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Ruling as large a territory as the Indian subcontinent with such a diversity of people & cultures was a difficult task for a ruler to accomplish in Middle Ages. each ruler getting a picture made of Timur & himself. China & Central Asia. They celebrated their genealogy pictorially. ruler of the Mongol tribes.MUGHAL EMPIRE WHO WERE THE MUGHALS? The Mughals were descendants of two great lineages of rulers. From their mother¶s side they were descendants of Genghis Khan. Mughals created an empire and accomplished what had hitherto seemed possible for only short periods. the ruler of Iran. Iraq & Modern-day Turkey. They expanded their kingdom from Agra to Delhi The Mughal family line . From their father¶s side they were the successors of Timur.

1627 1628 . Prince Khurram was 35 years old when he ascended the throne as Shah Jahan (King of the World). the most sophisticated Mughal commander and leader. was only 14 years of age when he succeeded his father Humayun. Farid Khan Sur.MUGHAL EMPIRE The Dynasty of the great Mughals in India 1526 . Akbar.1658 1659 . Bahadur Shah II. the last Mughal emperor. Humayun died unexpectedly at the age of 48 when he fell down the steps of his library in his haste to obey the muezzin's call to prayer.1707 1857 Akbar. The end of the Mughal Empire. The rise of the great Mughal dynasty in India 1530 . In the summer of 1659. Jahangir succeeded his father . Humayun was defeated and dislodged by insurrections of nobles from the old Lodi regime. Aurangzeb was the victor who took the throne.1530 Babur's victory at Panipat in 1526 established the Mughal Empire and ended the reign of the Delhi Sultanate. .1605 1605 . Aurangzeb held a coronation durbar in the Red Fort where he assumed the title of Alamgir (World Conqueror). was deposed in 1858. After a bitter struggle with his three brothers.1556 Humayun succeeded his father Babur and became an emperor in India. 1556 . who assumed the regional name of Shir Shah Sur. In 1540. the Mughal domain came under the control of one of those nobles. India was brought under the direct rule of the British Crown.

The empire was founded by the Mongol leader Babur in 1526.MUGHAL EMPIRE The Great Mughal Emperors Babur: 1526-1530 Humayun: 1530-1556 Akbar: 1556-1605 Jahangir: 1605-1627 Shah Jahan: 1627-1658 Aurangazeb: 1658-1707 The Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled most of the Indian subcontinent between 1526 and 1857. Mughal rulers created a powerful empire in which military might and artistic culture flourished. when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi. . the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat.

These actions were later retracted byAurang eb. re-imposed the jizya. although this is disputed. Under Akbar. the tax on non-Muslims. Many Sufi shrines are still visited by Hindus as well as Muslims. including the miniature paintings for which the Mughals are renowned. Under Aurangzeb. and Jehangir executed the fifth Guru. He enjoyed good relations with the emerging Sikh community. based on Muslim precepts forbidding images. so he banished court musicians. One of Akbar's most unusual ideas regarding religion was Din-iIlahi (³Godism´ in English). Aurangzeb imposed Sharia law. popular Sufi teachers such as attracted Hindu and Muslim disciples while some Hindu gurus were also popular among Muslims. and abandoned use of the lunar Muslim calendar in favor of a solar calendar more useful for agriculture. and it was proclaimed the state religion until his death. destroyed temples in order to build mosques. Mughal court life changed dramatically. At times. Islam did not allow music. he did not emphasi e his religion. but rather his Mongol heritage. dancers. When Babur first founded the empire. known for his zealotry. Even the Taj Mahal is reputedly built on a sacred Hindu site. He is known to have treated non-Muslims harshly. and as had Babur. and singers. Islam. and Christianity. According to his interpretation. which he codified. Further. although many of the su jects of the empire were Hindu and also Si h. he stopped the production of representational artwork. which was an eclectic mix of Hinduism. the court abolished the jizya.MUGHAL EMPIRE RELIGION A pi tu from t i i of t Mug l palace Khas Mahal The Mughal ruli g class was Muslim. . The Mughal Emperors persecuted several of the Sikh Gurus.

