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Foreword 1 2 3 3.1 3.2 scope references to other standards terms and symbols terms symbols

3.2.1 General 3.2.3 Latin letters, capital 3.2.3 Latin letters, small 3.2.4 Greek letters, capital 3.2.5 Greek letters, small 4 4.1 5.6 6 6.1 6.2 illustration and classification of actions illustration of action in silos principles of calculations for explosions bulk material parameters general bulk material parameters

6.2.1 General 6.2.2 Determination of bulk material parameters 6.2.3 Simplified procedure 6.3 measurement of bulk material parameters in tests 6.3.1 Experimental determination 6.3.2 Bulk material density,

γ

6.3.3 Coefficients of wall friction µ 6.3.4 Angle of inner friction, ϕ i 6.3.5 Horizontal load ration,K

1

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 6.3.6 Cohesiveness, C 6.3.7 Bulk material correction value for the reference-surface load C op 7 7.1 7.2 loads on vertical silo walls general slim silos 37 37 38 38 39 39 44 49 55 57 59 60 61 61 62 62 62 62 63 63 64 64 65 65 65 65

7.2.1 Fill loads on vertical silo walls 7.2.2 Discharge loads on vertical walls discharges of the load-types for circular silos 7.3 low silos and silos of medium slimness

7.2.3 Uniform increase of loads in place of reference-surface loads for fills and 7.2.4 Discharge loads for circular silos with large eccentricities during discharge 50 7.3.1 Fill loads on the vertical walls 7.3.2 Discharge loads on the vertical walls 7.3.3 Large eccentricities for filling in of circular low silos and circular silos of medium slimness 7.3.4 large discharge eccentricities for filling in of circular low silos and Circular silos of medium slimness 7.4 silos with braced walls 7.4.1 Fill loads on vertical walls 7.4.2 Discharge loads on vertical walls 7.5 silos with fluidized bulk material 7.5.1 General 7.5.2 Loads in silos for storage of fluidized bulk material 7.6 temperature differences between bulk material and silo structure 7.6.1 general 7.6.2 loads due to a decrease in the surrounding atmospheric temperature 7.6.3 loads due to filling-in of hot bulk materials 7.7 loads in rectangular silos 7.7.1 Rectangular silos 7.7.2 Silos with internal braces 8 loads in silo hoppers and silo bottoms

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DIN 1055-6:2005-03 8.1 general 65 65 67 69 69 69 71 71 71 71 72 72 73 73 73 74 74 74 74 74

8.1.1 Physical parameters 8.1.2 General rules 8.2 horizontal silo bottoms 8.2.1 Vertical loads on horizontal silo bottoms in slim silos 8.2.2 Vertical loads on level silo bottoms in low silos and silos of Medium slimness 8.3 steep hoppers 8.3.1 Mobilized friction 8.3.2 Fill loads 8.3.3 Discharge loads 8.4 flat hoppers 8.4.1 Mobilized friction 8.4.2 Fill loads 8.4.3 Discharge loads 8.5 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 hopper loads in silos with air-injection equipment loads on tanks general loads due to stored fluids parameters for fluids suction loads due to insufficient aeration

Annex A (informative) Basis for the Planning of Structures – Rules that complement DIN 1055-100 for silos and tanks A.1 A.2 general border limit for load capacity 75 75 75 75 75 A.4 conditions for calculation and action-combinations for the Requirement categories 2 and 3 76

A.2.1 part-safety correction value A.2.2 Actions on structures - Actions in silos and tanks correction value

3

2.2.2.3 loads from temperature changes B.2.2. Part-Safety Factors and Composite Correction Values for the actions on tanks B.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 A.1 C.2.6 distributed working loads B.2.2 loads from internal pressures B.14 catastrophic loads B.13 loads due to non-uniform settlement B.3 C.12 loads due to connecting structures B.5 action-combinations for the Requirement category 1 Annex B (normative) Actions.2.7 concentric working loads B.4 intrinsic loads B.2.1 B.2.11 seismic loads B.2.10 low pressure due to insufficient aeration B.5 loads from insulation B.5 general application symbols terms taking of specimens and their preparation 82 82 82 82 83 83 4 .2.4 part-safety correction values for actions combination of actions Annex C (normative) measurement of bulk material parameters for Determination of silo loads C.2 general actions 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 78 79 79 79 79 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 77 B.3 B.4 C.8 snow B.2.9 wind B.2 C.2.1 loads from stored fluids B.

2 indirect measurement C.8 horizontal load ratio K C.3 goal assessment of the wall friction co-efficient for a corrugated wall internal friction and wall friction of a coarse-grained bulk material Without fine particles Annex E (normative) details of bulk material parameters 99 99 99 100 101 5 .2 D.1 short description C.7.10.8.1 general C.2 co-efficient of wall friction µm for the determination of loads C.9.2 assessment methods Annex D (normative) assessment of bulk material parameters for determination Of silo loads D.6.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C.10.7.1 direct measurement C.7 wall friction C.1 direct measurement C.11 determination of the upper and lower characteristic values for the bulk Material parameters and the determination of the conversion factor a C.3 angle of wall friction ϕwh for examining the flow behaviour C.2 indirect measurement C.1 testing principle C.2 test apparatus C.2 indirect measurement C.6 determination of bulk material density γ 84 84 84 85 85 85 86 87 88 88 89 89 91 93 93 95 96 96 97 C.11.3 process / procedure C.10 effective elasticity module Es C.11.6.8.9.9 stability parameters: cohesiveness c and angle of internal friction ϕi 89 C.7.1 direct measurement C.1 D.6.

3 I.6 I.4 H.4 general symbols conditions for calculation seismic actions 102 103 103 103 103 104 104 104 106 106 106 106 106 107 108 108 109 109 109 109 109 110 110 111 111 111 G.1 silo bottom and foundations G.1 H.4 I.4.7 general terms symbols conditions for calculation loads on hopper walls determination of connecting forces at the hopper junction alternative equations for the hopper load correction values Fe for The load discharge Annex I (normative) action due to dust explosions I.1 G.1 I.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Annex F (normative) determination of the flow profile.2 G.7 I.6 H.3 G.9 general application additional standards.5 I. mass flow And core flow Annex G (normative) seismic actions G.2 I.2 H. guidelines and rules dusts of explosive nature and their parameters ignition sources protective measures calculation of components calculation of explosive overpressure calculation of negative pressure 6 .4.8 I.2 silo walls Annex H (normative) alternative rules for determination of hopper loads H.3 H.5 H.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 I.1 coefficients of pressure for wind loads in circular cylindrical tanks 62 66 67 70 80 56 59 52 47 28 29 32 40 42 9 26 27 28 longitudinal and cross-sectional illustrations of the load diagrams of Diagram 19 discharge pressures in a hopper with a steep and a flat inclination 72 7 .11 securing the closing element of the discharge opening recoil forces due to pressure release 111 111 Diagrams Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Diagram 3 Diagram 4 Diagram 5 Diagram 6 Diagram 7 Diagram 8 Diagram 9 illustration of silo bins with nomenclature of geometric Parameters and loads basic flow profile flow profile with pipe flow flow profile with mixed bulk material flows effects of slimness (height to diameter ratio) on the mixed bulk material flows and the pipe flows customized arrangements for fill and discharge conditions under which pressures due to mass flow arise symmetric discharge loads around the vertical silo walls reference-surface loads Diagram 11 longitudinal and cross-sectional illustrations of the load diagrams of reference-surface loads during discharge Diagram 12 flow channels and pressure distribution during discharge with large eccentricities Diagram 13 loads in low silos or silos with medium slimness after the fill (fill loads) Diagram 14 fill pressures during eccentric filled low silos or silos with medium slimness Diagram 15 fill pressures in a braced-wall silo Diagram 16 boundaries between steep and flat hoppers Diagram 17 distribution of the fill pressures in a steep and flat hopper Diagram 18 bottom loads in low silos and in silos with medium slimness Diagram B.10 I.

1 equipment for determination of γ Diagram C.2 test procedure for determination of the coefficients of wall friction Diagram C.5 test procedure for determination of the elasticity module during loading and unloading Diagram D.1 demarcation of mass and core flow conditions in conical and cuneiform hoppers Diagram G.1 measurement of the profiling of the wall surface Diagram F.1 Table C.2 Table E.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Diagram C. braces) Diagram G.3 test procedure for determination of Ko Diagram C.1 classification of conditions for calculation relevant parameters for different load estimates categories of wall surfaces composite correction values test parameters typical values for the coefficients of variation for the bulk Material parameters bulk material parameters 98 101 23 25 34 77 91 105 108 103 104 102 94 100 90 85 87 88 8 .1 possible rearrangements oat the bulk material surface due to Seismic actions Diagram G.g.1 alternative rules for the hoppers Tables Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table A.1 Table C.2 seismic actions on the substructure (e.4 test procedure for determination of the angle of the internal Friction ϕi and ϕc and the cohesiveness based upon the tension Created by pre-compression Diagram C.3 cross-section through the vertical silo shaft with details of the additional horizontal loads due to seismic actions Diagram H.

This standard is part of the new series DIN 1055 Actions on Structures.00 “Actions on Buildings” (Spiegelausschuss zu CEN/TC/ 250/SC 1). Part 7: Part 8: Part 9: Part 10: Part 100: 9 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Foreword This standard was compiled in the NABau-AA 00. Part 6. which consists of the following parts: Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: Part 5.20.

Any deviations of this standard from the above-mentioned manuscript prEN 1991-4 conform by and large with possible commitments to the national safety standards so that. Revisions Vis-à-vis DIN 1055-6:1987-05 the following revisions have been made: a) structural adaptation in line with the EN 1991-4 b) terminology adaptation in line with the EN 1991-4 c) adaptation of the calculation and safety concepts in line with the EN 1991-4 d) incorporation of regulations for actions due to dust-explosions e) incorporation of regulations for actions due to earthquakes f) incorporation of regulations for actions due to bulk material properties Earlier Editions DIN 1055-6: 1964-11.20. contained in this standard.00 on the basis of DIN V ENV 1991-4 and conforms largely to the draft manuscript prEN 1991-4. 1987-05 10 . refer exclusively to the above-mentioned new series DIN 1055. in the case of an eventual ratification of EN 1991-4. this standard can be compatible in the national context. This standard was developed by the Work Committee NABau 00.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 References to standards belonging to the series DIN 1055.

The cross-sections of the silo bins are limited to the instances shown in diagram 1d.The foll. Scope 1) This standard contains general principles and information relating to the influences for the design and calculations of silos for storage of bulk materials and for tanks. 11 . Limits will apply for the geometric measurements: hb < 10 dc hb < 100m d c < 60m --.g. 3) While applying the rules for calculations made for silo bins and silo structures the following geometric limitations should be kept in mind: --.The transition from the vertical silo shaft into the hopper takes place in a simple horizontal plane (also possible in several steps) (see diagram 1a). Smaller deviations are allowed under the condition that the possible effects on the silo structures due to the pressure changes resulting from these deviations will be taken into account. effects of temperature differences). It is to be applied in association with the other parts of the series DIN 1055. 2) This standard also contains stipulations for actions on silos and tanks which extend beyond the direct action caused by the stored bulk material or fluids (e. --.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 1.

During filling the action of the forces of inertia and impact are very slight and may be ignored --.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 --.The influences on the silo pressures due to inbuilt things or customized restrictions and inbuilt things such as discharge cones. the bulk material flow is uniform. are not covered (apart fro discharge hoppers). transporting equipment (feeders) or central well with absorption opening). 12 .1. --.g.03d c (see diagram 1d). 5) While applying the rules for calculations made for silo bins and silo structures the following limits should be kept in mind with regard to the operational conditions during filling and discharging: --. consoles and spots.The calculation for a particular property of the bulk material has to be made for every single silo.12 and Annex C). the effects of the contact of individual large particles with the wall are to be regarded as a form of a deposit of individual loads.in case of use of discharge aids (e. discharge girders. 4) While applying the rules for calculations made for silo bins and silo structures the following limits should be kept in mind with regard to the stored bulk material: --.The bulk material is free flowing or it can be ensured that in special cases it behaves as free flowing material (see 3..The maximum grain size of the bulk material is not more than 0. --. etc. NOTE If the bulk material particles are large in comparison with the thickness of the silo wall. undisturbed and central.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 φr hw ho Z 2 3 * f ef 4 hc φdca hb e* 1 β hh β α (a) Geometry eo (b) Eccentricity Legend: 1 Junction 2 Equivalent bulk material surface 3 Surface contours in filled silo 4 central axis of silo Figure 1: DIAGRAM OF SILO BINS WITH DESCRIPTION OF THE GEOMETRIC AND CHARACTERISTIC SIZES AND LOADS 13 .

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 A U =r 2 A U =a 4 ph φdc a Pw Pv φdc A U = (h 2 ) 2r ( + b ) 1 a φdc b Pn Pf a (c) Loads a φdc φdc r A U = 3a ( 4) = dO A 4 U = 3a ( 4) = d O 4 A U = dO 4 (d) Cross sectional shape (form) 14 .

15 . jolts. which can appear during discharge. such as silo tremors. E DIN 1055-5. NOTE These phenomena remain unexplained to date. For example. in terms of the applicability of this standard. Thus. 8) The rules for calculation for tanks apply only for fluids under normal atmospheric pressure. are not within the scope of this standard. Hoppers that deviate from this or hoppers with inbuilt things require specialized and greater attention. 10) The calculations for silos with rotary operation are not within the scope of this standard. one can neither rule out their occurrence nor ensure that the silo structure is sufficiently dimensioned for the stresses they cause. 11) The calculations for silos against dynamic stresses. 7) Silos with symmetric axes of the geometrical horizontal projection type which change along the vertical axis are not covered by this standard. DIN 1055-4.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 6) The given load deposits on silo hoppers are applicable only for conical (generally axial symmetric shape or pyramid shape with quadratic or rectangular crosssections) and cuneiform (generally with vertical walls at the front and the reverse sides) hoppers. DIN 1055-9 and DIN 1055-10. silos with a hopper which blends from a cylindrical shape into a cuneiform shape fall in this category. 9) Loads on the roofs of silos and tanks are subject to the relevant standards DIN 1055-3. hooting and silo knocking.

reinforced and prestressed concrete structures . In case of dated references.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 2 REFERENCES TO OTHER STANDARDS The documents mentioned below are required for using this standard.Part 1: design and construction DIN 1055-1 Actions on structures – part 1: specific gravity and surface loads of building materials. only the edition mentioned is applicable. In case of undated references the latest edition of the document mentioned is applicable (inclusive of all revisions). building components and storage materials DIN 1055-3 Actions on structures – part 3: self loads and superimposed loads for high buildings DIN 1055-4 DIN 1055-5 DIN 1055-7 DIN 1055-9 DIN 1055-10 Actions on structures – part 4: wind loads Actions on structures – part 5: snow and ice loads Actions on structures – part 7: temperature actions Actions on structures – part 9: unusual actions Actions on structures – part 10: actions due to cranes and machines DIN 1055-100 Actions on structures – part 100: bases of structural planning: security concepts and rules for design calculations 16 . DIN 1045-1 Plain concrete.

1 Aerated silo bottom A silo bottom in which grooves (aeration channels) have been provided.1. evaluation and protective measures VDI 3673 Sheet 1 Pressure relief of dust explosions 3 DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS 3. through which air is injected in order to activate the bulk material flow in the area above the silo bottom (see figure 6b). dangers.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 DIN EN 26184-1 Explosion protection systems – part 1: determination of explosion indices of combustible dust in air DIN EN 1127-1 Explosive atmospheres – explosion protection – part 1: basic concepts and methodology DIN EN 50014 Electrical equipment for areas with explosion hazard – general specifications ISO 3898:1997 VDI 2263 Bases for design of structures – notations.1 Definitions The definitions given below as well as those given in DIN 1055-100 are applicable to this standard. general symbols Dust fires and dust explosions. 3. 17 .

3 Circular silo A silo whose ground plan or shaft cross-section shows a circular form (see figure 1 d) 3. It can.5 Conical hopper A hopper in which the inclined side-surfaces converge at a point.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3.6 Eccentric discharge A flow profile in the bulk material in which the distribution of the moving bulk material is unsymmetrical with relation to the vertical central axis. which can – as a rule – ensure an axially symmetric flow of bulk material 3.1.4 Cohesion Shear strength of the bulk material when direct stress does not act in the plane of breach 3. also happen due to other phenomena which lead to non-symmetry (see figure 5d). however. 3.1.1. This is usually due to an eccentrically placed outlet opening (see figures 3c and 3d.2 Internal diameter of a silo cross-section dc The diameter of the largest inscribed circle of the inner cross-section of a silo bin (see figure 1d). 18 . 4b and 4c).1.1.

3. The silo is in this case is almost completely filled-up (state of maximum fill).1.9 Hopper for “expanded flow” A hopper in which the side surfaces in the lower part of the hopper are steep enough to create a mass flow.8 Equivalent bulk material surface Height of the envisaged leveled (horizontal) bulk material surface.1.1. which is the result of the volume balance between the envisaged and the actual pattern of the surface shape (see figure 1a) 3.7 Eccentric filling A situation during or after the filling of the silo.1.1. This arrangement reduces the height of the hopper and at the same time ensures a reliable discharge.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3. when the flow is fully developed (see figures 2 to 5). 19 . 3. while the side surfaces in the upper part of the hopper have a more gradual inclination so that a core flow can be expected there (see figure 6d).10 Horizontal (silo) bottom The inner bottom surface of the silo with an inclination that is less than 5o 3. in which the peak of the banked-up bulk material surface (peak of the banked-up cone) is no longer centered in the vertical central axis of the silo (see figure 1b).11 Flow profile The geometric form of the bulk material that is flowing out.

The air can either be drawn in by means of specific ventilation or be introduced through the filling process.1. in which case the term “ funnel flow” or “shaft flow” is used to describe it. come into contact with the vertical silo wall – one would then term it “mixed flow” – or it can stretch right up to the surface without any point of contact whatsoever with the silo wall. A bulk material is designated as fluidized even if only a part of the weight of the bulk material is counterbalanced by the air pockets.1.1.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3.15 Core flow Flow profile. in such case. 3.14 Fully filled state A silo is in the fully filled state when the surface of the bulk material has achieved the highest position that it can possibly acquire within the service life of the structure while the silo is in operation.1. NOTE: This is taken as the ruling condition for design calculations of silos. 3. while the bulk material remains undisturbed in the area between the flow channel and the silo wall (see figure 2) NOTE: The flow channel can. 20 .13 Free-flowing granular material Granular bulk material in which the flow pattern is not noticeably influenced by cohesion 3.12 Fluidized bulk material That state of a stored powdery bulk material in which it contains a large proportion of air pockets with a pressure gradient which acts against the weight of the particles and counterbalances the same. in which a flow channel develops in the bulk material above the outlet opening.

with the particles having more or less equal dimensions and where the air between the individual grains plays only a marginal role in the determination of the loads and has only a marginal influence on the bulk material flow.e.0 < hc / dc < 2. homogenized by means of mixing. 3.19 Hopper Silo bottom with inclined walls 3.1.1.1.18 Homogenizing silos Silos in which the bulk material is homogenized with the help of fluidization. in which the speed of the filling leads to an intake of air of such an order that it would affect the pressure ratios at the wall. 21 . 3.17 High fill speed That condition in a silo.16 Granular material Material which is composed of separate and individual grains of specific particles. 3.1.3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3.0 NOTE: 3.22 exceptions are defined in 5.21 Silo of medium slimness A silo whose ratio of height to diameter lies between 1.1.20 Hopper load ratio value F A value which specifies the relationship between the normal load pn on the inclined hopper walls and the mean vertical load pv at this position in the bulk material.1. 3. i.1.

1.26 Mixed flow Core flow profile in which the flow channel. comes into contact with the vertical silo walls (see figures 2c and 4) 3.27 Non-circular silo A silo.25 Mass flow Flow profile in which all the bulk material particles in the silo are simultaneously in motion during discharge (see figure 2a) 3.1. 3. and the mean vertical load pv at this position in the bulk material.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Internal funnel flow Flow profile with funnel flow in which the flow channel limit stretches up to the surface of the bulk material without the flow area coming into contact with the silo wall in the process (see figures 2 and 3). which is still beneath the bulk material surface.9 3.23 Horizontal load ratio K A value which specifies the relationship between the mean horizontal load pn acting on the vertical silo walls.24 Marginal cohesion A bulk material sample shows a marginal cohesion when the cohesion c is smaller than 4% of the pre-consolidation stress σr NOTE a process for the determination of cohesion is given in C.1.1.1. wherein the cross-section is not a circle (see figure 1) 22 . 3.

The discharge slit runs parallel to two silo walls.30 Funnel flow Flow profile in which the bulk material is in motion above the outlet opening in a vertical or almost vertical flow channel. NOTE If the outlet opening is placed eccentrically (see figures 3c and d) or if due to certain factors the flow channel deviates from the vertical axis above the discharge (see figure 5). 3.1. 3. the flow of the bulk material can appear against the wall.1.1. 3.1. Its length corresponds to the length of both these silo walls.31 Level flow Flow profile in a silo with a rectangular or a quadratic cross-section and a slit-shaped outlet opening.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3.29 Reference surface load Local load perpendicular to the vertical silo wall to be placed at any chosen height in a specific portion of its surface.1.32 Powdery bulk material A bulk material whose mean particle size is smaller than 0.28 Bulk material A term used to describe a granular material ranging from a dust-like to a large-grained variety with and without cohesion.05 mm 23 . but is in a state of rest next to the flow channel (see figures 2 and 3). which contains pores in addition to and in-between the individual solid material particles that may be filled with air or moisture. 3.

3 are fulfilled.36 Slim silo A silo with a height-diameter ratio of hc / dc > 2.33 Silo with braced wall Silo with a horizontal bottom and and a height to diameter ratio of hc / dc < 0.1.1.0.1.1. NOTE silo category.37 Slimness Ratio of the height to diameter hc / dc of the vertical portion of the silo 3.35 Silo A structure for storage of bulk material 3.38 Low silo A silo with a height-diameter ratio of 0. and if the silo contains a hopper.0 or one in which the additional conditions as per 5. or one which fulfills the additional conditions given in 5.1.4 3.3 3.1. the silo will fall into the category of a low silo. In case of a height-diameter ratio of hc / dc < 0. Otherwise – in case of a flat silo bottom – it falls into the braced-wall 24 .4 < hc / dc < 1.4.34 Flat hopper A hopper in which the full amount of wall friction is not mobilized 3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3.e.44 Wall friction Force per unit area along the silo wall (vertical or inclined) on account of friction between the bulk material and the silo wall.41 Tank A structure for storage of fluids 3.1.1.45 Hopper junction The section between the hopper and the vertical silo wall.39 Steep hopper A hopper in which the full wall friction is mobilized after the filling 3.42 A thick-walled silo A silo with a diameter-to-wall thickness ratio which is less than dc /t = 200 3. i.1. 3.43 A thin-walled silo A silo with a diameter-to-wall thickness ratio which is greater than dc /t = 200 3. the transition from the vertical part of the silo into the hopper 25 .1.1.40 Stress in the bulk material Force per unit area within the stored bulk material 3.1.1.

3.1 General A list of basic symbols (letter symbols) is given in DIN 1055-100.2.2 Latin letters.1.46 Vertical Silo shaft The part of the silo which comprises of the vertical walls 3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3.47 Wedge-shaped hopper A hopper in which the surfaces converge at a slit for ensuring an even flow of the bulk material.2 Symbols 3.2. the walls of each of the other two hoppers run vertically 3. capital A Ac cross-section of the vertical shaft cross-section of the flow channel in case of eccentric discharge (large eccentricities) B C Co Cop depth parameter in case of eccentrically filled low silos load augmentation factor discharge factor (load augmentation factor during discharge) for the bulk material bulk material parameter for the reference surface load (load augmentation factor) 26 . The symbols used are based on the conventions of ISO 3898:1997. The additional letter symbols for this part of the standard are given below.1.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Cb Ch Cpe Cpf CS CT load augmentation factor for the bottom loads load augmentation factor for the horizontal discharge loads load augmentation factor for the reference surface loads during discharge load augmentation factor for the reference surface loads in case of fill loads correction value for slimness in a silo with medium slimness load augmentation factor for making allowance for temperature differences or changes Cw E Es Ew F correction value for discharge for the wall friction loads (load augmentation factor) ratio of eccentricity (during fill and discharge) to silo radius effective elasticity modulus of the stored bulk material at the relevant stress level elasticity modulus of the silo wall relationship between the vertical loads on the silo wall and the mean vertical load in the bulk material at this point Fe load ratio in the hopper during the discharge (relationship between loads perpendicular to the silo wall and mean vertical loads in the bulk material) Ff load ratio in the hopper after the filling (relationship between loads perpendicular to the silo wall and mean vertical loads in the bulk material) 27 .

