14 English Topics

EXAM PRACTICE

vocabulary use of English reading & speaking .. wr1t1ng word bank

with kry
~~~

KMs=w
MUZIEJUS

Kaisiadorys 2006

1 Mike and Susan are Ruth and David's 2 Nick and Carol are Susan's 3 Maria is Phil and Virginia's 4 David is Tom's 5 Lucy is Mike and Susan's 6 Nick is Tom's 7 Lucy is Tom's 8 Steve is Phil and Virginia's 9 Phil and Virginia are Lucy's 10 Ruth is David's 11 Tom is Steve's 12 Nick, Lucy and Steve are 13 Ruth is Carol's 14 David is Phil's 15 Carol is Lucy's

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

polite jealous stubborn pessimistic

communicative self-confident hard-working narrow-minded

rude nervous generous miserable

funny caring outgoing forgetful

active loyal lazy arrogant

ambitious industrious ill-bread calm

1 He was always very as a child and hated going to parties or meeting new people. 2 If you lend me the money, I'll be very . 3 Mary's father was too and never allowed his teenage daughter to wear make-up. 4 I wish you should grow up. You're so . 5 A good friend is someone who is kind, considerate and totally . 6 I wish I were as as Paul. He makes up stories to read to the children at bedtime without the least effort. 7 Shirley hates waiting for anything. She's so . 8 Ruth is a girl, always looking at herself in mirrors and thinking how fine she is. 9 I think I won't go to the party and stay here on my own, I'm not feeling very today. 10 My parents don't mind my crazy hair style. They are very .

shoulder-length

teenager

over sixteen
in hisfher earty thirties

straight
welL-buiLt plump

wavy fashionable
plaited overweight curl)'

thick under five
smart sfun aQult

dark-eyed

blonde
attractive Q)'eQ pensioner

oroaQ-shOU\QeleQ

middle-aged
in his/her late forties

trnn

handsome

Age Build

1 Read the text carefully. Each line has a missing word. Use the words from the box to complete the sentences. Use the word only once. Put a stroke ( / ) in the place where a word is missing. Write the missing word next to the number of the line. The first has been done for you.

I envy people who can say / they are in a few simple words. For me, not easy. Nationality? Well ... I have two passports. English or American, or other way around - for I was born in Alabama, but have lived most my life in England. Occupation? I'm ex-everything. A director of a large advertising agency, a theatre press officer, a porter in hospital, a broadcaster, a cookery writer. One summer I even worked a cowboy. When things really got desperate, I sank to a teacher of English foreign students. Since that the job I actually liked best, let's say I'm an exteacher, now a freelance writer. I'm very sociable, perhaps I'm happiest alone, reading a book. I as tall as a basketball player, but I hate all sports swimming. Now, if I've confused you, imagine it's like being me.

o ...•Y)JP
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5
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
13

.
. . . . . . .
.

2 Read the passage from Rachel's interview. If the lines are correct, put a tick (/) next to the number of the line. If the line has a word that shouldn't be there, underline the extra word and write it next to the number of the line, a~ in the example. I grew up in the north London and by the age of five I knew what I wanted to do and was determined to do it. In fact, I was a typical girlie girl: I dressed up for in my mum's high heels, I used to wear make-up, I was going to the ballet classes and was already in love with my first boyfriend. I have fond memories of my school days but I do remember coming in home crying on occasions. I wasn't majorly popular at the school. I never suffered physical bullying but I put up with about some bitchy, catty comments. There are so many different sides of bullying and it's all terrible, whether it's mental or physical. It affects to you no matter

o .. JM
00
1

.
.
.

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what form it takes. I guess I was a lucky because I could always talk with my parents about it. At the 15 I was an average student. My parents always told me to do my best and that's all that mattered. As soon as I turned 17, I have passed my driving test and my life took off. I finished my business course at college and then I left to work for a film company. I still live at the home which may sound a bit sad, but my parents have been so too cool that I have never felt the need to get away from them. I have my independence, I have my car, so I for basically do what I want. I'm so happy at the moment I can't tell you.

