modify (with the addition of the /o/ vowel) when combined with lexemes beginning in consonant clusters. and (4) examples of compound prepositional phrases. for' cases L/A L/A I/A/ (N)13 2 Prep к между перед meanings 'towards' 'between' 'in front of. near' 'along. after. motion (accusative case) expressions. about' 'along side' 'thanks to' G G G D 'in spite of' D 'according to' D 13 All prepositions require some case other than the nominative. against' L/A через/чрез у 'at. [For more information on prepositions in verbal government.'10 each'] D/L/A для под(о) 'under' I/A мимо о/об(о) 'about. 1 Prep meanings в(о) на за по 'in. at' 'behind. all over' вз/воз/вс/вос'upward' вы'out' 'for' (the sake of) G 'pass' (by) G 'across. to a point' G благодаря при 'affiliated with. Some prepositions are restricted and used with only one case. down from' [in comparing equals] I/G/A около от(о) 'from' G вдоль из(о) 'from' G возле до 'up to. concerning' A 3 Preverb meanings пере/пре're-. onto. see the sections on the individual cases and the section on verbal government. in the presence of. at' 'on. The largest group of prepositions taking multiple cases is determined by static/locational (locative case) vs. over' I согласно про 'about.Prepositions Prepositions in CSR are nondeclinable forms. at. in' [time] A 'through' A 'around. across' раз'in multiple directions.

consonants and vowels may shift. for a while' побережье повсюду поплавать 'shoreline' 'all over' 'swim a little' ________________________________________________________________________ под(о)'under.13 Derivational Morphology Russian derivation occurs primarily by means of prefixation and suffixation. Townsend (1977) and Andrews (1994). adjectives and verbs (native Slavic) with examples Prefix в(о) 'in(to)' Verb вкладывать 'deposit. adverbs and verbs. invest' ________________________________________________________________________ на 'on(to)' налог нарядный нашить 'tax' 'dressed up' 'sew on. In word-formation. mutate or drop. cf. adjectival. In some instances a root may be identified as predominantly substantive (nominal). sub-' подмышки подземный подкупить 'underarms' 'underground' 'buy with a bribe' Noun Adjective/Adverb въезд впервые 'entrance' (by vehicle) 'for the first time' 67 . go wild and be irresponsible' ________________________________________________________________________ по 'set off. sew a lot of' ________________________________________________________________________ за 'follow. The following sections will give an overview of word formation in CSR with examples of prefixation and suffixation in nouns. or verbal. Compound prefixes and suffixs are allowed in CSR. Vinogradov (1960). from behind' 'in correspondence/conjunction with' cases I G I 2. The root serves as the base and center of derivation and may or may not occur without its word-formative components.1 Prefixes for nouns.13. The following section will list all of the Slavic prefixes and suffixes and many of the borrowed prefixes and suffixes.4 Prep рядом с из-за в соответствии с meanings 'next (door) to' 'because of (smthg bad).) 2. (For more information on the specifics of Russian derivational morphology. Many prefixes and suffixes can be shared by more than one part of speech while others cannot. adjectives. begin' закат закусочная загулять 'sunset' 'snack shop' 'lose one’s way.

until. across. co-' сокурсник смежный созвониться 'college classmate' 'mixed' 'call each other' ________________________________________________________________________ от(о) 'away from' отгул отдельно отличиться 'time off work' 'separately' 'distinguish oneself' ________________________________________________________________________ из(о) 'from inside to out' излишки искусный избить ис(о) 'excesses' 'tasteful. un-' разряд разумный рассмотреть рас'spark. well'beat up badly' conceived' ________________________________________________________________________ до 'up to. moving away' улёт (coll. make angry' ________________________________________________________________________ при 'arrive. to a point' добавка договорный довести 'second helping' 'contractual' 'lead to. circumscribe'объедки ограниченныйосудить 'left-overs. sentence' 'pre-election' '(fore)warn' ________________________________________________________________________ раз.) ухоженный угнать 'wow!' 'well-groomed' 'hijack. carjack' ________________________________________________________________________ с(о) 'together. logical' 'analyze.'in multiple directions. consider' 68 . discharge' 'intelligent. sauce' 'appropriate' 'pretend' ________________________________________________________________________ над(о) 'above. down from. перекур переходный передать over' 'a smoke break' 'crossing' 'pass on' предел прекрасный предать 'boundary. over' надпись надкусанный надрезать 'sign' 'showing teeth-marks' 'make a cut on top' ________________________________________________________________________ про 'through' (time or space) промах прохладный продумать 'a miss' 'cool' 'think through' ________________________________________________________________________ пере/пре.'re-. add on' приправа приличный притворяться 'spice. scraps' 'limited' 'condemn. edge' 'wonderful' 'betray' ________________________________________________________________________ пред 'pre-' предложение предвыборный предупредить 'proposition.________________________________________________________________________ о/об(о) 'around. judge' обсудить 'discuss' ________________________________________________________________________ у 'leaving.

sit up in bed' 2. remove' безобразие обездоленный обезглавить 'disorder.'upward' взгляд вздорный взлететь 'view.'auto-' авторучка автомобильный автоматизировать 'ball-point pen' 'automotive' 'automate' ________________________________________________________________________ экс.'take off. Prefix анти. ugliness' 'unfortunate' 'behead' ________________________________________________________________________ не'not' неправда невесёлый нездоровиться 'untruth' 'unhappy' 'to be not well' ________________________________________________________________________ пра. technical vocabulary.2 Prefixes for nouns.'contra' контрагент контрреволюционный 'contra-agent' 'contrarevolutionary' ________________________________________________________________________ супер-'super' суперобложка супермодный 'book cover' 'super-fashionable' 69 .'pseudo' псевдоискусство псевднонаучный 'pseudo-art' 'pseudo-scientific' ________________________________________________________________________ контр. discharge' ________________________________________________________________________ (о)без. original' прадед праведный 'great grandfather' 'pure. adjectives.'step' пасынок 'stepson' ________________________________________________________________________ пол(у). look' 'foolish' 'take off' ________________________________________________________________________ вы'out of' выстрел выходной выписать 'a (gun) shot' 'day off' 'write out.________________________________________________________________________ вз/воз/вс/вос. glance. without sin' ________________________________________________________________________ па.'anti-' Noun Adjective/Adverb Verb_______ антихрист антифашисткий 'Antichrist' 'antifascist' ________________________________________________________________________ авто.'ex' экс-муж 'ex-husband' ________________________________________________________________________ псевдо.13.'half' полубог полуголый полусидеть 'half God' 'half naked' 'half sit. adverbs and verbs (borrowings) The general frequency of most of these forms is not very robust beyond specialized.'great.

washing machine' _______________________________________________________________________ -/о/к сынок носок 'son' 'sock.5.masculine. toe-tip. Compound suffixes are given at the end of the list.________________________________________________________________________ микро-'micro' микроклимат микроскопичный 'microclimate' 'microscopic' ________________________________________________________________________ макро-'macro' макроструктура макроаналитический 'macrostructure' 'macroanalytical' ________________________________________________________________________ ультра-'ultra' У .'quasi' квазиморфема квазилинейный 'quasi-morpheme' 'quasi-linear' ________________________________________________________________________ 2. If other agreement genders are possible above and beyond the obvious declensional ones. they will be marked individually (cf.3. see Andrews 1996a: 36-123.1 Agentive suffixes in the noun Some of the suffixes given below may also be non-agentive. suffix -ag-a). see section 1. I will briefly summarize in tabular form the nominal and adjectival suffixes in CSR.2 and examples in the following sections of specific suffixes.). If common gender is the most prevalent form of the class. Only suffixes that occur in more than 4 lexemes are included. 2. For examples.13.ультразвук ультрафиолетовый 'ultrasound' 'ultraviolet' ________________________________________________________________________ гипер-'hyper' гипертоник гипертрофированный 'hypertonic' 'hypertrophic' ________________________________________________________________________ квази. Where relevant. number of bus/trolley' мойка 'washing. Derivation in the verb will be treated in a separate section. Suffix Agentive Noun Non-agentive Noun______ -к-а красотка двойка 'a beauty' '“D” grade. TV with built-in VCR. those examples will be noted in the far right column. ср .3 Suffixation in Russian Nouns and Adjectives The richness of Russian word formation has produced volumes of scholarship that attempts to describe and explain the formal and semantic aspects of this phenomenon.13. it will be listed first (cf. ж feminine. In the following sections. car wash. Consonant alternations are an important part of derivation in CSR. nose of tool' _ 70 . For a detailed discussion of the status of individual suffixes as distinct or allomorphs.neuter.masc. м . м/ж . and fem.