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Fpe integral of the horizontal reference surface load for thin walled circular silos in the case of discharge loads Fpf integral of the horizontal reference surface load for thin walled circular silos in the case of filling loads G ratio of the radius of the flow channel to the radius of the internal cross-section of a circular silo K Km Ko characteristic value of the horizontal load ratio mean value of the horizontal load ratio value of K when horizontal elongation as well as principal stresses that run or are aligned horizontally and vertically are ruled out Pwe characteristic value of the sum total of the wall friction loads for each running meter in the circumferential direction of the vertical silo wall in the case of discharge loads Pwf characteristic value of the sum total of the wall friction loads for each running meter in the circumferential direction of the vertical silo wall in the case of fill loads PzSk characteristic value of the wall loads for each running meter in the circumferential direction of the vertical silo wall for low silos and large filling eccentricities S geometry factors for the hopper loads (= 2 in the case of cone shaped hoppers. =1 in the case of wedge shaped hoppers) U inner circumference of the cross-section of the vertical silo shaft 28 .

2. to Janssen depth variation function for small silos 3. small a ax side length of a silo with a rectangular or a hexagonal cross-section (see figure 1d) divergence-coefficient (-factor) or conversion factor for calculating the upper and lower characteristic bulk material parameters from the mean values aK aγ aφ aµ divergence-coefficient or conversion factor for the horizontal load ratio divergence-coefficient or conversion factor for the bulk material specific gravity divergence-coefficient or conversion factor for the angle of the internal friction divergence-coefficient (-factor) or conversion factor for the coefficients of wall friction 29 .3 Latin letters.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Usc (inner) circumferential length of the flow channel in the contact zone up till the non flow zone of the bulk material during discharge with large eccentricities Uwc (inner) circumferential length of the flow channel in the contact area with the silo wall during discharge with large eccentricities Y depth variation function: function for the description of the increase in load with increasing depth in the silo YJ YR depth variation function of the theory acc.

cr = 0...25dc ) eo eo.cr largest eccentricity of the fill-up cone at the bulk material surface for which the simplified rules for the allowance for eccentricities can be used (et.25dc ) et eccentricities of the peak of the fill-up cone at the bulk material surface when the silo is filled up (see figure 1b) et.25dc ) 30 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 b b c dc e ec width of a rectangular silo (see figure 1d) empirical coefficient for the hopper loads cohesion of the bulk material characteristic dimensions for the inner cross-section of the silo (see diagram 1d) the larger value of the eccentricities ef and eo eccentricities of the central axis of the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities (see figure 11) ef largest eccentricity of the bulk cone at the bulk material surface during filling (see figure 1b) ef.cr largest fill eccentricity for which the simplified rules for the allowance for marginal eccentricities can be used (ef.cr eccentricities of the centre point of the outlet opening (see figure 1b) largest eccentricity of the outlet opening for which the simplified rules for the allowance for eccentricities can be used (eo.cr = 0.cr = 0.

is not in contact with the silo wall)(see figures 1a and 17) n p ph phae parameters in the conditional equations of the hopper loads load as force per unit area horizontal load from the stored bulk material (see figure 1c) horizontal load in the area where the bulk material is at rest next to the flow channel. 13 and 17) htp total height of the back-filled cone at the bulk material surface (vertical distance from the lowest point of the silo wall up to the tip of filled-up cone when the bulk material. measured from the hopper junction up to the equivalent bulk material surface (see figure 1a) hh height of the hopper measured from the envisaged hopper top up to the hopper junction ho distance between the equivalent bulk material surface and the lowest point at the base of the bulk material cone (at the lowermost point of the silo wall which is not in contact with the stored bulk material when the latter has been filled to the specified extent)(see fig 1.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 hb overall height of a silo with hopper. during a discharge with large eccentricities phce horizontal load in the flow channel during a discharge with large eccentricities 31 . up to the equivalent bulk material surface (see figure 1a) hc height of the vertical silo shaft. measured from the envisaged hopper peak. which is filled to the specified extent.

u phf phfb phf.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 phco asymptomatic horizontal load at a great depth in the flow channel during a discharge with large eccentricities phe phe. that are perpendicular to the hopper walls (see figure 1c) pne pnf pp loads during discharge that are perpendicular l to the hopper walls loads after the fill that are perpendicular to the hopper walls reference surface loads ppe basic value of the reference surface loads during discharge 32 .u pho phse horizontal load during discharge horizontal load during discharge and use of the simplified calculating method horizontal load after the filling horizontal loads after the filling at the lower end of the vertical shaft horizontal loads after the filling using the simplified calculating material asymptomatic horizontal loads at a great depth from the stored bulk material horizontal loads in the bulk material (which is in a state of rest) at a great distance from the flow channel during a discharge with large eccentricities phT pn increase of horizontal loads as a result of temperature differences or changes loads from the stored bulk material.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ppei complementary reference surface loads during discharge ppe.nc strip shaped reference surface load for silos with non-circular cross-sections after the filling ppes reference surface load at the cylinder ordinate θ for thin walled circular silos during discharge ppfs reference surface load at the cylinder ordinate θ for thin walled circular silos after the filling pt pte ptf pv pvb pvf friction load in the hopper (see figure 1c) friction load in the hopper during discharge friction load in the hopper after the fill vertical load in the bulk material (see figure 1c) vertical load at the bottom of a low silo vertical load in the bulk material after the filling 33 .nc strip shaped reference surface load for silos with non-circular cross-sections during discharge ppf ppfi basic value of the reference surface loads after the filling complementary reference surface loads after the filling ppe.

u pwf pwf.5dc) 34 .u pwse wall friction loads in the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities wall friction loads during discharge wall friction loads during discharge using the simplified calculation method wall friction loads after the filling wall friction loads after the filling using the simplified calculation method wall friction loads in the bulk material which is at rest at a large distance from the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities r equivalent silo radius (r = 0.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 pvft pvho vertical load at the hopper junction after the filling (foot of the vertical silo shaft) vertical load at the foot of the filled cone at the bulk material surface according to equation (86) and with the bulk material depth being z = ho pvsq pvtp pw vertical load on the horizontal bottom of a low silo or a silo of medium slimness geostatic vertical load at the foot of the filled cone at the bulk material surface wall friction load along the vertical wall (shear force per unit area due to friction) (see figure 1c) pwae wall friction loads in the bulk material which is in a state of rest right next to the flow channel during the discharge with large eccentricities (at the transition from stationary to flowing bulk material) pwce pwe pwe.

4 Greek letters.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 rc s 0.2dc) t x z thickness of the silo wall vertical coordinate in the hopper with origin in the hopper peak (see figure 16) depth beneath the equivalent bulk material surface in the filled state (see figure 1a) zo zoc characteristic depth according to the theory of Janssen characteristic depth according to the theory of Janssen for the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities zp depth of the mid-point of the reference surface load beneath the equivalent bulk material surface in a thin-walled silo zs depth beneath the highest point of contact between the bulk material and the silo wall (see figures 13 and 14) zV unit of measurement of the depth for determining the vertical loads in low silos radius of the eccentric flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities dimensions of the area subject to the reference surface load (s = π dc /16 = 3. capital ∆ ∆ Horizontal displacement of the upper part of a shear bin Operator for incremental sizes (see symbols given below) 35 .2.

to the vertical (see figures 1a and 1b) or the angle of the steepest hopper walls in a quadratic or rectangular hopper γ Characteristic value for the specific gravity of the stored fluid or the stored bulk material γl γu Specific gravity of the bulk material in fluidized state Upper characteristic values of the specific gravity of the stored fluid or the stored bulk material δ θ θc Standard deviation of a parameter Cylindrical coordinate: angle in direction of the circumference Angle at circumference of the flow channel during discharge with large eccentricities (see figure 11) with ref to the central axis of the silo shaft 36 . small α αw β Mean angle of inclination of the hopper walls with reference to the horizontal Coefficient of thermal elongation of the silo wall Angle of inclination of the hopper wall with ref.5 Greek letters.2.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ∆T ∆v ∆σ Temperature differences between the stored bulk material and the silo walls Incremental vertical displacements measured during the material examination Incremental stress placed upon a specimen during material examination 3.

e. without the portion from cohesion) φim φr φw φwh σr Mean value of the angle of internal friction Angle of slope of a bulk material (conical bulk heap) (see figure 1a) Wall friction angle (arc tan µ) between bulk material and hopper wall Wall friction angle in the hopper (arc tan µh) between bulk material and hopper wall Reference stress for the tests for determination of the bulk material parameters 37 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ψ Wall contact angle of the eccentric flow channel with reference to the central axis of the flow channel µ µheff µh µm ν φc Characteristic value of the wall friction angle at the vertical silo wall Effective or mobilized wall friction coefficient in a flat hopper Wall friction coefficient in the hopper Mean value of the wall friction coefficients between bulk material and silo wall Poissons number for the bulk material Characteristic value of the angle of internal friction of a precompressed bulk material in case of relief (i. inclusive of the portion from cohesion) φi Characteristic value of the angle of internal friction of a bulk material in case of equivalent load (i.e.

the material parameters of the bulk materials and the flow profiles which build up during emptying. the influence of the fill and discharge eccentricities on the fill and discharge processes. the distribution of discharge pressures along the silo wall changes with time. given the present level of knowledge. The inherent differences in the properties of the different bulk materials that are stored and the simplifications in the load models lead to variations between the silo loads that actually appear and the design loads (calculated loads) according to sections 6 and 7. with fill. Thus. 38 .and discharge.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 4 DESCRIPTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF SILOS 4. to quote an example. the properties of the stored bulk material and the flow profiles that arise during emptying of the silo. In case of large eccentricities the loads are to be described using a pressure distribution curve. the influence of the silo shape and size on the type of the flow profile and those that are related to the time-dependant discharge and fill pressures are all to be taken into consideration NOTE 1 The magnitude and the distribution of the rated loads depend upon the silo structure. its divergence and its temporal variability is not possible.1 (1) Description of Actions in Silos The actions on silos are to be estimated with regard to the silo structure. this is to be done using a symmetric load component and an unsymmetric reference surface load. (3) Allowance should be made for loads on the vertical walls of the silo when it is filled and while it is emptying. An exact prediction of the prevailing mean pressure.eccentricities being marginal. (2) Ambiguities related to the flow profiles.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) Should the chosen form of the silo structure show a sensitive reaction to changes of the estimated load-guidelines, allowance has to be made for this through appropriate investigations (5) The symmetric loads on the silo walls are to be estimated as follows: a) by means of horizontal load components ph upon the inner surface of the vertical silo wall; b) by means of loads pn that act perpendicular to inclined walls; c) by means of frictional loads pw and pt that act in the tangential direction of the wall; and d) by means of vertical load components pv in the stored bulk material (see figure 1c) (6) The unsymmetric loads on the vertical silo walls in case of marginal eccentricities during fill and discharge have to be taken into account by using a reference surface load. These reference surface loads consist of horizontal pressures ph that act upon the inner surface of the silo wall locally. (7) The unsymmetric loads on the vertical silo walls in case of large eccentricities during fill and discharge are to be additionally registered using a unsymmetric distribution of horizontal pressures ph and friction loads pw (8) Unplanned and unaccounted load influences are to be registered using the load augmentation factor C. (9) The load augmentation factors C for silo cells in categories 2 and 3 (see 4.5) register unaccounted additional load influences alone, which arise due to the bulk material flow during emptying of the silo. (10) The load augmentation factors C for silo bins in category 1 (see 4.5) register additional influences during emptying that are caused by the bulk material movement as well as the influences due to the deviation of the bulk material parameters.

39

DIN 1055-6:2005-03

NOTE 2

The load augmentation factors C are intended to cover the ambiguities related to the flow

profile, the influences of eccentricities during filling and emptying, the influence of the shape of the silo on the manner of the flow profile and proximity influences which arise when allowance is not made for the presence of fill and discharge pressures that are time dependant. For category 1 silos (see 4.5) the load augmentation factor also takes into account the deviation of the material properties of the bulk material. In silos of categories 2 and 3, allowance for the deviation of the material parameters influenced by the loads is not made by a load augmentation factor C but by the formulation of the appropriate characteristic calculation values for the bulk material parameters γ, µ, K and φi.

(11)

In silos of category 1 (see 4.5) the allowance for unsymmetric loads is made by means of an increase of the symmetric loads by applying a load augmentation factor for the discharge loads C.

(12)

In silos of categories 2 and 3 (see 4.5) allowance for the unsymmetric reference surface loads can be made alternatively by a substitute augmentation of the symmetric loads.

4.2

Description of Action on Tanks (1) Allowance for loads on tanks as a consequence of filling them up is made by hydrostatic load formulations

4.3

Classification of actions on silo bins (1) Loads due to bulk materials stored in the silo bins are to be classified as variable actions in accordance with DIN 1055-100. (2) Symmetric loads on silos are to be classified as variable stationary actions in accordance with DIN 1055-100.

40

DIN 1055-6:2005-03

(3) Reference surface loads for making allowances for the filling and discharge processes in silo bins are to be classified as variable free actions in accordance with DIN 1055-100. (4) Eccentric loads for making allowances for the eccentric filling and discharge processes in silo bins are to be classified as variable stationary actions. (5) Loads arising from air or gas pressures in connection with pneumatic conveyor systems are to be regarded as variable stationary actions. (6) Loads due to dust explosions are to be classified as extraordinary actions as defined by DIN 1055-100.

4.4

CLASSIFICATION OF THE INFLUENCES ON TANKS

Loads on tanks that arise due to the filling up of the tanks can be classified as variable stationary influences acc. to DIN 1055-100.

4.5

STANDARDISED CATEGORIES

(1) Based upon the design of the silo structure and its susceptibility to different types of malfunctions, various accuracy standards are used in the process of determining the influences on silo structures. (2) The silo influences should be determined in accordance with one of the following standardized categories specified in this standard (see Table 1).

41

if required. The rules for small silos are simple and conservative on the safer side. (4) In case several silos are connected to one another.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 TABLE 1 – CLASSIFICATION OF THE DIMENSIONING CONDITIONS STANDARDISED CATEGORIES standardized category 3 DESCRIPTION Silos with a capacity of more than 10 000 tonnes Silos with a capacity of more than 10 000 tonnes. the suitable category for each bin should be individually determined. a higher category than that in Table 1 can be taken as a basis. and not for the set of silos as a whole. calculating conditions is present a) eccentric discharge with eo dc > 0. For any part of the procedures (computation of loads) described in this standard. are not justified.25 b) low silos with an eccentric filling of more than standardized category 2 standardized category 1 dt all silos which are covered by this load standard and do not fall in the other two categories silos with a capacity of less than 100 tonnes NOTE The differences amongst the categories listed in Table 1 have been determined taking into account the shortfalls of an exact estimation of the influences. 42 . as they have a robustness of their own and high costs of an estimation of bulk material parameters for example. (3) A higher category for a silo than that which is required as per Table 1 can always be chosen. in which one of the foll.25 (see fig 1b) eo > 0.

(2) It is important that the relevant calculating conditions be observed and the critical load types are determined. for each of the relevant calculating conditions.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 5. (4) Influences on account of the adjacent building structures are to be taken into account. They can transmit loads to the silo structure across the stored bulk materials. are to be determined in compliance with the general specifications contained in DIN 1055-100. (5) Influences of transporting equipment and pouring equipment are to be taken into account. (3) The combination rules depend on each of the verifications and are to be chosen in accordance with DIN 1055-100. (6) Depending on the circumstances. Special care is requested in case of permanently installed transporting equipment. the following extraordinary influences and situations are to be taken into account: Influences caused by explosions Influences caused by vehicular impact Influences caused by earthquakes Influences caused by fire-load 43 . 5. NOTE The relevant combination rules are given in Annex A.1 (1) CALCULATING CONDITIONS GENERAL The influences on silos and tanks.

(3) The dimensioning for filling and for discharge of bulk materials has to comply with the principal load-types which can lead to differing boundary states for the structure: (4) Max loads perpendicular to the vertical silo wall (horizontal loads) Max vertical wall friction loads on the vertical silo wall Max vertical loads on the silo bottom Max loads on the silo hoppers For determination of loads. so that every boundary state is assigned a specific defined condition of the bulk material. (2) The loads estimates for filling and for discharge can be used as evidence for supporting safety as well as performance capability. the upper characteristic values of the bulk material specific gravity γ are to be used always. Table 2 gives the extreme values of the bulk material parameters which are to be used for each load types that are to be examined. K and ϕ i . (5) The determination of the loads of a load type should always be made for a specific combination of matching parameters µ . 44 . differing combinations of the extreme values of these parameters have to be examined.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 5. K and ϕ i acquires differing extreme values within the variance range of their characteristic bulk material parameters. In order to ensure adequate safety for all boundary states during dimensioning.2 (1) CALCULATING CONDITIONS CAUSED BY “BULK MATERIAL” STORED IN Loads on silos caused by stored bulk materials are to be ascertained for the SILOS maximum possible state of fullness. (6) For each of these load types its extreme value is attained when each of the bulk material characteristic values µ .

it is the malfunctioning that is being examined. horizontal load ratio Lower limit value Upper limit value Lower limit value Coefficient of wall friction K ϕi perpendicular to the vertical wall Max.e. wall friction loads on the vertical walls Max.e. This means that in all cases the coefficient of wall friction should not be taken as larger than tan ϕ i (µ = tan ϕ w ≤ tan ϕ i ) NOTE 2 The loads that are perpendicular to the hopper walls p n are as a rule largest when the wall friction in the hopper is small.ϕ wh ≤ ϕ i ) . because thereby a smaller portion of the loads in the hopper are take away are removed through friction.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 TABLE 2 . a slide surface develops within the bulk material. Otherwise. when transverse stresses recorded at the wall contact surface are larger than those due to the internal friction of the bulk material itself.VITAL PARAMETERS FOR THE DIFFERENT LOAD CALCULATIONS CHARACTERISITC VALUE TO BE CALCULATED COEFFICIENT OF TYPE OF LOAD EXAMINED WALL FRICTION HORIZONTAL RATIO LOAD ANGLE FRICTION OF INTERNAL µ SECTION OF VERTICAL WALL Max. which determines whether the wall friction loads or loads that are perpendicular to the hopper wall are to be calculated as maximum) 45 . It is to be observed which maximum parameters become decisive for the individual dimensioning exercises (i. vertical loads on the hopper or the silo bottom Type of load examined Upper limit value Upper limit value Lower limit value Load ratio in the hopper Lower limit value Lower limit value Upper limit value Angle of internal friction µ HOPPER WALLS Maximum hopper loads in the filled state Maximum hopper loads during discharge NOTE 1 Lower limit value for the hopper Lower limit value for the hopper F Lower limit value upper limit value ϕi Lower limit value upper limit value It is to be noted that the wall friction angle is always smaller or same as the angle of internal friction of the stored bulk material (i.

1.1. These are to be taken as the basis for the calculation of the following characteristic loads: Filling loads on vertical wall sections (see section 7) Discharge loads on vertical wall sections (see section 7) fill and discharge loads on horizontal bottoms (see section 8) Fill loads on hoppers (see section 8) Discharge loads on hoppers (see section 8) 5. (2) In a silo that has been filled-up.2 and 7.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (7) The above table notwithstanding.3 CALCULATING CONDITIONS CAUSED BY DIFFERING GEOMETRIC DESIGNS OF THE SILO GEOMETRY (1) Differences in slimness of silos (ratio of height to diameter). (8) The fundamental equations for calculating the silo loads are given in sections 7 and 8. the mean value of the horizontal load ratio K m and the mean value of the angle of internal friction ϕ im .2. the largest possible eccentricity of the filling stream is to be taken as a basis (see 7.2) 46 . hopper geometries and arrangements of vents lead to differences in calculating conditions and these have to be observed. the trajectory of the filling stream of the filled up bulk material may at times cause the build-up of an eccentric back-fill cone at the bulk material surface (see fig 1b) and when this happens different storage densities can arise in different parts of the silo which lead to un-symmetric loads. While calculating the size of these loads. namely the mean value of the coefficient of wall friction µ m . silos of category 1 can be dimensioned using the mean values of the bulk material parameters.3.

the effects of the flow profiles are to be observed which can be divided into the following Categories (see fig.mixed flow 2 1 3 5 2 3 4 4 4 4 a) MASS FLOW b) CORE FLOW (FUNNEL FLOW) C)CORE FLOW (MIXED FLOW) Legend 1 2 3 Entire bulk material in motion flow Limits of flow channel 4 Bulk material at rest 5 Effective passages 6 Effective hopper Figure 2 – BASIC FLOW PROFILES 47 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (3) While dimensioning.funnel flow -.Mass flow -. 2): -.

the un-symmetric loads that usually occur are to be taken into account during the dimensioning (see 7. (6) In case of flow profiles with core flow (see fig 2) and partial contact of the moving bulk material mass with the silo wall.1(2) and (4)). other un-symmetric load components – which may arise specifically in this case – are to be taken into account during dimensioning (see fig 3c and 3d as well as fig 4b and 4c) (see 7.i.2. (8) For silos with several vents. (7) For silos with several vents and presuming a state of maximum fullness.2.3.2.2). provisions of the combination of active vents for the operation are to be regarded as normal calculating conditions. building up an internal funnel flow .e.2. the emptying pressures can be ignored.4).2 and 7.3. 5b and 6a) fulfill these conditions (see fig. (5) In case of symmetric mass flow or a mixed flow (see fig. NOTE A suitably designed central tube with lateral vents (“anti dynamic tube”) can also ensure that this condition . 7. 2). 5a.is fulfilled. Other openings which are not part of the planned operation are to be regarded as extraordinary calculating conditions.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) If it can be additionally ensured during funnel flow that the flow channel is always located within the bulk material without coming into contact with the silo wall (see figures 3a and 3b).1 (9) and 7. 48 . Low silos with concentric discharge aided by gravity and silos with a mechanical discharge system located at the bulk material surface which ensures a build-up of funnel flow (see fig. one has to take into account that during operation either all the vents may be opened simultaneously or a single vent alone may be open.2.

4.symmetric core flow (see fig.e. c > 4 ⎞ . 5d).2. 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 3 3 3 4 3 INTERNAL PARALLEL INTERNAL CONVERGENT ECCENTRIC PARALLEL ECCENTRIC CONVERGENT Funnel flow funnel flow funnel flow funnel flow Legend 1 2 3 4 flow flow channel limits flowing funnel bulk material at rest Figure 3 – FLOW PROFILES WITH FUNNEL FLOW 49 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 h In case of an eccentrically filled very slim silo ⎛ i. In such cases the asymmetric alignment of the bulk material particles can set off a un. For such cases special load computations are to be used (see 7.1 (2)). This creates zones in the silo where the bulk material flows along the silo wall and thereby gives rise to un-symmetric loads. the effects of mixed ⎜ ⎟ dc ⎝ ⎠ (9) flow in different areas could lead to either differing packing densities or cohesion of the bulk material.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 6 4 2 1 3 5 1 6 3 1 3 5 (A) (B) (C) a) Concentric mixed flow b) Fully eccentric mixed flow c) Partially eccentric mixed flow Legend 1 2 3 4 5 6 At rest Effective hopper Limits of flow channel Effective passage Flow zone Effective passage varies in the silo’s circumferential direction Figure 4 – FLOW PROFILE WITH MIXED FLOW OF BULK MATERIAL 50 .

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 5 2 4 2 5 1 1 ] 1 1 3 4 5 2 a) Braced wall silo b) Low silo c) Slim silo d) Very slim silo Legend 1 2 3 4 5 Bulk material at rest Flow channel limits Effective hopper Effective passage Flow Figure 5 – EFFECTS OF THE SLIMNESS (RATIO OF HEIGHT TO DIAMETER) ON THE MIXED FLOW OF THE BULK MATERIAL AND THE FUNNEL FLOW 51 .