9 10
11 12 13 14

.

15
16 17 18

0: 1 What is..y,o.lJx. ~umame P: Poloni. 0: 2 •.••••••••••••.•.....•••••••••..••••....•...•••.........••••• P: It's Alberto. 0: 3.................•.......•.......•..................•........ P: 22"d June 1972.
0:
4 ................••.•••........•.••.•.••••••••.•••..••••••....

, please?
? ?
? ?

P: I'm Italian. 0: P: I'm a mechanic.

6 ...........................•••..........•.................... ? P: I'm divorced, my wife and two children live in France. 0: 7 ...•....•...•..•.......•••••.•............................... ?

P: I finished secondary school in 1990 with GCSE in six subjects. 0: One more question please. 8 ? P: I speak German and French fluently and understand Polish. 0: 9 ....•......•....................................................... ? P: Well, I'm very keen on basketball and enjoy gardening as well. 0: I see. 1O .•...•••••••••••.••••••••.•••••••.•••.••••••.••••••••••••••.• ? P: I'm going to stay here for fourteen months. 0: 11.•••...•...•.••••...••.....••••.......••••.•....••••...••.....••. ? P: It's 14 Venecia Street, Rome. 0: 12 .•••.••.•••.•......••..••••...........•..•.••..•••.•••..•........ ? P: It's 62 London Road, Brighton.

READING and SPEAKING
Read the biography of Linda Smith and make a chart for her as it is shown in Part b. Linda Smith, a famous singer and star of the Top Twenty, vas born in Bristol in 1960. Her parents originally came from Ireland. Linda's father was a Customs Officer in the Bri tol docks. He died a few years ago. Her mother was a , ousewife. Linda, who has two sisters, grew up in the suburbs of Bristol. She started her education at a local school and en moved to a large, modern comprehensive school in other part of the city. After leaving school when she was I . Linda went to Bristol University for three years to study ruslOry and economics. While she was at university, Linda . ined a university folk group and started singing. It was at - . rime that she wrote her famous song 'Let's Hope'. Soon - "'rfinishing her university career Linda joined another group began to earn money with her songs. When she was 21, ~ da was married to Ivor Jones who also was a student. a and Ivor have three children - a daughter, Eve, and o ons. Daniel and Mark. For several years the Jones family - e been living in a beautiful farm house in the country Bristol, but recently they decided to leave Bristol :: O\'e to Florida. b) Read the chart for Tony Denison and tell his biography as it has been done in Part a.

Background - born Edinburgh, Scotland 1938. Father novelist, mother teacher. Parents from Wales originally. Only child.

Later education - Edinburgh High School for boys. Early career - journalist in Edinburgh, later London. Later career - still writing successful books (all bestselIers). Other information - won the 'Best Detective Srory Writer of the Year' award in 1977. Married - wife dead now.

2 Nine sentences have been removed from the text Sun, Sea ... and Surf Wax on p. 8-9. Study the sentences A-J and choose the one that fits each gap 1-8. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. A My friends consider me to be a sociable person. B I get on with all my family, but especially my mum. So I ended up staying in on a Saturday night. D I've won sackloads of competitions and now it's a way of life for me. E I'd rather have a proper conversation because flirting makes me feel an idiot. F He is the greatest - he's only one and he's mental. • G I love Newquay, but I'm not sure I want to live here all the time. R He's one of my best friends. I I've been trying to stay in because I need to get fit but what's a boy to do when his mates go out all the time? J I can be a loner sometimes because I like to really think about things .

e

(line 6) · .. the surf would be phenomenal. (line 7) ... I'm a complete addict. (line 13) · .. cruising round the town. (line 15) · .. most of them dress to the nines. (line 23) ... he's always on the pull. (line 26) ... without putting on a front. (line 29) · .. totally geared towards pulling. (line 30) Rich was in his element ... 4 Find these phrasal verbs in the text and underline the given sentences.

