Curs 01 Transportul lichidelor 1

3/3/2003

Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
1
OPERATII UNITARE
HIDRODINAMICE
TPAMSPOPTUL FLUIDELOP
AMESTECAPEA
SEDIMEMTAPEA
FILTPAPEA
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
2
IEHNICI DE LbCkb
HIDkODINAMICE
CEMTPIFU0APEA
FLUIDIZAPEA
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
3
IkAN$FOkIbL FLbIDELOk
4 3 moreo mo¡4rifofe o cozuriI4r fro3854rfuI
fIuideI4r e8fe 5referof fro3854rfuIui 84IideI4r.
A8ffeI, e8fe 5referof fro3854rfuI 84Iufiei î3 I4cuI
fro3854rfuIui 8e5orof oI c4m543e3feI4r oce8feio.
4 De muIfe 4ri, moferioIeIe 84Iide 8u3f fro3854rfofe
5ri3 o3fre3oreo I4r cu u3 fIuid:
- fro3854rfuI 53eumofic oI moferioIeI4r 84Iide
5uIveruIe3fe (cereoIe, fõi3uri efc.),
- fro3854rfuI hidrouIic oI u34r moferii 5rime oIe
i3du8friei oIime3fore (8fecIõ, corf4fi, f4mofe, frucfe
efc.), c43c4mife3f cu 85õIoreo oce8f4ro.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
4
IkAN$FOkIbL FLbIDELOk
4 3 i38foIofiiIe de 5r4ce8 oIe i3du8friiI4r
oIime3fore 8e fro3854rfõ 3umer4o8e fIuide
cu 5r45riefõfi f4orfe diver8e.
4 FIuideIe 8e de5Io8eozõ 5ri3:
- c43ducfe,
- co3oIe,
- o5orofe si reocf4ore
4 8ub ocfiu3eo u3ei e3erqii 5rimife di3
exferi4r,
4 î3 cozuI IichideI4r - 8ub ocfiu3eo e3erqiei
54fe3fioIe creofe de 4 difere3fõ de 3iveI.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
5
IkAN$FOkIbL FLbIDELOk
4 UfiIo¡eIe core 8erve8c Io fro38feruI
e3erqiei de Io 4 8ur8õ exferi4orõ Io u3 fIuid
54orfõ de3umireo qe3ericõ de:
- pompe (docõ fIuiduI e8fe u3 Iichid),
- compresoure (docõ fIuiduI e8fe u3 qoz).
4 De3umireo de pompe de vid e8fe dofõ
ufiIo¡eI4r core 8erve8c Io reoIizoreo u3ei
de5re8iu3i 8ou Io evocuoreo u3ui reci5ie3f.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
6
IkAN$FOkIbL FLbIDELOk
Pe3fru o 5r4v4co de5Io8oreo (curqereo) fIuideI4r
exi8fõ moi muIfe 548ibiIifõfi, si o3ume:
I. 5ri3 ocfiu3eo u3ei f4rfe ce3frifuqe:
Z. 5ri3 de5Io8oreo u3ui v4Ium de fIuid: fie 5e coIe
meco3icõ, fie 5ri3 i3fermediuI oIfui fIuid:
3. 5ri3fr-u3 im5uI8 meco3ic:
4. 5ri3 fro38fer de im5uI8 de Io oIf fIuid:
b. 5ri3 ocfiu3eo u3ui côm5 moq3efic:
o. 5ri3 ocfiu3eo f4rfeI4r qrovifofi43oIe.
Pe bozo oce8f4r mef4de de 5ri3ci5iu 8u3f
c438fruife f4ofe echi5ome3feIe de8fi3ofe
fro3854rfuIui fIuideI4r.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
7
FENOMENE ÎN FLbIDE
4 ADEZIUNEA e8fe fe34me3uI 5ri3 core, dof4rifõ
f4rfeI4r i3ferm4IecuIore, 5e c43furuI u3ui c4r5
84Iid cu core u3 fIuid vi3e î3 c43focf, 8e f4rmeozõ
u3 8frof f4orfe 8ubfire de fIuid core 8e miscõ
84Iidor cu c43furuI 84Iid c438iderof.
4 3 c438eci3fõ, 8frofuI de fIuid ofIof î3 c43focf
3emi¡I4cif cu 4 8u5rofofõ 84Iidõ ore oceeosi vifezõ
cu vifezo oce8feio.
4 Fe34me3uI de odeziu3e o f48f verificof 5e3fru
fIuideIe 3ewf43ie3e.
4 3 cozuI fIuideI4r 3e3ewf43ie3e 8e c438fofõ 4
oIu3ecore o eIeme3feI4r de fIuid de-o Iu3quI
8u5rofefei 84Iide.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
8
FENOMENE ÎN FLbIDE
4 TENSIUNEA SUPERFICIALÃ
8u5rofofo de c43focf î3fre d4uõ fIuide
3emi8cibiIe fi3de 8õ io 4 f4rmõ o cõrei orie
e8fe mi3imõ
Fe34me3uI e8fe rezuIfofuI f4rfeI4r de
c4eziu3e (f4rfe m4IecuIore de ofrocfie)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
9
IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ
7