(11) In case of silos for storage of powdery bulk material where air-injection is used as a discharge aid in the bottom area. (12) In case of silos for storage of powdery bulk material where air-injection is used as a discharge aid in the bottom area. both at maximum fullness. can form the basis of the conditions for a mixed bulk material flow. regardless of their actual slimness hc dc . (see fig 6b). This can generate an eccentric mass flow (see fig 4b). just a part of the bulk material zone near the bottom can become fluidized. as is the case with other bulk materials. are to be considered: - The bulk material filled in can develop a cone. In this type of silo the ratio hb dc can be fixed for slimness instead of hc dc (see fig 1a). (13) The vertical silo walls with a discharge hopper which causes an expanded flow (see fig 6d). (see fig 6b). In this case the eccentricities e f and et can be fixed at zero. - It is to be taken into account that the bulk material surface. 52 . The eccentricity of the resultant flow channel and the resultant value of the eccentricity e0 that is to be computed are to be derived keeping in mind the fluidized zone.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (10) For silos with pneumatically conveyed powdery bulk materials two calculating conditions. which can generate an effective mass flow even in low silos. Such silos are to be computed in accordance with the procedure for slim silos. independent of the gradient of slope and the filling eccentricities. could possibly also be of even shape (see fig 6c). which is to be taken into account while dimensioning. This can lead to un-symmetric discharge loads. in addition to the position of the vent. the entire bulk material zone near the bottom can become fluidized.

4 and with a funnel hopper is to be graded as a low silo. with a rotating space arm b) Air injection and air vents generate mass flow c) Pneumatic filling of powdery bulk material generally results in a level bulk material surface d) “Expanded flow” hoppers lead to mass flow at least in the lower hopper Figure 6 .SPECIAL FILLING AND SICHARGE ARRANGEMENTS 53 .g. In case of a horizontal silo bottom this silo is to be graded as a braced wall silo.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (14) A silo with a slimness of hc dc smaller than 0. a) Mechanically aided discharge e.

(5) Prefabricated silos are to be dimensioned for the influences related to manufacture. (3) For metal silos with rectangular cross-sections that contain beam ties within the silo shaft for reducing the wall’s bending moment. (2) For metal silos which mainly consist of nuts and bolts. 54 . (4) The effects of fatigue in silos and tanks are to be taken into account if they are exposed to a load cycle more than once a day on an average. the specifications in 7. transport and assembly. (6) In case of slip openings or observation holes in the silo or hopper walls. the loads on the stopper covers are to be taken into account using double the value of the maximum load-values upon the adjacent wall sections. These loads are to be computed only for the dimensioning of the stopper cover and its support or attachment structures. the size of fissures is to be limited to suitable dimensions. in the case of a airinjection silo. a complete process conclusion (rotation) of the sectors subjected to air-injection. The inspection of fissure size has to comply with the fissure size limitation specified in DIN 1045-1 subject to the exposition categories based on the ambient conditions of the silo.7 are to be followed.4 CALCULATING CONDITIONS CAUSED BY SPECIFIC STRUCTURAL SHAPES OF SILOS (1) In case of dimensioning of silos fro usability. A load cycle is equivalent to a complete filling and emptying cycle of a silo or. Fatigue effects are also to be taken into consideration in silos which are exposed to the influence of vibrating machines/equipment components.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 5. the specifications for unsymmetric load values (reference surface loads) are to be complied with.

5 DIMENSIONING CONDITIONS CAUSED BUY FLUIDS STORED IN TANKS maximum fullness. NOTE These loads normally amount to <10kPa as a rule. then loads resulting from differences in air-pressure are to be taken into account. including the possible effects of a flow profile that may have undergone a change. Loads on tanks caused by the fluids stored therein are to be calculated for the state of 55 . the load changes caused by these have to be examined with respect to the boundary state of fatigue. (10) In case of reconditioning of existing silos by putting a lining on the silo walls. then these loads are to be treated as live loads. (9) If vibrating equipment. air guns or rotary extraction arms on the silo bottom have been used. Silos must therefore be equipped with suitable pressure-relief devices for unforeseen occurrences. 5. (8) If pneumatic transport systems are used for filling and emptying of silos. if the designing engineer cannot otherwise rule out the same.4 bar) may also arise as a result of defective dimensioning of specific transporting equipment or in case of an operational fault. vibrations due to pneumatic transporting equipment are likewise to be taken into consideration. but higher sub pressures (generally 40kpa ≈ 0. cyclones or mechanical transporting equipment.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (7) If the silo roof has to bear loads imposed by dust filtering equipment. the effects of modified wall friction on silo dimensioning are to be considered.

Further instructions including rules for dimensioning for dust explosions can be taken from DIN-Fachbericht 140. the potential damage could be limited or avoided by means of the following measures: ---(2) (3) Arrangement of adequate pressure relief areas Arrangement of adequate explosion suppression systems designing/dimensioning the structure for absorbing the explosive pressures A few bulk materials which are prone to explosions are listed in Annex I.6 (1) PRINCIPLES OF DIMENSIONING FOR EXPLOSIONS As the liquids or bulk material stored in tanks or silos respectively may have a tendency to explode. The instructions given in Annex I for the explosion loads are to be followed. 6 BULK MATERIAL PARAMETERS 6.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 5.1 (1) General For the estimation of silo loads the following influences have to be taken into account: the divergences from the bulk material parameters the fluctuations of the wall friction at the silo wall the silo geometry the filling and emptying processes 56 . (4) The effects of silo structure dust explosions upon the surrounding structures or structural parts are to be taken into account.

Figure 7 may be used on the grounds of simplifying hypotheses that have been taken as a basis . the manner of the flow profile (mass or core flow) is to be determined from figure 7.for example.6 0. except if a reasonable and verified method of calculation can be proved.4 0. Co-efficient of wall friction in the hopper µh (a) conical hopper 1.8 0.2 1 0. NOTE The layout of the silo geometry for a mass flow is beyond the scope of this standard.2 0 0° 20° 24° 40° 60° 1 Series1 2 Angle of inclination of hopper β 57 . (3) If required.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (2) Influences which have a favourable impact upon the bulk material stiffness may not be taken into account while determining the loads and examining the stability of the wall. The methods and procedures specific to bulk material technology have to be used for this purpose. A positive impact of a wall deformation upon the pressures which develop in the bulk material may not be estimated. the influence of internal friction is ignored – but may not be used for technical layout of silos.

are to be derived or obtained either as test results or as data in any other suitable form. which are to be quantified for calculating the loads.2 Bulk Material Parameters 6.8 0.2 0 0 20 40 60 80 1 2 Series1 Angle of inclination of hopper β Legend 1 2 area with core flow areas with the possibility of mass flow Figure 7 – CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH PRESSURES CAUSED BY MASS FLOW ARISE 6.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Co-efficient of wall friction in the hopper µh (b) cuneiform hopper 1.2 1 0. 58 . (2) While using values from test results and other sources of data.4 0.6 0.1 General (1) The material properties of the bulk material stored in the silos. the same are to be evaluated in a suitable manner keeping in mind the type of load in question in each case.2.

dampness and the wall abrasion and wear which can roughen or smoothen the wall of the silo 59 . and may be dependant upon the stress level and the background of load application Influences on account of particle shape. temporal influences fluctuations of the moisture content influences of dynamic actions brittleness or ductility of the tested bulk material the manner of putting-in the bulk material in the silo and in the testing apparatus (5) While evaluating the differences in bulk material parameters mentioned in (3) with ref. the following are some of the factors that must be kept in mind: a lot of parameters are not constant. to the coefficients of wall friction. the following factors must be kept in mind: corrosion and chemical reaction of the bulk material particles. sizes and distribution of grain size can have a strong impact on the test and the silo in a variety of ways. (4) While evaluating the differences in bulk material parameters mentioned in (3).DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (3) It should be kept in mind that there may be significant differences between the material parameters measured in tests and the parameters that are determined by the actual behaviour of the bulk material in the silo.

60 . with due regard for know-how acquired through experience. taking into account the experimental values the deviation of the parameters relevant to the calculations the results obtained from the large scale measurements on silos of similar styles correlation of results from different types of tests perceptible changes in the material parameters during the period when the silo is in use (7) The choice of the characteristic material parameters has to be made on the basis of values the have been determined through laboratory tests.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 polishing of the wall surface accumulation of fat deposits on the wall particles which get impressed in the wall surface (usually an influence which leads to the roughening of the wall surface) (6) While determining the values for the material parameters the following is to be kept in mind: the facts regarding the application of the relevant tests should be wellpublicised and common knowledge a comparison of the values of the individual parameters which have been measured in the tests with the corresponding published parameters.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (8) The characteristic value of a material is to be chosen after a careful evaluation of the value which has influenced the occurrence of the load. 61 . The main reason for this is that there is only a small correlation between the degree of roughness and the measured amount of wall friction caused by the bulk material that slides along the wall surface. DESCRIPTION OF WALLSURFACE CATEGORY TYPES OF MATERIAL Cold-rolled stainless steel Scarred stainless steel Polished stainless steel Galvanized carbon steel Aluminium Extruded high-density polyethylene Carbon steel with slight surface corrosion Coated carbon steel D1 Polished D2 Smooth Cast high-density polyethylene Smooth ceramic plates Concrete surface manufactured with steel shell Rough shell concrete Scarred carbon steel D3 Rough Steel silos with bolts on the inside surface of the wall Roughly polished ceramic plates Horizontal corrugated wall D4 Corrugated Contoured sheet metal with horizontal notches Non-standardised walls with large deviations The effect of wrinkling in these surfaces has to be very carefully examined by means of the particles embedded in the wall surface. NOTE The classification and description given in Table 3 refers to the friction rather than the roughness.

age and electrical charging during handling. 6.3 Simplified Procedure (1) The parameters of commonly known bulk materials are to be taken from the Table E.3 or by means of test measurements in accordance with 6. (5) For silos with wall surfaces belonging to the class (category) D4 according to Table 3.1. the grain size distribution.1 or calculated according to the equation (8).2. the production procedure. moisture content.2. The values given there for the specific gravity γ correspond to the upper 62 .3. (4) The calculated correction values for the coefficient of wall friction µ of the bulk materials should take into account the roughness of the wall surface along which they glide. In Table 3 the different classes of wall surfaces are defined for use in this standard. these need to be taken into account.1 are to be obtained by means of test measurements in accordance with 6. (2) The bulk material parameters are to be determined either according to the simplified procedure laid down in 6.3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 6. (6) The bulk material correction value Cop for the reference surface loads is to be taken from Table E.2. (3) Bulk materials parameters which are not contained in Table E.2 Determination of the Bulk Material Parameter (1) The material parameters to be used for the design calculation may have deviations due to the changes in the structure.2. the effective wall friction coefficients should be determined according to the procedure described in D.

Km and φim are to be multiplied or divided by the so called conversion factor. while the parameters for the wall friction µm. (2) If individual bulk materials cannot be clearly classified under the bulk material categories listed in Table E. 63 . The conversion factors ax are given in the table E. the following combinations are to be used: Upper characteristic value of K = a k K m Lower characteristic value of K = (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Km ak Upper characteristic value of µ = a µ µ m Lower characteristic value of µ = µm aµ Upper characteristic value of ϕ i = aϕ ϕ im Lower characteristic value of ϕ i = ϕ im aϕ (4) For determining the effect of action on silos of the requirement category 1. the mean values µm.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 characteristic value. Km and φim may be used instead of the upper and lower characteristic values. K and φi. the listed values of µm. then their parameters are to be determined experimentally in accordance with the procedure described under 6.1 for the bulk materials listed therein. for the horizontal load ratio Km and for the angle of the internal friction φim represent mean values of these characteristic quantities.1.3 (3) For determining the characteristic parameters of µ. For calculating the maximum loads.

(4) If the test data is there. moisture content.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 6. For every bulk material property a mean value of the relevant parameter is to be determined keeping in mind the deviation of its relevant so-called secondary influence parameter such as bulk material structure. (2) The characteristic values are derived from the experimentally determined mean values with the aid of equations (1) to (6) and the corresponding conversion factors ax. 64 . If a secondary influence parameter is by itself responsible for more than 75% of the conversion factor ax. it has to be raised by a factor of 1.3 Measurement of Bulk Material Parameters in Tests 6. the conversion factors ax are to be ascertained acc.3. NOTE The above-mentioned specifications serve to ensure that the values of xx adequately represent the probability of occurrence for the derived loads. (5) The span between the mean value and the characteristic value of the bulk material parameter is expressed by the conversion factor ax. to C. the possible consequences of the sedimentation phenomena in the silo and the inaccuracies during processing of the material specimens are to be taken into account. age and the possibility of electrical charging during operation or manufacture. While determining the same one should take into account the fact that the bulk material parameters can undergo a change during the service life of the silo. Likewise. filtering curve.1 Experimental Determination (Measuring System) (1) The experimental determination of the parameters is to be executed with representative bulk material specimens.11 in order to determine the standard deviation of the parameters.10. (3) Each conversion factor ax is to be carefully determined. temperature.

3 Coefficient of Wall Friction µ (1) The experimental determination of the coefficients of wall friction µ for the estimation of loads is to be determined for such a packing density of the bulk material particles and at such a pressure-level.11.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 6. (3) The conversion factor for deriving the characteristic value from the measured For measuring the specific gravity γ the test procedures acc. to C. except when a smaller value can be separately established through tests or a suitable estimation (see C. the standard deviation is to be estimated in accordance with the method described in C.3. The vertical pressure Pvft can be determined from the equations (11) or (86) for the depth of the bulk material at the lower end of the silo shaft.6 should be value is to be determined in accordance with the procedure described in C.10. (2) used. If only one mean value can be ascertained from the data material.2 Specific Gravity γ of the Bulk Material (1) The specific gravity of the bulk material is to be determined for such a packing density of the bulk material particles and at such a pressure-level. The pressure level Phfb can be determined from the equations (9) or (78) for the depth of the bulk material at the lower end of the zone with vertical walls. 65 . The conversion factor aγ may not be less than aγ = 1.7 should be used.11. (2) For measuring the coefficients of wall friction µ the test procedures acc. (3) The mean value µm of the coefficients of wall friction and its standard deviation are to be determined and derived through tests.3. 6. which corresponds to the packing density or the pressure level that is present in the zone of maximum vertical fill-pressure bzw in the silo. which corresponds to the packing density or the pressure level that is present in the zone of maximum horizontal fill-pressure Phfb in the silo. to C.11).

(4) The conversion factor for deriving the characteristic value from the measured value is to be determined in accordance with the procedure described in C.10. except when a smaller value can be separately established through tests or a suitable estimation (see C.11). to C.for such a packing density of the bulk material particles and at such a pressure-level.11. 6. (3) The mean value ϕim of the angle of internal friction and its standard deviation δ are to be determined and derived through tests. The conversion factor may not be less than aµ = 1. 66 . The conversion factor aϕ may not be less than aϕ = 1.3.11. which corresponds to the packing density or the pressure level that is present in the zone of maximum vertical fill-pressure Pvf. The pressure level Pvf can be determined from the equations (11) or (86) for the depth of the bulk material at the lower end of the zone with vertical walls.4 Angle of Internal Friction ϕi (1) The angle of internal friction ϕi for the calculation of loads is to be determined – as arc tangents from the ratio of the shear force to the normal force at the break under equivalent load . If only one mean value can be ascertained from the data material.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) The conversion factor for deriving the characteristic value from the measured value is to be determined in accordance with the procedure described in C. (2) For measuring the angle of internal friction ϕi the test procedures acc.11).11.9 should be used. except when a smaller value can be separately established through tests or a suitable estimation (see C. the standard deviation is to be estimated in accordance with the method described in C.10.

(2) used. (4) An approximate value for Km can be alternatively calculated according to the foll.5 Horizontal Load Ratio K (1) The horizontal load ratio K for the estimation of loads (the ratio of mean horizontal pressure to mean vertical pressure) is to be determined for such a packing density of the bulk material particles and at such a pressure-level.3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 6. 67 .2 (5)).4) Km = 1.1 (1. The pressure level pvft can be determined from the equations (11) or (86) for the depth of the bulk material at the lower end of the zone with vertical walls. the standard deviation is to be estimated in accordance with the method described in C. to C.11.2. which corresponds to the packing density or the pressure level that is present in the zone of maximum vertical fill-pressure.1 in equation (7) is used in order to ensure an appropriate derivative unit of measure for making allowance for the difference between a value of K (= Ko ) that was measured under virtually absent wall-friction influences and a value of K that was measured in the presence of wall friction influences (see also 6. If only one mean value can be ascertained from the data material.3. Equation (7) from the mean value of the angle of internal friction for first load application ϕ im determined through tests (see 6.8 should be determined and derived through tests.sin ϕim) NOTE (7) The factor 1. (3) The mean value Km of the horizontal load ratio and its standard deviation are to be For measuring the horizontal load ratio K the test procedures acc.

(2) NOTE For measuring the cohesion c the test procedures acc.11). The symmetric increase of pressures is relatively independent of the stored bulk material. Alternatively the cohesion can be estimated by means of results of tests in the shear cells of Janike. It is to be determined for such a packing density of the bulk material particles and at such a pressure-level. 68 . except when a smaller value can be separately established through tests or a suitable estimation (see C.11. which corresponds to the packing density or the pressure level that is present in the zone of maximum vertical fill-pressure Pvf.3. The conversion factor aK may not be less than aK = 1. The pressure level Pvf can be determined from the equations (11) or (86) for the bulk material depth at the lower end of the zone with vertical walls.7 Bulk material Correction Value for the Reference Surface Load Cop (1) The bulk material correction value for the reference surface load Cop is to be estimated on the basis of suitable test data.10. 6.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (5) The conversion factor for deriving the characteristic value from the measured value is to be determined in accordance with the procedure described in C. This parameter is not easy to determine with the help of experimental test procedures. NOTE 1 The discharge factors C make allowances for a host of phenomena which arise during the emptying of silos. 6. to C.6 Cohesion c (1) The cohesion of bulk material varies with the consolidation stress to which the specimen is subjected.9 should be used.9. A method for calculating the cohesion from test results is to be taken from C.3. yet the unsymmetric components are greatly dependant upon the material. The material-dependency of the unsymmetric components is represented by the bulk material correction value Cop .

divergence factor for the horizontal load ratio K of the bulk Material.2 Where aµ aK divergence factor for the coefficients of wall friction µ.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 NOTE 2 A suitable experimental test procedure for the parameter Cop has not so far been developed. For this purpose the loads are differentiated as follows: 69 .1. the bulk material correction value for the reference surface load can be estimated from the divergence factors for the horizontal load ratio aK and the wall friction correction value aµ acc. (2) Values for the bulk material correction values for the reference surface load Cop of commonly known bulk materials are to be taken from Table E. (4) For special silos or special bulk materials (in the individual case) the suitable bulk material correction value for the reference surface load Cop can be estimated by means of large scale experimental investigations in silos with designs that are comparable. 7 LOADS ON VERTICAL SILO WALLS 7. This factor is therefore based on evaluations of tests on silos and on experimental values of silos with conventional filling and discharge systems.1 (1) General For the filling and the emptying types of loads. the characteristic values of the loads described in this section have to be fixed. (3) For materials which are not listed in Table E.5 aµ = 2. to equation (8): Cop = 3.5 aK – 6.1. which were established within the usual structural tolerances.

due to pneumatic discharge aids and homogenizing silos) silo hoppers and silo bottoms (2) The loads on the vertical silo walls are to be determined in accordance with the following criteria pertaining to the slimness of the silos: slim silos.0 (with exceptions acc. to 5. with 2. to 5.0 < hc / dc (with exceptions acc. the symmetrical loads and a free load component.like a slim silo. with.3) braced wall silos (silos consisting of braced walls) with horizontal bottoms and hc / dc < 0.3) silos with medium slimness. to 5.4 silos for bulk materials with air pockets between the bulk material particles (3) A silo with an aerated bottom is to be handled – independent of its actual slimness hc/ dc -.0 < hc / dc < 2. (5) Special types of loads are to be taken into account for large fill and discharge eccentricities. Both the components are to be assessed as acting simultaneously.0 (with exceptions acc.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 slim silos silos of medium slimness low silos braced walls silos (silos consisting of braced walls) silos for the storage of bulk materials air pockets between the bulk material particles (for example.4 < hc / dc < 1. the reference surface loads. (4) The loads on the vertical walls are made up of a stationary load component. 0.3) low silos. These are not to be placed simultaneously with the symmetrical and reference surface loads. with 1. 70 . each represents a separate and clearly defined load category.

3 (4)).1 Fill Loads on Vertical Walls 7. 7.1. load estimates are given in 7. if required.4. (7) Rules for the additional types of loads for special types of silos and special design conditions are given in 7. For non-circular silo bins corresponding load estimates should be derived from these load estimates.2.1 (1) Symmetric Fill Loads The symmetric fill loads (see figure 8) are to be calculated acc.7 for loads in rectangular silos (8) For circular silos with large fill and discharge eccentricities. (9) If funnel flow can be ensured within the bulk material without contact points between the flow zone and the silo walls (see 5.6 for loads due to hot-filled bulk materials see 7.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (6) Detailed guidelines for the calculation of fill and discharge loads are given within the context of silo slimness in sections 7. 71 . 7.2 Slim Silos 7.3 and 7.5 for silos with air injection equipment for complete or partial fluidization of bulk material see 7. the calculations can be limited to the estimates of the filling loads. if they are found to be suitable for design calculations.5 till 7. in which case the reference surface loads are to be taken into account along with these.2.2.7: see 7.4.2. to the equations (9) to (14).

the horizontal loads Phf. the wall friction loads Pwf and the vertical loads Pvf are to be estimated as follows: P (z) = P Yj (z) hf ho Pwf (z) = µPhoYj (z) Pvf ( z ) = With (9) (10) Pho Y j (z ) K (11) Pho = γKzo zo = 1 A Kµ U −z (12) (13) Yj (z) =1 − e Where zo (14) γ µ The characteristic value of the bulk material specific gravity The characteristic value for the coefficients of wall friction for the bulk material at the vertical silo walls 72 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (2) After the filling is done and during the storage of the bulk material.

2. (2) loads. 7. For silos of category 1 the reference surface load can be ignored for the filling 73 .2 and 6. [kN/M] – is calculated using: P = ∫ P (z)dz = µP z − zoYj (z) wf wf ho 0 z [ ] (15) (4) For determining the characteristic values for the required bulk material parameters (specific gravity (γ). reference surface loads or other suitable load arrangements are to be placed.1. the resultant characteristic value of the wall friction loads Pwf that have been added-up up till depth z – with the force per unit of length in the direction of the circumference e.2 Reference Surface Load for Filling Loads: General Requirements (1) For making an allowance for unplanned unsymmetrical loads due to eccentricities and imperfections during the filling of the silos.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 K z A U (3) The characteristic value of the horizontal load ratio The depth of the silo material beneath the equivalent surface of the bulk material The inner cross-sectional area of the silo The circumference of the inner cross-sectional area of the silo For the status after the filling is done. correction value for wall friction µ and horizontal load ratio K).g. the values given in 6.3 are to be used.

1b). the placing of reference surface loads for the filling loads can.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 1 Phf Pvf Pwf z Phf hc Pwf z1 Legend 1 equivalent bulk material surface Figure 8 – SYMMETRIC FILLING LOADS NEAR THE VERTICAL SILO WALLS 3) For silos in which powdery bulk material is stored and which are filled with the help of air injection equipment. be done away with. (4) The amount of reference surface load to be placed for the filling loads Ppf is to be estimated on the basis of the maximum possible eccentricity ef the filled cone that appears at the surface of the bulk material (see fig. (5) The fundamental value of the reference surface load for the filling load Ppf is to be fixed with: Ppf = C pf Phf (16) 74 . as a rule.