(line 30) (line 35) (line 37) (line 42) (line 45) (line 78) (line 81)

... he's got the gift of the gab ... · .. a girl scored high ... · .. I plucked up the nerve to speak ... · .. cake on the make-up. ... this girl definitely perked up ... The surfing lifestyle's unbeatable ... ... who I can hang out ...

them, then use them in the correct form to complete

1 2 3 4 5 6

Why are the policemen in such a rush? - I think they the thief. Smelly feet definitely will the other people . How can you expect to make friends when you and only read books all the time? Mrs Morgan her neighbour since the time she came here; they are similar in character. Can you guess who I yesterday quite unexpectedly? I want to have the evenings free for with my friends.

SUN, SEA •.. AND SURF WAX
Meet Josh Knowles, an 18-year-old champion surfer from Newquay, who's agreed to let us in on what he thinks about life, love and being single. Brace yourself - you're about to discover how a boy's mind really works. 5 Friday 9 am. Looked out of the window this morning and just knew the surf would be phenomenal. I've been surfing since I was eight years old and I'm a complete addict. [Q]Q=:J Surfing and girls - the two most important things in the world. Just joking! 10.30 am. Bumped into a couple of surfer friends at Fistral Beach. Looks like it's going to be a big night out tonight! ~ Newquay is a real party place, and me and my mates like nothing better than cruising round the town. There are so many girls around on a Saturday night 15 but most of them dress to the nines. I prefer chilled-out surfer girls and you've got to search hard to find them even in Newquay. Had a good surf by the way. 6 pm. My friend Rich came round to have a few beers and we played with my dog Riley~ He is my little sister Jade's dog but all my family love him. Rich is a fellow surfer. We've travelled all over the world together entering competitions. He's girl mad. When we go out he's always on the pull. As for m~. I'm tired of chatting up girls (and getting no\ here). I wouldn't mind having a 25 proper girlfriend who I auld spend time with without putting on a front or feeling n~rvous. Who knows, maybe I'll find someone toni~ ? 9 pm. We ended a: a ar called Springbok, one of those places which is 0 y geared towards pulling. Rich was in his eleme (- ~'- go' rhe gift of the gab and can talk to anyone . g. whereas I tend to hold back.~ spots rhe girl he likes, he calls her 'ripe'. as i - . look at her, she's ripe!' It's a horrible ph; -~ i but it's a Rich favourite. 35 A chee.~· •'-' g behind the bar scored high on Ri h's ':-:r he disappeared to try his lu k ,i- '-~ . --- _ ;::,cO e I plucked up the nerve to ~ ~ - :.: .: - 0 .e was quite nice, but only to

45

55

look at. As soon as she opened her mouth, she bored me senseless. I think that's the problem with girls my age: they think all they need to do is put on a short skirt and cake on the make-up. I don't meet many girls who are attractive on the inside as well, but that's what I'm after. Newquay girls think it's cool to go out with a surfer and this one definitely perked up when I let slip my surfing credentials. That completely turned me off! I don't know why girls like surfers. We're just normal guys at the end of the day. 11.30 pm. Finally left Rich to it and walked home girlless. It was a beautiful night with tons of stars in the sky. ~ I want to see more of the world - hopefully through surfing. I fell asleep thinking about Bali, my board, a nice girl and me. Saturday 10 am. Mum woke me up with a cup of tea. ~ She's the coolest mum ever and never annoys me (OK, that's an exaggeration). My older sister's in Australia now with her boyfriend. I've been working for my dad, who's got his own roofing business. ButI'd rather work in a surf shop so I can combine work with pleasure. 3 pm. Went surfing all morning and afternoon and

hung out on the beach in-between. My friend Paddy came down to Fistral and we chilled at a cafe, chatting and people-watching (OK, girl-watching). I've known Paddy for years. [][=:J?addy didn't go out last night because 65 he was still recovering from the night before. Paddy wasn't surprised to hear Rich had been on the pull at Springbok. (By the way Rich crashed and burned with the cheeky blonde.) 11 pm. After the beach Paddy came back to my house and we just chilled, watching TV and listening to Coldplay. There was a house party going on but we weren't in the mood. Everyone's so intent on being 'cool' and I can't be bothered with all that. [][:=J Don't tell anyone. Sunday 6 pm. Sometimes, if the surf's not good, I 75 go and sit on the beach and watch the waves. Most of my friends have moved away to university, so I need to start making decisions about what I'm going to do with my life. The surfing lifestyle's unbeatable but just recently I've been thinking about what else I could do. I love my mates but I want to find someone special, who I can hang out without any pressure to put on act. But I'm sure things will work out.