A

#
A
a.
b.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
10
IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ
4 3 cozuI redof î3 fiq. o, f4rfeIe exercifofe
de m4IecuIeIe ofIofe î3 8fero de ocfiu3e
m4IecuIorõ 8u3f 8imefrice, ior rezuIfo3fo
I4r e8fe 3uIõ.
4 3 cozuI redof î3 fiq. b, rezuIfo3fo R o
f4rfeI4r de c4eziu3e e8fe 3e3uIõ si
4rie3fofõ î385re i3feri4ruI IichiduIui,
ocfi43ô3d co 4 c4m5re8iu3e.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
11
IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ
4 F4rfeIe de c4eziu3e F fo3qe3fe Io
8u5rofofo Iiberõ dou 3osfere u34r ef4rfuri
5e oceo8fõ 8u5rofofõ.
4 3 cozuI u3ui Iichid iz4fr45 si 4m4qe3 8e
54ofe defi3i î3 fiecore 5u3cf oI 8u5rofefei
Iibere 4 tensiune superficiuId (tensiune
interfuciuId - docõ e8fe v4rbo de 8u5rofofo
de c43focf o d4uõ Iichide 3emi8cibiIe):
o|
F o
|
F
|
6 6
6

F
2

9
(Zb)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
12
IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ
4 F4rmuIo dime38i43oIõ o fe38iu3ii 8u5erficioIe e8fe:
4 Te38iu3eo 8u5erficioIõ 8e ex5rimõ î3 kq/8
Z
8ou
M/m.
4 Te38iu3eo 8u5erficioIõ 8e mo3ife8fõ si î3 5u3cfeIe
c4mu3e oIe 8u5rofefei de c43focf core 8e5orõ
d4uõ Iichide 3emi8cibiIe si u3 qoz (fiq. o), 8ou u3
qoz, u3 Iichid si 4 8u5rofofõ 84Iidõ (fiq. b si c).

c %
|
F
9
(Zó)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
13
IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ

ƒ

ƒ

ƒ

ƒ

ƒ

ƒ

ƒ

ƒ

ƒ

-
-

8

8

a. b. c.
Mo3ife8foreo fe38iu3ii 8u5erficioIe î3
5u3cfeIe de c43focf I
I
-I
Z
-q (o)
si I-q-8 (b si c)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
14
IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ
4 Po54rfuI di3fre
voI4oreo f4rfeI4r de
odeziu3e (F
u
) Iichid -
84Iid si voI4oreo
f4rfeI4r
i3ferm4IecuIore de
c4eziu3e di3 Iichid
(F
c
) i3fIue3feozõ
f4rmo me3i8cuIui
f4rmof î3fre u3
Iichid si u3 qoz î3
imediofo o5r45iere o
u3ei 8u5rofefe 84Iide
(fiq.).
#

.

,
g
l
#

.

,
l
g
a. b.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
15
IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ
4 Te38iu3eo 8u5erficioIõ
defermi3õ, de o8eme3eo,
fe34me3uI de
cupiIuritute, fe34me3
core o5ore î3 85ofiiIe
mici (fuburi de diomefru
f4orfe mic).
4 LichideIe core udõ
8u5rofofo 5r4v4ocõ
uscensiuneu cupiIurd
(u), ior ceIe core 3u udõ
8u5rofofo 5r4v4ocõ
coboräreu cupiIurd (b)
(fiq.).
a. b.

/
7
/
7

3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
16
IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ
4 De3iveIoreo h o IichideI4r î3 fuburi co5iIore
8e 54ofe coIcuIo cu reIofio:
4 î3 core:
- c ~ fe38iu3eo 8u5erficioIõ (M.m
-I
),
- p ~ de38ifofeo IichiduIui (kq.m
-3
),
- q ~ occeIerofio qrovifofi43oIõ (m.8
-Z
),
- d ~ diomefruI co5iIoruIui (m),
- 0 ~ u3qhiuI de roc4rdore oI IichiduIui cu
5erefeIe co5iIoruIui.
7
8
9
.48