5 ⎢ ⎛ c d ⎞ ⎥ −1 ⎟ ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ C pf = 0.2d c (20) (7) The reference surface load consists of only a horizontally acting load component. 75 .21Cop 1 + 2 E 2 ⎜1 − e⎝ ⎣ ⎝ c ⎠ ⎦ ⎠ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (17) E= 2e f dc (18) But C pf > 0 (19) Where ef Is the maximum eccentricity of the filled cone which appears at the Bulk material surface during filling.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 With: ⎛ ⎡ h ⎤ ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −1. There are no frictional forces to be taken into account as a result of these horizontal load components. Phf Is the local value of the horizontal fill pressure acc. Cop (6) The height of the zone at which the reference surface load is to be placed (see figures 9 and 10) amounts to: s= πd c 16 ≈ 0.1). to equation (9) at the position at which the reference surface load is placed Is the correction value of the bulk material for the reference surface load (see table E.

thin walled silos with circular cross sections.2.2. metal silos without braces).Longitudinal Section and Transverse Section Showing the Load Diagrams of the Reference Surface Loads 76 . reinforced concrete silos).g.3 (e. see 7.1. The following structural designs of silos can be distinguished with respect to the reference surface load to be placed: ---Thick walled silos with circular cross-section see figure7.g.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (8) The form of the reference surface load for the filling loads depends upon the structural design of the silo. see figure 7.1.2.5 Ppf1 S S Ppfs θ Ppf Ppf Ppf Ppf S Ppf a) Thin walled circular silo b) other circular silo zp S hp hc h a s b Figure 9 . Silos with non-circular cross-sections.14 (e.

nc ] Ppf.nc hc S a hc S Legend a b smaller value of zo and hc/2 as per choice Figure 10 – LONGITUDNAL SECTION AND TRANSVERSE SECTION SHOWING THE LOAD DIAGRAMS OF THE REFERENCE SURFACE LOADS FOR NON-CIRCULAR SILOS a Ppe.nc Ppe.nc ppf.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Ppf.nc Ppe.nc 77 .

The largest percentage increase of the dimensioning sections which result from the placing of reference surface loads at this 78 .2. The unit of measurement for the side length s should be applied to the curved surface in a suitable manner. 2) In addition to the reference surface load Ppf that acts outwards.2. (4) In thick-walled circular silos of category 2. a simplified proof may be furnished. (3) The reference surface load for the filling loads is to be placed at any position on the silo wall.1.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7. a complementary Reference surface load Ppfi that is directed inwards is to be placed in the remaining portion of the silo circumference above the same wall-height (see fig.1. to equation (16) NOTE The amount and the impact area of the load Ppfi which is directed inwards are chosen such that the resultants of both the load components counterbalance each other in the middle at the position at which these are to be placed. the fundamental value of The reference surface load for the filling load Ppf is to be estimated as it acts outwards Along the opposite sides of a quadratic reference surface with the side length s (see equation (20)).3(4). However it may be placed in accordance with the manner described in 7. 9b): Ppfi = Where P pf 7 (21) Ppf is the fundamental value of the reference surface load acting outwards for the filling loads acc. Half the height of the vertical bin shaft may be regarded as the most unfavourable Position for placing the reference surface load.3 (1) Reference Surface Load for Filling Loads: Thick-Walled Circular Silos For thick-walled circular silos of the categories 2 and 3.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03

position can be carried over to the other areas of the wall by multiplying over there the design sectional sizes with the value of the ratio between the horizontal fill pressure at the observed position and the horizontal fill pressure at the position where the reference surface load was placed.

7.2.1.4

Reference Surface Load for the Filling loads: Thin-Walled Circular Silos

(1) For thin-walled circular silos (dc/t > 200) of the categories 2 and 3 the reference surface load for the filling loads has to be placed above the height s acc. to equation (20). It changes from a maximum pressure with the quantity ppf that acts outwards at a particular point, into a maximum inwards-acting pressure with the same quantity ppf at the opposite side (see figure 9a). The progression in the circumferential direction is to be estimated with:

**Ppfs = Ppf cosθ
**

Where

(22)

Ppf

is the reference surface load acting outwards acc. to equation (16) is the angle coordinate in the circumferential direction (see fig. 9a).

θ

(2)

The horizontal load Fpf that results from the reference surface load of the filling

loads is to be calculated for circular silos acc. to equation (23):

Fpf =

π

2

sd c Ppf

(23)

(3)

For welded silos of category 2, the reference surface load can be placed as active

load in a depth zp beneath the bulk material surface. For zp the smaller of the following values is decisive: zp = zo Where, and zp = 0.5 hc (24) hc is taken as the height of the vertical silo shaft (see fig. 1a).

79

DIN 1055-6:2005-03

(4)

For silos with screw and bolt connections of category 2, the reference surface

loads the reference surface load is to be placed at any position as active load.

7.2.1.5 (1)

Reference Surface Load for Filling Loads: Non-Circular Silos

For non-circular silos of categories 2 and 3, one can make allowance for

the reference surface loads of the fill type by an increase of the symmetrical loads acc. to (2) and (3). (2) The reference surface load in the outward direction is to be positioned at each

point and depth in the silo as a stripe-shaped band with the band width s (acc. to equation (20)) (see fig. 10a) (3) The quantity of the uniform reference surface load Ppf , nc is to be estimated using:

Ppf , nc = 0.36 Ppf

(25)

Where Ppf represents the fundamental value of the reference surface load of the fill type acc. to equation (16). A suitable estimate for dc is to be derived from fig. 1d. NOTE

The value and the extent of the uniform load Phf , n are so chosen that the resultant

bending moments for a silo with rectangular cross-section and without internal braces will take on approximately the same order of magnitude as would result in the case of placing a local reference surface load Ppf in the middle of the wall.

80

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7.2.2 Discharge Loads on Vertical Walls

7.2.2.1 (1) made. (2)

Symmetric Discharge Loads

To make allowance for possible short-term load-increases during the discharge

process, an increase of the symmetric load components in the discharge loads is to be

For silos of all categories the symmetric discharge loads xx and xx are to be

determined from:

**Phe = Ch Phf Pwe = Cw Pwf
**

Where

(26) (27)

Ch Cw

is the discharge factor for horizontal loads; is the discharge factor for wall friction loads;

The emptying factors Ch and Cw are to be estimated for each case present from the equations (28) up till (32). (3) For silos of all categories which are emptied at the surface of the bulk material

(and therefore do not show any flow within the stored bulk material), the values from xx and xx can be taken as

Ch = Cw = 1.0

(4) using:

(28)

For slim silos of categories 2 and 3, the discharge factors are to be estimated

Ch = 1.15 Cw = 1.10

(29) (30)

81

4⎛1 + 0. eo ) (33) Where ef is the maximum eccentricity of the filled cone which appears during filling at the bulk material surface (see fig 1b).1) (6) For the discharge type load the resultant characteristic value of the wall friction loads Pwe which have been added-up up to the depth z – with the force per unit length for the circumferential direction of the wall. [kN/m] – is derived from: pwe = ∫ pwe ( z )dz = Cw µPho z − zoY j ( z ) 0 z [ ] (34) 82 .4 e ⎞ ⎜ dc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (32) e = max (e f . for which the mean values of the bulk material parameters K and µ are used for load determination. eo Cop is the bulk material correction value for the reference surface load (see Table E.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (5) For slim silos of category 1. the following values are to be taken as discharge factors: Ch = 1.4 e ⎞Cop ⎜ dc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (31) Cw = 1. e.15 + 1. is the eccentricity of the midpoint of the discharge outlet.5⎛1 + 0.g.

2 (1) Reference Surface Load for Discharge Loads: General Requirements Reference surface loads for the discharge loads are to be estimated in order to make allowances for the unplanned unsymmetric loads during emptying of the silo on the one hand and the eccentricities during filling and emptying on the other (see fig. 1b). (2) For silos of category 1.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7. 5d).2. if the following conditions apply: the eccentricity of the discharge outlet eo is larger than the critical value eo . The maximum eccentricity during filling e f is larger than the critical value ⎛h ⎞ e f .2. 4c). cr = 0.2.25d c (see fig. (4) For silos of categories 2 and 3 the load estimates for slim silos (7. in addition to the procedures described in this section. cr = 0.4) with large discharge eccentricities (see 7. (3) For silos of categories 2 and 3 the procedures described in this section are to be used for estimating the discharge loads.0 (see fig. the reference surface load of the discharge type may be ignored.25d c and the silo slimness is greater than the limit value ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜d ⎟ ⎝ c ⎠lim =4. (5) The fundamental value of the outwardly-directed reference surface load for the discharge type load Ppe is to be fixed with: p pe = C pe Phe (35) 83 .1 (5)) are to be used as a separate load-type.

2 ⎜d ⎟ ⎜d ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ c⎠ ⎣⎝ c ⎦ e = max (e f . Is the local value of the horizontal discharge pressure acc.42Cop 1 + 2 E ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( 2 ) (36) E=2 e dc (37) But ⎡⎛ h ⎤ ⎞ ⎛h ⎞ C pe ≥ 0.1) Cop (6) The reference surface load for the discharge type load consists of only one horizontally acting load component. eo ) (38) (39) Where ef Is the maximum eccentricity of the filled cone which appears at the bulk material surface during filling (see fig 1b). Additional frictional forces due to this horizontal load are to be disregarded. (7) The form of the reference surface load for the discharge type load depends upon the structural style of the silo. This standard refers to the following structural styles of the silos with respect to the reference surface loads to be assessed: 84 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 With C pe ⎛ ⎡ h ⎤⎞ ⎛ ⎜ −1. to equation (26) at the position at which the reference surface load is placed is the correction value of the bulk material for the reference surface load (see Table E.272Cop ⎢⎜ c − 1⎟ + E ⎥ ≥ 0 for ⎜ c ⎟ ≤ 1.5 ⎛ c ⎞ −1 ⎟ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎣ ⎦ ⎜1 − e ⎝ ⎢ ⎝ d c ⎠ ⎥ ⎠ ⎟ = 0. eo Phe Is the eccentricity of the midpoint of the outlet opening.

7. a complementary Reference surface load Ppei that is directed inwards is to be placed in the remaining portion of the silo circumference above the same wall-height (see fig. However this is to be laid out in the manner described in 7.2. thin-walled silos with circular cross-sections. to equation (35) NOTE The amount and the impact area of the load Ppei which is directed inwards are chosen such that the resultants of both the load components counterbalance each other in the middle at the position at which these are to be placed.3 (reinforced concrete silos). see 7.2. 11b (2) In addition to the reference surface load Ppe that acts outwards. the fundamental value of The reference surface load for the discharge type load Ppe (see equation (20)) is to be Assessed as it acts outwards along the opposing sides on a quadratic reference Surface with the side length s.2. see 7.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Thick-walled silos with circular cross-sections see.4 (metal silos).2.5. 85 . 11b): Ppei = Ppe 7 (40) Where Ppe is the fundamental value of the reference surface load acting outwards acc.3(4). in accordance with the illustration in fig.3 Reference Surface Load for Discharge Loads: Thick-Walled Circular Silos (1) For thick-walled circular silos.2. Silos with non-circular cross-sections. (3) The reference surface load for the discharge type load is to be placed at any position on the silo wall.2.2.2.2.2. 7.

The percentage increase of the dimensioning sectional sizes due to the placing of reference surface loads at this position can be carried over to the other areas of the wall by multiplying over there the sectional sizes with the value of the ratio between the horizontal fill pressure at the observed position and the horizontal fill pressure at the position where the reference surface load was placed. Ppe1 Ppes Ppe Ppe Ppe S Ppe θ Ppe S zp S hp hc S h a a) Thin walled circular silo Legend a b smaller value of Zp and ho /2 any b) other circular silo Figure 11: Longitudinal Section and Transverse Section Showing the Load Diagrams of the Reference Surface Loads during Discharge b 86 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) In thick-walled circular silos of category 2 a simplified proof may be furnished. Half the height of the vertical bin shaft may be regarded as the most unfavourable position for placing the reference surface load.

4 Reference Surface Load for Discharge Loads: Thin-Walled Circular Silos (1) For thin-walled circular silos ( dc > 200 ) of the categories 2 and 3 the reference t surface load for the filling loads has to be placed above the height s acc. to equation (42): Fpe = π 2 sd c Ppe (42) (3) For welded silos of category 2. θ (2) The horizontal load Fpe that results from the reference surface load of the filling loads is to be calculated for circular silos acc. 11a).5hc (43) Where the height of the vertical silo shaft is to be put for hc (see fig.2. The progression in the circumferential direction is to be estimated with: Ppes = Ppe cosθ Where (41) Ppe Is the reference surface load acting outwards acc.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7. to equation (20). It changes from a maximum pressure with the quantity Ppe that acts outwards at a particular point.2. 1a) 87 . into a maximum inwards-acting pressure with the same quantity Ppe at the opposite side (see figure 11a). to equation (35) Is the angle co-ordinate in the circumferential direction (see fig. For Z p the smaller of the following values is to be fixed: Z p = Zo and Z p = 0. the reference surface loads can be placed as active load in a depth Z p beneath the bulk material surface.

NOTE The value and the extent of the uniform load Phe . 7.2. nc is to be assessed using: Ppe. 88 . n are so chosen that the resultant bending moments for a silo with rectangular cross-section and without beam ties will take on approximately the same order of magnitude as would result in the case of placing a local reference surface load Ppe in the middle of the wall.2. 10b) (3) The amount of the uniform reference surface load Ppe.36 Ppe (44) Where Ppe represents the fundamental value of the reference surface load of the discharge type acc.5 (1) to (2) and (3) (2) Reference Surface Load for Discharge Loads: Non-Circular Silos For non-circular silos of categories 2 and 3. 1d. nc = 0.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) For silos with screw and bolt connections of category 2.2. the reference surface loads the reference surface load is to be placed at any position as active load. to equation (20)) (see fig. one can make allowance for The reference surface loads of the fill type by an increase of the symmetrical loads acc. Alternatively. to equation (35). The reference surface load in the outward direction is to be positioned at each point and depth in the silo above a height s (acc. A suitable estimate for d c is to be derived from fig.3 can be used. the procedure in 7.

2.u = phf (1 + ςC pf ) p he.5 + 0.01dc t) And (47) ς ≥ 1. (3) For thick-walled circular silos the resulting horizontal loads in case of filling p hf .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7.2.u are to be calculated using phf . (2) In circular silos the following processes can be used only if the vertical silos are designed such that they have adequate stiffness at their upper and lower ends to withstand horizontal deformations and an adequate lateral distribution is ensured.0 (48) 89 .2.3 UNIFORM INCREASE OF LOADS AS REPLACEMENT FOR THE REFERENCE SURFACE LOADS – FILL LOAD AND DISCHARGE LOADS – FOR CIRCULAR SILOS (1) In circular silos of category 2 the procedure.1 and 7. for taking into account the unsymmetries in case of filling and discharge can be approximately replaced by increasing the loads.u = p he (1 + ςC pe ) With (45) (46) ( ς = 0.u and in case of emptying p he. The upper end and the foot of the silo cylinder shell must be supported along its circumference against the roof or a ring brace with a structural joint. using reference surface loads given in 7.2.

u = phe (1 + 0.u which result from these loads are to be calculated using phf .u = phf (1 + 0.u and the wall friction loads p wf . p he .5Cpf ) (49) (50) phe.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Where p hf is the symmetrical horizontal load after filling acc to equation (9) p he is the symmetrical horizontal load during emptying acc to equation (26) C pf is the correction value for the reference surface load in case of filling acc to equation (17) C pe is the correction value for the reference surface load in case of emptying acc to equation (36) (4) For thin -walled circular silos the resulting horizontal loads in case of filling p hf .u = pwf (1+ 0.5Cpf ) pwe.u and p we. 90 .5C pf ) Where (51) (52) pwf is the symmetrical horizontal load in case of filling acc to equation (10) pwe is the symmetrical horizontal load in case of emptying acc to equation (27) The parameters p hf .u = pwe (1 + 0.u and in case of emptying p he. C pf and C pe are to be calculated using the procedure given in (3).5Cpf ) pwf .

2. 91 .3.1 (1) General For silos of categories 2 and 3. if the maximum eccentricity during filling e f is larger than the critical value e f .2 and 7.2.4. For silos of category 3.4. (3) In case it is necessary to use the procedure given in 7.2.2. if the eccentricity of the outflow opening eo is larger than the critical value eo . (4) The estimation of these loads is to be made using the lower characteristic value of the wall friction µ and the upper characteristic value of the angle of internal friction ϕ i .cr = 0. (5) For silos of category 2 a simplified procedure is allowed acc to 7. DISCHARGE LOADS FOR CIRCULAR SILOS WITH LARGE ECCENTRICITIES DURING DISCHARGE 7.2. then the following procedures are to be adopted for determination of the load distribution in order that allowance can be made for an eccentric discharge in the form of a funnel flow above the outflow opening (see fig 12a) (2) For silos of categories 2 and 3.cr = 0.3.25d c .0 .2 and 7. the procedures in 7.2. and the silo slimness larger than hc dc = 4.4.4.2. these are to be treated as separate load-types in addition to the filling and discharge loads and the estimates of the reference surface loads in 7. then the following procedures are to be adopted for determination of the distribution of pressure in the silo.3 are to be adopted.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7. This pressure distribution can arise as a consequence of the build-up of an external funnel flow (see figures 5d and 12 a).4.25d c .2.4.2.

1 (1) Geometry of the Flow Canal For silos of category 2 the calculations must be made only for that volume of the flow canal which is in contact with the silo wall.4.4.4.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7. (3) Alternatively the procedures in 7. 92 .2.2 can also be used.2.3.2 Procedure for Silos of Category 2 7.4. The volume of the flow zone in such case is to be determined through the value of the angle θ C = 35 0 7.2.2 (1) (53) Wall Pressures during Eccentric Discharge In the flow zone the horizontal loads on the vertical wall (see fig 12c) are to be taken as Phce = 0 (2) (54) In that area in which the bulk material is at rest.2. the horizontal loads on the vertical silo walls at depth z (see fig 12c) are to be estimated using Phse = Phf Phae = 2 Phf and the wall friction load at the wall at depth z: (55) (56) Pwse = Pwf Pwae = 2 Pwf Where (57) (58) Phf Pwf NOTE is the horizontal load ratio in case of filling acc to equation (9) is the wall friction load in case of filling acc to equation (10) This simplified procedure corresponds to an ‘empty’ funnel and is very conservative.2.2.

1 (1) Geometry of the Flow Canal The geometry and the position of the flow channel are to be chosen such that adequate allowance is made for the geometry of the silo. (3) If the geometry of the flow channel cannot be directly derived from the arrangement of the outflow openings and the silo geometry.2. calculations must be made with at least three different flow channel radii rc .3 Procedure for Silos of Category 3 7. in order to make allowance for the any chance that the volume of the flow channel may change with the passage of time. the discharge-conditions and the bulk material properties. The following three values should be considered: rc = 0.4.2.9r Where (59) (60) (61) r is the radius = dc 2 of the circular silo 93 .75r rc = 0. (2) If the conditions for discharge lead to the build-up of a flow channel with a clearly defined geometry and position.5r rc = 0. then the parameters which can be derived from this flow channel should be adopted for further use.4.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7.3.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 3 1 1 2 2 5 4 a) Front view b) cross-section a) Flow channel and reverse distribution 3 ph r θc rc ec ψ 6 phae phce 5 1 θc θc θ b) Geometry of the flow channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 bulk material at rest flow channel loads in the static zone local high loads loads in the flow zone flow channel-margin loads loads varying with the depth of the silo Legend Figure 12 – FLOW CHANNEL AND PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION IN CASE OF DISCHARGE WITH LARGE ECCENTRICITIES 94 .

cr . The eccentricity of the flow channel can. therefore be smaller than the critical filling eccentricity ecf . The given procedure intends to make allowance for all those situations which could lead to the most unfavourable ratios possible in each silo geometry and in each structural arrangement. in effect. because otherwise a sliding surface would build up within the bulk material.cr and the critical discharge eccentricity eco. It is not solely and exclusively dependant upon the eccentricity of the outflow opening. NOTE 3 This estimate of the position and volume of the flow channel is based upon the principle of minimizing the frictional resistance of the bulk material at the peripheral surface of the flow channel based on the simplistic assumption that the 95 . This means that in equation (64) η ≤ 1 always. NOTE 2 As indicated in fig 5d the eccentricity of the flow channel ec can vary.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) The eccentricity of the flow channel can be worked out by: ec = r η (1 − G ) + (1 − η ) 1 − G { } (62) (63) (64) With And G= rc r η = µ tan ϕ i Where µ ϕi is the lower characteristic value of the coefficient of wall friction for the vertical silo wall is the upper characteristic value of the angle of internal friction of the stored bulk material rc is the dimensioning value of the flow channel radius acc to equations (59) to (61) NOTE 1 It must be emphasized that ϕ w ≤ ϕ i is always given.

in case of a hopper for “expanded flow” (see fig 6d) one has to consider the additional possibility of a flow channel with a radius equivalent to the radius of the silo cross-section at the upper end of the hopper for “expanded flow”. where: cos θ c = (r 2 + ec − rc 2 2 ) 2rec (65) (7) The curve-length of the contact surface between the flow channel and the wall is: U wc = 2θ c r material which is in a state of rest is: (66) And the curve-length of the contact surface between the flow channel and the bulk U sc = 2rc (π − ψ ) Where (67) sinψ = r sin θ c rc (68) And the two angles θ c and ψ are to be put in radian measure.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 circumference of the flow channel is a circular curve. Other suitable procedures for the determination of the circumference of the flow channel may also be used. (8) The cross-section of the flow channel is to be calculated as follows: A c = (π − ψ )rc + θ c r 2 − rr c sin ( − θ c ) ψ 2 (69) 96 . (5) Apart from the flow channel geometries mentioned in (3). (6) The limitation of the contact surface between the flow channel and the silo wall is defined in terms of the angle at circumference θ = ±θ c .

2 (1) Wall Loads during Discharge with Large Eccentricities The horizontal loads on the vertical walls in the flow channel zone (see fig 12c) are dependant upon the depth z beneath the equivalent bulk material surface and can be calculated in acc with: − ⎛ p hce = µ p hco ⎜ 1 − e ⎝ z z oc ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ (70) The wall friction loads acting upon the walls at depth z can be determined by: − z ⎛ ⎞ p wce = µ p hce = µ p hco ⎜ 1 − e z oc ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (71) With p hco = γKz oc z oc = Ac 1⎛ ⎜ ⎜ U µ + U tan ϕ K ⎝ wc sc i (72) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (73) Where µ K (2) is the coefficient of wall friction in the area of the vertical wall is the horizontal ratio of the bulk material.4.2.3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7. The horizontal loads on the silo walls at depth z in the area outside the flow zone where the bulk material is in a state of rest are to be calculated using p hse = p hf And the wall friction loads upon at depth z: (74) p wse = p wf Where (75) phf pwf is the horizontal loads in case of filling loads in acc with equation (9) is the wall friction loads in case of filling loads in acc with equation (10) 97 .

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (3) Higher loads act directly upon the vertical silo walls (see fig 12c) in the passage leading from the flow zone to the area where the bulk material is in a state of rest. to the equations (78) to (87).1.3.1 Fill Loads on the Vertical Walls 7.3 Low Silos and Silos with Medium Slimness 7. These outward-acting horizontal loads next to the flow channel at depth z beneath the equivalent surface of the bulk material are to be estimated using: p hae = 2 p hf − p hce (76) And the accompanying wall friction loads corresponding to these.1 Symmetric Fill Loads (1) The symmetric fill loads (see figure 13) are to be calculated acc.3. (2) The values for the horizontal loads Phf and the wall friction loads Pwf for the fill type loads are to be fixed at each position as follows: Phf = PhoYR ( z ) Pwf = µPhf With: (78) (79) Pho = γKzo = γ 1 A = µU (81) (80) ⎡ ⎧⎛ z − h ⎞ ⎫n ⎤ o Yr ( z ) = ⎢1 − ⎨⎜ ⎜ z − h ⎟ + 1⎬ ⎥ ⎢ ⎩⎝ o o ⎟ ⎭ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ 98 . upon the wall at depth z are to be estimated using: p wae = µ p hae (77) 7.

1a and 13) The quantity ho is to be measured as: r ho = tan ϕ r 3 And as for a symmetrically filled circular silo (84) ho = Where dc tan ϕ for a symmetrically filled rectangular silo (85) 3 γ µ Characteristic value of the bulk material specific gravity Characteristic value for the coefficients of wall friction between the bulk material and the vertical silo walls K is the characteristic value of the horizontal load ratio of the stored bulk material z A U is the depth beneath the equivalent surface of the bulk material is the inner cross-sectional area of the vertical silo is the inner circumference of the cross-section of the vertical silo Is the gradient of slope of the bulk material (see Table E.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 zo = 1 A Kµ U (82) (83) ⎛ h ⎞ n = −(1 + tan ϕ r )⎜1 − o ⎟ ⎜ z ⎟ o ⎠ ⎝ Where ho is the vertical distance between the equivalent bulk material surface and the highest contact point of the stored bulk material with the wall (see fig.1) ϕr 99 .