бомбардировщик. 3 are both animate and inanimate. Of those 7. 'dive-bomber']). smthg made of metal' _______________________________________________________________________ -ник карманник разговорник 'pick-pocket' 'conversation book' _______________________________________________________________________ -чик счастливчик карманчик 'lucky person' 'pocket' _______________________________________________________________________ -щик изменщик тральщик14 'traitor' 'trawler. -щик. The remaining 4 are very restricted technical terms (e. пикировщик . mine-sweeper' _______________________________________________________________________ -х-а пряха 'weaver ' неумёха (м/ж) 'someone who can’t do anything right' _______________________________________________________________________ -ах-а деваха 'girl' аняха (м) 'Vanya' (name) растеряха (м/ж) 'someone who is always losing things' _______________________________________________________________________ -их-а пловчиха неразбериха 'female swimmer' 'disorder. misunderstanding' In Zaliznjak’s 1977 grammatical dictionary of Russian. refers to persons involved in resale of products bought abroad in Russia) _______________________________________________________________________ -ик братик домик 'brother' 'house' _______________________________________________________________________ -ак чудак сорняк 'weirdo' 'weed' _______________________________________________________________________ -ак-а коммуняка железяка 'Commie' 'metal piece.both refer to airplanes ['bomber'.______________________________________________________________________ -ок игрок челнок 'player' 'wooden boat' (in CSCR. a total of 7 forms are inanimate with the suffix.g. 14 71 .

unkempt person' _______________________________________________________________________ -аг-а бедняга (м/ж) общага (ж) 'poor thing' 'dormitory' парняга (м) 'fellow' дворняга (ж) 'mixed-breed or stray dog' _______________________________________________________________________ -уг-а хапуга (м/ж) дерюга (ж) 'greedy person' 'sackcloth' парнюга (м) 'fellow' севрюга (ж) 'salmon' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыг-а сквалыга (м/ж) булыга (ж) 'stingy person' 'stone' (arc.) _______________________________________________________________________ -/е/ц американец венец 'american man' 'crown. metal beam' _______________________________________________________________________ -иц-а волчица вещица 'female wolf' 'thing' _______________________________________________________________________ -ниц-а дачница больница 'women living 'hospital' at her dacha' _______________________________________________________________________ -ищ-а бабища вонища 'old woman' 'horrible stench' 72 . panic' горёха (м) 'Igor’ (name)' выпивоха (м/ж) 'heavy drinker' _______________________________________________________________________ -ух-а сеструха желтуха 'sister' 'jaundice' грязнуха (м/ж) 'dirty._______________________________________________________________________ -ох-а дурёха суматоха 'fool' 'turmoil.

special school (military. motor' _______________________________________________________________________ -ар ветеринар стационар 'veterinarian' 'hospital' _______________________________________________________________________ -арь глухарь словарь 'deaf person' 'dictionary' _______________________________________________________________________ -ор ухажёр прожектор 'beau. music. etc. ugly' 'institute. boyfriend' 'search light' _______________________________________________________________________ 73 .)' _______________________________________________________________________ -бище кладбище 'cemetery' _______________________________________________________________________ -овище кнутовище 'handle of a whip' _______________________________________________________________________ -ин-а гадина горошина 'despicable person' 'a pea' человечина (м/ж) человечина (ж) 'huge person' 'human flesh/meat' _______________________________________________________________________ -щина годовщина ‘anniversary’ _______________________________________________________________________ -ин болгарин 'Bulgarian man' _______________________________________________________________________ -ун врун валун 'liar' 'large._______________________________________________________________________ -ищ-е детище винище 'pet project' 'wine' басище (м) голосище (м) 'male bass singer' 'voice' пожарище (м/ср) 'fire' ______________________________________________________________________ -лище страшилище (м/ср) училище 'someone scary. round stone' (often near water. on the shore) _______________________________________________________________________ -тель читатель двигатель 'reader' 'engine.

_______________________________________________________________________ -ач лихач тягач 'someone who drives 'tow truck' fast and reckless' _______________________________________________________________________ -ич москвич 'Moscovite' Александрович 'Aleksandrovich' (male patronymic) _______________________________________________________________________ -ш-а кассирша 'female cashier' левша (м/ж) 'left-handed person' папаша (м) 'pop' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш-а вруша (м/ж) 'liar' Андрюша (м) 'Andrej' атюша (ж) 'Kate' _______________________________________________________________________ -н-я родня возня 'relatives' 'fussing around.) полюшко 'my little child’ 'field' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыш/к-о солнышко пятнышко ‘my sunshine’ 'spot. оня/соня bother' 'Sofia (name)/sleepy-head' _______________________________________________________________________ -ын-я барыня 'baroness' _______________________________________________________________________ -ышн-я барышня 'young lady. noise. baron’s daughter' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш/к-а девушка верхушка girl' 'top (of mtn). racket. head (of gov’t)' _______________________________________________________________________ -уш/к-о чадушко (arc. miss. stain' (said of persons) 74 .

2 Non-agentive suffixes in the noun [For more information on these types of non-agentive suffixes. see Townsend (1975: 152200) and Vinogradov (1960: 235-263). Suffix Zero suffix Non-agentive noun_________________________ рассказ (m 1st decl) 'story' еда (f 2nd decl) 'food' связь (f 3rd decl) 'connection' 75 . -от-а.13. the primary suffix types that participate are 3: zero suffixes. The suffixes -ость. one who takes the initiative' _______________________________________________________________________ -л-о светило пекло 'famous person.3. 'heat wave' heavenly body' (inan. once' _______________________________________________________________________ -оч/к-а атюшечка подушечка 'Kate' (name) 'pillow' _______________________________________________________________________ -ур/к-а дочурка печурка 'daughter' 'small stove' _______________________________________________________________________ -ень/к-а маменька 'mommie' папенька (м) 'daddy' _______________________________________________________________________ -ал театрал централ 'theatre lover' 'main city prison in Tsarist Russia' _______________________________________________________________________ -л-а здоровила (м/ж) 'big and healthy person' заводила (м/ж) 'leader.) _______________________________________________________________________ 2. −ь-е/-и-e and -к-а. and изн-а are most commonly associated with adjectival base forms._______________________________________________________________________ -оч/о/к сыночек разочек 'son' 'one time.] In terms of deverbalized nouns.

down pour' _______________________________________________________________________ -ыш розыгрыш 'contest' (to win smthg) ________________________________________________________________________ -ик + /о/к дождичек 'rain' _______________________________________________________________________ 2. see the section on possessive adjectives in the previous chapter.) музон 'cool music' блузон 'stylish blouse' _______________________________________________________________________ -аж шпионаж 'espionage' персонаж 'character._______________________________________________________________________ −ь-е/-и-е открытие 'opening (ceremony)' повторение/повторенье 'repetition' враньё 'lying' _______________________________________________________________________ -ств-о озорство 'mischief' представительство 'office representing a business or political organization'. personage' ________________________________________________________________________ -ель метель 'snow storm' _______________________________________________________________________ -/е/нь ливень 'heavy rain.13. smthg new' _______________________________________________________________________ -он (coll.4 Adjectival suffixes (qualitative and relational) [For a discussion of possessive adjectives and the suffixes -ov and -in. representative' _______________________________________________________________________ -ость открытость 'openness' солидарность 'solidarity' _______________________________________________________________________ -изм коммунизм 'communism' марксизм 'Marxism' _______________________________________________________________________ -аци-я демократизация 'democratization' _______________________________________________________________________ -от-а красота/лепота 'beauty' высота 'height' _______________________________________________________________________ -изн-а новизна 'novelty. 'representation.] 76 .

ецн-. -енн-. инск-.g. -онн-. -овн-. Adjective__________________________________ питерский 'smthg associated with St. ебн-.For more examples of variations of the basic suffixes given below.). ийск-. handsome' ленивый 'lazy' _______________________________________________________________________ Suffix -ск- 77 . -ск-. -тельн-. -/н-. see Townsend (1975: 216-222) where he gives a detailed set of examples with “enlarged suffixes” in -n.and -sk(e. ейск. -енск-. -ичн-. овск-. -льн-. -ическ-. saccharin' _______________________________________________________________________ -астгорластый 'loud voiced' _______________________________________________________________________ -ивкрасивый 'beautiful. Petersburg' _______________________________________________________________________ -нкнижный 'book' _______________________________________________________________________ -овзвуковой 'sound' медовый 'honey' _______________________________________________________________________ -истпористый 'porous' _______________________________________________________________________ -енн-/-оннприжизненный 'during one’s lifetime' организационный 'organizational' _______________________________________________________________________ -ньвечерний 'evening' осенний 'autumn' _______________________________________________________________________ -шньздешний 'local' _______________________________________________________________________ -ливговорливый 'talkative' расчётливый 'calculating' _______________________________________________________________________ -чивнаходчивый 'resourceful. clever' застенчивый 'shy' _______________________________________________________________________ -атбородатый 'bearded' _______________________________________________________________________ -оватглуховатый 'pretty deaf' _______________________________________________________________________ -авкровавый 'bloody' слащавый 'sweet. очн-.

' (2) a change in gender is accompanied by a change in meaning. In addition to the meaning of enlargement. forms in -ищ-е may carry negative connotations. Number one below is the preferred form while number 2 is also acceptable. [Zaliznjak (1977: 74) acknowledges the use of the -u desinence in this instance. Specifically. собачища . 122 are neuter. I prefer to speak of a spatially extended range of reference of the signified that is complementary to the 78 .13. 58 are masculine (14 of these are animate) and only 7 forms have gender doublets (where one is feminine). In other case forms. Feminine agreement is allowed with this form in the nominative case only. indicate locations and large groups of people or gods. is not productive in terms of potential gender shifts from the substantival base form to the augmented form.] (1) Я видел такого медведищу or (2) Я видел такого медведище. masculine animates in -ищ-е form an unexpected paradigm. especially in the accusative case.1 Augmentatives and gender shifts in CSR: A Semantic Excursus There are two productive suffixes that yield a meaning of enlargement in nominal derivation in CSR. ugly person'). 'I saw such a huge bear!' In attempting to state a general meaning of the -ищ-а/е suffix.5 Augmentatives. The doublets that occur in this suffix class are either masculine or neuter. remains of city' дворище 'large (court)yard' 'site of former court' (esp.'dog').) топорище 'large axe' 'axe arm/handle' The one form in -ищ-е that is both masculine and feminine is уродище ('freak. When -ищ.2. diminutives and gender shifts in the Russian noun 2. Three generalizations are worth stating at this point: (1) there is never a shift in gender from base noun to augmented form in the meaning of 'large.'bear'. The -ищ-е suffix.13. Note the following examples: masculine neuter городище 'large city' 'archeological site. медведище . Jaroslavo) пожарище 'large fire' 'place where fire occurred' кострище 'large campfire' 'place where campfire had been' судище 'big court (building)' 'court as abstract concept' (arch.5. Another complication encountered with -ищ-е occurs in case forms other than the nominative. but fails to give the -e form as a possible alternative. the gender of the base noun determines whether the ending is -e (masculine) or -a (feminine) (cf. namely -ищ-а/е and -ин-а. (3) no form in -ищ-е becomes animate if the base noun is not already marked for animacy. although productive in general. the feminine form must be уродина. Considering all 180 -ищ-е forms given in Zaliznjak’s 1977 grammatical dictionary of added to an animal name.

