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18

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19
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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

20

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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

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21

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pmzwf0dkif;u@

22

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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

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23

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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

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pmzwf0dkif;u@

24

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7/ wdu
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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

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25

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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

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26

Ekid if w
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}}

ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

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27

Ekid if w
H um aqmif;yg;

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vIyf&Sm;rIBuD; jzpfvmapwhJ tjcm; tajccHtaMumif;tcsufawGuawmh pm;aomuf ukefaps;EIef;

]]

}}

ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

*sme,f

28

Ekid if w
H um aqmif;yg;

jrifw
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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

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Ekid if w
H um aqmif;yg;

29

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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

30
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Y rQ tifwmeufukd a&&Snf ydwx
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cs,fcs,f vkyfwmaMumifh vli,fawG&JU rauseyfrIudk BuD;xGm;vmapygw,f/ 'Dvli,fawGtwGuf
EdkifiHa&; vGwfvyfcGifh &Sdjcif; r&Sdjcif;? pD;yGm;a&;vGwfvyfcGifh &Sdjcif; r&Sdjcif;u wdkuf½dkuf ywfoufjcif;
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pD;yGm;a&; tusyftwnf;rsm;uvnf; taMumif;&if;awG jzpfayr,fh odcsif wwfcsif pl;prf;csifw,fh
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J muawmh ,aeYacwf&UJ jy,k'af wGjzpfwJh tifwmeufawG? enf;ynmawG?
todynmawGyJ jzpfygw,f/ zdESdyfcsKyfcs,f uefYowfrIawGMum;u ausmf&if;cG&if; vIyf&Sm;rIBuD;udk
FacebookawG? TwitterawG pwhJ vlra
I &;uGe&f uf tifwmeufueG &f ufawGuaeyJ pnf;½H;k chJ vIaYH qmfcJh
wdkufwGef;chJMuvdkY vlxktHk<urIBuD;awG us,fus,fjyefYjyefY ay:aygufvmchJ&ygw,f/ wdk;wufvmwhJ
enf;ynmawGu taxmuftul jzpfchJw,fqdk&if rrSm;ygbl;/ owif;rD'D,mawG&JU pD;qif;ysHUESHYrIEIef;
vQijf refru
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f vufawG jrefjrefqefqef &&SEd ikd rf u
I vli,fawG
udk todynmawG wdk;wufvmapNyD; tHk<urI jzpfvmzdkY wGef;tm;wck jzpfchJygw,f/
2001 ckEpS f ESpOf ;D uawmh ta&SUtv,fyikd ;f rSm vlxt
k <kH urIawGeYJ tpjyKcw
Jh ,fvYdk qkEd idk yf g
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w,f/ tmPm&Sifudk tHwkwhJ vlxkvIyf&Sm;rIawG jzpfaeqJyg/
'Dvkd tmPm&Siaf wG jyKwu
f scw
hJ hJ vlxt
k <kH urIBu;D jzpfay:vm&wmeJY ywfoufNy;D ? tJ'EhD idk if H
awGrmS &Sad ewJh vli,fx&k UJ tcsKd ;tpm;uvnf; ta&;ygrIwckjzpfaMumif;ukd 2011 ckEpS ?f azaz:0g&D
k f The Economistr*¾Zif;rSm
v28 &ufaeYxw
k f Time r*¾Zif;? 2011 ckEpS f azaz:0g&Dv 12 &ufaeYxw
a&;om;cJhNyD;? vlxktkH<urIjzpf&wJh wjcm;taMumif;tcsufawGukdawmh EkdifiHwumtzGJYtpnf;awGu
wGufcsufjyxm;ygw,f/
tk;d a0

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rSwfcsuf - xkdr*¾Zif; 2 apmifESifh EkdifiHwumtzGJYtpnf;rsm;\ wGufcsufjyrIukd
oD;jcm; az:jyxm;ygonf/
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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

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31

Ekid if w
H um aqmif;yg;

ta&SUtv,fyidk ;f Ekid if rH sm;wGif
vlxt
k <Hk urIrsm;ay:aygufc&hJ onfh
taMumif;jcif;&mrsm;