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (3) using: The amount of the vertical load Pvf at a depth of zv is to be fixed for the fill type load Pvf = γzv Where (86) (z − zo − 2ho )n +1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎜z −h − ⎟ zv = ho − (n + 1) ⎜ o o (zo − ho )n ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 2 (87) G z ho 3 Legend 1 2 3 equivalent bulk material surface silo loads as per the rules for slim silos loads for low silos Figure 13 – LOADS IN A LOW SILO OR SILO OF MEDIUM SLIMNESS AFTER FILLING (FILL LOADS) 100 .

e.g.0 of all categories. [kN/m] – is calculated using: Pwf = ∫ Pwf ( z )dz = µPho ( z − zv ) 0 z (88) With zv acc.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) For the fill load the resultant characteristic value of the wall friction loads Pwf which have been added up to a bulk material depth z – with the force per unit length in the circumferential direction of the wall. the position and the amount of the reference surface load for fill loads are to be taken from the regulations in 7.2 (1) Reference Surface Load for Fill Loads The fill type of reference surface loads Ppf are to be fixed at each point in the vertical projection of the silo as allowance for unplanned loads and small filling eccentricities (see figure 1b) (2) Details for determining the form.1.1 (3) The reference surface load consists of only one horizontally acting load component. (4) For low silos hc ≤ 1.0 of category 1. There are no additional friction loads to be taken into account as a consequence of this horizontal component. the fill type of reference surface loads need dc not be taken into account C pf = 0 (5) For silos with medium slimness 1.0 < hc < 2. to equation (87) 7.3. the fill type of reference dc surface loads need not be taken into account C pf = 0 101 .2.

1 (1) Symmetrical Discharge Loads In the case of discharge loads an increase of the symmetric load components is to be fixed for making allowance for the possible short term load increases during the discharge processes. to the equations (91) to (96). to 7.0 < c < 2.0 < (6) hc < 2. (4) For silos of all categories which are emptied from the surface (whereby no friction takes place within the stored bulk material) the values Ch and Cw zu can be taken as Cw = Ch = 1.0 ⎟ the symmetrical discharge loads Phe and ⎟ ⎜ dc ⎠ ⎝ Pwe are to be calculated as follows: Phe = Ch Phf Pwe = Cw Pwf Where (89) (90) Ch And Cw are the discharge factors for the horizontal loads and wall friction loads acc.3.3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 For silos with medium slimness 1.1 by way of allowance for the incidental unsymmetric loads and small eccentricities during filling up Ppf (see fig. 1b).1.0 (91) 102 .3. to 7. ⎞ ⎛ h (3) For silos of medium slimness ⎜1.2.2.0 of categories 2 and 3 the reference dc surface loads of the fill type e f are to be used acc.0 ⎟ the symmetric discharge loads can be equalized with the ⎟ ⎜d ⎠ ⎝ c fill loads acc. 7.2 Discharge Loads on the Vertical Silo Walls 7. (2) ⎞ ⎛h For low silos ⎜ c ≤ 1.

0 dc (94) (6) For silos with medium slimness of category 1.4 ⎟Cop ⎬Cs ⎜ dc ⎟ ⎭ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ ⎛ e ⎞ Ch = 1.0 + ⎨0. the discharge factors are to be calculated as follows if the mean values of the material parameters K and µ have been used in fixing the load: ⎧ ⎛ e ⎞ ⎫ Ch = 1. the discharge factors are to be fixed such that Ch = 1.4 ⎟CS ⎜ dc ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ (95) (96) (97) e = max (e f . to Table E.15CS Cw = 1.0 + 0.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (5) For silos with medium slimness of the categories 2 and 3.15 + 1.10CS (92) (93) With CS as the correction value for slimness CS = hc − 1. to equation (94) 103 .0 + 0.1 Cs Slimness correction value acc. eo ) Where ef eo Cop Maximum eccentricity of the banked-up cone during the filling Eccentricity of the midpoint of the outlet opening Bulk material correction value for the reference surface load acc.5⎜1 + 0.4⎜1 + 1.0 + 0.

3. [kN/m] to be derived from: Pwe = ∫ Pwe ( z )dz = Cw µPho ( z − zv ) 0 z (97a) With zv acc.3 can be used. the formulations in ⎟ ⎜ dc ⎠ ⎝ 7. the formulations in 7.3. cr = 0. cr = 0. 1b).2.2.e. the formulation of a reference surface ⎟ ⎜d ⎠ ⎝ c surface load are to be taken from the regulations in 7.g. (3) load of the discharge type can be ignored (i. positioning and quantity of the discharge type reference ⎞ ⎛h For low silos ⎜ c ≤ 1.0 ⎟ of all categories. (2) Details of the form.e C pe = 0 ). (5) ⎞ ⎛h For low silos ⎜ c ≤ 1. 104 . C pe = 0 ) in case of an eccentricity during emptying eo which is smaller than the critical value of eo .0 < c < 2.2.2 (1) Reference Surface Load for Discharge Loads The reference surface loads Ppe in case of discharge are to be fixed taking into account unplanned loads and small filling eccentricities (see fig. the ⎟ ⎜d ⎠ ⎝ c formulation of a reference surface load of the discharge type can be ignored (i.2. (6) ⎞ ⎛ h For silos with medium slimness ⎜1.with the force per unit length in the circumferential direction of the wall.0 ⎟ of category 2 and an eccentricity during emptying eo which ⎟ ⎜d ⎠ ⎝ c is greater than the critical value of eo . to equation (87) 7. e.2.1d c .0 ⎟ of category 2.1d c (4) ⎞ ⎛h For low silos and silos of medium slimness ⎜ c < 2.3 can be used.0 ⎟ of category 1.3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (7) For discharge load the resultant characteristic value of the wall friction loads Pwe added up to depth z .

2.2.1d c .3.3 Uniform Increase of the Horizontal Loads as Replacement for the Reference Surface Loads of the Fill Type and the Discharge Type (1) For silos of category 2.3 can be applied to the values of the reference surface loads from 7.1.2. 7.2.cr = 0.3.3.cr = 0. 14) the effect of the unsymmetric load distribution on the vertical silo walls has to be examined.25d c (see fig.0 ⎟ that belong c ⎝ ⎠ (1) to category 3 and in which the eccentricity of the cone formed during filling is greater than the critical value of et . (2) The procedures under 7. be replaced by a uniform increase of the horizontal loads in order to make allowance for the non-symmetries during fill and discharge. can be used to 105 .2 up to 7. the formulations in 7. depending on the case at hand.2.2 and 7. 7.5 are be used. by and large.0 ⎟ of category 3 and an eccentricity during emptying xx which ⎟ ⎜d ⎠ ⎝ c is greater than the critical value of eo .1.3.3.3.2 can.2.2.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (7) ⎞ ⎛h For low silos ⎜ c ≤ 1.2. in which the vertical wall loads PzSk as per equation (98) are added to the symmetric fill loads and discharge loads. (2) A conventional manual calculation.5 are to be used.3 LARGE FILLING ECCENTRICITIES IN CIRCULAR SILOS h ⎞ In circular low silos and circular silos of medium slimness ⎛ c ⎜ d < 2.2.2 by using the equations (45) to (52).2 and 7. the procedure for reference surface loads in 7.2.0 ⎟ of category 3.2.2. (8) ⎞ ⎛ h For silos with medium slimness ⎜1. the procedures in ⎟ ⎜ dc ⎠ ⎝ 7.2 up to 7.0 < c < 2.

The symmetric loads are to be determined for a state of fullness with equivalent bulk material surface presuming a symmetric filling in accordance with 7.3.3. ef 1 Zs φdc=2r Legend 1 highest contact point of the bulk material with the silo Figure 14 – FILLING PRESSURES IN CASE OF ECCENTRICALLY FILLED LOW SILOS OR SILOS WITH MEDIUM SLIMNESS (3) The effect of the unsymmetric loads can be taken into account by increasing the vertical forces near that wall where the filling height is the maximum. which are calculated using the symmetric loads (see above).DIN 1055-6:2005-03 meet the requirements of 7. NOTE The increase of the vertical forces arises from the global bending of the silo. The increase of the vertical load is to be added with the wall friction loads.3 (1). The bending occurs because the height of the material heaped along the wall opposite to side from where the material is being fed is comparatively smaller and thus the relevant horizontal loads – which maintain equilibrium – are absent.1. 106 .1.

107 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) The upper characteristic value of the bulk material parameters K and µ is to be used for the calculations. using: e PzSk = 0.04 p ho z s tan ϕ r ⎛ t ⎞ 6 + 7 Z − Z 2 ⎜ r ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ( ) (98) And the force per unit of length in the circumferential direction with: p ho = Z= γ A γr = µ U 2µ (99) (100) (101) Zs B B= r − ho 2µK ⎡ ⎛ et ⎞ 2 ⎤ r tan ϕ r ⎢1 − ⎜ r ⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ ⎝ ho = Where 3 (102) zs is the depth beneath the highest lying contact point of the bulk material and the wall ϕr r et (6) is the gradient of slope of the bulk material is the radius of the circular silo wall is the eccentricity of the peak of the fill cone (see fig 1b and 14). (5) The characteristic value of the resultant additional vertical wall load PzSk ( z s ) is to be determined at a depth z beneath the highest lying contact point of the bulk material and the wall. The load component from equation (98) is to be added with the load component fsrom the sum total of the wall friction loads acc to equation (88).

16) is to be worked out.4.2). a positive displacement of the limit value acc.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 7.g. 7.4 Braced Wall Silos 7.3. The loads described therein are to c ⎝ ⎠ be regarded as additional loads that have to be treated as a separate category different from the symmetric loads and the reference surface loads (given in 7. 0 ⎟ of categories 2 and 3. which is greater than the critical value eo . the resistance of the wall to radial elongation should be taken into account.cr = 0. In case mathematical calculations show a sizeable (elastic) deformation of the braced wall (e. NOTE 1 The characteristic value of the horizontal load xx upon the vertical walls can be approximately determined in the following manner: Ph = γK (1 + sin ϕ r )z S (103) 108 .2.4 LARGE DISCHARGE ECCENTRICITIES IN CIRCULAR LOW SILOS AND CIRCULAR SILOS WITH MEDIUM SLIMNESS (1) For a discharge eccentricity eo .1 Fill Loads on Vertical Walls (1) The effect of the geometry of the filling angle and – if required – the buckling of the braced wall is to be taken into account for the determination of the fill loads. (3) A characteristic value for the horizontal load Ph upon the vertical walls (see fig.4 is to be used in case of low silos and silos with medium h ⎞ slimness ⎛ c ⎜ d < 2 . to DIN 4085 or DIN V 4085-100) a lower horizontal load ratio K may be taken.3.25d c the procedure as per 7. (2) While determining the horizontal load ratio K.

subject to the condition that the angle of slope and the angle of internal friction are identical. γ Κ Is the upper characteristic value of the bulk material’s specific gravity Is the upper characteristic value of the horizontal load ratio of the bulk material is the slope gradient of the stored bulk material ϕr NOTE 2 Equation (103) provides recognized realistic load estimates for a straight vertical wall with fully developed wall friction contacts. 109 . is to be determined in accordance with the load estimate under (3) taking into account the wall friction angle µzu . The characteristic value of the resultant additional vertical wall load (pressure) Pzsk ( z S ) NOTE 3 can be approximately determined as follows: Pzsk = γ µK 2 (1 + sin ϕr )z 2 S (104) Where µ is the upper characteristic value of the coefficients of wall friction of the bulk material (5) The other regulations within this standard notwithstanding. the deviation of the bulk material parameters in case of braced wall silos has to be accepted by making adequate allowance for it using the upper characteristic value of the specific gravity γ and the horizontal correction value of the bulk material K . (4) The characteristic value of the resultant additional vertical wall load (pressure) Pzsk (z S ) – the force per unit of length in the circumferential direction – at any depth z S beneath the highest contact point of the bulk material and the wall.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Where zS Is the depth beneath the highest contact point of the bulk material with the wall (see fig 16).

2 (1) it must be taken into account that uneven distribution of loads can occur as a result of an uneven intake of bulk material into the silo. 110 .4. 7.2 Discharge Loads on Vertical Walls (1) It can be presumed that the discharge loads on the vertical walls here are smaller than the fill loads in 7. (2) With reference to 7.4.1.4.1 GENERAL (1) Additional loads arising from fluidization and from air pressures caused by the injection of air are to be taken into account while dimensioning.5 SILOS WITH FLUIDISED BULK MATERIAL 7.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 φr 1 Zs Legend 1 load computation in a braced wall silo Figure 15 – FILL PRESSURES IN A BRACED WALL SILO 7.5.

(2) In homogenizing silos for storage of powdery bulk material (see 3. the loads are to be treated in accordance with the procedure in 7.2 or 7.2 LOADS IN SILOS FOR STORAGE OF FLUIDISED BULK MATERIAL (1) In silos for storage of powdery bulk material (see 3.16) which are in continual operation. If doubts still persist about a possible fluidization of the bulk material. The above-mentioned criterion is a simple means of assessing whether this type of load can have a bearing on dimensioning. NOTE The conditions under which the bulk material can fluidise depend on several factors that are not easy to define.16 and 3. one has to take into account the fact that the bulk material could fluidise. (3) The horizontal loads on the silo walls ph on account of the fluidized bulk material can be computed acc to equation (105): ph = γ 1 z Where (105) γ1 is the specific gravity of a bulk material (fluidized specific gravity) 111 .31) it is to be presumed that the stored bulk material can become fluidized in case the speed of the increasing bulk material surface exceeds 10m/h. 7.1.17) are to be dimensioned for both the situations: --(3) fluidized bulk material Non-fluidized bulk material In the situation where the bulk material is not fluidized.1.g.1.5.1.3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (2) Homogenising silos with fluidized bulk material and silos into which bulk material is poured at high speed (see 3. then a specialised opinion (e. bulk material mechanics) is called for.

1 General (1) Design calculations for a silo structure should take into account the effects of temperature differences between the bulk material and the silo structure and/or between the surroundings and the silo structure. (2) In case of a possibility of temperature differences between the stored bulk material and parts of the silo wall or the entire silo wall. Differing temperature deformations of the silo and the components associated with the silo are to be taken into account.6. to the regulations in DIN 1055-7.6 Temperature Differences between Bulk Material and Silo Construction 7. (3) (4) The temperature conditions are to be fixed acc. the silo is to be rated for the additional loads due to differing thermal elongations subject to acceptance of a stiff bulk material.8γ (106) Where γ is the specific gravity of the powdery bulk material acc to section 6 7.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) The specific gravity γ 1 of a bulk material in the fluidized state can be estimated using the relationship γ 1 = 0. (5) The following situations are to be watched while making calculations: decrease of the surrounding temperature relative to the temperatures of the silo structure and the stored bulk material filling of the silo with bulk material which is hot differences in the heating-up and cooling-down speeds between the unprotected and uncovered components of steel and reinforced concrete 112 .

6.2 Loads due to a Decrease in the Surrounding Atmospheric Temperature (1) If there is a possibility of a decrease in the surrounding atmospheric temperature within a short span of time.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 retardation of wall deformation by the silo structure NOTE Differences in warming-up of unprotected components made of steel and reinforced concrete is typical of roof structures in which the roof trusses just run upon the silo walls on slide bearings (without structural connections). additional horizontal loads PhT are to be fixed. which act upon the vertical silo walls when the container cools down to a greater degree than the bulk material stored. then the additional loads due to differences between the temperature deformations of the outer structure and the mass of the bulk material that has been filled (the latter being relatively less affected by thermal influences) are to be taken into account. (2) For silos with a circular ground plan. 7. The additional loads at each point of the contact surface between the silo walls and the bulk material are to be computed by: PhT = CT α w ∆T Ew ⎡⎛ r ⎞ ⎛ Ew ⎢⎜ ⎟ + (1 − ν )⎜ ⎜E ⎝ sU ⎣⎝ t ⎠ ⎞⎤ ⎟⎥ ⎟ ⎠⎦ (107) Where Load augmentation factor due to temperature CT αw ∆T Coefficient of thermal elongation of the silo wall Is the temperature difference 113 .

6.3) is the effective elasticity modulus of the bulk material during pressure relief at a depth z in the bulk material. Should an effective elasticity modulus be derived by approximation from the bulk material thickness.10. (4) The effective elasticity modulus EsU of the bulk material during pressure relief is to be determined acc. a temperature-related load augmentation factor of CT = 1. 7. to the procedure described in C.3 Loads due to Filling of Hot Bulk material (1) Should bulk materials with high temperatures be stored in a silo. an allowance has to be made for the difference in the temperatures between that part of the material which has been in the silo for a longer time and cooled down. has to take into account the size of the vertical fill load Pvf in the bulk material at this position.2 is to be fixed.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 r Is the silo radius ( = dc ) 2 Is the wall thickness is the elasticity modulus of the silo wall t Ew ν EsU is the Poisson number of the bulk material (approximately fixed with v = 0. (3) The computation of the effective elasticity modulus EsU of the bulk material during pressure relief in the bulk material depth z. a temperature-related load augmentation factor of CT = 3 is to be fixed. (5) If the effective elasticity modulus EsU of the bulk material is determined by tests. and that part of the material which is being added on above the bulk material surface where the air 114 .

for design calculations for The loads determined at a specific bulk material depth in accordance with 7. 7.1 Rectangular Silos (1) The wall loads caused by the bulk materials stored in silos of rectangular cross section are to be fixed. to 7. (2) value. depending upon the case.3 and 7. the relevant load estimates should be used. 7.1 (2) notwithstanding. 7. The effects of these temperature differences upon the expansion pattern of the silo wall has to be observed. 115 . (4) In case the load transpositioning is being estimated in accordance with 7.1 (3).4. to the methods in 7. the bulk material loads upon the walls are to be fixed acc.7.7.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 temperatures are higher.2.3 or 7.4 depending on the case. acc.2. (2) These effects do not need to be taken into account for silos of category 1. (3) The general requirements of 6.7.7 Loads in Rectangular Silos 7.2 can be taken as mean values. The localized loads at this position can deviate from this mean silos of categories 1 and 2 the favourable effect of the interaction between the bulk material and the silo wall which takes the form of a transpositioning of the horizontal loads from the centre of the wall (decrease) to the corners (increase) can be taken into account if the silo wall is so designed that its stiffness is comparable with the stiffness of the stored bulk material.2 Silos with Internal Braces (1) In rectangular silo bins with beam ties running within the silo’s cross-section. 7.

1.1 Physical Parameters (1) This section gives the applicable characteristic values of the fill and discharge Loads for silo bottoms with the following types of layout: flat bottoms steep hoppers flat inclined hoppers (2) The loads on the walls of the silo hoppers are to be determined as per the foll. (3) For silos of category 1 and 2.1 General 8. 8 LOADS ON SILO HOPPERS AND SILO BOTTOMS 8.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (2) The loads which are imposed by the braces upon the silo walls are to be determined taking after making allowances for the following influences: loads on the respective internal braces position and securing of braces slack of the braces Influence of the structure’s rigidity on the increase of the slack caused by the bulk material loads upon the beam tie. Classification relating to the inclination of the hopper walls: 116 . the calculation methods given in DIN V ENV 1993-4- 1:2002-05 Section 9 are to be used for making allowances for the loads upon the silo structures caused by the internal beam ties.

Here the compressibility of the bulk material does play a role. but is somewhat lower and depends upon the hopper’s angle of inclination and the level of stress in the hopper (wall friction is not fully mobilized). A hopper is said to be gently inclined if the bulk material does not flow along the inclined walls of the hopper when the silo is full (the angle of inclination with reference to the horizontal is too small or the wall friction is too high). then the hopper is presumed to have a gentle inclination A hopper is said to be steep if the foll. In case of a transition from a steep hopper to a flat hopper the pressure estimates of both types 117 . It may be referred to as “fully mobilized wall friction” in this case. yet it may be ignored. The resistance to friction on the hopper walls may then be defined in terms of the normal pressures on the hopper wall and the coefficients of wall friction. The wall friction then does not have a direct relationship with the normal pressures acting on the hopper walls and the coefficients of wall friction. criteria are met (see figures 17 and 18): ⎛1− K ⎞ tan β < ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 2µ ⎟ h ⎠ ⎝ (108) Where K Lower characteristic value of the ratio of horizontal load acting upon the vertical walls β Angle of inclination of the hopper measured with reference to The vertical axis (half of the vertical and opposite angle) µh Lower characteristic value of the coefficients of wall friction in the hopper NOTE A hopper is said to be steep if the bulk material slides along the inclined walls subject to the condition that the silo is filled-up and the bulk material is in a thickened (consolidated) state caused by the bulk material stored in the silo.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 if the angle of inclination of the bottom vis-à-vis the horizontal α is less than 5o then the bottom is presumed to be level if the other two cases mentioned do not apply.

1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 K=0.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 of hoppers show an identical distribution pattern and identical values in both cases.6 0.9 0.6 K=0. The transition from a steep to a flat hopper therefore takes place in uniform manner (angle of inclination for which the wall friction is fully mobilized Co-efficient of wall friction in the hopper µh 1.8 0.7 K=0.1 1 0.4 0.5 0. to the vertical β Figure 16 – BOUNDARIES BETWEEN STEEP AND FLAT HOPPER z Pvft Phf Phf steil Phf Phf hh x β Phf Phf flach Figure 17 – DISTRIBUTION OF FILLING PRESSURES IN A STEEP AND FLAT SILO 118 .7 0.3 Angle of inclination of hopper with ref.2 0.3 0.5 K=0.4 K=0.

e. if the bulk material in the vertical shaft heaps-up over hopper. To equation (111): Cb = 1.3 except under the conditions described in paragraph (4) (111) 119 . 1a) and the bulk material parameters which lead to the maximum hopper loads given in Table 2. For coordinate z here.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 8. then the bottom load augmentation factor is to be fixed acc.2 General Rules (1) The mean vertical loads at the hopper transition and on a horizontal bottom may be calculated with: Pvft = Cb Pvf Where (109) Pvf is the vertical fill load acc. Cb is the bottom load augmentation factor to make allowance for the possibility that vertical loads larger than given in equations (11) and (86) may be imposed upon the hopper and the silo bottom. if the mean values and the material parameters Κ and µ are used for determination of the load. at the hopper transition shown in fig. to the relevant equations (11) or (86) depending upon the slimness of the silo. one has to take the height of the silo walls hc (i.1.0 (3) except under the conditions described in paragraph (4) (110) For silos of category 1. (2) For silos of categories 2 and 3 the bottom load augmentation factor is to be estimated in accordance with equation (110): Cb = 1.

NOTE 1 The determination of the cohesion c of a bulk material is described in C. (5) If the stored bulk material shows a significant tendency to behave dynamically during emptying of the silo (see paragraph (4)). if it does not exceed the value c/σΓ = 0. -Or. then larger loads have to be placed for the hoppers and the silo bottoms.2 Cb = 1. The bottom load increase factor is then to be estimated by: Cb = 1. particularly under following conditions: -- In a silo with a slim vertical silo shaft.04. 120 . to equation (113) must be used only when the simplified procedures for load determination with the mean values of the characteristic bulk material parameters have been used in category 1. -If the stored bulk material shows a tendency for interlocking amongst the bulk material particles and for bridging (e.23).23). when used for storage of bulk materials which cannot be classified as bulk materials with marginal cohesion (see 3.6 NOTE 2 in Annex H.g.9. when the bulk material consolidates on being subjected to a stress level of σΓ (see 3.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) There could be a pre-disposition for dynamic behaviour (conditions in paragraph 4). The cohesion c is rated as marginal. to the procedure described The increased values for xx acc. due to reasons other than the ones mentioned. there is a tendency for sporadic loads during emptying (such as pulsating or knocking).1. cement clinker). NOTE 3 for the categories 2 and 3 for category 1 (112) (113) The loads on the hopper walls can alternatively be fixed acc.1.