one may explain this so-called exception by acknowledging the way in which -ищ-е behaves semantically as a quantifier.sense of 'large' (человечище . Consider the following examples: домина 'large house' человечина 'large person. I would suggest that in contradistinction to the -ищ-е suffix. freak') in the accusative plural where they are all treated as animate (using the genitive plural desinence). as well as a clearly-bounded subset of the referential space available. the -ин-a suffix produces a referent that is both maximally visible. the suffix -ин-а gives enlargement/intensification through individuation (or restricted quantification) of a bounded space. In addition. This feature of the semantic field of -ищ-е is most clearly seen in its usage in the plural. human flesh' бусина 'one bead' градина 'one piece of hail' морковина 'one carrot' Examples of some of the more common gender doublets include the following: псина 'large dog (m/f). may have nothing to do with a meaning of enlargement or intensification (cf. cattle (m)' If enlargement is the central meaning of the two suffixes presented above. which. 79 . while also productive. we find numerous examples that give a meaning of “individuation” of the referent. Я видел таких уродищ/чудовищ/страшилищ! 'I saw such ugly people/monsters/freaks!' As I have discussed elsewhere (1996a: 134-6).ин -a suffix.'huge person') or 'something stronger' (голосище -'loud voice') in specific speaker interpretations. in fact. much like numerals act as quantifiers. страшилище ('ugly person. dog flesh (f)' дубина 'stupid person (m/f). Another feature of the -ищ-е suffix that needs to be accounted for is the behavior of neuter nouns like уродище. Although there are quite a few gender doublets in -ин-a. predominantly animate nouns. is more restrictive in combining with verbal and participial stems. night stick (f)' скотина 'scum (m/f). [Compare with the gradation of case usage after oblique case numerals in section 2. while the suffix -ищ-е gives enlargement/intensification through increasing quantification of an expanded space. In other words. examples above).ин -a suffix. then how can we characterize the differences between these suffixes? A new definition is especially necessary for the .] The . The semantic field of -ин-a is somewhat different from -ищ-а/е in that enlargement and intensification are not the only meanings available. чудовище.10. they are nonproductive as well.1. monster.

The so-called augmentative suffixes discussed above are a revealing test ground for demonstrating very vividly that the rules of declension and gender agreement play a significant role in the determination of meaning -- one more confirmation of the important dynamic interactions between categories of grammatical and lexical meaning in Russian derivation. Diminutives in CSR There are numerous thorough accounts of nominal and adjectival diminutives in CSR (including Vinogradov et. al (1960: 264-270) and Townsend (1975: 196-99, 237). In the following comments, I will briefly review in tabular form those suffixes that can have a diminutive or endearing (Russian уменьшительный/ласкательный) meaning. In some cases, these two characterizations overlap, while in others they are quite separate. However, in order to properly contextualize these examples, a few remarks are in order. (1) It is hardly ever the case that a particular nominal suffix is always diminutizing in meaning. Some suffixes are more likely to have a diminutizing meaning, certain compound suffixes are almost always diminutizing, while other suffixes that have traditionally been considered diminutizing are hardly ever so. (2) The only truly diminutizing suffix in the Russian adjective is with some form of еньк- (cf. хорошенький - 'cute, adorable'; малюсенький - 'tiny'; красивенький 'beautiful, adorable'; беленький шарф - 'little white scarf'; слатенький/сладенький 'sweetie'). Note however that even in these examples, a non-diminutive meaning is possible given the appropriate context and intonation: орошенькое дело! 'What a mess!' (when something bad has happened)

(3) One of the most interesting aspects of diminutive forms is how contemporary speakers actually perceive and actively use these forms. Based on a series of studies that I have conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia with over 1000 informants during the past 10 year period, I will include those suffixes that speakers have selected and/or produced independently as characteristic of their speech, as well as state a set of conclusions that were derived from the data collected. [For more specifics of one of these studies, see Andrews 1996a: 138-147.] General principles 1. Adult speakers use complex morphological substantival forms when speaking to small children. 2. Women are more likely to admit to using diminutive forms more than men, but that actual diminutive usage is not clearly determined by speaker gender. 3. The lexical basis for diminutives is highly variable for specific age groups (where age is more salient statistically than speaker/hearer gender). 4. Perception of usage and actual usage are distinct categories that exhibit varying degrees of intersection and overlap depending on a range of sociolinguistic variables (especially age, education, gender, speaker/hearer relationship, and if there are any children and/or grandchildren in the immediate family). 5. The use of proper names with suffixes exhibited a large degree of variation. 80

6. The most popular “diminutizing” suffixes (based on my 1994 survey) were: -к-а -ик -/о/к -ён/о/к -оч/к-а 7. Other commonly produced diminutive forms included the following suffixes: -он/к-а -оч/е/к -уш/к-а -ыш/к-о -ул-я -ун-я -ут-а -ён-а -/е/ц -ц-о -к-о Examples of diminutive lexical items with specific suffixes The morphology of suffixes that are associated with diminutive usage do not demonstrate gender shifts as seen with the augmentative suffixes discussed above. Note that while the forms below may be used as diminutives, this does not mean that the individual suffix itself is primarily a diminutizing one. For example, городок ('city, little city') may refer to a huge city (like St. Petersburg in the well-known television series with that name). The English gloss will not add 'little' to every entry, especially since not all of these words can be used with 'little' in English. Suffix -/о/к -к-а -ик -чик -к-о -ц-а -ц-о -/е/ц -иц-а -иц-е -ин/к-а -ич/к-а -уш/к-а -уш/к-о -оч/к-а -ыш/к-о Noun городок зайка братик диванчик молочко дверца зеркальце винцо морозец сестрица платьице пылинка сестричка избушка полюшко кошечка солнышко English gloss 'city' 'bunny, honey' 'brother' (not necessarily younger) 'sofa' 'milk' 'door' 'mirror, compact' 'wine' 'freezing weather' 'sister' 'dress' 'tiny bit of dust' 'sister' 'hut, cabin' 'field' 'kitty' 'my sunshine' 81

-иш/к-о -иш/к-а -онь/к-а -он/к-а -ул-я -ун-я -он/о/к -ута -ён-а -ш/к-о

письмишко зайчишка девонька сестрёнка сынуля руня поросёнок Анюта сластёна окошко

'letter' 'bunny, honey' 'girl' 'sister' 'son' 'Irina' 'piglet' 'Annie' 'sweetie' 'tiny window'

2.14 Verbs The following categories are represented in the Russian verb: Aspect (perfective, imperfective, biaspectual) Tense (past, non-past) Mood (conditional, indicative, imperative)15 Person (1st, 2nd, 3rd) Voice (passive, active) Gender (feminine, masculine, neuter) Number (plural, singular) Jakobson (1957/1984: 51) also lists the evidential occurring in CSR via the use of the particles мол, де, дескать ('he/she says/said'). In addition to these categories, some Russian verbs (especially verbs of motion) distinguish two forms of the imperfective -- determinate and indeterminate (Russian определённая/неопределённая форма). [This distinction is also referred to as unidirectional/multidirectional, but I will only use determinate/indeterminate in the body of this work given its greater accuracy in representing the actual semantics of the category.] Before moving forward, it is important to note that Roman O. Jakobson produced a series of the most profound articles even written on the contemporary Russian verb system. The following presentation, as is true of a large number of works on the Russian verbs, is based most significantly on Jakobson’s contributions, especially Jakobson 1948, 1956, 1966. 2.14.1 ‘Have’ and ‘be’ languages The verb ‘be’ (быть) does not occur in the present tense in CSR. The old forms есть/суть do occur in CSR but with a different meaning, where есть is used only in statements or questions of ‘existence’ and суть is used as a noun meaning ‘essence’. The verb ‘to have’ (иметь) exists in CSR, but in many cases the prepositional construction у with the genitive case is preferred. Note the following examples: Я студент. ‘I am a student.’

[Jakobson (1957/1984: 50) lists the hortative and imperative as injunctives)


simply insert the negative word-form не 'not' before the verb.3 Verb negation in CSR In order to negate any verb in Russian. -č’ -l. ‘-ot’e. ‘-it.’ ‘That’s not the point. есть.А у меня есть.‘Yes. -lo.’ 2. -vši ‘-as’. Я имею в виду новый стиль.šij -šč-ij -t-ij. 16 83 .2 Verbal desinences in CSR The following table will outline in morphophonemic transcription the basic endings for all of the forms of the Russian verb. . -i (t’e) ‘-a. ‘-om. The negative prefix ни is not sufficient by itself to give negation of a verb and will always require the presence of the form не (except when it is used in a non-negative sense): Only transitive verbs may form passive participles. All present participles (active and passive) are only imperfective. ‘-oš. ‘-im. -la. then each verb must be negated. У меня нет денег. -t’i. -at -Ø (t’e). е в этом суть. A single verb may only be negated once.а. ‘-it’e.14.‘But I do.] 1st conjugation: 2nd conjugation: Imperative: Verbal adverbs: -u. Infinitive: Past/preterit: -t’. All verbs with the particle s’a are by definition intransitive. -všis’ (with reflexive verbs) -vš-ij. ‘-im-ij (bounded) (unbounded) (bounded with a dash) Participles16: active preterit: active present: passive preterit (ppp): passive present: Particles associated with verbs: reflexive: -s’a conditional: -bi hortative: -ka 2.У тебя есть катер? . -ut -u. -l’i Non-preterit: [Note that the indicative conjugation of imperfective verbs yields a present tense and the indicative conjugation of perfective verbs yields a future tense. ‘-onn-ij ‘-om-ij. . Over 99% of all ppp’s are perfective. ‘-ot.14. ‘-iš. If the sentence has more than one verb.’ . ‘Do you have a boat?’ . I do.’ ‘I don’t have any money.’ ‘I have in mind a new style. -nn-ij. -v.