armifveG ;f ysH

tck jzpfymG ;chw
J Jh vlxt
k <kH urIawGrmS vli,fawG&UJ tcef;u tvGet
f a&;ygchyJ gw,f/ owif;
enf;ynmacwfBuD;rdkY vli,fawG owif;tcsuftvufawG? todynmawG tvQiftjref avhvm
qnf;yl;EdkifMuvdkYvnf; ckvdk jzpfvmwmvdkYvnf; qdkygw,f/ usdef;aowmwckuawmh 'D a'oBuD;u
vlOD;a&&JU 60% avmuf[m touf 30 atmuf vli,fawG jzpfaewmrdkY 'DvdkvIyf&Sm;rIawG jzpfvm
&wmyg/
vli,fxkBuD;[m 'Dvdk vIyf&Sm;rIBuD;awG jzpfay:vmzdkYoufoufawmh r[kwfygbl;/ EdkifiH&JU
pD;yGm;a&; zGHYNzdK;wdk;wufzdkYtwGufvnf; t"du tiftm;wck jzpfygw,f/
'kw,
d urmÇppfBu;D Ny;D whaJ emufyikd ;f rSm arG;zGm;Bu;D jyif;vmwhJ vli,fawGaMumifh Oa&myEdik if H
awG wd;k wufvmwm jzpfygw,f/ tdE,
d´ ESihf w½kwEf ikd if w
H Ykd wd;k wufvmrI[mvnf; vli,fawGaMumifh
ydrk t
kd m;aumif;vmapygw,f/ 'gayr,fh pD;yGm;a&;zGjYH zKd ;wd;k wufrI r&Sw
d m? tvkyt
f udik f tcGit
hf a&;awG
r&Sw
d m? vlwef;aphraeEdik w
f mawG &Sv
d m&ifawmh 'Dvil ,fxBk u;D &JU rauseyfr[
I m aMumufp&m aumif;yg
w,f/ ck ta&SUtv,fyikd ;f rSm jzpfymG ;chw
J Jh vlxt
k <kH urIawG&UJ t"du wGe;f tm;uawmh vli,fxBk u;D &JU
rauseyfrIyJ jzpfygw,f/
tjcm;EdkifiHawGrSmvnf; twlwlygyJ/ 1970 ckESpfuae 2007 ckESpftwGif; urmÇBuD;rSm
jzpfyGm;chJwhJ tHk<urI 80% [m touf 30 atmuf vli,fOD;a& 60% 0ef;usif&SdwhJ EdkifiHawGrSm
jzpfyGm;chJwmvdkY Time r*¾Zif;u qdkygw,f/
The Economist r*¾Zif;uvnf; vlxktHk<urI jzpfEdkifacs EdkifiHwckcsif;pDtvdkuf cefYrSef;
wGufcsufwhJae&mrSm 25 ESpfatmuf vlOD;a& b,fES&mcdkifEIef; &SdovJqdkwhJtcsufukd t"dutcsuf
tjzpf wGufcsufygw,f/ tjcm;tcsufawGuawmh vuf&Sdtpdk;& tkyfcsKyfaewm b,fES ESpf&SdNyDvJ?
tusifhysufjcpm;rIESifh 'Drdkua&pD qdwfokOf;rI b,favmufxd jzpfaevJ? vlwOD;csif;pD&JU 0ifaiG b,f
avmuf&o
dS vJ? vGwv
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dS vJ qdw
k t
Jh csuaf wGeYJ cefrY eS ;f wGucf suf
ygw,f/ wGufyHkwGufenf;uawmh trSwf 100 ay;wJh trSwfay;Z,m;rSm 25 ESpfatmuf vlOD;a&
&mcdkifEIef;twGuf 35 rSwftxd ay;vdkY&ygw,f/ Oyrm 60 %ESifh txuf&Sdw,fqdk&if 35 rSwf
tjynfah ygh/ tkycf sKyrf u
I mvtwGuf 15 rSwf ay;ygw,f/ vpfAsm;u u'gzDq&kd if tESpf 40 ausmjf y;D rdYk
15 rSwf tjynfh&ygw,f/ tusifhysufjcpm;rIESifh 'Drdkua&pDqdwfokOf;rItwGufvnf; 15 rSwf ay;yg
w,f/ jrefrmEdkifiHqdk&if trSwfjynfh &Edkifygw,f/ 0ifaiGtenf;trsm;twGuf 10 rSwf ay;ygw,f/
'gvnf; trSwfjynfh&rSmyg/ vGwfvyfpGm xkwfaz:ajymqdkcGifhtwGuf 5 rSwf jzpfygw,f/ aemuf 5
rSwfuawmh 25 ESpf atmuf vli,fOD;a& ta&twGufay:rSm ay;ygw,f/ tck vlxktHk<urIawG
jzpfaewhJ ta&SUtv,fydkif;EdkifiHtcsdKU&JU udef;*Pef;wcsdKUudk az:jyvdkufygw,f/
ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

32

Ekid if w
H um aqmif;yg;