Whether the earlier policies of harmonizing religions were merely pragmatic or stemmed from a more inclusive understanding of Islam is debatable. they did not afford religious scholars much authority. rather than as subject to Islamic law.MUGHAL EMPIRE  The Mughals tended to regard themselves as rulers by divine right. such Sufi teachers as Kabir (1414-1518) who flourished at an earlier period had represented a 'peace to all' type of Islam that was attractive to many people in the subcontinent. Although they recognized the Ottoman claim to the title of caliph. . they saw the Ottomans as just another Muslim empire like themselves. Thus. especially as they shared a similar pedigree. Certainly.

gardens and cities. Characteristic elements of Mughal architecture 1. the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners. 6.MUGHAL EMPIRE MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE All the early Mughal Rulers except Aurangzeb were great bui1ders. massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums. The main characteristic features of Mughal architecture are the bulbous domes. 2. tombs and mosques. Jharokha Chhatri Chhajja Jali Charbagh Symmetry . Indian architecture was greatly influenced by Persian styles. 4. 5. surmounted by huge domes. He built several forts. 3. The few mosques and palaces built by Babar and Humayun are not of much architectural significance Sher Shah of the Sur Dynasty who ruled over the Kingdom of the Mughals after driving Humayun out of the country was not only a great administrator but a lover of art also. mosques. The mausoleums are octagonal in plan and have verandahs around them. large halls. forts. The monuments of Sher Shah are a continuation of the Lodi style. The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character. With the coming of the Mughals. The verandahs have three smaller domes on each side.

Under the orthodox Aurangzeb. the practice. The temple is built on the arch and dome principle and incorporated many features of the Mughal traditions of architecture. the Mughal architecture reached its zenith. Extensive use was made of the low arches and bulbous do mes that characterize the Mughal style during his period. which had been introduced to India during days of Sultanate of Delhi. This new style combined elements of Islamic art and architecture. of putting up buildings entirely of marble and decorating the walls with floral designs made of semiprecious stones was established. Another major influence in the architecture style was the construction of palaces and forts keeping in mind the hot climate of North India. With the firm establishment of the Mughal Empire. The use of this style of decoration was called µpietra dura¶. the Mughal Architecture saw its decline. built by the Mughals. The Mughals built magnificent forts. mosques. had flowing water streams. gates. At the end of Jaha ngir¶s reign. The crowning glory of Mughal architecture is the Taj Mahal built by Shah Jahan. due to the religious tolerant nature of some Mughal emperors like Akbar. It was a combination of Indo. Soon this style of architecture was used extensively by the nobles and common people. Islamic and Persian style of art. The use of running water in their palaces and pleasure resorts was a special feature of the Mughals. Akbar was the first Mughal ruler who undertook constructions on a large scale and the first great Mughal monume nt was the mausoleum to Humayun. The buildings were also built in a manner to take advantage of the breeze. taking into consideration the hot weather. Most notable of Akbar's buildings was the palace -cum-fort complex at Fatehpuri Sikri. The Mughal Gardens introduced by Babur to India was used extensively used to decorate the surrounding of these buildings. The gardens. This influence can be greatly seen in the construction of the famous Golden Temple of Amritsar. Pearl Mosque in Delhi is his lone contribution. . with features of Persian art and architecture. water tanks and many more buildings. The Mughal architecture incorporated many Indian styles. palaces. Red Fort in Delhi is another great achievement. greatly influenc ed the forts and palaces belonging to other kingdoms and provinces.MUGHAL EMPIRE The Mughal architecture flourished in the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal rule (1526-1857). Native red sandstone was inlaid with white marble and all the surfaces were ornately carved on the outside and sumptuously painted inside. The Mughal architectural style. publ ic buildings.

. who is often considered the true founder of the Mughal Empire.MUGHAL EMPIRE Akbar. laid the grounds for the significant economic growth and the fabulous art and building activities of his successors.

Borders of inscriptions decorate the main archways. ornamental pools and water -courses. . The surface of the walls ± exterior and interior and the cenotaphs are beautifully decorated with pietra dura. vaulted recess with smaller arched recesses in two storeys on either side make up the facade of the building on all sides.MUGHAL EMPIRE Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal in Agra. Around the dome are four cupolas. An octagonal hall with an exquisite perforated marble screen contains the cenotaphs of Mumtaz and Shah Jehan. A Mosque on the west and a corresponding structure on the east in red sand stone complete the effect of symmetry. Built on the banks of the river Jumna. The main structure is a square. floral and geometrical designs.D. The vaulted ceiling is crowned in the centre by a large bulbous dome which tapers off into a foliated crest. The Taj is situated in the centre of a high marble terrace. A marble minaret of four storeys stands on each of the four corners of the terrace. The minarets are crowned with domes. Situated in a large enclosed rectangular garden with fountains. A huge. entrance to the Taj is by a majestic gateway. a Persian architect it is a masterpiece of architecture. and took 22 years to complete. Marble from Makrana and precious stones from different parts of the world were used in its construction. Planned by Isa. a dream in white marble was built by Shah Jehan as a memorial to his beloved wife Mumtaz Begum. it was started in 1632 A.