neut. 1992. 'That’s not true. а поездка была удачной. If a noun. with a hyphen. note that the indicative conjugated form of imperfective (HCB) verbs gives a present tense meaning. are written as one word. не было.несовершенный вид) and perfective (CB . sg. In general. the stress may move to the не (cf. or as separate words.. то ни говори. I will use the Russian abbreviations (HCB/CB) to refer to these two aspects. meaning 'view. look' and captures the essence of the semantics of verbal aspect in CSR. 'wasn’t' in masc. In addition to the future tense CB verbs. fem. Note the following examples: Это неправда. не были). adjective or adverb is negated by не. In some instances.' One of the most useful sources to assist in determining if word forms. is the dictionary entitled литно или раздельно? Опыт словаря-справочника.' 'He’s not ready. [From this point forward. forms . Those 2 choices are called imperfective (HCB ..совершенный вид). Russian verbal aspect choice depends upon the speaker’s viewpoint. 2. how he/she perceives the verbal action and chooses to characterize it.' 'Regardless of/no matter what you say. не была.14..] The relationship between aspect and tense is straightforward and generally explained in the following manner: Past: Present: Future: HCB/CB HCB HCB/CB In order to explain the different usages of non-past here. Он не готов. these forms may be written as one word or remain two separate words.' Note that the не is pronounced together with the verb as if one word with one stress accent. any word in the sentence may be negated by не. 'Oleg never talks to anyone. including negation. Moscow: Russian Language Publishers. the HCB may give a future tense by conjugating the verb 'to be' (быть) followed by the HCB infinitive: 84 . In short.не был. while the indicative conjugated form of perfective (CB) verbs gives a future tense meaning. sg.4 Verbal aspect The Russian word for aspect is вид.Олег никогда ни с кем не разговаривает. sg. and pl. the trip was a success.

Infinitive: читать ( ) 'read' Present tense: читаю читаешь читает читаем читаете читают Past tense: читал читала читало читали Future tense: буду читать будешь читать будет читать будем читать будете читать будут читать прочитать ( ) 'read' прочитал прочитала прочитало прочитали прочитаю прочитаешь прочитает прочитаем прочитаете прочитают The majority of scholars who study aspect argue that the perfective is the marked form of the oppositions. the imperfective has more room for negotiating meanings. When perfective verbs give the meaning of a completed result. I am fundamentally opposed to characterizing the meaning of Russian aspect with a list of rules. Aside from the restrictions of the present tense. bounded aspect. The specific realization of this boundedness and specificity is often a sense of completeness where the verbal action is bounded in time and space. General remarks on aspectual usage in CSR: 1. his or her viewpoint. In the end. it is important to note that this result continues to be relevant up to the moment of speaking. rather. 3. remember that speakers are part of cultural and social communities. it all depends upon what the speakers wants to convey. What this means is that the meanings generated by perfective aspectual usage have more semantic density that the imperfectives. The perfective aspect is the more restricted. I will provide some general guidelines that have proven to be useful for L2 learners of Russian. 2. it is the speaker that almost totally controls the choice of aspect. Having said this. However. A corollary of this is seen in the use of past tense imperfective verbs referring to something that is no longer in effect: 85 . which means that an L2 learner of Russian will nevertheless need to acquaint him. This does not mean that the imperfective has no meaning.or herself with the normative aspectual behaviors of competent L1 speakers of CSR.

The single. 'I really liked the movie (and still do). 9. it is generally correct to maintain the aspect given in the question unless the answer involves a strong negation of the question. The imperfective aspect primarily focuses on the process by naming the verbal action. I haven’t.' Этот фильм мне очень понравился.14. 7.ет. if the speaker has little information or no real expectations as to what the answer may be.'I used to like that movie when I was a kid.' 4. When answering a question. Whether or not a result was achieved is not excluded here. 8. most important discourse strategy to master in order to achieve appropriate aspectual usage with minimal effort is to remember: A significant amount of language use can be boiled down to questions and answers.5 The role of BI-ASPECTUAL verbs in CSR There is a relatively large group of statistically-frequent verbal forms in CSR that are either uni-aspectual [unpaired] (Russian одновидовый) or bi-aspectual (Russian двувидовый). I have. . In negative answers. The imperfective is generally considered to be used more frequently than the perfective. L1 speakers of CSR use the imperfective in a creative and robust way. -'Have you ever read any of Pelevin’s stories?' -'Yes. When asking a question with a past tense verb. The significance of this phenomenon in the aspect system of CSR is complex and unresolved in the scholarly literature. The verbal classifier/suffix that is most often encountered in bi-aspectual verbs is -ova-. but it is not the major focus of the imperfective aspect.' -'No. . namely paired verbs. 6.а. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that what many linguists have considered to be a psychological and grammatical reality of the Russian verb system.' 2. the imperfective gives a very strong meaning of denial. is quite problematic. the question and answer are usually imperfective. не читал. читал.ы читал рассказы елевина? .Этот фильм мне очень нравился в детстве. L2 speakers of CSR make a large number of errors due to overuse of the perfective. One indication of the continued relevance of the result of a transitive perfective verb in the imperative mood is the general requirement that the direct object must be explicitly given in the sentence: апиши ответ на доске! 'Write your answer on the board!' 5. [For a discussion of 86 . especially in the past tense.

in conj. Pjadusova 2001: 22.the difficulties in determining aspectual pairs in CSR.'come rushing. see Andrews. Bi-aspectual verbs адресовать атаковать бежать велеть голосовать жениться использовать исследовать казнить обещать образовать организовать17 ранить рекомендовать родить родиться Uni-aspectual18: HCB болеть . finish’ ‘be fed up with’ Some bi-aspectual verbs actually form pairs in colloquial CSR. pass away' хлынуть . form only. when used with a following infinitive.'mean' ожидать . and in the case of образовывать 'form' and сорганизовать (CB).'regain consciousness' очутиться . 87 . Averjanova.'live' значить . Ozhekov/Shvedova Russian-Russian dictionary (1992) Tolkovyj slovar’ russkogo jazyka).'die. Averjanova. break (a habit)’ ‘end.'struggle' выглядеть . gush.'find oneself (in a location)' понадобиться .] Below is a list of some of the more commonly encountered bi-aspectual verbs and uniaspectual/unpaired verbs of CSR. CB in all other tenses] 'organize ' [past is exclusively CB] 'wound' 'recommend' 'give birth' 'be born' CB опомниться . give up.'look (good. research' 'execute' 'promise' 'form' [bi-asp. bad)' жить .'be ill' бороться . Note the following examples: Verbs requiring a following imperfective: бросать/бросить кончать/кончить надоедать/надоесть 17 ‘quit. spout' There are some verbs that.'need' скончаться . 18 For a more complete listing. specify the aspect of the infinitive. организовывать (HCB) 'organize'. see Andrews.'come to one’s senses' очнуться . Pjadusova 2001: 19-23. the derived imperfectives are achieving more recognition as literary forms (cf.'expect' 'address' 'attack' 'run (away from a prisoncamp)' 'command' 'vote' 'marry (said of men)' 'use' 'investigate.

mere addition) Consonant + Vowel = CV (i.e. разучиться хотеться/захотеться. based on Jakobson 1948.14. i. This system.e. stop wanting’ ‘forget’ ‘(day)dream’ ‘remain. The rules for determining the verbal stem of any verb in Russian (excluding no more than 19 irregular verbal stems) are: (1) Determine the infinite and third person plural indicative forms. sk > šč b > bl p > pl 88 . z. stay. x > š st. cease’ ‘become accustomed to’ ‘continue’ ‘become’ ‘be weary. (2) Remove the verbal desinence. (4) The longer of the stems is THE ONE-STEM. расхотеться Verbs requiring a following perfective: забывать/забыть мечтать оставаться/остаться спешить. tire’ ‘learn. mere addition) Vowel 1 + Vowel 2 = V2 (i. unlearn’ ‘want. (5) If the stems are identical in length. c > č s. truncate the first consonant) Whether or not a consonant alternation will occur is determined within the individual verbal class. truncate the first vowel) Consonant 1 + Consonant 2 = C2 (i. be left’ ‘hurry’ 2.e. торопиться ‘begin. lists the classes of Russian verbs determined by one stem.6 Verbal classes in CSR The following is a summary of all of the verbal classes (suffixed and non-suffixed) of CSR. (6) Rules for consonant/vowel combinations between stem and desinence: Vowel + Consonant = VC (i.начинать/начать отвыкать/отвыкнуть переставать/перестать привыкать/привыкнуть продолжать становиться/стать уставать/устать учиться/научиться. g > ž t. (3) Compare the remaining stems.e.e. choice the third plural form. one stem can accurately generate all of the necessary verb forms. These will be marked in the description of each verbal class. start’ ‘become unaccustomed to’ ‘stop. The list of possible consonant alternations in the Russian verb are: d.

nonpalatalized (or hard) before /o.14.6. and hard or palatal before /a/. I will give all of the verbal classes. conjugated form only. Note that only the consonants given above may undergo substitutive softening (i. cluster). they will be marked also with an asterisk. 8. t > šč Examples of deriving the one-stem: Verb 'read' 'write' infinitive: čita-t’ p’isa-t’ 3rd pl čitaj-ut p’iš-ut stem: čitaj p’isa 'carry' n’os-t’i n’os-ut n’os 'lead' v’os-t’i v’od-ut v’od Examples of using the one-stem to derive the correct verbal form: Stem: p’isa čitaj Past masc. In the class of second conjugation verbs.m > ml v > vl f > fl Old Church Slavonic influence: d > žd . The rules for bare softening are as follows: (Jakobson 1948/1984: 22-3) The final consonant of an open full-stem is palatalized or palatal before the vowels /e. while the smallest classes have as few as 2-5 stems (essentially all of the nonsuffixed classes and 11. and -a and -ova maintain this alternation in the imperative. the -i and -e classes have substitutive softening in the 1st sg. numbers 2. Only suffixed verbs may be 2nd conjugation -. the productive classes are 1.e. 7. Classes with consonant mutations (Jakobson’s “substitutive softening”) will be marked with an asterisk. list the past passive participial (ppp) endings associated with each class and the derived imperfective suffixes associated with each class. note their productivity or lack thereof. Closed stems end in hard consonants or jot. Velar stems generally participate in substitutive softening. -ova and -avaj classes have substitutive softening in all person in the conjugated form. 89 . i/. Of the remaining non-productive classes. Using the numbering of the table below. 12 from the suffixed groups). The two major divisions are between suffixed and nonsuffixed verbal classes. If substitutive softening occurs in the ppp or derived imperfective. The -a. 6. but yield bare softening before the imperative desinence.1 Russian conjugation All verbs in Russian (except for the small number of exceptional verbs) belong to one of the verbal classes given below.all remaining classes are 1st conjugation. 4 and 10 are the largest (50-60 verbal roots in each). u/.: -l -l Correct form: p’isa + l = p’isal (addition) čitaj + l = čital (truncate C1) 2. In the first table. 9. in full stems where hard consonant + /a/ or /o/ > palatal or cons.