IIC:J

Draw your own family trees. Show your grandparents, uncles, aunts, brothers and sisters, nieces and nephews and leave three blanks. Explain your family tree to your partner. Slhe should ask questions to find out the three blanks. You got acquainted with a fellow / girl from Britain at the party. Both of you are eager to know each other better. Find out everything about each other's personality, likes and dislikes, free time activities. Ask your friend to meet your cousin at the station. In your conversation you and your friend are free to ask and answer various questions concerning your cousin's. appearance. d Imagine that you are an official and your partner is someone who has just arrived questions which are usually given by an immigration officer. Imagine that your partner is a stranger and you want to find out this information - y words and expressions given below. Names: _ umbers: Fayourite: Pius: mother's first name, her / his full name, street where s/he lives date of birth, phone, flat or house, post code colour, food, drink, school subject(s), sport, film stares), singer(s) five or six pieces of information about her / his family, relations of your own. in Britain. Ask

about her / him. Use the

L se the following questions and sentences in mini-dialogues

: "\\nat does she look like now? 2 I could hardly recognise her. 3 Has she changed much since you saw her last? - ·our husband is as handsome as he used to be. 5 Can you describe the man for the police? 6 I took him for Italian. 7 She is on a slimming diet now. 8 You don't look a year older than you looked five years ago. - in small groups. Study the words given below with your friends. Find out the ten qualities which of your friends think are very important and five qualities which you think are not important in a spouse. Explain your choice. eat match is someone who is ..... - ~ a animals, generous, able to cook, tolerant, affectionate, well-off, the same age as me, adaptable, a non."'f. intelligent, interested in the same things as me, sincere, witty, adventurous, good with children, from the background, attractive, broad-minded, sensitive, from a good family, educated.

WRITING
1 To find out how much you already know about the differences in the layout of informal and formal letters tick one or two boxes if the statement is correct. Informal (Inf) You write your first and last names in the top right-hand corner. You write your address without your name in the top right-hand corner. You needn't write your address. You write the date under your address. You write the name and address of the person you are writing to on the left, above Dear X. 6 You usually begin with Dear ... 7 You usually begin with Dear Friend, Dear Brother, Dear Cousin. 8 You begin with Dear SirlMadam, Dear Sir, Dear Madam, Dear Editor, Dear Dr Brown, Dear Mr Mason. 9 You begin with Dear Pat, Dear Robert, Dear Mum. 10 You give all the necessary information organised in paragraphs. 11 You cannot use contractions (eg she's, I'd, we're). 12 You can use colloquial, idiomatic expressions and slang. 13 You finish Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully. 14 You finish with Lots of love, Best wishes, Bye for now, Best of luck. 15 You sign your name clearly in full. 16 You print your name under your signature. 1 2 3 4 5 Formal (F) Neither (N)

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CJ CJ CJ

CJ

1 2 3 4 5 6

Dear Sir Dear Mr Smith Dear Sir / Madam Dear Jack Yours faithfully Yours sincerely

a b c d e f

To finish business letters beginning with 'Dear Sir' or 'Dear Madam'. To finish a formal letter to a correspondent whose name you know. Salutations for friends and relatives and close colleagues. To begin a letter when you don't know if your correspondent is a man or a woman. Salutations in letters to people who you normally call by their last name. For beginning a formal letter to a man whose name you do not know.

,. 3 The paragraphs in the following letter are jumbled. Put them in the correct order by numbering them.
J

3 Carton Avenue London SW 30B
12th May, 2003

Dear Rosalind,

[A[J I suppose you'll think that I've gone quite mad, had another of my idiotic ideas, but you'll be wrong.