18) x The vertical coordinate going outwards from the apex of the hopper (see fig. to the equation (122) or (132) S is the coefficient for making allowance for the shape of the hopper 121 . 18) as follows: ⎪ ⎡ γh ⎤ ⎧⎛ x ⎞ ⎛ x ⎞ Pv = ⎢ h ⎥ ⎨⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎣ n − 1⎦ ⎪⎝ hh ⎠ ⎝ hh ⎠ ⎩ n ⎫ ⎛ x⎞ ⎪ ⎬ + Pv ft ⎜ ⎟ ⎜h ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ h⎠ ⎭ (114) Where n = S (Fµ heff cot β + F ) − 2 and S = 2 for conical and quadratic pyramid-shaped hoppers S = 1 for wedge-shaped hoppers S = (1+b/a) for hoppers with rectangular plan Where (115) (116) (117) (118) γ hh Upper characteristic value of the bulk material’s specific gravity Is the vertical distance (height) between the apex of the hopper and the transition into the vertical shaft (see fig. the mean vertical load in the hopper is to be determined at a height x above the (theoretical) apex of the hopper (see fig.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (6) In each of the cases. 18) µ heff Is the effective or the mobilized characteristic coefficient of wall friction for the hoppers (in each case acc.

3 or 8. (127) or (133) β Is the angle of inclination of the hopper with respect to the vertical (= 90o – α) or the steepest angle with respect to the vertical in the case of a quadratic or rectangular pyramid type of hopper Pv ft Is the mean vertical load in the bulk material at the transition of the hopper for the filling loads (equation (109)) a b is the length of the long side of a rectangular cross-section of the hopper is the length of the short side of a rectangular cross-section of the hopper (7) While determining the load ratio F in the hopper.3 or 8. (8) The determination of a suitable value for the effective or mobilized coefficients wall friction µ heff in the hopper has to take into consideration the question whether the hopper has to be classified as steep or as flat or whether the load in question is of fill-type or discharge-type.2 Horizontal Silo Bottoms 8. Suitable values are to be determined acc.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 F is the characteristic value of the load ratio in the hoppers (in each case acc.2. to 8.4. one has to consider whether the hopper has to be rated as steep or as flat and whether the load in question is fill-type or discharge-type of load.1 Vertical Loads on Horizontal Silo Bottoms (1) The vertical loads on horizontal silo bottoms (inclination α ≤ 5o) can approximately be taken as constant. 8.4.2. to 8. In such cases the specification in 8. 122 . to the equations (123). Suitable values for F are to be determined acc.2 are to be used. except if the silo is classified as low and medium-slim.

0 − c dc Pvsq = Pvb + ∆Psq ⎜ ⎜ htp ⎜ 2.0 − dc ⎝ Where ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (119) ∆Psq = Pvtp − Pvho Pvtp = γhtp (120) (121) 123 . 8. local bottom loads larger than the ones in 8.2 Vertical Loads on Level Silo Bottoms in Low Silos and Silos with Medium Slimness (1) For low silos and silos with medium slimness one has to keep in mind that in case of horizontal silo bottoms.1. (2) The vertical loads pvsq on the horizontal silo bottom of a low silo and a silo with medium slimness are to be determined with ⎛ h ⎜ 2.2.2 (equation (109)) can occur.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (2) The vertical loads on horizontal bottoms are to be calculated using: pv = pvft Where pvft is to be calculated using equation (109) (3) (118) The vertical loads on horizontal silo bottoms for discharge loads are to be equalized with the loads of the fill type.

8.1 MOBILISED FRICTION (1) For filling as well as for emptying loads the following value has to be computed for the effective or mobilized coefficient of wall friction in equation (115): µ heff = µ h (122) 124 . If support cannot be ensured for the bottom plate.3 STEEP HOPPER 8. (4) The value of p vsq acc to equation (119) reproduces the vertical loads in the vicinity of the midpoint of the silo bottom.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 1 htp ho hc 2 Legend 1 2 equivalent bulk material surface lowest point of the wall without any contact with the bulk material Figure 18 – BOTTOM LOADS IN LOW SILOS AND SILOS OF MEDIUM SLIMNESS (3) The bottom loads p vsq acc to equation (119) can be computed for both fill loads and discharge loads.3. then a functional distribution of loads is required.

1. (124) Represents an empirical coefficient. (2) The loads perpendicular to the hopper walls p nf and the wall friction loads ptf at any given position x of the wall of a steep hopper are to be calculated for the fill type of loads (see fig 17) acc to the equations (125) and (126): p nf = F f p v ptf = µ h F f pv Where (125) (126) Ff is to be calculated using the equation (123) 125 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Where µh is the lower characteristic value of the angle of wall friction in the hopper.2 FILL LOADS (1) For fill loads the mean vertical stress at any given position x in a steep hopper is to acc to be calculated acc to equations (114) and (115) as well as the parameter F f equation (123): Ff = 1 − b ⎛ tan β ⎜1 + ⎜ µh ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (123) In this case the parameter n in equation (114) is: n = S (1 − b )µ h cot β Where b.3.2 (6). 8.2 The other parameters are defined in 8. which is to be taken as b = 0.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 8.ϕ wh ≤ ϕ i ) . because otherwise a sliding surface will develop within the bulk material when transverse stresses that can act upon the wall are larger than the internal friction of the bulk material.11.3.e.3 DISCHARGE LOADS (1) For discharge loads the mean vertical stress at any given position x in a steep hopper is to be calculated acc to equations (114) and (115) using the parameter Fe : Fe = 1 + sin ϕ i cos ε 1 − sin ϕ i cos(2 β + ε ) (127) With ε = ϕ wh + arcsin ⎨ ⎧ sin ϕ wh ⎫ ⎬ ⎩ sin ϕ i ⎭ (128) (129) ϕ wh = arctan µ h Where µh ϕi is the lower characteristic value of the coefficient of wall friction for the hopper is the upper characteristic value of the angle of internal friction of the bulk material stored in the hopper NOTE 1 It is to be noted that the angle of internal friction of the hopper wall is always smaller than or equal to the angle of internal friction of the bulk material stored in the hopper (i. (2) The loads perpendicular to the hopper walls p ne and the wall friction loads pte at any position x of the wall of a steep hopper are to be calculated for the discharge type of loads (see fig 20) acc to the equations (130) and (131): 126 . It is also possible to use the alternative expression for Fe by Enstad which is given in H. NOTE 2 The above equation (127) for Fe is based upon the simple theory of Walker for discharge pressures in hoppers.

4 FLAT HOPPERS 8.1 MOBILISED FRICTION In a gently sloping hopper the wall friction is not fully mobilized.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 p ne = Fe p v pte = µ h Fe p v Where (130) (131) Fe is to be calculated using the equation (127) z Pvft Zf hh x steep Pne Phe Phf Phf β Pne Phe Pne flat Pne Figure 19 – DISCHARGE PRESSURES IN A STEEP HOPPER AND A GENTLY SLOPING HOPPER 8.4. The partially mobilized or effective coefficient of wall friction is to be calculated as follows: µ heff = (1 − K ) 2 tan β (132) 127 .

which leads to the maximum hopper loads (see table 2) is the angle of inclination of the hopper with reference to the vertical axis (see fig 18) β 8.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Where K is the lower characteristic value of the horizontal load ratio in the vertical silo shaft.4. (2) The loads perpendicular to the hopper walls p nf and the wall friction loads pte at any position x of the wall of a flat hopper are to be calculated for the discharge type of loads (see fig 18) acc to the equations (135) and (136): p ne = Fe p v pte = µ h Fe p v (135) (136) 128 .2 FILL LOADS (1) In fill loads the mean vertical stress at each depth of the bulk material in the hopper is to be calculated as per equations (114) and (115).2 The other parameters are defined in 8. as follows: ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ Ff = 1 − ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ b ⎛1 + tan β ⎜ µ heff ⎝ ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎞⎪ ⎟ ⎠⎪ ⎭ (134) (133) The parameter n in equation (114) amounts in this case to: n = S (1 − b )µ heff cot β Where µ heff is the mobilized or effective coefficient of wall friction in a flat hopper acc to equation (132) b is an empirical coefficient. using the parameter F f . which is to be taken as b = 0.1.

NOTE 2 A lists of relevant influences. (2) These loads should be determined without an estimation of the wall friction loads as described in 7.1 LOADS ON TANKS GENERAL The following rules are applicable for the determination of the characteristic loads caused by fluids stored in tanks.perpendicular to the hopper walls p ne and the wall friction loads pte (see fig 20).4.4.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Where Ff is to be calculated using the equation (132) 8.2) . allowance has to be made for the additional loads due to fluidization and the air pressures.5 (1) Hopper Loads in Silos with Air-Injection Equipment For hoppers in which fluidization of the bulk material in the entire silo or certain parts thereof due to use of air-injection equipment cannot be ruled out. NOTE 1 These rules are applicable for all types of tanks under static conditions.3 DISCHARGE LOADS In flat hoppers the discharge loads can be calculated .like the discharge loads (see fig 8.2. are not included.5. 9 9. 129 . 8. Tanks in which dynamic processes are at play. component safety factors and combination of influences on tanks can be obtained from Annex B.

3 CHARACTERISIC VALUES OF FLUIDS The specific gravities given in DIN 1055-1 are applicable.2 (1) LOADS CAUSED BY STORED FLUIDS Loads from stored bulk materials are to be calculated keeping in mind the following factors: ---(2) The defined range of fluids which may be stored in the tanks The geometry of the tank The maximum possible filling height in the tank The characteristic value of the load p is to be calculated acc to the equation: p (z ) = γ * z Where (137) z is the depth beneath the fluid surface is the specific gravity of the stored fluid γ 9. 130 .4 SUCTION LAODS CAUSED BY INADEQUATE VENTILATION If the ventilation system of the tank is susceptible to interferences. a suitable calculating method should be adopted in order to determine the sub pressures which arise during discharge under extreme conditions. The calculation has to take into account the possible adiabatic properties of the processes described.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 9. 9.

as a rule. (3) The possible temperature-influences include the effects of climatic temperature and the effects of hot bulk materials.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX A (INFORMATIVE) THE BASES FOR STRUCTURAL PLANNING – RULES SUPPLEMENTING DIN 1055100 FOR SILOS AND TANKS A.1 (1) General The format given in DIN 1055-100 is the basis for design calculations. -Deformation of the silo wall structure caused by the bulk material as it cools down. constitute a large proportion of the fixed loads which result from the structure’s inherent weight. 131 . In such cases the repercussions of an increase of the air-temperature above the bulk material is to be monitored. However there is a fundamental difference between silos and tanks vis-à-vis other structures – for the most part of their service life they are exposed to full loads arising from the bulk material and fluids stored therein and these . The following calculating-conditions must be taken into account: -Hot bulk materials that are poured into partially filled silos or tanks. (2) This Annex lays down additional rules for the partial safety factors relating to the influences ( γ F -correction values) and the combination of influences as well as for the relevant combined correction values (ψ -correction values) for silos and tanks.

35.2.3 Combination of Influences While furnishing proof of the loading capacity of a silo the following influences are to be considered: filling and storage of bulk materials emptying of bulk materials own loads and live loads (DIN 1055-3) snow loads and ice loads (DIN 1055-5) 132 .1 Correction Value γ of the Partial Safety Factor (1) For the design calculations of silos and tanks.2 Boundary State of the Loading Capacity A.1 A. A.50 to 1. (2) If the maximum filling height and the highest specific gravity to be computed in case of the fluids provided for storage is not exceeded. A.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) For determining the consequences of differing subsidence’s in the silo groups or groupings of silo bins or tanks. the values given in DIN 1055- 100:2001-03 Table 6 are used. the most unfavorable combination possible of filled and empty bins are to be used. then the safety factor correction value γ Q may be reduced from 1.2.2 Combined Correction Value ψ The combined correction values ψ for silo loads and loads in tanks and the combined correction values for other influences are given in Table A.

the secondary influences for the bulk material loads can be calculated using the mean values of the coefficients of wall friction µ m .1 can be used as reference values.4 Calculating-Conditions Categories 2 and 3 and Combined-Influences for (1) The predominant (dominant) and permanent influences are to be computed at their full values whereas the secondary influences may be reduced using the correction values ψ .3 and 8.1. subject to the condition that the suitable procedures given in 7. in order to take into account the remote possibility of a simultaneous occurrence in compliance with DIN 1055-100.1 are used. The combinations in Table A. 7. (2) In case the dominant influences in question are earthquakes or extraordinary influences of loads. in filled as well as empty silos (DIN 1055-4) temperature influences (DIN 1055-7) forced deformations (impressed deformations): subsidence’s in the foundation zone earthquakes (DIN 4149) dust explosions (see DIN-special report on dust explosions1) A.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 wind actions. and of the hopper load ratio value Fm . ------.1) under preparation 133 . of the horizontal load ratio K m .

6 1.3 0 0.8 ψ1 0.5 ** correction-values ψ for fluid pressure are to be determined based on the location A.5 0.2 0 0 1.5 0.8 0.5 0.1 – COMBINED CORRECTION VALUES XX Influence filling / emptying of bulk-material live loads.0 0. 134 .2 0.0 0. impressed deformations snow loads and ice loads places up to NN + 1 000 m places over NN + 1 000 m wind loads temperature influences (not fire)* building site subsidence’s other influences ** * see DIN 1055-7 ψo 1.7 0.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 TABLE A.6 0.0 0.0 0.5 Combined Correction Values for category 1 For silos of category 1 the following simplified calculating situations can be used: ------Filling Emptying Wind in case of empty silo Silo filled completely and wind Snow (for the roof) Dust explosion In case of wind loads the use of the simplified rules given in DIN 1055-4 are allowed.9 0.7 0.5 0.7 ψ2 0.5 1.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX B (NORMATIVE) INFLUENCES.2.1 Loads from Stored Fluids (1) During operation. PARTIAL SAFETY FACTORS AND COMBINED CORRECTION VALUES FOR THE INFLUENCES ON TANKS B.2 Loads from Internal Pressures (1) During operation.2 Influences B. the inherent-weight loads of the products that are filled in are to be computed (beginning from the state of maximum fullness till the state of complete emptying out) as loads resulting from filling.14.2. B. B.2.3 and the combination rules given in B.1 up to B. (2) During a test filling. 135 . loads at the specified minimum and maximum values of the internal pressures are to be regarded as “loads resulting from internal pressure”.2.4 are to be used.1 (1) General The design calculations have to take into account the characteristic values of the influences listed in section B. the inherent-weight loads of the test-filling substances that are filled in are to be computed (beginning from the state of maximum fullness till the state of complete emptying out) as loads resulting from filling. (2) For these characteristic values the partial safety factors of the influences given in B.

(2) The computational values are to be taken from DIN 1055-1.2.6 Distributed Live Loads The distributed loads from usage (traffic/operation) that are to be computed should be taken from DIN 1053-3. B. 136 . B.2.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (2) During a test filling. B.4 Inherent Loads (1) The resultant of the inherent weights of all individual components of the container and the components attached to the latter are to be computed as inherent load.2. unless they are specified by the customer.5 Loads from Insulation (1) The inherent weights of the insulation are to be computed as loads arising due to insulation.2. B. loads at the specified minimum and maximum values of the internal pressures during the test filling are to be regarded as “loads resulting from internal pressure”.3 Loads from Temperature (-Changes) Stresses due to forces caused by temperature expansions can be ignored if the number of load cycles of temperature expansions does not lead to a risk of a fatigue or a cyclic plastic failure.

8 Snow Loads The snow loads are to be taken from DIN 1055-3.2.2. Additionally one can take the following coefficients of pressure for circular cylindrical tanks (see fig.2.6 b) Internal pressure in case of aerated tanks with small openings: c p = −0. B.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 B.7 Concentrated Live Loads Concentrated individual loads from usage (traffic/operation) that are to be computed should be taken from DIN 1053-3. the wind loads – reduced during the building phase – can be computed in accordance with DIN 1055-4 and DIN 1055-8 137 . B.4 c) If there is a collecting tank then the pressure acting externally on the tank can be computed as it decreases with height in a linear direction from top to bottom. (3) In keeping with their temporary character.1): a) Internal pressure in case of top-open tanks and top-open collecting tanks: c p = −0.9 Wind (1) (2) The wind loads are to be taken from DIN 1055-4. B. unless they are specified by the customer.

6 φDT φDc Cpa a) TANK WITH COLLECTING TROUGH Cpa Cpb φDT b) Legend a) TANK WITHOUT COLLECTING TROUGH c p acc.1 – COEFFICIENTS OF PRESSURE FOR WIND LOADS IN CASE OF CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL TANKS 138 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Cp a Cp a Cp b ∇ 0 00m Cp=0.4 in case of ventilation Figure B. To DIN 1055-4 b) c p = −0.

explosion.2.2.3 (1) Partial Safety Factors for the Influences The safety factors given in DIN 1055-100 are to be used for influences listed under B. shock stress. B.2 till B. B.2.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 B. Piping equipment should be designed such that loads affecting the tanks are as small as possible. B.2. shutters or other objects and loads which result from the subsidence of building foundations which are independent relative to the foundation of the tank are all to be taken into account. leakage inside the tank.2.13 Loads from Irregular Subsidence Loads from subsidence are to be taken into account if the occurrence of irregular subsidences is to be expected during the designated service life.2. fire damage.10 Low Pressure through Inadequate Ventilation Loads which arise due to inadequate ventilation are to be computed acc.14 139 . to 9.2.4. B.12 Loads from Connected Structures Loads from pipelines.14 Loads from Catastrophies This includes blast wave.11 Seismic Loads Seismic loads are to be computed acc to DIN 4149. B. spillage and overfilling of internal tank.

Seismic influences must not be taken into consideration during the test filling.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (2) It is recommended that the safety factor for loads from fluids be computed for operation (B.4 (1) (2) (3) (4) Combinations of Influences The general stipulations in DIN 1055-100:2001-03 9.2.00 for variable influences. (4) In case of calculating conditions for extraordinary influences it is recommended that the safety factor be computed using γ F = 1.00 . The combination regulations for extraordinary loads in DIN 1055-100:2001-03 10. 140 . Live loads and snow loads must not be computed as simultaneous forces.2.20 (3) It is recommended that the safety factor for loads from fluids be computed during the test filling (B.1 (2)) with γ F = 1. Catastrophic influences must not be taken into consideration during the test filling.4 are however to be taken into consideration.4 are to be followed. B.1 (1)) with γ F = 1.

(2) Compactness of a high order is required while preparing the specimen in order to obtain a representative bulk material packing. All parameters which influence the silo loads are to be determined subject to this condition.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX C (Normative) Measurement of Bulk Material Parameters for the Determination of Silo Loads C. These procedures are not applicable for designing of silos in the context of ensuring a reliable bulk material flow. The process of preparation of the specimens therefore differs in some respects from what is considered standard procedure in terms of bulk material mechanics. because this condition of high compactness describes the reference status for the upper characteristic values of the actions on the silo structure. 141 .1 General (1) This annex describes test procedures which are introduced in this standard exclusively for the purpose of determining bulk material parameters which are used in the determination of the loads in silos. The level of pressure taken as the basis for the determination of the bulk material parameters is far higher in the case of the determination of bulk material loads than it would be in the case of a study of the bulk material mechanism in the context of bulk material flow -.the reason being that high pressures are required for the bulk material specimen being tested to satisfy the relevant conditions pertaining to bulk materials.

(2) The test procedures could also be used for the measurement of generally applicable bulk material parameters for determining the loads of silos.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C.g.1. in the hopper passage during the fill-load. C.7.3 Symbols The foll. Tests which are supposed to provide generally applicable parameters for the designing of different silos can be conducted subject to the foll. Symbols have been used in this annex: Conversion factor for the bulk material parameters for making allowance for deviation c ax Cohesion (see fig.9): reference stress σ r = 100 kPa. Level of reference load: (a) for making allowance for vertical loads (C.8 and C. C. The reference stresses in the tests act either in the vertical or the horizontal direction. C.4) Internal diameter of the test bin D 142 .6. (b) for making allowance for horizontal loads (C. which are representative of those that exist in the stored bulk material e. They have to reproduce stress levels.1 for the determination of the bulk material parameters.2): reference stress σ r = 50 kPa. They can also be used as an alternative to the values given in Table E. but not for specific silo geometry.2 Application (1) The test procedures described in this annex are to be used for the calculation of loads of silos in category 3 and for bulk materials which are not contained in Table E.

4) (stress relief) C. the electrical charging during operation and the production methods are a few examples of the secondary parameters. but is not listed amongst the main factors that lead to variance of the characteristic values.2 may be regarded as secondary parameters. the temperature.2b) K mo ∆ Mean value of the horizontal load ratio for smooth walls Displacement of the upper part of the shear bin during shear test Angle of internal friction while subjecting the specimen to stress (angle of the overall shear strength) ϕi ϕc µ σr Angle of internal friction during relief of the specimen (“effective internal angle of friction”) Coefficient of friction between the bulk material specimen and the wall specimen (coefficient of wall friction) Reference stress The residual shear strength measured in a shear test after increasing the normal pressure (see fig.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Fr Residual shear-resistance (-force) at the end of the wall friction test (see fig.4 Definitions The following definitions are applicable to this annex. C. the moisture content. the grain grading (grain-size distribution). the age. C. The variances in the reference stresses defined in C. The composition. C. C.4) (during relief) τa • τb The shear pressure measured in a shear test The maximum shear strength measured after reduction of the normal stress in a shear test (refer fig. 143 .1 Secondary Parameters Each parameter which can influence the characteristic values of the stored bulk material.4.

5 Selection and Preparation of Specimen (1) The tests are to be conducted with specimens that are representative of the bulk material that has been provided for storage in the silo.3 Reference stress The state of stress that is prevalent at the time of measuring the characteristic values of the bulk material. the effects of the silos operational processes and the effects of the sedimentation of the bulk material in the silo. C.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C. C. The reference stress is generally chosen such that it corresponds to the level of stress prevalent in the bulk material after the filling of the silo. (2) The choice of the specimen has to be made keeping in mind that there may be possible changes in the bulk material parameters during the course of the silos usage. 144 . At times it may be necessary to define the reference stress in terms wider than just the principal stress. apart from the changes that occur on account of the changing environmental conditions.4.4. (3) The mean value of each of the bulk material parameters has to be determined after making adequate allowance for variances of the relevant secondary parameters. while taking into account that the properties of the material are subject to change with the passage of time. that is provided for storage or the material of the silo wall.2 Specimen Selection Choosing specimen that represent the bulk material.

1 and C. both in the clockwise and the anticlockwise directions. C. at an angle of 10°.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (4) For each test the reference stress σ r is to be determined as a function of the pressure prevailing in the stored bulk material. NOTE 2 The number of rotations (“twists”) required depend on the bulk material being tested. The allowance for an approximate value for the reference stress is not critical to the interpretation of the test results. (5) For tests in accordance with C. for the changes of the bulk material parameters in the course of use. The value for the reference stress however should not to be very precisely defined.8.9 the procedure given below for specimen preparation has to be followed.2.7. NOTE 1 A precise determination of the reference stress would imply that the test result was known before the test was conducted. In order to consolidate the specimen. 145 .6. C. and for inaccuracies while taking the specimens. The tests however are to be conducted at a stress level which is appropriate for the serving the purpose of conducting the test. The conversion factors are to be chosen such that allowance is made for the influence of secondary parameters. a cover plate is to be rotated (“twisted”) back and forth several times around its vertical axis. (7) The mean values obtained from the tests are to be multiplied with a conversion factor in order to derive extreme values. (6) The specimen is to be introduced into the test bin without vibrations or other measures that may lead to its compression and is to be subjected to the reference stress.

C.1 has to be used for the determination of the weight and volume of a bulk material specimen. NOTE The purpose/meaning of this test is to obtain a good estimate of the maximum bulk material density that arises in the silo.6.1 Short Description The bulk material density γ is to be determined using a consolidated (super critically compressed) specimen of the bulk material. This will lead to such density of the bulk material which is representative for the conditions with respect to the determination of the silo loads. This procedure deviates substantially from the procedure specified in ASTM D6883-01 because that mainly deals with powdery bulk materials where the lowest possible density has to be achieved.6. In order to achieve this it is necessary to pour the bulk material into the test bin in such a manner that a suitable density is developed in the bulk material packing before the specimen is subjected to a consolidating pressure. The bin diameter D must be at least 5 times the maximum diameter of the bulk material grain and may not 146 .6 Determination of Bulk Material Specific Gravity γ C. C. This can be achieved either by using the “rain filling procedure” to pour the bulk material into the shear bin or by means of preconditioning the specimen using the above-mentioned “twisting” of the cover plate.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (8) The conversion factor must be suitably adjusted in case the variance of any of the secondary parameters amounts to more than 75% of the variance range that is covered by the conversion factor. which reaches its peak when the bulk material specimen is subjected to that level of pressure which is prevalent in the silo after filling has taken place.2 Test Apparatus The shear bin shown in fig. C. This aim is fulfilled by the determination of that density.