/n.6.2 One-stem verb system Suffixed verbs: Second conjugation: 1. -aj 8. -[nu] (disappearing nu) (most are intransitive) 11. -o Nonsuffixed verbs (all 1st conj): 13. -ej (most are intransitive) 9. -e* 3. see Townsend (1975: 85-148). -nu 10. The regularity of consonant alternations will become more variable in the categories of the past passive participle and derived imperfective verb forms. /r 20. ij 18.] 2. -i* 2. Townsend includes an additional nonsuffixed class that I will give under the section on exceptional verbs. -ova 7. n 15. s/z 22. /m 19. non-syllabic -a (n/s-a) 6. k/g 23. -husher a [subgroup .The specific rules for softening and stress will be included in the description of each of the verbal classes with full conjugated forms of a verb from each class in the second table.ja] First conjugation: 4. oj 16. b (2 stems) ppp desinence ‘-onn-ij* -nn-ij --------nn-ij -nn-ij -nn-ij -nn-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -------t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij -t-ij ‘-onn-ij ‘-onn-ij ‘-onn-ij* ‘-onn-ij derived imperfective suffix aj/ivaj aj/ivaj/vaj ivaj ivaj aj ivaj ivaj vaj ivaj/aj aj -----ivaj vaj vaj vaj vaj vaj aj aj aj aj aj aj 90 . j 17. -avaj (always HCB -3 stems) 12. The consonant alternations that occur in conjugation according to verbal classes are rulegoverned and exceptionless.14. v 14. -a 5. t/d 21. [For more specific information on all of the verbs in each of these classes and the specifics of derived imperfective verbs.

3 The rules of consonant and vowel alternations in derived imperfectives (1) Normal truncation/addition of one-stem system apply in imperfective derivation with an additional rule: -aj. and -ev-. r/.2. past. s. masc. 2. d. b/. 1st pl. imperative) 'sit down' сесть сяду сядешь сядем сядут сел сядь 'swear' клясться клянусь клянёшься клянёмся клянутся клялся клянись 'lie down' лечь лягу ляжешь ляжем лягут лёг ляг 'eat' есть ем ешь едим едят ел ешь 'sing' петь пою поёшь поём поют пел пой 'give' дать дам дашь дадим дадут дал дай 'be' быть буду будешь будем будут был будь 'take' взять возьму возьмёшь возьмём возьмут взял возьми 'go' (on foot) идти иду идёшь идём идут шёл иди 'accept' принять приму примешь примем примут принял прими 'go' (by veh. there are many instances where a mutation would be expected and does not occur. 1st sg.] [A terminology reminder.4 Exceptional verbs (Forms given vertically: infinitive.14. Obstruents are: /k.suffix.6. (4) A fill vowel /i/ occurs in classes with (a) non-syllabic resonants (only и occurs). Non-syllabic resonant classes include -/r and -/n. g.) ехать еду едешь едем едут ехал езжай/ поезжай 'shave' бриться бреюся бреешься бреемся бреются брился брейся 91 . (3) A vowel shift -. z. -[nu] truncate entirely. Resonants in CSR are: /j.] Flier (1972: 236-260) proposes an alternative view of imperfective derivation where the primary suffix is -aj preceded by 3 imperfectivizing suffixes: zero.14.] (2) Potential consonant mutations occur with perfectives from the -i and -e classes.o >a -. 2nd sg. and (b) the -nu and n/s-a classes (и or ы may occur). v. 3rd pl.before addition of the -ivaj. t. n. -nu. m. These mutations are more frequent in the -i class and rare in the -e class.6. [This 2nd part is similar to “deep truncation” in the -[nu] class in the past tense. /m. In any case. -iv-. [This type of alternation of the vowels и/ы is additional evidence that they are allophones of each other and not distinct phonemes.

6. cry' ошибиться реветь ошибусь реву ошибёшься ревёшь ошибёмся ревём ошибутся ревут ошибся ревел ошибись реви 'grind' молоть мелю мелешь мелем мелют молол мели 'hope' надеяться надеюсь надеешься надеемся надеются надеялся надейся 'want' хотеть хочу хочешь хотим хотят хотел *хоти 'send' послать пошлю пошлёшь пошлём пошлют послал пошли 'run' бежать бегу бежишь бежим бегут бежал беги 'understand' понять пойму поймёшь поймём поймут понял пойми 'drive. rent' снять сниму снимешь снимем снимут снял сними 2.14. see Andrews. passive читаемый --------спрашиваемый 'which is being read' 'which is being asked' ppp прочитанный написанный спрошенный 'which was read' 'which was written' 'which was asked' Examples by verbal class: [Note that the participial and derived imperfective examples are not necessarily related. Pjadusova 2001: 237-272.'grow' расти расту растёшь растём растут рос расти 'sleep' спать сплю спишь спим спят спал спи 'be mistaken' 'roar. -e рассмотренный рассмотреть/рассматривать просидеть/просиживать 3.] Verbal Class Participle CB/Derived Imperfective 1.5 Participles and verbal adverbs: Examples: ричастие и деепричастие Infinitive pairs (HCB/CB) читать/прочитать (ай) писать/написать (а) спрашивать (ай)/спросить (и) 'read' 'write' 'ask' pres. active читающий пишущий спрашивающий 'who is reading' 'who is writing' 'who is asking' past active (про)читавший (на)писавший спрашивавший/спросивший HCB 'who was reading' 'who was writing' 'who was asking' CB 'who had read' 'who had written' 'who had asked' pres. -a записанный записать/записывать 92 . For more examples and exercises on participles and verbal adverbs. Averjanova. rush' гнать гоню гонишь гоним гонят гнал гони 'remove.] [The glosses will be given by number following the Russian examples. .ža ---------отлежаться/отлёживаться 4. -i купленный оставить/оставлять перекусить/перекусывать 2.

11. 6. -avaj 12. -o 13. ij 18. 18. analyze' 'sit through' 'stay in bed and get well' 'which was noted. t/d 21. 7. s/z 22. /r 20. 3. избранный нарисованный отработанный согретый замкнутый свергнутый --------проколотый пережитый одетый закрытый надутый выпитый начатый сжатый стёртый переведённый унесённый привлечённый выгребенный 'which was bought' набрать/набирать обусловить/обуславливать.5. /m 19. -nu 10. 2. 16. 19. n 15. survive' 'who was dressed' 'dress' 'which was closed' 'cover. 4. close off' 'who was deposed' 'disappear' --------------------'which was pierced' 'pierce' 'which was lived through' 'live through. 8. 15. /n. n/s-a 6. 10. k/g 23. 14. 9. oj 16. 17. b Glosses: 1. elected' 'to dial. j 17. get a lot of smthg' 'which was drawn. -[nu] 11. closed' 'lock. 5. -ej 9. recorded' 'to note/jot down. record' 'chosen. v 14. set the table' 'which was blown/puffed up' 'let the air out' 'which was drank' 'wash down. chase' (of drink) 'which has begun' 'begin' 'which was squeezed. 13. -ova 7. -aj 8. sketched' 'to make contigent upon' 'which was worked out' 'to work out/off' 'which was warmed up' 'become ripe' 'which was locked. 12. tight' 'push' (a button) 'which was worn (out)' 'wipe off' 93 . обусловливать отработать/отрабатывать созреть/созревать замкнуть/замыкать вздрогнуть/вздрагивать исчезнуть/исчезать ----------проколоть/прокалывать пережить/переживать одеть/одевать накрыть/накрывать сдуть/сдувать запить/запивать начать/начинать нажать/нажимать вытереть/вытирать расцвести/расцветать перегрызть/перегрызать увлечь/увлекать разгрести/разгребать 'leave (behind)' 'have a snack' 'which was considered' 'consider.

'which was translated' 'which was carried away' 'who was drawn to' 'which was raked off' 'bloom' 'chew through' 'fascinate' 'clean off. "я"form) only. -i. 21. просить (нсв) -’request’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past прошу просишь просит просим просите просят просил просила просило просили проси(те) прося Active просящий просивший Passive просимый (попрошенный) 94 .e. clear' 2.(-и-) • Mutation of final root consonant in first person singular form (i. • Stress may shift (from 1st sg ending to stem in other conj.6.6 One-stem verb system SUFFIXED VERBAL CLASSIFIERS SECOND CONJUGATION 1.20. 23. forms). 22.14.