c
c c

o o
n
(33)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
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IEN$IbNEA $bFEkFICIALÄ
4 'oI4oreo fe38iu3ii 8u5erficioIe de5i3de de
3ofuro fIuideI4r î3 c43focf si de
fem5erofurõ.
4 Te38iu3eo 8u5erficioIõ 8code cu cresfereo
fem5erofurii.
4 Pe3fru oceIosi Iichid î3 c43focf cu qoze
diferife, fe38iu3eo 8u5erficioIõ voriozõ
5ufi3 cu 3ofuro qozuIui.
4 Te38iu3eo 8u5erficioIõ i3fIue3feozõ
dime38iu3iIe si f4rmo 5icõfuriI4r de Iichid si
3ofuro curqerii bifozice Iichid - qoz.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
18
CAVIIA]IA
4 LichideIe 54f î3c4r54ro, dof4rifõ fe34me3uIui de
ob84rbfie, 4 5orfe di3 qozeIe cu core vi3 î3 c43focf.
C43f4rm Ieqii Iui Henry, co3fifofeo de qoz ob84rbifõ e8fe
direcf 5r454rfi43oIõ cu 5re8iu3eo 5orfioIõ o qozuIui,
oceo8fo 8cõzô3d Io cresfereo fem5erofurii.
4 Pr4ce8uI i3ver8 ob84rbfiei, de84rbfio, ore I4c Io 8cõdereo
5re8iu3ii î3 8i8fem 8ou Io cresfereo fem5erofurii IichiduIui.
Docõ 5re8iu3eo 8code 8ub voI4oreo 5re8iu3ii de vo54ri o
IichiduIui, c4re85u3zõf4ore fem5erofurii Io core 8e ofIõ
oce8fo, o5or î3 Iichid buIe de qoz, 5r4ve3ife 5e de 4 5orfe
di3 de84rbfio qozeI4r diz4Ivofe si 5e de oIfõ 5orfe 5ri3
vo54rizoreo IichiduIui.
4 Fe34me3uI de o5orifie si dezv4Ifore o buIeI4r de
qoz î3 mo8o de Iichid 54orfõ de3umireo de
cuvitu|ie.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
19
CAVIIA]IA
4 CovifõfiIe (buIeIe) o8ffeI f4rmofe 54f fi
fro3854rfofe de cõfre IichiduI î3 miscore î3 z43e
î3 core 5re8iu3eo IichiduIui e8fe moi more decôf
5re8iu3eo de vo54ri, 5r4v4cô3du-8e o8ffeI
di8fruqereo buIeI4r 5ri3 impIozie si refõcô3du-8e
o8ffeI 4m4qe3ifofeo fozei Iichide.
4 AceIosi fe34me3 o5ore si î3 cozuI IichideI4r
8fofice docõ î3 8i8fem cresfe 5re8iu3eo 8ou 8code
fem5erofuro, o8ffeI î3côf 8õ fie î3de5Ii3ifõ
c43difio P · P
vo5
. Im5I4zio covifõfiI4r decurqe cu 4
reducere bru8cõ de v4Ium.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
20
CAVIIA]IA
4 Covifofio urmofõ de im5I4zie ocfi43eozõ
o8u5ro c43fururiI4r 84Iide core mõrqi3e8c
IichiduI (c43ducfe, 54m5e efc.) 5ri3:
- 5re8iu3iIe mori dezv4Ifofe î3 m4me3fuI
im5I4ziei:
- fe34me3eIe fermice i3du8e de c4m5rimoreo
qozuIui î3 covifõfi:
- c4r4ziu3eo 5r4v4cofõ de c4m5usii core 8e 54f
f4rmo.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
21
CAVIIA]IA
4 EfecfeIe meco3ice 3ed4rife dof4rofe
covifofiei î3 i38foIofiiIe de fro3854rf si
de54zifore o fIuideI4r 8u3f:
- uzuro ro5idõ 5ri3 er4ziu3e si c4r4ziu3e o
moferioIuIui 84Iid di3 core e8fe c43fecfi43of
fro8euI IichiduIui:
- vibrofii si zq4m4fe 5ufer3ice:
- mics4roreo ro3dome3fuIui meco3ic oI
i38foIofiiI4r.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
22
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
23
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Ecuofio 8er34uIIi 5e3fru reqim 8fofi43or
54ofe fi 5u8õ 8ub f4rmo:
4 Sou:
" ; ; o w

(1)
F oP ; ; ; o w
s

(Z)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
24
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Pe bozo oce8f4r d4uõ ecuofii 8e 54ofe
ofirmo cõ e3erqio fur3izofõ 54m5ei ore
r4IuI de o:
- ridico u3 Iichid de Io î3õIfimeo z
I
Io î3õIfimeo z
Z
:
- mõri vifezo u3ui fIuid de Io v
I
Io v
Z
:
- ridico 5re8iu3eo u3ui fIuid de Io P
I
Io P
Z
:
- mõri e3foI5io u3ui qoz de Io H
I
Io H
Z
:
- Tro3854rfo fIuiduI 5ri3 î3vi3qereo frecõrii F.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
25
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 O 54m5õ 8ou u3 qru5 de
54m5e de8ervesfe u3
8i8fem oIcõfuif di3:
- 85ofiuI de o85irofie (A),
- o38ombIuI de c43ducfe si
ormõfuri (C),
- 85ofiuI de refuIore (P).
4 Si8femuI îm5reu3õ cu
54m5o 8ou qru5uI de
54m5e oIcõfuie8c
uqrequtuI de pompure
(AP).
A
R
AP
C
C
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
26
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
DEßITUL POMPELOR
4 DebifuI mo8ic oI 54m5eI4r e8fe defi3if co fii3d mo8o de
Iichid fro3854rfofõ de 54m5õ î3 u3ifofeo de fim5.
4 DebifuI v4Iumic e8fe defi3if co v4IumuI de Iichid
fro3854rfof î3 u3ifofeo de fim5.
4 Po54rfuI di3fre debifuI v4Iumic reoI (M
'
) si debifuI v4Iumic
fe4refic (M
'f
) 54orfõ de3umireo de rundument voIumic uI
pompei:
'9
'
'