MUGHAL EMPIRE MILITARY  Babur. Ibrahim lodi.  He was forced to leave his ancestral throne due to invasion of Mongol group.  Instead they followed the Mughal and Timurid custom of coparcenary inheritance amongst all sons. the uzbegs. succeeded to the throne of ferghana in 1494 when he was only 12 years old. at Panipat & captured Delhi & Agra  The Mughals did not believe in the rule of primogeniture where the eldest son inherited his father¶s estate. . In 1526 he defeated the sultan of Delhi. the first Mughal emperor.

. he later became the first Mughal ruler (1526 -30).000 to meet the sultan's huge but unwieldy and disunited force of more than 100. moveable artillery.MUGHAL EMPIRE BABUR ‡ Babur was the great-grandson of Timur Lenk (Timur the Lame. ‡ Then led a short-lived empire based in Samarkand (in modern-day Uzbekistan) that united Persian-based Mongols (Babur's maternal ancestors) and other West Asian people.000 men ‡ Babur defeated the Lodi sultan decisively at Panipat (in modern -day Haryana. from which the Western name Tamerlane is derived). Babur achieved a resounding victory. Employing gun carts. who had invaded India and plundered Delhi in 1398. and superior cavalry t actics. about ninety kilometers north of Delhi). ‡ Babur. entered India in 1526 with his well-trained veteran army of 12. ‡ Babur was driven from Samarkand and initially established his rule in Kabul in 1504.


and by the Afghan Rajput march into Delhi in 1540. In 1529 Babur routed the joint forces of Afghans and the sultan of Bengal but died in 1530 before he could consolidate his military gains.MUGHAL EMPIRE A year later. inherited a difficult task. When Babur died. his son Humayun (1530 -56). . also a soldier. He left behind as legacies his memoirs (Babur Namah ). Humayun was pressed from all sides by a reassertion of Afghan claims to the Delhi throne. he decisively defeated a Rajput confederacy led by Rana Sangha. by disputes over his own succession.

MUGHAL EMPIRE HUMAYUN Humayun inherited one of the largest empires in the world at the time and nearly ruined it. ‡ In 1545. and took control of Delhi in 1555. where he spent nearly ten years as an embarrassed guest at the Safavid court. defeated Sher Khan Sur. ‡ At the end of his conquests he fell down a flight of stairs and broke his neck. . 1556-1605). Jalal-ud-Din Akbar (r. Humayun gained a foothold in Kabul. ‡ Humayun's untimely death in 1556 left the task of further imperial conquest and consolidation to his thirteen-year-old son. Between 1530 and 1540 he managed to lose all the land that his father worked so hard to get through rebellions from Afghanistan and India. Humayun fled to Persia. reasserted his Indian claim. the most powerful Afghan ruler. ‡ He ended up eventually regaining all the lands back but is looked upon as one of the worst Mughal emperors.

artist. technologist and theologian. ‡ Brought sons of other nobles to live at court. emperor. general. but became greatest of all Mughal rulers. ‡ Realized India had diverse population. which could lead to breakdown of empire. starting in 1571. inventor. Bayram Khan began to free himself from the influences of overbearing ministers. and demonstrated his own capacity for judgment and leadership. Expanding Rule ‡ Akbar married daughter of local noble to win noble¶s support. ‡ Following a decisive military victory at the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556. Diverse Population ‡ Akbar took throne at age 13. ‡ In 1585. blacksmith. Akbar relocated the capital to Lahore and in 1599 to Agra. animal trainer (reputedly keeping thousands of hunting cheetahs during his reign and training many himself). ‡ Akbar built a walled capital called Fatehpur Sikri (Fatehpur means Fortress of Victory) near Agra. task of organizing what he conquered fell to descendants. lace maker.MUGHAL EMPIRE AKBAR ² The Great (Babur¶s Grandson) Babur died shortly after conquest of India. . court factions. Akbar the Great. carpenter. did everything he could to win people¶s loyalty. armorer. ‡ Most done by grandson. ‡ Akbar was an artisan. warrior. and harem intrigues. the regent Bayram Khan pursued a vigorous policy ‡ As soon as Akbar came of age.