приготовить ( ) -’prepare’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past приготовлю приготовишь приготовит приготовим приготовите приготовят приготовил приготовила приготовило приготовили приготовь(те) приготовив Active приготовивший Passive приготовленный 95 .

look at’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past сижу сидишь сидит сидим сидите сидят сидел сидела сидело сидели сиди(те) сидя Active сидящий сидевший Passive посмотрю посмотришь посмотрит посмотрим посмотрите посмотрят посмотрел посмотрела посмотрело посмотрели посмотри(те) посмотрев Active посмотревший Passive посмотренный 96 . There are about 50 verbs in this class ) -’be sitting.(-е-) Mutation of final root consonant in 1st person singular form. sit’ сидеть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past посмотреть ( ) ‘watch. Stress can shift.2. • • • -e.

(-а-) (including all hushers and jot-types [стоять. бояться]) лежать ( ) -’be in a lying position’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past постоять ( ) -’stand around’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past лежу лежишь лежит лежим лежите лежат лежал лежала лежало лежали лежи(те) лёжа Active лежащий лежавший Passive постою постоишь постоит постоим постоите постоят постоял постояла постояло постояли постой(те) постояв Active постоявший Passive 97 .3. husher -a.

FIRST CONJUGATION VERBS 4. -a- (-а-) • Mutation of final root consonant all through the present tense. • Stress often shifts from end to stem in all forms of non-past other than 1st sg. • There are about 60 verbs in this class. ) -’wave’ маxать ( Non-Past Form я машу ты машешь он/она/оно машет мы машем вы машете они машут Past Tense Form Masculine махал Feminine махала Neuter махало Plural махали маши(те)/махай(те) (conv./colloq.) Imperative Verbal Adverb махая Participles Active Passive Present машущий Past махавший написать ( ) ‘write, write on’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

напишу напишешь напишет напишем напишете напишут написал написала написало написали напиши(те) написав Active написавший Passive написанный


5. non-syllabic -a- (-а-) • No mutations. • A fill vowel is often inserted into stem (o/e) (cf. брать/беру -‘take’, звать/зову ‘name, call’) [Forms without fill vowels include врать/лгать - ‘lie,’ ждать - ‘wait,’ рвать - ‘rip, throw up’) • If stress shift occurs, only in feminine past tense • Restricted occurrence of substitutive softening (g >ž in ‘lie’: лгу, лжёшь) ) -’tear, strip off’ драть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

деру дерёшь дерёт дерём дерёте дерут драл драла драло драли дери(те) деря Active дерящий дравший Passive


набрать ( ) -’push, enter, load on’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past

наберу наберёшь наберёт наберём наберёте наберут набрал набрала набрало набрали набери(те) набрав Active набравший Passive набранный


(-ова. организовать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past танцевать ( ) -’dance’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past or bi-aspectual) -’organize’ организую организуешь организует организуем организуете организуют организовал организовала организовало организовали организуй(те) организуя Active организующий организовавший Passive организуемый организованный танцую танцуешь танцует танцуем танцуете танцуют танцевал танцевала танцевало танцевали танцуй(те) танцуя Active танцующий танцевавший Passive танцуемый (станцованный) 101 ./ -eva (-ова. плевать .spit) • Verbs in this class are only imperfective aspect./ -ева-) > uj (уй) in nonpast and imperative. • There are thousands of verbs in this class .mostly with foreign roots./-eva. • Stress does not generally shift from uj (exceptions include совать -‘stick in’ [сую./ -ева-) • Rule: -ova. суёшь]. -ova.6.

• • • -aj. No stress shifts Thousands of verbs in this class.(-ай-) No mutation.7. make’ делать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past делаю делаешь делает делаем делаете делают делал делала делало делали делай(те) делая Active делающий делавший Passive делаемый деланный отработать ( ) -’work off. work out’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отработаю отработаешь отработает отработаем отработаете отработают отработал отработала отработало отработали отработай(те) отработав Active отработавший Passive отработанный 102 . ) -’do.

(-ей-) No mutations. Very few verbs in this group.8. • • • -ej. possess’ иметь ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past ) -’become white’ белеть ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past имею имеешь имеет имеем имеете имеют имел имела имело имели имей(те) имея Active имеющий имевший Passive белею белеешь белеет белеем белеете белеют белел белела белело белели белей(те) белея Active белеющий белевший Passive 103 . ) -’have. No stress shifts.

disappears in past tense • 2).9 and 10.remains in past tense достигнуть ( ) -’achieve. -nu. reach’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past достигну достигнешь достигнет достигнем достигнете достигнут достиг достигла достигло достигли достигни(те) достигнув Active достигший Passive достигнутый отдохнуть ( ) -’relax’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отдохну отдохнёшь отдохнёт отдохнём отдохнёте отдохнут отдохнул отдохнула отдохнуло отдохнули отдохни(те) отдохнув Active отдохнувший 104 Passive .(-ну-) • Two subgroups: • 1). -nu. -nu.

11. -avaj.> -ай-) in the present tense • In the imperative. ) -’give.(-авай. the -avaj.remains.> -aj.(-авай-) • Rule: -avaj. hand over’ давать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past ) -’sell’ продавать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past продаю продаёшь продаёт продаём продаёте продают продавал продавала продавало продавали продавай(те) продавая Active продающий продававший Passive продаваемый даю даёшь даёт даём даёте дают давал давала давало давали давай(те) давая Active дающий дававший Passive даваемый 105 .

restricted class.12.(-о-) (nonproductive. -o. r > r’. l >l’ in non-past forms) бороться ( ) -’fight’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past борюсь борешься борется боремся боретесь борются боролся боролась боролось боролись борись/боритесь борясь Active борящийся боровшийся Passive 106 .

) -’live’ жить ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past живу живёшь живёт живём живёте живут жил жила жило жили живи(те) живя Active живущий живший Passive (прожитый) отплыть ( ) -’swim/float away’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past отплыву отплывёшь отплывёт отплывём отплывёте отплывут отплыл отплыла отплыло отплыли отплыви(те) отплыв Active отплывший 107 Passive .NONSUFFIXED VERBAL CLASSIFIERS (all are 1st conjugation) Syllabic Resonants 13. -v.(-в-) • Consonant /v/ occurs in conjugated non-past form • Stress may shift in feminine past tense.

-n. arise’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past встану встанешь встанет встанем встанете встанут встал встала встало встали встань(те) встав Active вставший 108 Passive .14. стать ( ) -’become’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past стану станешь станет станем станете станут стал стала стало стали стань(те) став Active ставший Passive встать ( ) -’get up.(-н-) • Consonant /n/ occurs in non-past conjugated form.

открыть ( ) -’open’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past закрыть ( ) -’close’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past открою откроешь откроет откроем откроете откроют открыл открыла открыло открыли открой(те) открыв Active открывший Passive открытый закрою закроешь закроет закроем закроете закроют закрыл закрыла закрыло закрыли закрой(те) закрыв Active закрывший Passive закрытый 109 . • No stress shifts.(-ой-) • o > y (о > ы) before a consonant.15. -oj.

(-й-) дуть ( ) -’blow’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past дую дуешь дует дуем дуете дуют дул дула дуло дули дуй(те) дуя Active дующий дувший Passive (сдутый) 110 .16. -j.

• /e/ fill vowel in imperative • Stress may shift in feminine past.(-ий-) • Vowel /i/ is dropped in non-past form and present participle. ) -’drink’ пить ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past пью пьёшь пьёт пьём пьёте пьют пил пила пило пили пей(те) Active пьющий пивший Passive (выпитый) убить ( ) -’kill’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past убью убьёшь убьёт убьём убьёте убьют убил убила убило убили убей(те) убив Active убивший Passive убитый 111 .17. -ij.

-n. ) -’start. begin’ начать ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past начну начнёшь начнёт начнём начнёте начнут начал начала начало начали начни(те) начав Active начавший Passive начатый 112 . • Stress may shift in the past tense.(-н.Non-syllabic 18./ -м-) • n / m > a (н / м > а) before a consonant./ -m.

No -l in past tense masculine singular умереть ( ) -’die’ Non-Past Form умру я ты умрёшь умрёт он/она/оно умрём мы умрёте вы умрут они Past Tense Form умер Masculine Feminine умерла умерло Neuter умерли Plural умри(те) Imperative Verbal Adverb умерев Participles Active Passive Present умерший Past стереть ( ) ‘wipe off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past сотру сотрёшь сотрёт сотрём сотрёте сотрут стёр стёрла стерло стерли сотри(те) стерев Active стёрший Passive стёртый 113 . -r.(-р-) • /R > ER'E before infinitive ending. • /R > ER before any other consonant.19.

) -’lead./ -д-) • t / d > s (т / д > с) before infinitive ending. побредши* Active побредший 114 Passive .(-т.Obstruents 20./ -d. -t. • t/d + l > l in past tense (reverse truncation) • Stress shifts to end in past tense. conduct’ вести ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past побрести ( ) -’wander off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past веду ведёшь ведёт ведём ведёте ведут вёл вела вело вели веди(те) ведя Active ведущий ведший Passive ведомый (уведённый) побреду побредёшь побредёт побредём побредёте побредут побрёл побрела побрело побрели побреди(те) побредя.

‘having informed on’). where the form in -я is literary and the form in -вши is either colloquial or archaic. донеся . there is a shift in meaning (cf. there are often 2 possible perfective verbal adverb forms. -s./ -z.(-с. In some instances.*Note that with verbs of motion.‘having carried to’ vs. 21./ -з-) • Masculine past-tense /l/ drops (reverse truncation) ) -’carry’ нести ( Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past несу несёшь несёт несём несёте несут нёс несла несло несли неси(те) неся Active несущий нёсший Passive (занесённый) довезти ( ) -’transport up to (by vehicle)’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past довезу довезёшь довезёт довезём довезёте довезут довёз довезла довезло довезли довези(те) довезя Active довёзший Passive довезённый 115 . донёсши .