(3)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
27
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
NÃLTIMEA MANOMETRICÃ
4 Docõ ecuofio (Z) 8e îm5orfe 5ri3 occeIerofio
qrovifofi43oIõ q, 8e 4bfi3e:

2

o
w
o
F
o
P P
; ;
o

c

8

(4)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
28
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 core 8e moi 54ofe 8crie 8ub f4rmo:
4 u3de Z
m
e8fe LndI|imeu munometricd u
sistemuIui.
4 Se38uI fizic oI oce8fei mõrimi e8fe echivoIe3fuI î3
5re8iu3e (î3õIfime c4I4o3õ de Iichid) oI e3erqiei
core frebuie fro38ferofõ fIuiduIui de cõfre 54m5o
8ou qru5uI de 54m5e core de8erve8c 8i8femuI.
o
P
o
P
o
;

17
2
c

c

8 8

(b)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
29
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
P4m5o vo frebui 8õ
fro38fere
IichiduIui e3erqio
3ece8orõ frecerii
8oIe di3 vo8uI
i3feri4r (I) î3 ceI
8u5eri4r (Z),
odicõ:

!

!

;

;

w

,

3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
30
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 e3erqio 3ece8orõ mõririi vifezei IichiduIui de Io
voI4oreo v
I
Io i3frore î3 c43ducfo de o85irofie Io
voI4oreo v
Z
Io iesire di3 c43ducfo de refuIore.
Docõ ombeIe c43ducfe ou oceIosi diomefru
i3feri4r, vifezo IichiduIui î3 c43ducfo de o85irofie
vo fi f4f v
Z
:
4 e3erqio 3ece8orõ mõririi 5re8iu3ii 8fofice o
IichiduIui de Io voI4oreo P
I
, deo8u5ro IichiduIui î3
85ofiuI de o85irofie, Io voI4oreo P
Z
, deo8u5ro
IichiduIui î3 85ofiuI de refuIore:
4 e3erqio 3ece8orõ ridicõrii IichiduIui de Io c4fo z
I
Io
c4fo z
Z
:
4 e3erqio 3ece8orõ î3vi3qerii rezi8fe3feI4r 5ri3
frecore si o rezi8fe3feI4r hidrouIice I4coIe 5e
fro8euI 5e core 8e de5Io8eozõ IichiduI.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
31
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Pe3fru 8i8femuI di3 fiq., ec. (b) devi3e:
î3 core difere3fo:
54orfõ de3umireo de LndI|ime qeometricd si
e8fe î3õIfimeo 5e verficoIõ 5ô3õ Io core
frebuie ridicof IichiduI.
o
P
o
P P
o
; ;

17
2
c

c

8 8

(ó)
(7)
3/3/2003
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32
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Aceo8fõ î3õIfime de5i3de de m4duI î3 core
8u3f om5Io8ofe ufiIo¡eIe, re85ecfiv de
di8fo3fo 5e verficoIõ î3fre ceIe d4uõ
5u3cfe.
4 Aceeosi î3õIfime qe4mefricõ vo 5r4duce
5re8iu3i hidr48fofice eqoIe, i3difere3f de
c43fiqurofio c43ducfei di3fre ceIe Z 5u3cfe.
3/3/2003
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33
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk

lustrarea relatiei dintre înãltimea geometricã si presiunea
hidrostaticã
3/3/2003
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34
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Docõ u3ei 54m5e î3 fu3cfiu3e i 8e mõ84orõ
5re8iu3eo 8foficõ o IichiduIui Io i3froreo î3
54m5õ, P
o
, 5re8iu3eo 8foficõ o IichiduIui Io
iesireo di3 54m5õ, P
r
, difere3fo 5e verficoIõ
î3fre 5u3cfeIe de mõ8urõ o 5re8iu3iI4r, Z
0
,
vifezo IichiduIui Io i3froreo î3 54m5õ, v
o
si
vifezo medie o IichiduIui Io iesire di3 54m5õ,
v
r
, e3erqio fro38ferofõ efecfiv IichiduIui 8e
54ofe 8crie, î3 ferme3i de î3õIfimi:
3/3/2003
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35
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
u3de Z
me
e8fe LndI|imeu munometricd
efectivd o 54m5ei.
4 Aceo8fo 3u c43fi3e ferme3uI c4re85u3zõf4r
e3erqiei fro38ferofe IichiduIui 5e3fru
î3vi3qereo frecõriI4r si s4curiI4r oce8fuio î3
c4r5uI 54m5ei.