4 D.3D and 0. NOTE These restrictions relating to the grain size of the bulk material are chosen due to the following reasons: the restriction on the maximum grain size of the bulk material would ensure that the arrangement and orientation of the bulk material grains are not unduly disturbed due to the influence of the enclosing wall. It is due to this reason that in case of uniform size of the particles a restriction of 10 times the size of the particle and in case of a wider range of particle-sizes a restriction of 5 times the maximum particle diameter is prescribed. N= 1 σ rπD3 4 a b H Legend 1 a b smooth surface rough surface φD standardized rotation Figure C. than in the situation where the smaller particles can take up the space between the larger particles.1 – ARRANGEMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF γ 147 . The height H of the compressed specimen must lie between 0. Moreover it is known that this influence is greater in the situation where all the particles have the same size.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 be lesser than 10 times the mean grain size.

Coefficient of the wall friction µ m for the determination of loads (wall friction Coefficient).7. The density of the specimen has to be determined using the quotient from the measured weight of the consolidated specimen and from the volume of the bulk material that has been taken.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C.Wall friction angle ϕ wh for the evaluation of the flow behaviour. NOTE The densities determined acc.5. -. (2) For bulk materials with a wide range of grain sizes. which tend to separate out during 148 . The height of the specimen H has to be in the form of the mean value of three measurements which are to be taken at the same radial distance from the midpoint of the bin and within three 120° sectoral sections which are to be chosen in the direction of the circumference. to the procedure given in ASTM D6683 can turn out to be lower.1 General (1) The two parameters below are distinct from each other: -. (2) The preparation of the specimen has to comply with the procedure given in C.6.3 Procedure/Process (1) The reference stress σ r has to correspond to the vertical pressure level p v of the bulk material that is stored in the silo. C.7 Wall Friction C. but for coarse-grained bulk material it can assume significant proportions. The deviation is generally low for powdery bulk material.

for example.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 The filling process. (4) If there is the possibility of subsequent exposure of the silo wall to corrosion or abrasion. Silo walls can however also become smooth when fine particles from the bulk material such as fat or fine grains accumulate in the pores of the wall surface. Units of wall specimens with nominally identical designation can have angles of wall friction that vary from each other by several degrees. These changes can lead to changes in the flow pattern. It is presently not possible to characterize the wall surfaces in a manner such that the wall friction ratios can be reliably predicted. Corrosion can lead to roughening of the surface. The horizontal or vertical loads can 149 . subjection to abrasion can cause roughening as well as smoothening of the surface. the rolling mill or the tank manufacturer).g. In such cases the wall specimens need to be procured from the prospective manufacturer of the construction material (e. (3) The tests relating to wall friction are to be conducted using units of wall specimens which are representative of the material used in the wall surfaces of the silo structure. NOTE 2 The constitution of the silo wall surface can change with time. due allowance has to be made for possible mixing of materials while choosing the material specimens for determination of the coefficients of wall friction µ m . then the wall friction tests should be conducted with wall specimens which make due allowance for the actual conditions that are present immediately after manufacture and those that arise after usage and wear and tear. the individual units of wall specimens can show a transformation of the surface that makes it different from the surface condition at the time of the silo manufacture. Surfaces of materials such as polyethylene can become hollow and coated surfaces can get scratched. NOTE 1 Although the test laboratories are equipped with a wide range of construction and surfacing materials. Coated steel surfaces are to be coated with the same brand of coating. For large-scale projects it is recommended that the wall specimen units be retained for a subsequent comparison with the actual manufactured surface. sometimes to such an extent that. a core flow may arise in a silo designed originally for mass flow or vice versa.

e. proper care should be exercised to see whether the load calculations and inspection of the flow behaviour have been duly executed. NOTE These restrictions relating to the grain size of the bulk material are chosen due to the following reasons: the restriction on the maximum grain size of the bulk material would ensure that the arrangement and orientation of the bulk material grains are not unduly disturbed due to the influence of the enclosing wall. in the case of a corrugated wall. While doing this the shearing force is measured along the area that is sheared-off.2 D. The height H of the compressed specimen must lie between 0.7.2.2 Test Apparatus The apparatus for the test is shown in fig. C.2 Coefficient of Wall Friction µ m for the Determination of Loads C. NOTE While interpreting the data from the shear tests.1 Short Description A bulk material specimen is sheared-off along an area that represents the wall surface and in the case of a corrugated sheet silo along a corrugated specimen. Moreover it is known that this influence is greater in the situation where all the particles have the same size. C.2. The diameter of the bin must be at least 20 times the value of the diameter of the largest grain of the bulk material and may not be less than 40 times the value of the mean particle size. than in the situation where the smaller particles can take up the space between the 150 . the bin size has to be adjusted accordingly.g.15 D and 0. In the case of wall specimens with discontinuities.2.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 increase in silos with polished wall surfaces and the wall friction loads can increase in the case of silos with roughened surfaces. C.7.7.

5.1) Fr N Is the end or residual value of the shear force (see fig C. (4) For the determination of the coefficients of wall friction the residual value of the frictional force Fr is to be used in the case of large deformations (see Fig. (2) The preparation of the specimen has to be in accordance with the procedure laid down in C.3.2) (5) The coefficient of wall friction for determination of loads are to be determined from the tests in the form of µ= Where Fr N (C.2. It is due to this reason that in case of uniform size of the particles a restriction of 40 times the size of the particle and in case of a wider range of particle-sizes a restriction of 20 times the maximum particle diameter is prescribed. (3) The shearing of the specimen has to be executed in such a manner that a constant feed velocity of about 0.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 larger particles.04 mm/s is ensured. 151 . Procedure/Process (1) The largest horizontal load p h that arises in the silo is to be taken as the basis for the reference stress σ r . C. C.2b).7. Is the vertical load placed upon the cover of the shear bin.

3 Angle of Wall Friction ϕ wh for Analysis of Flow Behaviour (1) The angle of wall friction ϕ wh for the analysis of flow behaviour can be determined in accordance with the details given in fig. (2) The angle of wall friction for the analysis of flow behaviour of the bulk material is to be determined in case of low pressure levels.2 . N = σ rπ D 4 2 Shear force F µ= Fr Fr N F φD H 1 a) Shear bin for measurement of wall friction b) typical shearing-force deformation relationships Legend 1 wall sample Figure C.2. C.TEST PROCEDURE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF COEFFICIENTS OF WALL FRICTION 152 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C.7.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03

C.8

Horizontal Load Ratio K

C.8.1 Direct Measurement

C.8.1.1 Test Principle Taking care to obstruct horizontal deformations, a vertical stress σ 1 has to be imposed upon a specimen and the horizontal stress σ 2 resulting from this strain has to be measured. The secant value of the horizontal load ratio K 0 has to be determined from this. NOTE 1 The size of the coefficient K 0 is dependant on the directions in which the

principal stresses build up in the specimen. For evaluation of the tests the horizontal and vertical stresses are to be regarded as an approximation of principal stresses in the specimen. As a rule this does not happen in the silo. NOTE 2 For specimens where horizontal deformations are obstructed, it must be

understood that horizontal elongations within the bulk material are restricted to such an extent that their influence on the stresses in the bulk material specimen are negligible. These elongations are, nevertheless, large enough to assume measurable proportions in the thin wall of the shear bin or in specific portions of the wall which are to be measured for concentrated elongations. Generally this criterion of restricted elongation in the bulk material specimen and the simultaneous measurability of the deformations in the apparatus wall is fulfilled by an average peripheral elongation of magnitude 1/10 per mil.

C.8.1.2

Apparatus

The geometry of the test apparatus can be seen in fig. C.3. the horizontal stresses are to be derived from the elongations that are measured at the periphery of the vertical ring.

153

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 For this purpose the wall of the measuring bin must be thin enough and so designed that the stress level in the wall can be interpreted correctly and clearly. NOTE Generally, a base plate which is separated from the ring of the bin wall is

required here so that both horizontal as well as vertical measurements are possible without any mutual interference. It is moreover necessary to position the points for measuring the elongations at adequate distance from the edges of the specimen. In addition, care should be taken to ensure that the elongations measured are linked with the internal horizontal stresses using a conversion factor, and that the bending of the walls of the test apparatus can be ignored in the relationship thus established.

N =

π

4

D 2 (σ 1 + ∆ σ 1 )

1

σ2

(σ 2 + ∆σ 2 )

a b Kmo H

φD

a) Test equipment b) Typical progression with increasing σ 1 Legend a b smooth surface rough surface

σ1

of σ 2

Figure C.3 - TEST PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINATION OF KO

154

DIN 1055-6:2005-03

C.8.1.3

Procedure/Process

(1) The reference stress σ r has to be equivalent to the greatest level of vertical pressure

**PV that is expected to build up in the bulk material stored in the silo.
**

(2) The preparation of the specimen should comply with the procedure given in C.5 (3) The horizontal stress σ 1 in the specimen that arises due to the imposition of the vertical strain σ r - which corresponds to the reference stress σ 2 - is to be observed. The value of KO is to be calculated from these stress components (see fig. C.3) in the form:

KO =

σ2 σ1

(C.2)

(4) The value of K is to be taken as:

K = 1.1K O

NOTE

(C.3)

Using the factor 1.1 in equation (C.3), one should make allowance for the

difference between the horizontal load ratio (=KO ) in the shear bin which is measured in the (almost total) absence of wall friction influences and the value K under the influence of wall friction in the silo.

C.8.2 Indirect Measurement An approximate value of K can be derived from the angle of internal friction for the strain imposed ϕ i ; this can be determined either by the procedure laid down in C.9 or by a triaxial test. If the value K is being derived from ϕ i , the calculation in equation (7) is to be used.

155

1. C.3D and 0. The bin diameter must amount to at least 20 times the value of the largest grain diameter of the bulk material and must not be lesser than 40 times the value of the mean particle size.1 Test Principle The stability of a bulk material specimen can be determined using shearing bin tests. than in the situation where the smaller particles can take up the space between the larger particles.9 Stability Parameters: Cohesion c and Angle of Internal Friction ϕ i C. 156 .4. The two parameters c and ϕ i are to be used for describing the implications of the stability of the bulk material stored in the silo bins.9.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C. NOTE These restrictions relating to the grain size of the bulk material are chosen due to the following reasons: the restriction on the maximum grain size of the bulk material would ensure that the arrangement and orientation of the bulk material grains are not unduly disturbed due to the influence of the enclosing wall.4D. C.1.9. Moreover it is known that this influence is greater in the situation where all the particles have the same size.2 Apparatus The equipment used for the test is a cylindrical shear bin in accordance with fig. It is due to this reason that in case of uniform size of the particles a restriction of 40 times the size of the particle and in case of a wider range of particlesizes a restriction of 20 times the maximum particle diameter is prescribed. The height H of the compressed specimen must lie between 0.9.1 Direct Measurement C.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C.9.1.3 (1) Procedure/Process

The reference stress σ r must be approximately equivalent to the greatest level of

vertical pressure p v that is expected to build up, acc. to C.2, in the bulk material stored in the silo. The preparation of the specimen must be carried out in accordance with the procedure given in C.5. (2) The shearing of the specimen must be done at a constant feed velocity of about

0.04 mm/s. (3) The determination of the stability parameters has to be based upon the shear

stress τ determined during or before a horizontal displacement of ∆ = 0.06 D , with D being the internal bin diameter (see fig. C.4)

N = σ rπ

D2 4

D2 F = τπ 4

a φD

a) Shear bin

H

157

DIN 1055-6:2005-03

τa τb 2 1

Transverse stress which is measured

transverse stress τ

τb φc φi σb

τa

τ

σa

**Shear bin displacement
**

(b)

Normal stress σ

(C)

b) Typical curve depicting shear stress and displacement c) Typical relationship between shear stress and normal stress as measured in a shear test

Legend 1) 2) Curve a Curve b

Figure C.4 - TEST PROCEDURE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE ANGLES OF INTERNAL FRICTION ϕ i AND ϕ c AND THE COHESION c BASED ON THE STRESS σ r IMPOSED DURING THE PRECOMPRESSION (4) (5) There are at least two tests to be conducted acc. to the conditions defined under For determination of the transverse stress τ a one material specimen is to be

(5) and (6) (table C.1 and fig. C.4)

subjected to a normal load equivalent to the reference stress σ r (6) Then a second specimen is to be initially subjected, like the first specimen, to a

158

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 normal load that is equivalent to the reference stress σ r - but only until the shearing. There after the normal load is to be reduced to about half the value of the reference stress ( σ b ≈

σr

2

). Subsequently it is to be further sheared at this stress level in order to

get the maximum transverse stress τ b (see fig. C.4b). the stresses determined in these two tests are listed in the Table C.1.

**TABLE C.1 - TEST PARAMETERS
**

` TEST AMOUNT OF NORMAL STRESS IN THE TEST MAX TRANSVERSE STRESS

PRELIMINARY STRAIN

MEASURED

No.1 No.2

σr

σr

τa σr

2

σr

σb ≈

τb

C.9.1.4 (1)

**Evaluation The angle of internal friction when the stored bulk material is subject to strain is to
**

⎛τa ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝σr ⎠

be determined using

ϕ i = arctan⎜ ⎜

(C.4)

(2)

The cohesion c activated in the bulk material under reference stress σ r is to be

calculated using

c = τ a − σ r tan ϕ c

(C.5)

159

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 With ϕ c = arctan⎜ ⎜ Where ⎛ τ a −τ b ⎝σr −σb ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (C.e.2). (4) The uni-axial yield stress σ u which corresponds to this consolidating stress is to be determined from the flow function. (2) The cohesion should be determined within the pressure ratios corresponding to the maximum vertical pressure σ vft n the silo after filling (see designs in C.9. (3) For a bulk material without cohesion (i. 160 .6) ϕ c The angle of internal friction in case of strain relief of a super critically consolidated specimen NOTE 1 The value of the cohesion c is largely dependant upon the consolidating stress σ r and as such it cannot be regarded as a full-fledged material parameter. the shear resistance should only be described in terms of the angle of internal friction ϕ i . C.2 Indirect Measurement (1) The cohesion of a bulk material can also be determined approximately from the results of shear tests with a shear bin of Jenike. c = 0). In addition the angle of the effective internal friction δ under the corresponding conditions of stress is to be determined.which then corresponds to ϕ c . (3) The maximum vertical pressure in the silo after the filling σ vft is to be fixed as the maximum consolidating stress σ c .

C.10) NOTE 2 The two parameters c and ϕ i are used in this norm only for assessing the effects of the bulk material stability on the silo pressures.9) ⎛σ ⎞ K = ⎜ c ⎟(1 + sin δ ) ⎜σ ⎟ ⎝ u⎠ Where σc σu δ The maximum consolidating stress in the Jenike shear bin test The uni-axial yield stress obtained from the Jenike shear bin test The effective angle of the internal friction obtained from the Jenike shear bin test Angle of internal friction during the stress relief (see fig.8) (C. 161 . Approximate values for cohesion can be determined: ⎛ sin δ − sin ϕ c ⎞ c = σc⎜ ⎜ cos ϕ (1 + sin δ ) ⎟ ⎟ c ⎝ ⎠ (C.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (5) The foll.7) With ϕ c = arcsin⎜ ⎛ 2 sin δ − K ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ 2−K ⎠ (C.10) ⎛ sin δ cos ϕ c ⎝ 1 − sin ϕ c sin δ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ϕ i = arctan⎜ ⎜ (C.4c) ϕc NOTE 1 The magnitude of cohesion c depends greatly on the consolidating stress and as such does not represent an independent material parameter of the bulk material. (6) An approximate value for the angle of internal friction during stress relief ϕ i can be obtained from the Jenike shear bin test (C.

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C. nevertheless. The vertical load is to be thereafter reduced by the amount ∆σ 1 and the horizontal stress ∆σ 2 and vertical displacement ∆V2 to be measured.1 Direct Measurement C. The effective elasticity modulus for the imposed strain E sL (modulus of strain) is to be derived from these measurements using the horizontal load ratio K .1. For each increment of the load ∆σ 1 (vertical) the resulting horizontal stress ∆σ 2 and the change in the vertical displacement ∆V1 are to be measured.1 Test Principle A vertical load σ 1 is imposed upon a specimen placed laterally. The horizontal and the vertical stresses in the specimen are approximately equivalent to the principal stresses. it must be understood that horizontal elongations within the bulk material are restricted to such an extent that their influence on the stresses in the bulk material specimen are negligible. as a rule this does not happen in a silo. large enough to assume measurable proportions in the thin wall of the test apparatus.10 Effective Modulus of Elasticity ES C. Generally an average peripheral elongation of magnitude 1/10 per mil fulfills this criterion.10. These elongations are.10. 162 . NOTE 1 The magnitude of E s and E su depends upon the direction of the principal stresses in the specimen. From these measurements the effective elasticity modulus for stress relief (relief modulus) is to be derived. NOTE 2 For specimens where horizontal deformations are obstructed.

care should be taken to ensure that the elongations measured are proportional to the internal horizontal stresses and that the bending of the walls of the test apparatus can be ignored in this relationship. In addition. C. For this purpose the wall of the measuring bin must be thin enough and so designed that the stress level in the wall can be interpreted correctly and clearly. 163 . It is moreover necessary that the elongations are measured at an adequate distance from the edges of the specimen.10.2 Apparatus (1) The geometry of the test apparatus can be seen in fig. It is similar to the apparatus described in C.8 for measuring the horizontal load ratio K. (2) It must also be ensured that vertical deformations of the specimen in suitably small amounts will occur.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 C.5. (2)The horizontal stresses are to be derived from the elongations that are measured at the periphery of the vertical ring.1. NOTE Generally. a base plate that is separated from the bin walls is required here so that both horizontal as well as vertical measurements are possible without any mutual interference.

5 – TEST PROCEDURE FOR THE DETERMINATION OF THE ELASTICITY MODULI DURING STRAIN IMPOSITION AND STRAIN RELIEF C.10. 164 .3 (1) Procedure/Process The highest level of vertical pressure pV that can be expected in the bulk material stored in the silo is to be taken as the reference stress σ r (2) The specimen is to be prepared in accordance with the procedure given in C.1.5.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 4 ∆V1 Vertical displacement increment ∆V N = π D 2 (∆ σ 1 ) a b H (∆σ 2 ) ∆Vu ∆VL ∆σ1 φD Vertical stress increment ∆σ a) Test equipment b) typical vertical displacement for vertical increments of stress ∆σ 1 Legend a b smooth surface rough surface Figure C.

The increment of the vertical stresses may be chosen as approximately 10% of the reference stress σ 1 . The incremental value of K under subjection to strain is then to be determined in the form of KL : ⎛ ∆σ 2 KL = ⎜ ⎜ ∆σ 1 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (C.12) (7) Subsequently a minor incremental reduction of the vertical strain ∆σ 1 has to be made (to be treated as a quantity with a negative sign) and the resultant changes in the horizontal stresses and the vertical deformations are to be measured.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (3) After the imposition of a vertical load σ 1 which corresponds to the reference stress σ r . The height of the material specimen H is to be measured carefully (see C. 10% of the reference stress σ 1 . the readings for horizontal stresses and vertical deformations are to be taken.6. (5) The change in the horizontal stress ∆σ 2 as a consequence of the vertical load increments ∆σ 1 is to be determined and the changes in the vertical displacements ∆V (both negative) are to be measured. the horizontal stresses and the vertical deformations have to be measured again. 165 . (4) After a small increment of the vertical stress ∆σ 1 . The increment of the vertical strain ∆σ 1 should amount to approx.3).11) (6) The effective elasticity modulus E sL under subjection to strain may then be derived as follows 2 2K L ∆σ 1 ⎛ ⎜1 − =H ∆v ⎜ 1 + K l ⎝ E sL ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (C.

14) NOTE The effective elasticity modulus in case of strain relief is usually far greater than the elasticity modulus in case of subjection to strain.15) 166 .10. an approximate value EsU may be determined as follows: E sU = χPvft Where (C. The incremental value of K in case of strain relief is then to be determined in the form of KU : ⎛ ∆σ 2 KU = ⎜ ⎜ ∆σ 1 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (C.g. In a case where a greater elasticity modulus is harmful for the supporting framework (e. the elasticity modulus for strain-imposition (strain-imposition modulus) is to be used.2 (1) Indirect Measurement For the purpose of assisting the specific inspection of the adjustment of the test. C.g.13) (9) The effective elasticity modulus E sU in case of strain relief may then be derived as follows 2 2KU ∆σ 1 ⎛ ⎜1 − =H ∆v ⎜ 1 + K U ⎝ E sU ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ (C. in case of temperature changes) the strain-relief elasticity modulus is to be used.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (8) The change in the horizontal stress ∆σ 2 as a consequence of the vertical load increments ∆σ 1 is to be determined and the changes in the vertical displacements ∆V (both negative) are to be measured. Should the elasticity modulus of the bulk material be favourable for the structure (e. in case of thin-walled rectangular silos).

16) Where for γ the specific gravity of the bulk material expressed in kN/m3 is to be Alternatively the value of χ can be fixed at 70 for dry agricultural cereal products.15) (2) In case of missing experimental test data in accordance with the procedure in C. at 100 for small-sized mineral grains and at 150 for large-sized mineral grains. χ NOTE The contiguity coefficient The effective elasticity modulus for stress-relief EsU and the vertical stress Pvft have the same unit in equation (C.1 the contiguity coefficient χ can be calculated as follows: χ = 7γ substituted. C.11 Determination of the Upper and Lower Characteristic Values of the Bulk Material Parameters and Calculation of the Conversion Factor a C. (3) 3 2 (C.10. This section deals with the assessment of variances in the bulk material parameters which can occur at the time of the design calculations.1 (1) Test Principle The silo is to be designed for the most unfavourable conditions of strain which it can be exposed to during its course of its use.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Pvft The vertical stress at the lower end of the vertical wall section (equation (11) or (86)). 167 .11.

NOTE 3 as shown in the above passage. which contribute to the characteristic loads. the type of load and whether the loads are to be viewed in the vertical silo shaft or the hopper. the absolute size of the tank. and the tendency of sedimentation and the age of these values. (3) The extreme values of the parameters which are necessary for the achievement of this extreme load level are the characteristic values of the bulk material parameters. each distinct from the other. there are several bulk material properties. (2) The extreme values of the calculated loads are described in terms of their characteristic values. the temperature. These changes that occur over a period of time cannot be easily assessed.28 times the standard deviation from the mean exceeding the load level depends on the geometry.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 NOTE 1 it is possible that the parameters of the stored bulk material can undergo changes during the service life. NOTE 2 The corresponding material parameters for a specific probability of The simplified procedure described here is to be used while viewing the characteristic value on the basis of 1. (5) value. These are values – normally 5% and 95% fractile values . (4) For the determination of the decisive load ratios both the upper as well as the lower characteristic values are to be used. In addition these values are influenced by the moisture content. Therefore a 10 or 90 percentage value of each of the characteristic values is regarded as a suitable and reasonable estimate for the value which represents an adequate occurrence-possibility for the design load.which are not exceeded during the designated service life or the course of the assessment period given the recognized predicted probabilities. 168 .

NOTE 4 Although test data is helpful for the determination of characteristic values. (8) In case the designer or the customer has at his disposal data or experimental values for a specific design calculation.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (6) For calculation of the relevant load conditions the upper as well as the lower characteristic values of the relevant parameters are to be used. 169 . the characteristic values are to be calculated using statistical methods. he can derive the characteristic bulk material parameters from this data if it represents the range of parameters of the bulk materials used during the service life.2 (1) Methods for Assessment For calculating the characteristic values of each parameter the following procedures can be used.1 are worked backwards from the assessments which are based upon a combination of experience and actual data from experiments. it has its limitations such as limitations on account of specimen size. (7) In case adequate experimental data is available. C.11. on account of the process of specimen preparation etc. NOTE 5 the values in Table E. This may lead to a situation where the data for all the properties relevant to the operation life may be unrepresentative. The variable Χ represents the characteristic values observed in each case. The mean value of the characteristic value Χ is to be calculated from the test (2) data.