‡ Akbar relied heavily on land-holding zamindars. Mughals ruled most of north India. ‡ Aided by Todar Mal. . Akbar obtained local revenue statistics for the previous decade in order to understand details of productivity and price fluctuation of different crops. ‡ Reformed tax system. They used their considerable local knowledge and influence to collect revenue and to transfer it to the treasury. people of other religions. Akbar issued a revenue schedule that the peasantry could tolerate while providing maximum profit for the state. ‡ 1605. m ilitary authority over his empire. Hindus. ‡ In 1580. fixed according to local conventions of cultivation and quality of soil. ‡ Revenue demands. at time. ‡ Held that no one religion could provide all answers to life¶s problems ‡ Did not want to discourage people from practicing any religion. discriminate against anyone for their beliefs. Firm Grip on Finances ‡ Established centralized government that gave him supreme civil.MUGHAL EMPIRE ‡ Did not hesitate to fight to prevent rebellion . Christians. appointed officials to oversee it . Akbar·s Achievements Religious Tolerance ‡ Akbar worked to unify diverse empire by promoting religi ous tolerance. Akbar died. debates among Muslims. ‡ Akbar adopted two distinct but effective approaches in administering a large territory and incorporating various et hnic groups into the service of his realm. much of interior. ranged from one-third to one-half of the crop and were paid in cash. ‡ Encouraged discussions. ‡ Appointed Hindus to several influential positions in government . ‡ Majority of officials from outside Mughal Empire . a Rajput king. Reforms ‡ Abolished taxes placed on non-Muslims by earlier rulers. keeping a portion in return for services rendered.

which paid tribute to the Mughals. and abolished the ji a (poll tax) imposed on non-Muslims. incorporating the princi ple of acceptance of all religions and sects. beautiful paintings. and indicating pay. Height of the Mughal Empire. and Assam.MUGHAL EMPIRE ‡ Within his administrative system. who otherwise were secluded at home . the Mughal Empire extended throughout most of India north of the Godavari River. discoura ged child marriage. or Diwali. The exceptions were Gondwana in central India. in the northeast.  He personally participated in celebrating Hindu festivals such as Dipavali. and obligations. the warrior aristocracy ( mansabdars) held ranks (mansabs) expressed in numbers of troops. .  Akbar came up with his own theory of "ruler ship as a divine illumination. armed contingents. outlawed the practice of sati. By the end of Akbar's reign. brisk economic activity. and persuaded Delhi merchants to set up special market days for women. the festival of lights. ¡  Mughal rule under Jahangir (1605-27) and Shah Jahan (1628-58) was noted for political stability.  He encouraged widow marriage. and monumental buildings." enshrined in his new religion Din-i-Ilahi (Divine Faith). ‡ The warrior aristocracy was generally paid from revenues of nonhereditary and transferrable jagirs (revenue villages).

MUGHAL EMPIRE He gh o the Mugha Emp e .

while the excessive Persian representation upset the . ± Unlike Muslims. from the earlier religions. who emerged as the most powerful individual in the court besides the emperor. yoga. time-serving officers mushroomed. and officers--including her own family members--lured by the Mughal court's brilliance and luxury. ± Like Muslims. believe in one God. Sikhs ‡ Some Sikhs had supported rebellion against Jahangir. Jahangir came into conflict with religious group. as did corruption. believe in reincarnation. ± Do not practice rituals like pilgrimage. attain unity with God. artists. ± Believe goal of existence to be fr eed from cycle of rebirth.  As a result. found asylum in India.MUGHAL EMPIRE JAHANGIR During reign.  Jahangir married the Persian princess whom he renamed Nur Jahan (Light of the World). Persian poets. blended elements of Islam. scholars. who has no physical form. who believe in afterlife.  The number of unproductive. Hinduism. who created world. ‡ Sikhism.

In that same year. an event that struck a serious blow to Mughal prestige. and Ahmadabad-linked by roads and waterways to distant places and ports. whose nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold.  Nur Jahan's abortive schemes to secure the throne for the prince of her choice led Shah Jahan to rebel in 1622.  Jahangir persecuted the followers of Jainism and even executed Guru Arjun Das. the Persians demonstrated Mughal military strength. Jahangir liked Hindu festivals but promoted mass conversion to Islam. the fifth saint-teacher of the Sikhs . . As the state became a huge military machine. Even though. so did its demands for more revenue from the peasantry. Delhi. Shah Jahan sent Mughal armies to conquer the Deccan and the northwest beyond the Khyber Pass. Agra. these campaigns consumed the imperial treasury. Between 1636 and 1646. the Persians took over Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. y Political unification and maintenance of law and order over wide areas encouraged the emergence of large centers of commerce and crafts--such as Lahore.MUGHAL EMPIRE delicate balance of impartiality at the court.