o
; ;
o
P P

, 7 , 7
20

c

c

8
(ß)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
36
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Luô3d î3 c438iderore oceo8fõ e3erqie 5ri3
ferme3uI P
5
, ecuofio (8) devi3e:
î3 core Z
mf
54orfõ de3umireo de LndI|ime
munometricd teoreticd o 54m5ei.
4 RundumentuI hidruuIic
oI 54m5ei,
h
:
o
P

o
; ;
o
P P

5
, 7 , 7
29
c

c

c

8 8

(9)
29
20
n

(10)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
37
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
NÃLTIMEA DE ASPIRATIE
4 mõrime de48ebif de im54rfo3fõ 5e3fru
om5Io8oreo 54m5ei î3 8i8fem
4 Pf. coIcuIuI î3õIfimii de o85irofie, Z
o
, 8e
8crie biIo3fuI e3erqefic î3fre 3iveIuI
IichiduIui î3 rezerv4ruI de o85irofie (5u3cfuI
I di3 fiq.) si c4fo oxuIui roc4rduIui de
o85irofie (ce3fruI 54m5ei di3 fiq.):
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
38
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk

!

!

;

;

w

,

o
P

o
;
o
P

o
;
o
P
1,s5
,
,s5 ,s5
c

c

c

c

c
8
8
8

(11)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
39
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
I3 ec. (II):
4 P
o85
~ 5re8iu3eo 8foficõ o IichiduIui î3 c4r5uI
54m5ei cô3d 8e reoIizeozõ o85irofio:
4 v
o85
~ vifezo medie de de5Io8ore o IichiduIui
î3 c4r5uI 54m5ei:
4 P
fo85
~ 5ierdereo de 5re8iu3e 5ri3 frecore
si rezi8fe3fe I4coIe 5e 54rfiu3eo di3fre
85ofiuI de o85irofie si i3froreo î3 54m5õ.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
40
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
-800
-400
0
400
800
1200
1ó00
8,50 º,00 º,50 10,00 10,50 11,00 11,50
Fres|uneo borometr|co [Fo x 10
-4
]
A
|
t
|
t
u
d
|
n
e
o

[
m
]
4 Docõ 85ofiuI de
o85irofie e8fe
de8chi8, P
I
e8fe
f4cmoi 5re8iu3eo
bor4mefricõ P
b
exercifofõ Io
8u5rofofo
IichiduIui.
4 Aceo8fo e8fe
fu3cfie de
oIfifudi3eo
om5Io8ome3fuIui
(fob. 4.I - Tr85.
fIuideI4r).
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
41
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Pre8iu3eo P
o85
o IichiduIui î3 c4r5uI 54m5ei
cô3d 8e reoIizeozõ o85irofio 3u frebuie 8õ
fie moi micõ decôf 5re8iu3eo de vo54ri o
IichiduIui, P
vo5
, Io fem5erofuro Io core 8e
foce o85irofio (fob. 4.Z).
4 3 coz c43fror, 4 5orfe di3 IichiduI o85irof
8e 54ofe fro38f4rmo î3 vo54ri, ducô3d Io
o5orifio fe34me3uIui 3ed4rif de covifofie.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
42
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 3I4cui3d î3 (II) P
I
cu P
b
si P
o85
cu P
vo5
si
ex5Iicifô3d î3õIfimeo de o85irofie, 8e
4bfi3e:
4 De 4bicei, ferme3uI ci3efic di3 (IZ) ore
voI4ore micõ si 54ofe fi 3eqIi¡of.
o
; ;
o
P
o
P
o
P

,s5 1,s5 ;,5
-
,
c

c

c

c

8 8 8
(1Z)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
43
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 3 5rocficõ, Z o85irofie 8e coIcuIeozõ di3
c43difio derivofõ di3 ecuofio (IZ):
4 Pe3fru mo¡4rifofeo IichideI4r, cô3d
o85irofio 8e foce Io Z88 - Z93 I (Ib - Z0
"C), î3õIfimeo de o85irofie e8fe moi micõ de
o m.
o
P P P

1,s5 ;,5 -
,
c

A
8
(13)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
44
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Docõ î3 c43difiiIe
î3 core 8e foce
o85irofio rezuIfõ
di3 coIcuI Z
o
· 0,
54m5o 8e vo
om5Io8o 8ub
3iveIuI IichiduIui
di3 vo8uI de
o85irofie, 5e3fru
co IichiduI 8õ
curqõ Iiber î3
54m5õ (b).
a. b.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
45
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Cô3d IichiduI 8e qõ8esfe Io 3iveI moi odô3c
decôf î3õIfimeo de o85irofie, 8e f4I48e8c
54m5e 85ecioIe (3umife 54m5e 8ubmer8ibiIe
8ou 54m5e imer8ofe) cu eIecfr4m4f4ruI
î3chi8 efo3s, i3fr4du8 îm5reu3õ cu 54m5o î3
Iichid.
4 Lo co5õfuI c43ducfei de o85irofie 8e
m43feozõ u3 84rb cu 8u5o5õ. Co5õfuI
i3feri4r oI c43ducfei frebuie 8õ fie Io ceI
5ufi3 0,b m 8ub 3iveIuI o5ei di3 rezerv4r si
Io ceI 5ufi3 0,b m di8fo3fõ de fu3d.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
46
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
M
i38
~ 5ufereo i38foIofõ o
8i8femuIui de ocfi43ore:
4 M
m4f
~ 5ufereo m4f4ruIui:
4 M
o
~ 5ufereo de o3fre3ore:
4 M
i
~ 5ufereo i3dicofõ:
4 M
e
~ 5ufereo efecfivõ:
4 M
u
~ 5ufereo ufiIõ:
4 M
3
~ 5ufereo 3ece8orõ.
8ursa
de
putere
Hotor Transm|s|e
Pompa
[Crup de
pompe}
Ansamb|u|
ut||aje|or
s| conducte|or