-k. помочь ( ) -’help.22. assist’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Non-Past Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past помогу поможешь поможет поможем поможете помогут помог помогла помогло помогли помоги(те) Active помогший Passive испечь ( ) -’bake’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past испеку испечёшь испечёт испечём испечёте испекут испёк испекла испекло испекли испеки(те) испёкши Active испёкший Passive испечённый 116 ./ -g. • Mutation of consonant in non-past 2nd/3rd singular.(-к. aid./ -г-) • Masculine past tense drops /l/. 1st/2nd plural ONLY.

-b.23.(-б-) выгрести ( ) -’rake/clean out’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past скрести ( ) -’scrape off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past выгребу выгребешь выгребет выгребем выгребете выгребут выгреб выгребла выгребло выгребли выгреби(те) выгребши/выгребя Active выгребший Passive выгребенный скребу скребёшь скребёт скребём скребёте скребут скрёб скребла скребло скребли скреби(те) скребя Active скребущий скрёбший Passive 117 .

соскрести ( ) -’scrape off’ Non-Past Form я ты он/она/оно мы вы они Past Tense Form Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural Imperative Verbal Adverb Participles Present Past соскребу соскребёшь соскребёт соскребём соскребёте соскребут соскрёб соскребла соскребло соскребли соскреби(те) соскрёбши Active соскрёбший Passive соскребённый 118 .

2.14.7 Verbs with the bound particle -ся All verbs in -s’a are intransitive by definition and occur in 6 basic types: (1) 'reflexive' (возвратный) (2) 'mutual actions' (взаимный) (3) 'passive' (страдательный) (4) 'impersonal' (безличный) (5) verb only occurs with -s’a particle (6) a small group of verbs that have an iterative meaning In some instances, a single verb may belong to several of the 6 types given above. Note the following examples of -s’a verbs. I will give aspectual pairs (HCB/CB) where feasible, but in many instances only one aspect has the -s’a. (1) Reflexive: the verbal action refers back to the nominative subject. In this class, it is possible to occasionally encounter minimal pairs with the non-s’a verbal equivalent + the reflexive, unbounded pronoun себя 'self'. Examples will be included below. заниматься/позаниматься (чем, с кем, у кого) мыться/помыться одеваться/одеться одевать/одеть себя 'occupy oneself, study, spend time doing smthg' 'wash, bathe (oneself)' 'dress (oneself)' 'dress (oneself)' - emphatic

Compare the following: Он встал в шесть, быстро помылся, оделся и ушёл на работу. 'He got up a six, bathed quickly, got dressed and left for work.' осле аварии брат долго не мог одеваться без помощи, а теперь, год спустя, он сам себя одевает. 'After the accident my brother was unable to get dressed without assistance for quite a while, but now, a year later, he is able to dress himself.' возвращаться/вернуться (куда, откуда) смотреться/посмотреться (во что) естра всё время смотрится в зеркало. ильм хорошо смотрится. латье отлично смотрится на тебе. 'return (oneself)' 'look at yourself; look' (passive) 'My sister is always looking at herself in the mirror.' 'The film is worth seeing.' 'That dress looks great on you.'

(2) Mutual actions: the verbal action is done to 'each other' созваниваться/созвониться (с кем) 'call each other ' целоваться/поцеловаться (с кем) 'kiss each other' встречаться/встретиться (с кем) 'meet with each other, date' видеться/увидеться (с кем) 'see each other' Увидимся скоро! 'See you soon!' 119

знакомиться/познакомиться (с кем) переписываться (с кем)

'become acquainted, meet' 'correspond' (be pen pals)

(3) Passive: the verbal action is done by a “logical” subject that may be given in the instrumental case. The nominative subject is what is generally the object in a transitive construction and is inanimate. кончаться/кончиться 'end, conclude' начинаться/начaться 'begin, start' читаться 'read' (cf. Это книга легко читается ‘That book’s a good read.’) открываться/открыться 'open' закрываться/закрыться 'close' делаться/сделаться 'occur, be happening, become' то тут делается? 'What’s going on in here?' не делается грустно от его поведения. 'I get sad when he acts like that.' (4) Impersonals: there is no nominative subject. The actor of the verb, if expressible at all, is often in the dative case. This category is much broader than -s’a verbs and may occur with a variety of forms (see Impersonal constructions in section 3.5). хотеться/захотеться думаться/подуматься нездоровиться спится, спалось (no infinitive) писаться работаться житься сидеться представляться/представиться ам хочется завести собаку, но нет денег. 'want, desire' 'think' 'be unwell' 'sleep' 'write' 'work' 'live' 'sit' 'imagine' 'We want to get a dog, but we don’t have any money.' не думается, что его вывод неправильный. 'I think that his conclusion is incorrect.' атери нездоровится. 'Mother isn’t well.' ре хорошо спится на даче. 'Ira sleeps well at her summer home.' оле не пишется уже второй год. 'Kolya has had writer’s block for two years now.' ак-то сегодня не работается нам! 'We’re just not in a working mood today!' ак вам живётся на юге? 'How’s life treating you in the south?' ебёнку не сидится. 'The child can’t sit still.'

не плохо представляется её состояние в данный момент 'It’s hard for me to imagine at the moment her state of mind.' 120

(5) These verbs never occur in CSR without the -s’a particle. Below is a list of the most important examples of this category. нравиться/понравиться бояться/(побояться) -/понадобиться ложиться/лечь садиться/сесть присаживаться/присесть 'like' 'be afraid, fear' 'need, become necessary' 'lie down' 'sit down' 'sit down and make yourself comfortable'

(6) This is the smallest set of -s’a verbs. These verbs are very restricted in meaning and this usage should not be generalized to other verbs without checking a reliable Russian dictionary or grammar. кусаться Осторожно! рыться чесаться 'bite' 'Watch out! The dog bites!' 'dig' 'scratch, itch'

обака кусается!

In addition to the six groups given above, there are some forms in -s’a that are either very close in meaning to their non-s’a counterpart (cf. решаться/решиться - 'come to a decision after giving it serious thought', проситься/попроситься - 'ask permission, ask to go potty' (said of a child), 'begging to be done/said') or the semantics of the verb are considerably different from the non-s’a form (cf. полагаться/положиться - 'depend upon someone, put your trust in someone', -/заняться - 'get busy, take care of', браться/взяться - 'get a hold of each other, get a grip on yourself, get busy doing something'). 2.14.8 Verbs of motion The Russian system of verbs of motion has been one of the more popular topics in scholarly and pedagogical works on CSR. I will briefly review the major formal and semantic principles of the category with examples. [For a complete listing of all prefixed and non-prefixed verbs of motion, together with their prepositional government, case usage, examples and exercises, see Andrews, Averjanova, Pjadusova 2001: 124 - 225. There are two imperfective forms of non-prefixed verbs of motion - determinate and indeterminate. The perfective is only possible with a prefix, but not all prefixed verbs of motion are perfective. Determinate verbs 1. Determinate verbs are either irregular in conjugation or belong to the following classes: -aj, -e, t/d, s/z. 2. The meaning of the determinate verb is like a “freeze frame,” i.e. the action characterized is like a snapshot, a moment in the space/time continuum.


’ 2. корабли и катера плывут в краю ночном.сходить] 2. уда ты идёшь? ‘Where are you going?’ Я иду домой. it must mean one of the following: a.’ b. ‘The clock struck twelve while we were walking along the embankment. The po. Автобус идёт в парк. when explicit. Bulanova song) 5. когда мы шли по набережной. ‘I was on my way to work when I saw a horrible accident. snow. If the determinate occurs in the past tense. колько идти/ехать? ‘How long does it take on foot/by vehicle?’ ождь/снег идёт. a. ‘It started to rain.’] овый фильм идёт.By car. ‘That dress is becoming to you/looks good on you.’ 3.14. ‘I like to ride the train.’ [Note the following perfective form: ождь/снег пошёл.2 Indeterminate verbs 1.’ b. ‘I’m going home. ой ребёнок уже ходит. is almost always accusative. ‘I love to ski. The indeterminate may characterize the action.8. snowing.” чера вечером мы ходили в гости к аше. ‘A new film is playing/showing.3 Simple perfective verbs of motion with po.’ 4.’ ать в последнее время плохо ходит.а машине.’ 122 .prefix 1. ‘The bus is going down the street. The indeterminate names the action. snowing. ‘It’s raining. асы пробили двенадцать. ‘Ships and boats are going to the night world’ (lyrics of 2001 T. а чём вы ездили? .’ ождь/снег шёл. ‘How did you go? . The indeterminate may refer to 'using the bathroom. Past tense form often gives meaning of a “round trip.’ Я люблю ездить поездом. ‘I go to the bathroom frequently.14. ‘Yesterday evening we went to Sasha’s house. ‘It was raining. ‘My child can already walk. There are some expressions that may only use a determinate form.’ 6. There are exceptions to this generalization (cf. example 4c).’ 2.perfective has the following meanings when used with a determinate stem: inception of the action ы пошли в кино.’ ебе это платье очень идёт. я видел страшную аварию.’ 4. The determinate form is most often translated as a progressive -ing form.’ Я люблю кататься на лыжах.’ c. The determinate has an embedded goal that.3. Автобус идёт по улице.' Я очень часто хожу в туалет.’ [also perfective . ‘The bus is heading for the park. ‘My mom’s having trouble walking lately. ‘We set off for the movies. огда я ехал на работу.8.