It's true I have given up my job but the urge to do just that has been building up for a lona time, as you know. 'Why Rome?' I hear you ask. Well, Roz, I did spend four years at Universi .' porina over boring Italian grammar books and studying Dante. I got a good degree and then what? A job in a bank.' And not even in the Foreign Exchange Department. To think I spent behind that coumer Se1en years.' I deserve a medal but, as I can't award myself one, I have decided on a holiday in Rome' 'ead.

ffi[J

Hello.' How are you? It seems ages since we last met and I have so mud, ;0: 'f you ThatI don't know where to start. First, by the time you get this letter I will be enjoying the si his ~ I al. - Rome to be precise.

lIT]

This letter is rather incoherent but I have such a lot to say. OM In case /'':oruT, thank you for the lovely birthday card. The 2nd of May was quite a day: my thirtieth binlultr... " _ aid I'll have to finish this letter - I have so much to do. I'll be in touch very soon.

[Q[] This last year has brought some changes. It all began, I dare say, when my marriage had broken up.
George and I haven't begun divorce proceedings yet but it's only a matter of time. There's no chance of a reconciliation: I certainly don't want one and I don't think George does either deep down but he still speaks about 'a fresh start' and 'trying to make a go of it' whenever we meet. He's not a stupid man but he does love to talk much. I'm glad now that we never had children.

OOIJ

Every day here is an adventure. I don't do much except wander about the city, looking, listening, taking photographs and enjoying my freedom. Coming here was a brilliant idea. But please don't think that I don't understand that this euphoria can't last forever. I realise that I must come down to earth - and pretty soon. In fact, I am actively looking for a job and there was rather an interesting one advertised in the 'Times' last week. However, I can't bring myself to fill in the application form - not just yet. Would you be an angel and do it for me and send it off? I'd be eternally grateful and as you know more about me than I know about myself, it shouldn't be too hard a task. My old boss, the manager of the Duke Avenue branch of Silvers bank, will give me a reference (the postal code is W12 3NN - London, of course). Best wishes, Maud

PS Note that I've gone back to using my maiden name. PPS I've signed the form already, I don 't want you to commit forgery! 4 Who is Maud writing this letter to and why? Is it a personal or formal letter? Is the format and language appropriate for this type of letters? Why? / Why not? What do the abbreviations PS and PPS mean? 5 Read the letter above once more and fill in the application form. APPLICATION
1 Date of Birth: Single 2 Surname: 3 How many dependent children under 21 have you? have you? Married Separated

FORM

To be completed

in BLOCK

letters Age: Widowed (tick as appropriate)

First name:

4 How many years of higher education 5 What are your academic 6 What foreign languages qualifications? do you speak?

7 Are you employed 8 What's

at present? 10 What was your previous job?

your present job?

9 How long have you held that post? 12 Name and address Signature: of referee.

11 How long did you hold that post?

Maud Dunne

Date 12th May, 2003

6 These statements may be found in application forms. Translate them into the Lithuanian language. Consult a dictionary if necessary.

:::

1 Missing information will delay your acceptance. 2 All pages requiring a signature must be signed. .) '"' List any school qualifications you have now. 4 We require certified copies of certificates. 5 Do you have any employment experience - paid or voluntary? 6 Give information about your interests and ambitions - particularly those which are relevant to the course you are applying for. Please include evidence. of your previous work: drawings, photographic slides or prints, video or audio recordings which you think supports your application. I confirm that the information I have given in the application is correct. 9 I support this application and confirm that I will accept responsibility for fees.