38

249

,

0

:

3
PUTEREA SI RANDAMENTUL
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
47
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Po54rfô3d d4uõ côfe d4uõ 5uferiIe, 8e
defi3e8c urmõf4oreIe rundumente:
- rundumentuI trunsmisiei di3fre m4f4r si 54m5õ,

tr
= N
u
/N
mot
. Ace8fo fi3e 8eomo de 5ierderiIe
de e3erqie defermi3ofe de 8i8femuI de
fro38mi8ie:
- rundumentuI mecunic uI pompei,
m
= N
i
/N
u
,
fi3e 8eomo de 5ierderiIe de e3erqie dof4rofe
frecõrii 8ubo38ombIuriI4r î3 miscore (orb4re si
Ioqõre, 5i8f43 si ciIi3dru, 8u5o5e si qhido¡e,
r4f4r si corco8õ efc.):
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
48
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
- rundumentuI hidruuIic uI pompei,
h
=N
e
/N
i
,
fi3e 8eomo de 5ierderiIe de e3erqie 5ri3
frecoreo si s4curiIe IichiduIui î3 54m5õ:
- rundumentuI voIumic uI pompei,
'
, defi3if
5ri3 ecuofio (I0), fi3e 8eomo de c438umuI
8u5Iime3for de e3erqie 5e3fru o oc45eri
5ierderiIe de debif. Se 54ofe 8crie si:

'
= N
u
/N
e
:
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
49
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 rundumentuI totuI uI pompei,
p
, e8fe dof de
5r4du8uI di3fre ro3dome3fuI meco3ic, hidrouIic si
v4Iumic oI 54m5ei:
4 rundumentuI totuI uI uqrequtuIui de pompure,

T
, 8e coIcuIeozõ co 5r4du8 î3fre ro3dome3fuI
54m5ei, ro3dome3fuI fro38mi8iei si ro3dome3fuI
m4f4ruIui:
' n 2 5
c c
249 97 5 %
c c
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
50
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Putereu necesurd 8e coIcuIeozõ 5e bozo
î3õIfimii mo34mefrice si o debifuIui v4Iumic
(m
'
) de Iichid fro3854rfof 5ri3 8i8fem:
(

' 2
3
2 o

c c c

8
(14)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
51
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Putereu de untrenure 8e coIcuIeozõ du5õ
oIeqereo 54m5ei, fi3ô3d c43f de debifuI v4Iumic
reoI (m
'
), î3õIfimeo mo34mefricõ efecfivõ (Z
me
) si
ro3dome3fuI
5
:
4 Docõ 54m5o oIeo8õ 3u 8ofi8foce c43difio: Z
me
· Z
m
si/8ou ceri3feIe de debif, ofu3ci fie 8e Ieoqõ î3
8erie 8ou î3 5oroIeI moi muIfe 54m5e, fie 8e oIeqe
u3 oIf fi5 de 54m5õ.
(

5
' 20
,
2 o

8
c
c c c

(1b)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
52
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Putereu motoruIui 8e coIcuIeozõ Iuô3d î3
c438iderore ro3dome3fuI f4foI oI
oqreqofuIui de 54m5ore:
(

%
' 20
249
2 o

8
c
c c c

(1ó)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
53
kELA]II $I MÄkIMI CAkACIEkI$IICE ÎN
IkAN$FOkIbL LICHIDELOk
4 Putereu instuIutd e8fe moi more decôf
5ufereo m4f4ruIui, 5e3fru o o8iquro 4
rezervõ î3 coz de 8u5roî3cõrcore:
(
249 3s
c .
(17)
Putereu
necesurd [k(
· I I - b b - b0 · b0
Fuctor de
instuIure .
Z - I,b0
I,b0 -
I,Z0
I,Z0 - I,Ib I,I0
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
54
CLA$IFICAkEA FOMFELOk DbFA
FkINCIFIbL CON$IkbCIIV
Pompe
fdrd
eIemente
mobiIe
Pompe uvänd orqune principuIe Ln miscure
Pompe voIumice
Pompe centrifuqe
P4m5e cu
miscõri
oIfer3ofive
(54m5e cu
5i8f43)
P4m5e
r4fofive
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
55
FOMFE FÄkÄ ELEMENIE
MO8ILE
Sif43uI
M43fe¡u8uI
0oz-IiffuI
I3¡ecf4ore, e¡ecf4ore
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
56
$IFONbL
4 Sif43uI e8fe î3
5ri3ci5iu 4 feovõ - di3
8ficIõ, mefoI, moferioI
5Io8fic - î3d4ifõ 8ub
f4rmõ de U.
4 Servesfe Io
fro38vozoreo
IichideI4r de Io u3
3iveI 8u5eri4r Io u3uI
i3feri4r, 5ô3õ Io
eqoIizoreo ceI4r d4uõ
3iveIe (fiq. 4.b).