*sme,f

vlxt
k <Hk urI jzpfay:&onfh taMumif;jcif;&mrsm;jy Z,m;
1

2

vli,f %
65.40%

tkyfcsKyfrI
oufwrf; ESpf
33

vpfAsm; 47.40%
tD*spf

,Drif

3
GDP

4
DI

5

6

CPI

PFI

7
RI(STI)

2900

147

146

173

86.5

42

18720

158

146

192

71

52.30%

30

5860

138

98

130

65.6

wleD;&Sm; 42.10%

23

8620

145

59

186

49.3

bm&def; 43.90%

12

23980

122

48

153

36.4

(vlwOD;csif;pD&JU wESpf yQrf;rQ0ifaiG jzpfygw,f/)
Democracy Index (EdkifiH 167 EdkifiHteufrS 'Drdkua&pD r&Sdav eHygwfBuD;av jzpfygw,f/
jrefrmEdkifiHu 163 jzpfygw,f/)
Corruption Perceptions Index (tusifhysufjcpm;rI b,favmufqdk;0g;w,fqdkwmudk EdkifiH
178 EdkifiH pm&if;jyKpkxm;wmyg/ eHygwfBuD;av qdk;0g;av jzpfygw,f/ jrefrmEdkifiHuawmh
eHygwf 177 csdwfygw,f/ atmufrSm qdkrmvD,mEdkifiHyJ usefygw,f/)
Press Freedom Index (owif;vGwfvyfcGifh b,favmuf&Sdvnf; r&Sdvnf; EdkifiH 178
EdkifiH pm&if;jyKpkxm;wmyg/ eHygwfBuD;av vGwfvyfcGifh r&Sdav jzpfygw,f/ jrefrmEdkifiHu
174 yg/ atmufrSm 4 EdkifiH usefygao;w,f/)
Revolutionary Index (or STI – Shoe Thrower’s Index) (tDaumfaemrpfr*¾Zif;u
wGufcsufxm;whJ vlxktHk<urI jzpfEdkifacsnTefudef;/ jzpfEdkifacsom jzpfygw,f/)

GDP

– GDP per person(US$)

DI

CPI

PFI

RI

Column 1, 2, 3:

UN and Economic Intelligence Unit

Column 4, 7:

Economic Intelligence Unit

Column 5:

Transparency International

Column 6:

Reporters Without Borders

armifveG ;f ysH
ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

*sme,f

33

Ekid if o
H rkid ;f jzpfpOf

vpfAsm;Ekid if H ordik ;f jzpfpOf (&ufpo
JG rkid ;f )
t,f'DwmtzGJY
1951 ckESpf
'DZifbm 24

- vGwfvyfaom EdkifiHwckjzpfvm/ EdkifiHtrnfrSm United Libyan King
dom/ pnf;rsOf;cHbk&ifpepfjzifh yxrqHk;ESifh aemufqHk; bk&ifrSm Idris jzpf/
- a&eHodkufrsm; awGY&SdNyD;? BuD;yGm;csrf;omvm/

1959 ckESpf
1969 ckESpf
pufwifbm 1 - u'gzDacgif;aqmifaom ppft&m&Sdi,frsm; ppftmPmodrf;/ u'gzDrSm touf
27 ESpfom &Sd/ EdkifiHtrnfudk Libyan Arab Republic [k ajymif;/
1972 ckESpf - EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm; zsufodrf;/
H rnf ajymif;vJ
1977 ckESpf - Great Socialists People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya [k Edik if t
owfrw
S /f
1970-80
ESprf sm;twGi;f - tm&yfEdkifiHrsm;ESifh Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;rS tMurf;zuftzGJYrsm;? tmz&durS
tmPm&Siftpdk;&rsm;ESifh vufeufudkifykefuefaeolrsm;? tdkif,mvef
cGJxGufa&;orm;rsm;tm; vufeufESifh aiGaMu;axmufyhHulnDchJ/
1986 ckESpf
{NyDv 5
- *smreDEdkifiH taemufbmvif&Sd tar&duefppfom;rsm; trsm;qHk; vma&mufavh&Sd
onfh nuvyfwckwiG f AH;k aygufurJG I jzpfymG ;/ vl 3 OD;aoqH;k / 200 ausmf 'Pf&m&/
vpfAsm;olvQdKrsm; vufcsuf[k qdk/
1986 ckESpf
{NyDv 15
- tar&duefavwyf av,mOfrsm; vpfAsm; avwyfpcef;rsm;udk AHk;BuJ wdkufcdkuf/
1988 ckESpf
'DZifbm
- tar&duefavaMumif;vdkif; c&D;pOftrSwf 103 t*FvefEdkifiHtay: ysHoef;aepOf
AHk;aygufuGJysufus/ vpfAsm;vufcsuf[k pGyfpGJ/
1989 ckESpf
pufwifbm - jyifopfavaMumif;vdkif; c&D;pOftrSwf 772 eD*gEdkifiHtay: ysHoef;aepOf
AHk;aygufuGJysufus/ vpfAsm;vufcsuf[k pGyfpGJ/
1991 ckESpf - xdkav,mOfazgufcGJrI w&m;cHrsm;udk rsufuG,f w&m;pGJqdkchJ/
1992 ckESpf - xdktMurf;zufvkyf&yfrsm;twGuf ukvor*¾vHkNcHKa&;aumifpD qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf
(731)jzifh vpfAsm;EdkifiHtm; jypfwif½IwfcschJNyD;? pHkprf;ppfaq;rIrsm;udk yl;aygif;
aqmif&u
G &f ef? tMurf;zufrrI sm;udk tm;ay;ulnaD erIrsm; &yfqikd ;f &ef wdu
k w
f eG ;f ch/J
ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