‡ Shah Jahan imposed heavy taxes on people. he had all rivals murdered. emeralds.  Wars ‡ Series of wars against India¶s neighbors also added to Shah Jahan¶s need for money. Taj Mahal built during his reign. Symbol of Mughal Majesty ‡ Shah Jahan also built new capital for India at Delhi . ‡ Demanded half of all crops grown in the country. Persian.  Taxes ‡ Needed funds to pay for monuments. Hindus. During his reign the Mughal Empire experienced a cultural golden age. other gems. ‡ At heart. ‡ Built as tomb for Shah Jahan¶s wife. Shah Jahan shared his father¶s love of literature and art. Muslim architectural styles.  TAJ MAHAL ‡ Greatest example of Mughal architecture. ‡ Designed by Persian architects. encrusted with gold. . chamber that held magnificent Peacock Throne . In order to secure hold on power. diamonds. ‡ Flanked by two sculpted peacocks.MUGHAL EMPIRE Shah Jahan ‡ Jahangir¶s son and successor. displays elements of Indian. famine for many. Shah Jahan was Muslim who did not practice religious tolerance. ‡ Unlike father. grandfather. ‡ Led to hardship. ‡ Many wars fought in name of Islam against Christians.

Reign ‡ Early in reign. Awe-inspiring but lacking in the charisma needed to attract outstanding lieutenants. and the huge and unwieldy army demonstrated outdated weaponry and tactics. concerned with expanding India¶s borders ‡ Empire reached greatest size at this time ‡ Later. Aurangzeb turned more to domestic affairs During his fifty-year reign. Aurangzeb was driven to extend Mughal rule over most of South Asia and to reestablish Islamic orthodoxy by adopting a reactionary attitude toward those Muslims whom he had suspected of compromising their faith. The bureaucracy had grown bloated and excessively corrupt. Shah Jahan grew terribly ill ‡ Sons began to maneuver to take throne ‡ Soon war broke out between them Succession ‡ Shah Jahan unexpectedly recovered but son Aurangzeb captured him ‡ After locking father in prison. killed all rivals . Aurangzeb was not the ruler to restore the dynasty's declining fortunes or glory. then declared himself the emperor.MUGHAL EMPIRE Aurangzeb Power Struggle ‡ 1657. ‡ Brought head of brother in box to show father . . the empire reached its utmost physical limit but also witnessed the unmistakable symptoms of decline.

abolished ceremonies. The Mughals had to make peace with Maratha rebels. and Persian and Afghan armies invaded Delhi. and the short lived reigns of Aurangzeb's successors were strife-filled. £¢ The Mughal Empire experienced dramatic reverses as regional governors broke away and founded independent kingdoms. he banned music at court. Peasant uprisings and revolts by local leaders became all too common. These measures alienated so many that even before he died challenges for power had already begun to escalate. the sultans of Bijapur and Golkonda in the Deccan. A puritan and a censor of morals. including the Peacock Throne in 1739. destroyed a number of them. Aurangzeb forbade the building of new temples. Contenders for the Mughal throne fought each other. and the Marathas in Maharashtra. and persecuted the Sikhs in Punjab. as did the conniving of the nobles to preserve their own status at the expense of a steadily weakening empire. and reimposed the ji a. .MUGHAL EMPIRE Aurangzeb was involved in a series of protracted wars--against the Pathans in Afghanistan. The increasing association of his government with Islam further drove a wedge between the ruler and his Hindu subjects. carrying away many treasures.


. firstly Aurangzeb religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. The character of Mughal kings had deteriorated over a period of time. The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character.MUGHAL EMPIRE Fall of Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time of Aurangzeb Alamgir. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him. The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors. They had become ease loving and cowardly. but it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after his death. They totally disregarded their state d uties and were unable to detain the declining empire from its fall.


During the fabled Mughal age. brass.MUGHAL EMPIRE Many features of the Mughal administrati e system were adopted by Great Britain in ruling India. . Such mingling of Hindu and Muslim sensibilities gave Mughal art the strength to endure. silver. bronze. gilt copper and the Deccani alloy known as bidri . richness. beauty. painting and music. whose greatness derives form the meeting of two worlds. The finest of these are among the most striking and poetic utilitarian wares ever made. restraint and sensuousness describe the essence of these works of art. Order. the craftsmen of the Sultans and Rajahs of India produced an astonishing variety of objects in gold and gold enamel. but the most lasting achievements of the Mughals were in the field of architecture. in addition to being of the most outstanding technical refinement. just as religious tolerance gave political strength to the Mughal emperor.


MUGHAL EMPIRE REFRENCES y y y y y Wikipedia -dynasty .com/the -country/medieval-india/mughalempire.britannica.html hal+empire&um http://www.


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