%

3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
57
$IFONbL
4 Am4r8oreo 8e foce 5ri3 um5Iereo 8if43uIui cu IichiduI de
fro38vozof 8ou cu u3 oIf Iichid, docõ ome8fecoreo ceI4r
d4uõ Iichide 3u e8fe dõu3õf4ore.
4 Mece8ifofeo om4r8õrii e8fe 5ri3ci5oIuI dezovo3fo¡ oI
8if43uIui si de oceeo exi8fõ muIfe 84Iufii c438frucfive core
evifõ om4r8oreo direcfõ (fiq. 4.o).
a. b. c.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
58
$IFONbL
4 O o d4uo c43difie de fu3cfi43ore e8fe co
5re8iu3eo î3 5u3cfuI ceI moi î3oIf (5u3cfuI C)
oI 8if43uIui 8õ fie 8u5eri4orõ 5re8iu3ii de
8ofurofie o IichiduIui Io fem5erofuro de
Iucru.
4 A5Iicô3d ecuofio ßernouIIi 5e 54rfiu3eo AC
o 8if43uIui di3 fiq. 4.b, 8e 4bfi3e:

c F
P P ;
o
0
8
(1ß)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
59
$IFONbL
4 Ecuofio (I8) 8e 54ofe 5u3e 8ub f4rmo:
- z ~ difere3fo de 3iveI di3fre 5u3cfuI C si 8u5rofofo
IichiduIui,
- v ~ vifezo IichiduIui î3 8if43,
- P
I
~ 5re8iu3eo Io 8u5rofofo IichiduIui,
- P
C
~ 5re8iu3eo î3 5u3cfuI C,
- 8 ~ de38ifofeo IichiduIui,
- F ~ e3erqio de frecore 5e u3ifofeo de mo8õ de Iichid,
- f ~ F/q ~ frecoreo IichiduIui 5ô3õ î3 5u3cfuI C (i3cIu8iv
rezi8fe3fo de Io i3froreo î3 8if43),
- P
S
~ 5re8iu3eo de 8ofurofie o IichiduIui Io fem5erofuro
de Iucru.
$ 0
P 1
o
;
o P P

c

8
(19)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
60
$IFONbL
4 DebifuI 8if43uIui 8e defermi3õ o5Iicô3d
ecuofio 8er34uIIi î3fre 5u3cfeIe 1 si Z, de
i3frore, re85ecfiv iesire o IichiduIui di3
8if43:

c

c

F
P P
o ;
F
P P ;
o
8
8
(Z0)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
61
$IFONbL
4 Docõ 5re8iu3iIe î3 5u3cfeIe 1 si Z 8u3f eqoIe
(P
I
~ P
Z
) si docõ 8e 3eqIi¡eozõ frecoreo
(F' ~ 0), ecuofio (Z0 b) devi3e:
4 A3oIizô3d ecuofio (ZI) 8e 54ofe c438fofo cõ
î3 m4me3fuI î3 core 3iveIuI IichiduIui e8fe
oceIosi î3 ombeIe rezerv4ore, odicõ z' ~ 0,
vifezo de curqere o IichiduIui 5ri3 8if43
devi3e v ~ 0, deci debifuI devi3e si eI 3uI,
re85ecfiv fu3cfi43oreo 8if43uIui î3cefeozõ.
o ; c
(Z1)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
62
MONIEJb$bL
4 E8fe u3 ufiIo¡ 8fofic, cu
fu3cfi43ore
i3fermife3fõ, ufiIizof
5e3fru fro38vozoreo
u34r fIuide o cõr4r
oqre8ivifofe chimicõ
e8fe f4orfe more.
Pe3fru fro38vozore 8e
f4I48esfe oeruI
c4m5rimof (0,3 - 0,4
MPo) 8ou oIf qoz i3erf.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
63
AI-LIFIbL
4 Mumif si pompu Mummut, oce8f o5orof 54ofe
ridico Iichide curofe 8ou c43fi3ô3d moferii fi3e î3
8u85e38ie (3i8i5, 3õm4I) 8ou chior c4r5uri mori
(8fecIe î3freqi, de exem5Iu).
4 0oz-IiffuI ufiIizeozõ u3 fIuid m4f4r, uzuoI oer
c4m5rimof, core, di85er8of 8ub f4rmõ de buIe î3
Iichid, f4rmeozõ u3 8i8fem efer4qe3 qoz - Iichid o
cõrui de38ifofe e8fe moi micõ decôf de38ifofeo
IichiduIui.
4 Di85er8io de qoz î3 Iichid 8e ridicõ 5ri3 feovo de
refuIore, ofu3dofõ odô3c î3 Iichid, 5e 5ri3ci5iuI
vo8eI4r c4mu3ico3fe.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
64
AI-LIFIbL
4 3 5ri3ci5iu, u3
qoz-Iiff (fiq. 4.8)
e8fe oIcõfuif
di3fr-4 feovõ de
Iu3qime H
ofu3dofõ 5e
54rfiu3eo H
8
î3
IichiduI de 54m5of.
Lo exfremifofeo
i3feri4orõ o fevii
i3frõ 4 feovõ moi
8ubfire 5ri3 core
e8fe odu8 oeruI
c4m5rimof.
er comprimat
1
2
3
4