tk;d a0

*sme,f

1992 ckESpf
rwfv 31

Ekid if o
H rkid ;f jzpfpOf

34

- qHk;jzwfcsuftrSwf (731) tm; vdkufem&ef ysufuGufojzifh qHk;jzwfcsuf trSwf
(748) csrw
S u
f m avaMumif;qdik &f mESihf ppfzufqikd &f m wifyaYkd &mif;csrI tygt0if
EdkifiHwum ydwfqdkYrIcH&/

1993 ckESpf
Edk0ifbmv 11 - txufyg ukvor*¾qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;udk vdkufem&ef ysufuGufojzifh qHk;jzwfcsuf
(883) jzifh b@ma&;qdik &f mydwq
f rYkd ?I a&eHvyk if ef;qdik &f mypön;f rsm; wifyaYkd &mif;csrI
tygt0if ydkrdkjyif;xefonfh ydwfqdkYrIrsm; jyKvkyfchJ/
1998 ckESpf
'DZifbmv - ukvor*¾taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL;csKyf udkzDtmeef vpfAsm;EdkifiHodkY oGm;a&mufchJ/
1999 ckESpf - taemufEdkifiHrsm;tay:xm;onfh oabmxm; ajymif;vm/ av,mOfazgufcGJrI
w&m;cHrsm;udk vTJajymif;ay;&ef oabmwl/ ukvor*¾vkHNcHKa&;aumifpDuvnf;
ydwfqdkYrIrsm; ½kyfodrf;ay;&ef oabmwl/
2003 ckEpS f - av,mOfaygufurJG aI Mumifh aoqH;k ch&J olrsm;twGuf avsmaf Mu;ay;&ef oabmwlc/Jh
taemufEdkifiHrsm;eJY qufqHa&; yHkrSefjzpfvm/
2004 ckESpf - tar&dueftpdk;&u pD;yGm;a&;ydwfqdkYrIrsm;udk ½kyfodrf;chJ/ oHwref jyefquf/
2006 ckESpf - tar&dueftpdk;& owfrSwfxm;aom tMurf;zufrI vkyfaqmifaeaom
EdkifiHrsm;pm&if;rS y,fzsufchJ/
2011 ckESpf
Zefe0g&D 13-16 - Edik if aH &;jcpm;rIrsm;ESihf vlaetdr&f m aqmufvyk af y;&ef aESmifah ES;MuefMY umaerIrsm;
tay: rauseyfonfh qE´jyyGJrsm; bef*gZD? 'gecsf? bmeD0gavh'f ponfNrdKUrsm;wGif
pwifjzpfymG ;/
Zefe0g&D 24 - tjcm;NrKd Ursm;wGijf zpfymG ;aeonfh qE´jyyGAJ 'D ,
D rkd sm; rMunfEh ikd &f efYoutube udk ydw/f
Zefe0g&D 27 - vlaetdrf&mudpörsm;udk ajz&Sif;ay;rnfhtpDtpOf tpdk;&rS aMunm/
Zefe0g&D
aESmif;ydik ;f
- EdkifiHa&;a0zefol pma&;q&m *srJvftmvf[m*sDu vGwfvyfcGifhrsm; ydkydk&&SdzdkY
qE´jyyGJrsm; jyKvkyfzdkY tifwmeufrSwqifh wdkufwGef;/
azaz:0g&D 1 - t&yf0wf&Jrsm;u olYtm; zrf;qD;oGm;/
azaz:0g&D 3 - olYtm; ,mOfwdkufrIjzifh w&m;pGJ/
azaz:0g&D
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35
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36

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37
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ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&mausmif;om;or*¾rsm;tzGJYcsKyfrS xkwfa0onf/

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