'I should tell you something.' 3. even when a mode of transportation was engaged..’ [here. buses.пасибо. trams.2 Conditionals/Hypotheticals The Russian realization of the conditional mood is straightforward. there is a great deal of variety and flexibility in Russian word order. хорошо! ‘How was your trip? . then use летать/лететь.' 'He’s about forty years old. сли may also be used together with the hypothetical particle бы. but may indeed change the referential meaning in a profound way. Inanimate and non-pronominal objects often occur after the verb. only one leg of the trip is completed] 2.ормально! ‘How was your trip? . a change in word order may not only change the tone of the utterance. Я ему должен десять долларов.' 'I owe him $10. Syntax 3. OVS. ак вы съездили? . If flying is involved.’ In fact.1 Syntax and syntactic categories Word order in CSR has typologically been categorized in the context of the world’s languages as SOV and SVO. a round trip meaning is obligatory] ак вы доехали? . 2. thanks!’ [here. In terms of these 2 generalizations. му лет сорок. VSO are also possible.Great. When the prefix po. The particle бы is used either before or after 123 . then it is more likely to occur before the verb. the meaning is usually one of duration with no culminating spatial goal: походить ‘walk around for a little while’ поездить ‘drive around for a while’ Note that there are a number of perfectives formed from both determinate and indeterminate verbal stems. Vehicles on tracks or routes (especially trains. When going about town (to work.' 'He’s forty years old. However.14. the traditional description is misleading. In general. The future tense is generally required in conditional clauses following eсли -'if'. му сорок лет. 3. Compare the following sentences: Я должен тебе сказать кое-что.is combined with an indeterminate stem. the verbs ходить/идти are generally used. 3. boats and some taxis) use the forms ходить/идти. to a game). The forms ездить/ехать must be used when going beyond the city limits or between countries. The orders OSV. if the object is pronominal or an animate common or proper noun.8. Note the following parameters concerning this distinction: 1. trolleys.Fine.4 Different modes of motion Russian verbs of motion will often distinguish between motion ‘on foot’ and motion ‘by vehicle. to the movies.change of speed or direction ойдём быстрее! ‘Let’s go faster!’ 2.

' 'If he would have been smart. he would have gotten into college on the first try. which is obligatorily in the past-tense form. идут ли ему новые брюки? 'Sasha wants to know if his new pants look good on him. Like all particles in CSR. что я думаю по этому поводу. there is the interrogative particle ли. 'If he were smart. we won’t make it to the concert. есть ли у неё греческий словарь. 'We don’t know whether or not she has a Greek dictionary. does not take the stress.' аша интересуется. 'I would call him. (то) мы не успеем на концерт. but something is stopping me. Not all hypothetical constructions are conditionals and vice-versa.' ы не знаем. This means that ли may not be the second word if the first word is a preposition or a negative particle.' ира собирается звонить в девять.' 'If he were to have been smart. он бы поступил в университет с первого раза. then he would have gotten into college on the first try. когда будут давать зарплату? 'Larisa is asking if you know when they’re going to be giving out our monthly salary.the verb.' Note the following examples: ариса спрашивает. many of the nuances found in the English verb tenses in conditional constructions are ambiguous in Russian. 'If you don’t come on time.' сли бы он был умным.' 'If you hadn’t known what I thought about that. right?' Purpose clauses or constructions in which the subject wants someone to do something require the use of чтобы in CSR. знаете ли ы. Namely. you wouldn’t have brought it up. but shares it with either the word preceding or following it.3 Grammatical particles In addition to the hypothetical particle бы. Because CSR does not have a complex tense system. ли must follow the first word-form that carries stress in the clause. he’d get in to college on the first try. Note the following examples: 124 . you wouldn’t have brought it up. но что-то меня останавливает. The rules for placement of the interrogative particle ли are more rigid than for the other particles.' сли бы ты знала. 'If you (only) knew what I think about that.' 3. Note the following examples and their multiple English translations: сли ты не придёшь вовремя. The particle ли is required in reported questions and when evoking the meaning of 'whether [or not].' Я бы позвонила ему. (то) ты бы не завела эту тему. что ли? 'Kira is going to call at nine.

consider the following examples: апа вызывает интерес у нас к своей работе. чтобы найти хорошую работу. In some instances. Substantial lists of verbs and their government are given in the discussion sections of each of the Russian cases. Petersburg to work.' 3. Those truly impersonal 125 .'I can’t sit still. 'I moved to St.' Я переехала в етербург. 'I decided to stay with friends in Moscow for another week. 'Dad is getting us interested in his work.4 Verbal government In earlier sections on nouns and prepositions. Impersonal constructions are not bound only to verbal constructions. 'He wants you to call your/his sister. In order to show the complexity of verbal government in CSR. as well as in the section on prepositions. In the present section.'We couldn’t sleep last night').' ам сегодня ночью не спалось .5 Impersonal constructions Impersonal constructions play a major role in sentence-level discourse in CSR.тобы все твои мечты сбылись! 'So that all of your dreams come true!' (said as a toast or a wish) Он хочет. чтобы ты позвонил сестре. a verb will require only one object case. не не сидится .' Я решил остаться в оскве у друзей ещё на неделю.' ебёнок наконец-то взялся за ум. We have already seen one example of impersonal constructions in connection with a set of verbs with the particle -s’a (cf. we have seen the importance of syntactic constraints of case usage following particular word forms. but can occur with the zero-copula 'be' in present tense constructions with adverbs.' Я переехала в етербург работать.' а твоём примере я убедился в том. 'My kid finally got his head on straight/got his act together. I will survey the range of forms that are used as impersonals and the semantic space which they occupy. The cases required with verbs in CSR is a rich combination of the entire system. 'I moved to St. while in other instances multiple cases and prepositional phrases are possible. что нельзя пить! 'After watching you I became convinced that no one should drink!' 3.' е сбивай меня с толку! 'Don’t get me off track/make me lose my train of thought. Petersburg in order to find a job.

' 'I have a pain in my chest. юсю клонит в сон.' ам было тепло. Use of infinitive in simple statements and questions аказать вам такси? ам помочь? е сходить ли нам в кино?! оложить ещё? ать тебе ручку? 'Can I call you a cab?' 'Do you need some help? Can I help you?' 'Would you like some help?' 'What about us going to a movie?' 'Would you like some more?' 'Do you want me to get you a pen?' 'Would you like a pen? Can I get you a pen?' 126 . 'He’s sad.' 'We’re uncomfortable' (emotionally and/or physically). го бросает в жар. The semantic fields that are generally associated with impersonal expressions include: Weather and nature не холодно.' 'It smells like bread.' ебёнка вырвало в школе. У мамы звенит в ушах. 'it’s awkward for us' 'The child threw up in school. 'I’m cold. У меня болит в груди.' ождит. 'There’s a draft. От него воняет.' 'It smells wonderful in the garden. 'There’s a ringing in my ears.' 'His ears are stopped up.' 'Everything went dark' (Vanya passed out). й будет скучно на этой лекции. У ани потемнело в глазах.' ует. 'It’s very cold in January. саду благоухает.' январе очень холодно. не нездоровится. 'It’s freezing outside. It’s rainy. and a third singular form in the present and future. еня знобит.' 'I’ve got chills. 'It’s raining. пока сюша не открыла окно.' 'I’m not well.' Psychological and physiological human states (and smells) му грустно. ам неудобно. ахнет хлебом.' 'He’s broken out in a fever.' 'She’s going to be bored at that lecture.' 'Lucy can’t keep her eyes open.verbs will always have a neuter singular form in the past tense.' ебе не дует? 'Is the draft getting you?' орозит.' 'He stinks. У него заложило уши. 'We were warm until Ksyusha opened the window.

ёшкин кот. see Dal' (1862/1957). Until the early 1990’s. стерва сукин сын ёлки-палки. especially beyond the immediate family.. contemporary speakers of Russian are more freely using profanity in larger discourse situations than was true in the Soviet era. Mertvago (1995). 'pancake')' 'Dammit!' 127 ..and die a fool!' 'Old age sucks.7 Use of profanity in CSR The subject of profanity in Russian has long been taboo.. [а дураком умрёшь!] тарость не радость! .use it!' 3. The parts in brackets are potential retorts. (люби и санки возить!) Язык до иева (доведёт!) 'Be careful what you wish for!' 'From your mouth to God’s ear.[А молодость гадость!] ервый блин (комом!) ише едешь. it was impossible to imagine seeing in official print any form of verbal obscenity. I would like to outline the basic trends in the use of obscenity in spoken and written Russian.. Permjakov (1970).' 'You have a tongue -. However. In the following remarks. and provide some simple euphemisms that are used by a broad range of the population. the entire proverb is stated. Mokienko (1999). but it is no exaggeration to state that the Russian media is still more conservative in its use of profanity in public than many of its western counterparts. but attempts at an English equivalent. Note the following examples: [The parts in parentheses are optional in the recitation.. For a thorough treatment of proverbs and collocations. ёлки-моталки. and being young is yucky too. (дальше будешь. Because of the frequency of proverb/collocation usage. In other instances.] My translations are not literal. Mixel'son (1994). а что боролись. век учись..' 'Live and learn. (на то и напоролись!) воими бы устами (да мёд пить!) ек живи. едрёна мать 'Go to the devil!' 'bitch/bastard' 'son-of-a-bitch' 'fiddlesticks' 'Crap! (lit.' 'You can’t have your cake and eat it too. Moščevitina (1996).3. This trend is no longer as true as it once was.6 Proverbs and collocations The use of proverbs and collocations remains a very important part of normal Russian discourse. The situation in spoken Russian is also rather complicated. ёкси-шмокси . ё-кэ-лэ-мэ-нэ -лин! ё-моё. and the hearer may add on what could be considered a continuation of the proverb itself.. It is still the case that women are less likely to use profanity than men. in many instances only a portion of the saying is pronounced..) юбишь кататься.' 'Slow and steady wins the race.' 'If at first you don’t succeed.. Some of the words that one will commonly encounter in media and discourse include: ди к чёрту! сука.

The use of the 3 Slavic roots in various word-formative combinations is often referred to as “three-story obscenity” (трёхэтажный мат)and no examples of that phenomenon will appear here. One of the more interesting uses of this type of obscenity (from a purely linguistic point of view) is the ability to replace the root of a given word with an obscene root in order to achieve a mundane meaning like 'steal' or 'bore. there are a series of Russian dictionaries of obscenities published both in Russia and abroad that are easily available.' For the curious reader who is interested in this topic. 128 .

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