8

5

3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
65
AI-LIFIbL
4 Su85e38io Iichid - oer 8e ridicõ 5ô3õ Io
co5õfuI 8u5eri4r oI fevii de refuIore docõ
e8fe î3de5Ii3ifõ c43difio:
4 u3de 8
I
si 8
m
8u3f re85ecfiv de38ifofeo
IichiduIui si de38ifofeo 8u85e38iei Iichid -
oer,
4 e8fe î3õIfimeo de 54m5ore (Z3).

| 5 | s 2
8 8 8 c c c
(ZZ)
s 5

3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
66
AI-LIFIbL
4 Di3 ecuofio (ZZ) rezuIfõ 3ece8ifofeo
ofu3dõrii odô3ci o c43ducfei de refuIore:
4 Moreo Iu3qime de ofu3dore o c43ducfei de
refuIore, oIõfuri de ro3dome3fuI f4foI
8cõzuf (î3fre 3o - b07) 8u3f 5ri3ci5oIeIe
i3c43ve3ie3fe î3 ufiIizoreo oce8f4r fi5uri de
54m5e.
2 |
2
5 s

8 8
8

c
(Z4)
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
67
INJECIOAkE $I EJECIOAkE
4 In|ectoureIe ~ o5orofe core 8erve8c Io
ridicoreo si fro3854rfuI IichideI4r, 8ou Io
54m5oreo I4r î3fr-u3 reci5ie3f 8ub 5re8iu3e,
f4I48i3d e3erqio ci3eficõ o u3ui fIuid m4f4r:
obur, oer c4m5rimof, o5õ 8ub 5re8iu3e.
4 E|ectoureIe ou 4 c438frucfie 8imiIorõ cu ceo
o i3¡ecf4oreI4r, dor ou r4IuI fu3cfi43oI de o
evocuo u3 fIuid di3fr-4 i3ci3fõ.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
68
INJECIOAkE $I EJECIOAkE
In|ector: I - roc4rd i3frore fIuid m4f4r: Z - duzo: 3 - o¡ufo¡
de ome8fec: 4 - difuz4r i3feri4r: b - difuz4r exferi4r.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
69
INJECIOAkE $I EJECIOAkE
4 FIuiduI m4f4r A i3frõ 5ri3 roc4rduI I î3 duzo Z,
u3de e3erqio de 5re8iu3e e8fe fro38f4rmofõ î3
e3erqie ci3eficõ, 8frõbofe cu vifezõ more o¡ufo¡uI
de ome8fec 3, o3fre3ô3d IichiduI de 54m5of ß:
4 Se f4rmeozõ u3 ome8fec î3fre fIuiduI m4f4r si
IichiduI de 54m5of C, o cõrui e3erqie ci3eficõ
ofi3qe voI4oreo moximõ î3 qôfuI i3¡ecf4ruIui:
4 Ame8fecuI C frece o54i î3 difuz4ruI i3feri4r 4 si
î3 difuz4ruI exferi4r b, u3de e3erqio ci3eficõ e8fe
fro38f4rmofõ fre5fof î3 e3erqie de 5re8iu3e.
3/3/2003
Lucian GavriIa - OPERATII UNITARE I
70
INJECIOAkE $I EJECIOAkE
4 A'AMTAJE:
- o5orofe ieffi3e si 8iqure,
- fro3854rfõ si Iichide cu moferii î3 8u85e38ie,
- 8e 54f c438frui di3 moferioIe o3fic4r4zive.
4 DEZA'AMTAJE:
- 3ece8ifõ debife mori de fIuid m4f4r,
- ou ro3dome3f e3erqefic 8cõzuf (Ib - 307).
4 Ame8fecoreo IichiduIui de 54m5of cu fIuiduI
m4f4r 54ofe deve3i u3 ovo3fo¡ ofu3ci cô3d,
5e Iô3qõ 54m5ore, e8fe d4rifõ si î3cõIzireo
IichiduIui.



 

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