18) (7) The conversion factor a X of a parameter is to be determined using aX = 1 + 1. (5) using The upper characteristic value of a parameter ( X U = X 0.28δ ) (C.10.2. (4) If the test data is not suitable for determining a coefficient of variation.2 can be used as a guide here. In case of other bulk material parameters the values are to be estimated using the specifications for the bulk materials with similar properties listed in the Table C. the coefficient of variation δ is to be determined from the available test data. the coefficients of variation δ for the bulk material specific gravity have to be fixed at 0.90 = X (1 + 1.17) (6) using The lower characteristic value of a parameter ( X U = X 0. Table C.28δ + δ 2 1 − 1.28δ ≈ 1 + 1.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (3) Wherever possible.19) (8) When estimating the value of the conversion factors.10 = X (1 − 1.28δ (C. a suitable value is to be estimated for the bulk material.28δ ) (C. 170 .90 ) is to be determined X 0.90 ) is to be determined X 0.

16 0.09 0.14 0.08 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.19 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 TABLE C.05 0.05 0.12 0.11 0.11 category of wall-roughness D2 0.05 0.05 0.16 0.11 D3 0.05 0.09 0.05 0.09 0.05 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.05 0.11 0.18 0.09 0.05 0.21 0.08 0.09 0.14 0.05 0.11 0.05 0.05 0.11 0.17 0.14 0.14 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.07 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.11 0.19 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.08 171 .11 0.10 0.08 0.11 0.18 0.05 0.08 0.05 0.16 0.14 0.05 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.TYPICAL VALUES OF THE COEFFICIENTS OF VARIATION FOR THE BULK MATERIAL PARAMETERS COEFFICIENT OF VARAITION ANGLE OF HORIZONTAL BULK MATERIAL LOAD RATIO INTERNAL FRICTION COEFFICIENT OF WALL FRICTION δ µ ϕi in degrees 0.16 0.05 0.2 --.11 0.08 0.14 0.09 0.14 0.05 0.11 0.11 0.07 0.17 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.11 K Gravel for Concrete Aluminum Fodder concentrate mix Fodder concentrate pellets Barley Cement Cement Clinker Coal Coal dust Coke Fly Ash Flour Iron Pellets Calcium Hydrate Limestone Powder Maize Phosphate Potatoes Sand Slag Clinker Soya Beans Sugar Sugar Beet Pellets Wheat 0.09 0.09 0.14 0.09 D1 0.08 0.05 0.17 0.14 0.11 0.05 0.11 0.09 0.11 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.11 0.09 0.14 0.11 0.11 0.

D.2 (1) Assessment of the coefficients of wall friction for a corrugated wall The effective wall friction coefficient for D4 type of wall (corrugated or contoured- metal sheet or metal sheet with horizontal slits) is to be determined from µ eff = (1 − a w ) tan ϕ i + a w µ w Where (D.1 Aim This annex describes methods for the assessment of the characteristic values of bulk materials which are required in this standard for the purpose of calculating silo loads and cannot be determined experimentally by means of tests.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX D (NORMATIVE) ASSESSMENT OF THE BULK MATERIAL PARAMETERS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SILO LOADS D. Effective coefficient of wall friction Angle of internal friction Coefficient of wall friction (against a level wall surface) Wall contact factor The effective wall friction depends on the angle of internal friction of the bulk material.1) µ eff ϕi µw aw NOTE 1 wall surface. the coefficient of wall friction against the level wall and on the profile of the 172 .

DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (2) The parameter aw in equation (D. 1 1 b bi bi 2 2 b 3 3 a) Trapezoidal folded profile b) Sinusoidal wavy profile 173 . The portion which slides along wall surface is expressed using the factor aw . This portion cannot be easily determined and its estimation depends on the profile of the wall surface. is to be determined from the geometry of the profile of the wall surface.2): aw = bw bw + bi NOTE 2 The interface between sliding surfaces and stationary zones is in contact partially with the wall and partially with the broken surface within the bulk material.1). which represents the portion of the sliding surface against the wall surface. D. with allowance being made for a suitable estimate of the contact zones that have been activated between the bulk material and the wall surface (see fig.1) (3) For corresponding depths of the folds and the waves a simple estimate can be made with equation (D.

in place of the angle of internal friction one has to take the gradient of slope ϕ r of a bulk material heap (debris cone) which is loosely fed on to a level base plate.1b. D.1 – DIMENSIONS OF THE CONTOURING OF THE WALL SURFACE NOTE 3 For wall surface contouring which resemble the one in fig. beans and potatoes). In such cases. 174 . lupin.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Legend 1 2 3 bulk material bulk material flow sliding surface Figure D. peas.20.g.3 Fines Internal Friction and the Wall Friction of a Coarse Bulk Material without The coefficient of wall friction µ and the angle of the internal friction ϕ i cannot be easily determined in case of coarse bulk materials without fines (e. the factor a w can be taken as approximately 0. D.

5 8 37 35 1.22 0.08 0.32 0.7 5 6 39 36 1.40 1.3 0. Table E.12 1.0 general bulk material Concrete gravel Aluminium Concentrat ed feed mixture Concentrat ed feed pellets 6.06 0.5 0.15 1.07 0.46 0.50 1.2 0.22 0.51 1.4 0.07 0.1 0.30 0.20 0.1 – Bulk Material Parametersa Density γ kN/m Type of bulk material Lower value γ1 Upper value γ2 3 Gradi ent of slope Angle of internal friction Horizontal load ratio K Coefficient of wall frictionb µ ( µ = tan ϕ w ) (Mean value) Paramet er for referenc e surface load ϕr degre e ϕi degree ϕ im Mea n valu e aq Wall Conv ersion factor Mean value Km Conver sion factor type D1 Wall type D2 Wall type D3 Conver sion factor C op aµ ak 1.23 0.54 1.45 1.0 22.41 0.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX E (Normative) Details of Bulk Material Parameters This annex specifies parameters for a few bulk materials commonly stored in silos.16 1.37 1.39 0.28 0.43 1.0 40 35 175 .39 0.50 1.52 0.47 1.49 0.28 1 17 10 18 12 36 36 31 30 1.5 6. which are to be used as characteristic values for design calculations.59 0.

59 0.5 7.12 1.20 1. for example.11 1.12 0.49 0.50 0. 176 .52 0.14 1.5 0.51 0. if an assessment of the expense shows that the wide spectrum of values used for calculations would have only marginal Effect on the overall effort. If the expense incurred on the tests is not justified.49 0.09 1.44 0. esp.15 1.5 0.2 1.5 0.20 1.54 0.14 1.53 0.53 0.72 0.16 1.16 1.07 1.2 1. The γθ in table E.09 1.5 0.22 0.48 0.12 1.57 0.16 1. then the values given in the so-called ‘general bulk material’ category may be used.35 .54 0.58 0.6 0.46 0.24 1.5 NOTE The upper characteristic value xx of the bulk material density lower characteristic value γ u is to be always used when determining the silo loads.5 8 16 18 10 8 8 15 7 22 8 13 8 22 8 16 12 8 9.54 0.26 1.11 0.48 0.6 0. in such cases tests are preferable.2 1.59 0.16 1.56 0.54 0.52 0. For Large silo loads.48 0.07 1.7 0.67 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.38 0.16 1.14 1.54 0.5 7 8 6. however.4 0.26 1. A When a bulk material that is not in the list has to be stored.0 31 36 47 36 34 36 41 45 36 34 36 35 34 34 39 39 29 38 36 34 28 30 40 31 27 31 35 42 31 27 30 31 29 30 39 36 25 32 31 30 1.16 1.33 0.58 0.51 0. a certain specified storage capacity has to be ensured.22 1.18 1.12 1.11 1. These values can be particularly appropriate for small silo loads.6 0.16 1.57 1. As a rule.16 1.5 8 6.41 0.07 1.54 0.15 1.62 0.52 0.19 1.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Barley Cement Cement clinkerc Coal Coal dust Coke Fly ash Flour Iron pellets Lime hydrate Limestone powder Maize Phosphate Potatoes Sand Slag clinker Soya beans Sugar Sugar beet pellets Wheat 7 13 15 7 6 6.24 0.5 7 9.5 19 6 11 7 16 6 14 10.5 0.06 1.46 0.24 0.44 0.16 0. these values generally result in unviable calculations.52 0.15 1.6 0.45 0.6 0.33 0.56 0.24 0.11 1.5 0.11 1.49 0.59 0.41 0.24 0.16 1.38 0.31 1.56 0.12 1.49 0.1 is meant to support calculations for storage capacities when.41 0.51 0.54 0.20 1.51 0.5 0.63 0. b C The effective wall friction coefficient for wall type D4 (corrugated wall) can be assessed according to D.5 0.36 0.57 0.39 0. then tests should to be conducted.41 0.9 0.12 1.51 0.46 0.48 0.48 0.16 1.45 0.16 1.36 0.38 0.15 1.59 0.22 1.11 1.38 0.54 1.07 1.38 0.15 1.33 0.07 1.2 The bulk material shows a tendency to mechanically interlock leading to arching or discharge disturbances.56 0.12 1.07 1.36 0.16 1.62 0.11 1.48 0.46 0.51 0.07 1.20 1.56 0.

8 1. in degrees 60 80 β 177 .6 1.with respect to their flow profiles .2 0 0 20 Half-angle Series1 Series2 40 at the hopper apex.4 0. a) Conical hopper Coefficient of wall friction in the hopper. This information is moreover necessary when alternate procedures for determination of hopper loads as given in Annex H are used. MASS-FLOW AND CORE-FLOW The dimensioning of silos . The following information has been provided in order to enable a safe estimate about whether specific load ratios for mass flow conditions are present in a prospective silo design.8 0.in terms of functional process technology is not included within the scope of this standard.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX F (NORMATIVE) DETERMINATION OF THE FLOW-PROFILE.6 0.4 1.2 1 0. µh Conical hopper 2 1.

2 0 0 20 Half-angle Series1 Series2 40 β at the hopper apex 60 80 Legend 1 2 3 core flow mass flow mass flow or core flow can occur between the two lines Figure F.1 – BOUNDARIES FOR MASS FLOW AND CORE FLOW CONDITIONS IN CASE OF CONICAL AND CUNEIFORM HOPPERS NOTE standard. In the zone between the boundary lines of mass flow and core flow the flow profile that arises depends on other parameters which are not included in this 178 .4 0.8 1.6 1.6 0.8 0.2 1 0.4 1. µh 1.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 b) Cuneiform hoppe 2 Coefficient of wall friction in the hopper.

(2) The value for the acceleration due to earthquakes for the silo structure has to be fixed according to EN 1998.2).2 Symbols α ∆ph.4.1 General (1) This annex lays down general guidelines for calculations of silos under seismic actions. G. Rearrangement of bulk material at the material surface in the filled-up silo.4.3 Conditions during Calculations --Horizontal acceleration and the resultant horizontal and vertical loads on the silo structures (or the silo substructure) and the foundation (G. The seismic actions can lead to a situation where a slide surface develops in the filled up bulk material cone in the vicinity of the bulk-material’s 179 . ----Additional loads on the silo walls (G.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX G (Normative) Seismic Actions G.so horizontal acceleration due to earthquakes additional horizontal loads due to seismic actions G. These rules for calculations complement the general rules in DIN 4149 for design calculations under seismic conditions.1).

1 Silo Substructures and Foundations Seismic actions due to the accelerated mass of the silo structure and the stored bulk material can be regarded as individual loads. This can pose a threat to the silo roof and the upper regions of the silo walls due to additional horizontal loads (see diagram G.1 POSSIBLE REARRANGEMENT OF BULK MATERIAL SURFACE DUE TO SEISMIC ACTIONS G.4 Seismic Actions Directions for calculating the seismic actions are given in G.2 for the silo walls.4. which place a strain at the centre of gravity of the mass of the silo structure and the stored bulk material (see diagram G. G.2).4.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 surface.1) 1 2 `Legend 1 2 slide surface during seismic actions bulk material surface after the seismic action Figure G.1 for the silo substructure and in G.4. 180 .

2 Silo Walls (1) The influence of seismic actions on the silo walls has to be taken into account using an additional horizontal load portion.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Fs Figure G. (2) The reference value of the additional normal loads on the silo walls due to seismic effects is given.2 Seismic actions for the substructure (e.g. the supports) G. This has to be superimposed with the loads from the stored bulk material according to sections 7 and 8.4. The overall load is equivalent to the mass of the bulk material multiplied by the value of the horizontal acceleration due to earthquake α. 181 .

(3) The additional loads normal to the silo walls may be assumed to be evenly distributed across the height of the silo.3.so = γ α dc g 2 (G. is the acceleration of the fall.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 For a silo with a circular cross-section and diameter dc.so = γ αb g2 (G. and the additional seismic horizontal loads – never smaller than zero (no negative values). by the foll. At the upper end of the silo wall one has to add the resultant forces – acting from inside outwards -.2) Where γ α g is the bulk material density.s = ∆ph.1) And for a rectangular silo with the width b the equation is: ∆ph. is the horizontal acceleration due to the earthquake. 182 .s is shown in diagram G. (4) The assumed horizontal distribution of the additional loads ∆ph. equation: ∆ph.of the bulk material loads due to filling and discharging.

so a b a) cross-section of circular silo b) cross-section of rectangular silo FIGURE G-3 Cross-section across the vertical silo shaft with details of the additional horizontal loads due to seismic actions 183 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 For a circular silo the additional load is to be found using the equation: ∆ph.s ∆Ph.so (G.so cosθ For a rectangular silo ∆ph.s = ∆ph.s ∆Ph.s θ ∆Ph.3) (G.s = ∆ph.s has to be fixed using the equation: ∆ph.4) ∆Ph.

2.1 (1) General This annex gives two alternate procedures for estimation of bulk material loads on hoppers. the equations given in H. The given load formulation in the hopper is to be regarded as an envelope load profile which acts on the hopper walls during filling and during discharge. H.2 Definitions The following definitions are applicable to this Annex. (3) For fill loads in the case of steep hoppers. H.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX H (NORMATIVE) ALTERNATE RULES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF HOPPER LOADS H.5 can be used for the description of loads not only for fill loads but also for discharge loads.3. It must however be noted that the sum of these loads is not equivalent to the weight of the bulk material stored in the hopper.1 Peak Load (Kick Load) Peak load which can occur at the hopper junction in case of a mass flow during the emptying of a silo 184 .7 can be used as an alternative to the formulations given in 8. (2) H.

1) Loads acting vertically upon the inclined hopper wall lh pn pn i Different load components acting vertically upon the inclined hopper wall (i = 1.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 H. 1b).1 (3) In case both core flow and mass flow can occur in the silo. the loads acting vertically on the inclined hopper walls p n are to be calculated as follows: 185 . H. 2 and 3) Load peak at the hopper junction ps H. F. The flow pattern of the bulk material that is to be expected for the hopper is to be determined by fig.4 (1) (2) Dimensioning Conditions The hopper is to be designed for the state prevailing after the filling and for discharge loads.3 Symbols Distance between the hopper peak and the hopper junction along the inclined surface (see fig. H. these effects are both to be taken into account during dimensioning.5 (1) Loads on the Hopper Walls For an inclination of the hopper walls vis-à-vis the horizontal α that is greater than 20° (see fig.

1) With pn1 = pvf Cb sin 2 β + cos 2 β ( ) (H.4 p n = p n 3 + p n 3 + ( p n1 − p n 2 ) x ln (H. H.2) pn 2 = pvf Cb sin 2 β p n 3 = 3.3) (H.1) x Distance between the lower end of the hopper and the observed position (amount between 0 and xx) according to fig. H.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 NOTE see NOTE in H. to the inclined surface) And p n 2 are parts which describe the hopper loads caused by filling of the hopper pn1 µh Lower characteristic value of the coefficient of wall friction in the hopper Ks Upper characteristic value of the horizontal load ratio of the stored bulk material 186 .1 (with ref.4) Where β Inclination of the hopper walls vis-à-vis the vertical (see fig.0 A γK s cos 2 β U µh (H.

1). allowance is to be made for an additional load portion p s at the hopper junction (see fig.2d c and along the entire periphery of the hopper. measured across a length of 0. this load portion is to be calculated actively from the hopper junction.6) Where pvft is the vertical load portion of the fill load in the bulk material at the hopper’s starting point. calculated according to equations (11) or (86).1) (3) For silos with possible mass flow. p s = 2 Kp vft (H. H.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 pn 3 The part of the load portion caused by the vertical pressures (of the bulk material stored in the vertical silo shaft) at the hopper junction/ hopper’s starting-point Bottom load enlargement ratio Cb pvf Vertical load at the hopper’s staring point after the filling in accordance with equation (11) or (86) (2) The wall friction loads pt are given by: pt = p n µ h Where (H. 187 .5) pn represent the hopper loads acting vertically on the hopper wall according to equation (H.

1 – ALTERNATIVE RULES FOR THE HOPPER LOADS H. 188 .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 Phft lh pt x Pn3 Pn1 Ps β Pn3 Pn2 Ps 0.6 Determination of the Connecting Forces at the Hopper Junction The connecting forces in the hopper at the hopper junction are to be derived using the equilibrium conditions. the bottom load enlargement ratio C b is to be calculated.2dc Figure H. For the loads arising from covering up of the hopper.

9) µh ϕi Lower characteristic value of the coefficient of wall friction in the hopper Angle of internal friction of the saved bulk material NOTE The equation (H. the mean vertical pressure at any position in the bulk material is to be calculated according to the equations (116) and (117) using the following parameter Fe : ⎛ 1 Fe = ⎜ ⎜ 1 + µ cot β ⎝ ⎡ ⎛ sin φi ⎞⎧ ⎪ ⎟⎨1 + 2⎢1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎠⎪ ⎣ ⎝ 1 + sin φi ⎩ ⎞⎛ cos ε sin (ε − β ) ⎞⎤ ⎫ ⎪ ⎟⎜ ⎟⎥ ⎬ ⎟ ⎟⎜ sin β ⎠⎦ ⎪ ⎠⎝ ⎭ (H.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 H.7 Alternate Equations for the Hopper Load Correction Value xx for Discharge Loads In case of discharge loads in a hopper with steep walls. The equation (H.7) is to be used instead of the equation (128).8) ϕ wh = arctan µ h Where (H.7) for Fe is founded on the somewhat complex Theory of Enstad for discharge press 189 .7) In which ⎧ sin φ wh ⎫ ⎞ 1⎛ ε = β + ⎜ φ wh + arcsin ⎨ ⎬⎟ 2⎜ sin φi ⎭ ⎟ ⎩ ⎝ ⎠ (H.

(3) This annex can be used for the retrofitting of the existing structures.1 General This Annex contains instructions for making allowance for dust explosions in silo structures.2 (1) Application This section is applicable to all silo structures and other comparable structures where non-toxic combustible and explosive powders are processed or stored or accumulate in large quantities in the form of waste matter. In case of doubt an expert opinion has to be sought. (2) It does not apply to those structures in which explosions are ruled out by means of specific measures. In such case the actual state of the structure is to be taken into account. I.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 ANNEX I (NORMATIVE) INFLUENCES DUE TO DUST EXPLOSIONS I. not its planned state. 190 .

4 (1) Explosive Dusts and their Characteristic Values The dust from several bulk materials which are normally stored in the silo structures are explosive in nature. Protective Measures I.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 I. overpressures ranging from 8 bars to 10 bars can occur in closed spaces without vents.DIN EN 1127-1. Evaluation. Explosions can occur when organic or inorganic dust having sufficiently small particle size reacts exothermically with acid and thereby causes a swiftly progressive reaction.3 Additional Standards. Risks. (2) During an explosion of dust from bulk material normally stored in silos. Explosive Atmospheres – Explosion Protection – Part 1: Basis and Methodology DIN EN 50014. (3) The characteristic values for the explosive behaviour of dust are: -The dust characteristic value K st 191 . guidelines and regulations that are relevant to the planning and the operation of a silo structure. Explosion Protection Systems – Part 1: Determination of Explosive Characteristics of Combustible Dusts in the Atmosphere . Electrical Equipment for Explosion Hazard Areas – General Rules VDI 2263.DIN EN 26184-1.DIN-Fachbericht 140. Guidelines and Regulations Listed below are the additional standards. Silo Structures designed against Dust Explosions . Dust Fires and Dust Explosions. .

Soya flour.5 Sources of Ignition Small quantities of energy are generally adequate for igniting these dust particles. Soya meal.g. connecting passages and stairwells hot surfaces e. I.g. wheat flour. fly ash. milk powder. smoulder spots which can also enter into the silo bin from outside along with the bulk material. The following sources of ignition are of particular significance in silo bins and associated spaces e. corn flour. or sparks such as those caused by foreign bodies in the hoisting devices. incandescent bulbs) Heat generated due to drying Self ignition due to electrostatic discharge 192 . silo cellars. coke. sparks during welding. those which are caused by friction of defective structural components. maize starch (dry). rubber. paper. potato flour. feed-mix concentrate. resin.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 -The max. Speed dp of the rising pressure dt (5) Both values are determined in accordance with standardized procedures (see DIN-Fachbericht 140 and DIN 26184-1) (6) The principal explosive dust-types are: brown coal. coffee. wood dust. cellulose. Unsuitable or defective electrical equipment (e. barley. hard coal. fodder. Explosive overpressure p max (4) The dust parameter K st corresponds to the max. pigment.g. maize flour. washing agents and sugar. grinding and cutting during repairs. pea-flour.

(5) zone. The explosive overpressures are to be minimized. The inflammable emission coming out of a vent should not have any adverse effect on the surroundings nor be allowed to transmit the explosion to any other explosion 193 . and the opening pressure and the inertia of the depressurizing system. ges .DIN 1055-6:2005-03 I. The spreading of the explosion to another area is to be avoided. the size of the zone where pressure relief has to be effected and the vents. (4) The amount of the reduced explosive overpressures p red or p red . the zones must be dimensioned for the max. (3) The individual building sections between the explosion barriers are to be dimensioned for one of the following two conditions: -If no pressure relief has been provided. ges depend on the type of the dust. Explosive overpressure p max -If a suitable relief has been provided.6 (1) Protective Measures The damage caused by a dust explosion can be minimized by containing the explosion as far as possible within the area in which the igniting occurs. For this purpose explosion zones have to be demarcated.g. the provision and demarcation of relevant explosion zones). (2) The consequences of an explosion can be minimized by providing for suitable precautionary measures during planning (e. the zones must be dimensioned with the largest reduced overpressure p red or p red .

I.8 (1) Dimensioning for Explosive Overpressure All the load-bearing and space-enclosing components of an explosion zone are to designed for the dimensioning pressure. connecting passages and stairwells. I. (7) The opening pressure of the depressurizing system should be as small as possible And its mass inertia should be low. I.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 (6) There should be no danger to people on account of splinters from panes or other components. Vents should therefore lead out directly into the open – above roof tops in case of silo bins. This sub pressure is to be taken into account with the 194 . Here it must be kept in mind that with an early actuation of the depressurizing system a substantially larger quantity of the combustible dust-air mixture is passed on than with systems which have a greater inertia.7 Dimensioning of the Components The dimensioning of the concerned components is to be executed in accordance with the rules for extraordinary loads (catastrophic loads). a sub pressure may arise in the explosion area caused by the forces of mass inertia in case of swift gas emission and subsequent cooling of the hot flue gases.9 Dimensioning for Sub pressure After a pressure relief has taken place. (2) The dimensioning pressures should be determined in accordance with the procedure given in the DIN-Fachbericht 140. and above high-lying window faces in case of other spaces such as silo cellars.

e. The recoil forces can be calculated as per the specifications in DIN-Fachbericht 195 . ropes or other attachments. (2) 140.DIN 1055-6:2005-03 dimensioning of enclosing components and the components which are situated in the cross-section of the current. I. (2) The velocities of the closing elements that were moved for estimating the anchoring forces can be determined using the calculating methods laid down in DINFachbericht 140. and covers with catches. This is to be specially checked in case of lightweight structures with horizontal vents which are distributed across the cross-section.if required - need to made in case of stability verification. I.10 (1) Securing the Closing Elements of the Vents All the closing elements are to be secured such that do not fly open as a result of the explosion’s pressure. shutters to be secured with joints. g.11 (1) Recoil Forces through Pressure Relief Recoil forces arise during pressure relief. for which allowance may .

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