7 While travelling on a ferry to Finland during your school holidays you got acquainted and exchanged addresses with your peer. Write a letter of 150-180 words giving information about yourself. Be sure to: • • • • • remember your first meeting on the ferry tell about your family and your living place tell about your school curriculum and express your preferences give your personal characteristics and describe your spare time activities ask your friend to write you back and send you his/her picture

WORD BANK
acceptance l;Jk' sept;Jnslpriemimas acquaint 1;J'kwemtl susipazinti actually I'rektJu;Jli!is tikrtti4, tiesll.sakant addict/'redlktl turintis manijll.zmogus affect 1;J'fektl (pa)veikti allow sb to do sth 1;J'lau/leisti annoy 1;J'll'JUerzinti, pykinti apply 1;J'plauprasyti application l,replI'keIJnI prasymas average I'rev(;J)ndy'vidutinis, vidutiniskas award 1;J'w'J:d! apdovanojimas basically I'belslklil is esmes bitchy I'brtJil kandus bore Ib'J:1 igristi bother I'bOD;J1trukdyti brace Ibrersl isitempus laukti branch Ibra:ntJI filialas bully I'buli! (i)bauginti, priekabiauti bump into IbAmpl susidurti su catty I'kretil klastingas certificate IS;J' trfrbU pazymej imas certify I's3:trfau patvirtinti chat up ItJretl snekinti cheeky I'tJi:kil izUlus; selmiskas colloquial Ib'bukwr;JII snekamosios kalbos come round IkArnI uZsukti confirm Ibn' f3:ml patvirtinti cotraction Ibn 'trrekJnl trumpinys counter l'kaunt;J1 prekystalis credentials Ikn'denJlzI statusll. nurodantys dokumentai cruise round Ikru:zI vaziuoti masina neskubant curriculum 1k;J'nkjul;JrnI okymo program a m defmitely I'def(;J)n;Jtlil iskiai, tikrai a delay Idr'leu sugaisinti, atideti deserve Idr'Z3:vl nusipelnyti divorce Idr'v'J:sl skyrybos dress to the nines apsirengti ypac puosniai effort I' ef;Jtl pastanga element l'elIm;Jntlstichija eternally 1r't3:n(;J)liI amzinai evidence l'evrd;J )nsl irodymas exaggeration Irg,zred3;J'reIJnI erdejimas p fee /fi:l mokestis fellow /'fel;Jul vaikinas fond ffond! meilus freelance f'fri:lo:nsf laisvai samdomas front IfrAntl kauke, veido israiska foreign /'fonnl uzsienio, uzsienietiskas gift ofthe gab Igrebl (inftnl) gebejimas laisvai vesti pokalbi geared towardsl'gl;Jd t;J'w'J:dz/tinkamas get on sutarti,sugyventi grateful I'grertfll dekingas guy fgar! vyras, vaikinas hang out IhreIJ/leisti 1aikll. include Im'klu:dl itraukti incoherent l,mbu'hr;Jr;Jntl padrikas independence l,mdr'pend;Jnsl nepriklausomybe intent (on) Im'tent! siekiantis least /Ii:stl maziausiai lend (lent, lent) sb sth paskolinti list Ilrstl pateikti sll.rasll. loner /'l;Jun;J1 vienisius majorly I'meld3;Jlillabai make (made, made) up isgal voti mate Imelt! draugas mental I'mentll psichinis, proto mind Imamdl protas, supratingumas missing I'mrslIJI tIiikstamas mood Imu:dl nuotaika peer Ipr~1 bendraamzis perk up IP3:kl atkusti physical/' fIZrkll fizinis, kuno pluck up the nerve sukaupti visll.drll.Sll. pore over Ip'J:/ buti inikusiam precise Ipn'sarsl tikslus preference I'pref( ~)r;msl polinkis, tai kas labiau megstama pressure /'preJ~1 itampa previous /'pri:vr~sl ankstesnis pull /pull (infinl) vilioti put on act apsimetindi put up with pakt(sti, toleruoti quality /'kwoldtil sa ybe reconciliation I,rebnsili 'erJn/ susitaikymas recover In'kAV;J1tsigauti a referee l,ref;J'ri:l rekomenduojantis asmuo reference I'ref(;J)r;Jnslrekomendacija relevant I'rel;Jv(;J)ntlsvarbus require In' kwal reikalaUli responsibility In,spo S;J'bll;Jtil tsakomybe a ripe !ralpl pribrend ,5. sunokt(s rush !rAJI skubejimas sackload I'srek];Jud!maisas (kiekis)

search IS3:t[1 ieskoti senseless /'sensl;JsI beprasmiskas sights Isaltsl izymybes, reginiai signature /'sIgn;JtS;JI parasas sign Isaml pasirasyti slang Islrel]1 zargonas spot Ispotl pamatyti suffer I'SA[;JIkenteti supportls;J'IX':t/ paremti

suburb I'SAb3:bl priemiestis surfer /'s3:[;JI banglentininkas take sb I sth for Itelkl palaikyti kuo nors kitu take off staigiai pagereti tend to Itendl bliti linkusiam totally l't;Jutli/ visiskai turn sb off It3:n/ atstumti urge 13:d31 poreikis, reikme voluntary /'vol;Jnt(;J)ri/savanoriskas

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
family members and relatives I relations nuclear family: father, mother; daughter; son; brother; sister extended family: aunt, uncle, cousin; niece Ini:sl dukterecia; nephew /'nefju:, 'nevju:1 slinenas; grandparents: grandfather, grandmother; grandchildren: grandson, granddaughter; one-parent family spouse Ispausl sutuoktinis: husband, wife; in-laws: daughter-in-law marti; son-in-law zentas; brother-in-law dieveris, svainis; sister-in-law mosa, svaine, broliene; father-in-law uosvis, sesuras; mother-in-law anyta, uosve steprelationship: stepfather patevis; stepmother pamote; stepdaughter podukra; stepson posilnis; half-brother ibrolis; half-sister isesere; foster-parents iteviai; orphan /''J:f'dn/ naslaitis; adopt ivaikinti; bring up I raise uzauginti She brought up four children. Linda's parents died and she was raised by her aunt. relative I relation giminaitis; close I distant; relate Are you any relation to Jim Brown? -I'm not related to him in any way. ancestor I' rensest'dl protevis; descendant IdI' send'dn t/ palikuonis marital status seimynine padetis: not married I unmarried, married; single neved«s, netekejusi; separated I divorced (teisiskai) issiskyrl(s(usi); widow nasle; widower naslys job, occupation, profession accountant I book-keeper buhalteris; artist dailininkas; businessman I businesswoman verslininkas(-e); carpenter I 'ka:pmt'dl dailide; civil servant tarnautojas; clerk Ikla:kl klerkas, rastvedys; designer IdI'Zam'dl konstruktorius, projektuotojas; driver; electrician Ir,lek'trrInl elektrikas; engineer l,end:3l'm'dl; hairdresser kirpejas; housewife nam!.! seimininke; interpreter Im't3:prrt'dl vertejas (iodiiu); journalist /'d33:n'dlrstl zurnalistas; lawyer /'bj'dl teisininkas; manager vadybininkas; manicurist /'mremkju'drrstl manikiilrininkas; masser Imre's3:1 masazistas; musician Imju'zrIn/; nurse 1ll3:s1 med. sesuo; optician lop'trInl optikas; plumber /'plAm'dl santechnikas; railway-man gelezinkelietis; salesman I saleswoman I shop assistant pardaveja(s); secretary; soldier /'s'duld3'd1 kareivis; surgeon I'S3:d3('d)nl ~hirurgas; technician Itek'mInl technikas; translator vertejas (rastu); typist asmuo, spausdinantis masinele employment Irm'pbrm'dntl idarbinimas; employee Irm'pbri: ,empbr'i:1 dirbantysis; employ Irm'pbr/ idarbinti; employer rm'pbr'dl darbdavys erson's character What is he like? - Koks)o bildas, charakteris? sent-minded/,rebs'dnt'marndrdl issiblaskl(s economical li:b'nomrkl/ taupus ptable I'd'drept'dbl/ mokantis prisitaikyti energetic I, en::l'd3etrk/ energingas . ectionate 1'd'fekIn'dt/ meilus envious I'envr'dsl pavydus ~bitious lrem'brI'dsl trokStantis sekmes, ambicingas flexible /'fleks'dbl/ lankstus, prisitaikantis nTogant/'rer'dg'dnt/ arogantiskas forgetful Ib'getfll uzmarsus astful /'b'dustfll pagyrilnas frank IfrreI]k/ atviras right Ibrartl sumanus generous l'd3en'dr'dsl dosnus road-minded I, bnd 'marndrd/ tolerantiskas good-tempered I, 9 ud 'temp'ddl gero bildo Ika:rn/ tylus, ramus grateful/' grertfll dekingas , g l'ke'drrI]1 paslaugils, uzjauCiantis greedy I'gri:dij gobsus eerful/'tj'r'dflliinksmas hospitable Iho 'sprt'dbl/ svetingas . dish 1'tj'arldrII vaikiskas hot-tempered I,hot'temp'dd/ karstakosis y /'klArnzi/ nerangus hypocritical I,hrp'd'krrtrkl/ veidmainiskas unicative Ib'mju:nrk'dtrvl kalbus, linkl(s bendrauti ill-bread I mannered blogai isaukletas cientious l,konIi 'enI 'dsl s'l.ziningas ill-tempered l,rI 'temp'ddl irzlus, vaidingas nsiderate Ibn'srd( 'd )r'dtl atidus, rilpestingas imaginative /r'mred3rn'dtrvl lakios vaizduotes perative Ibu'op('d)r'dtrvl paslaugus impatient/rm'perIntl nekantrus tive Ikri 'ertrvl kilrybingas impolite I,rmp'd'lartl nemandagus 'ng l'kAmI]1 klastingas industrious Im'dAstri'dsl darbstus, stropus rmined Idr't3:mrnd/ ryztingas intelligent 1m'telrd3('d)nt/ protingas, sumanus -to-earth konkretus, praktiskas intolerant 1m 'tobr'dntl netolerantiskas . going l,i:zi'g'dUII]1 ramus jealous l'd3ebsl pavyduliaujantis

just Idy>.stl teisingas lazy I'lerzil tingus loyal I'bl;lll istikimas mean Imi:nl sykstus miserable I'IlliZ(;l)r;lbll nelaimingas, apgailetinas modestl'modlstl kuklus moody I'mu:dil paniurC(s,liudnas narrow-minded I,nrer;lu 'mamdldl ribotqpaziUrlt naughty I'n:>:til isdykC(s nervous l'n3:v;lsl nervingas, nuogitstaujantis obstinate I' obstm;ltl uzsispyrC(s outgoing l,aut'g;luIlJI draugiskas, mielas outspoken I,aut'sp;lubnl tiesmukas persistent Ip;l' slst;lntl atkakl us quick-tempered I,kwrk'temp;ldl karstas, umus quick-witted l,kwlk'Wltldl nuovokus, sumanus reliable Irr'lal;lbll patikimas reserved In'z3:vdl santurus resolute I'rez;l,lu:tl ryztingas rude Iru:dl grubus self-assured I confident pasitikintis savimi

selfish I'selflJI savanaudis sensible I'sens;lbll protingas, blaiviai galvojantis sensitive I'sens;ltlvl jautrus shy IJar! drovus sincere Ism'sl;ll nuosirdus sociable I's;luJ;lbll draugingas, megstantis bendrauti stingy I'stmd3il sykstus strict Istnktl grieztas strong-minded l,strDIJ'mamdldJ stiprios valios stubborn l'stAb;lnl uzsispyrC(s sympathetic I, SImP;l'eetlkl uzj auciantis tactful I' trektfll taktiskas thorough l'eAr;l1 kruopstus thrifty I'enftil taupus touchy I'tAtJil jautrus trustworthy l'trAst,w3:oil patikimas two-faced I, tu: 'ferstl dviveidis vain Iveml tuscias violent I'val;ll;lntl siautejantis, smarkus, umus witty I'wltil sitmojingas

build and general appearance How tall is he? - He is about lover sixfeet tall I of medium height I not very tall I rather short. He is two metres in height. attractive patrauklus; handsome, fashionable, smart puosnus, madingas; good-looking, broad-shouldered, wellbuilt; chubby I'tJAbi/ putnus; fat Istout storas, apkunus; slim 1 slender, thin He has put on some weight I got thinner I lost weight. He's a bit overweight. She takes after her father. Ji panasi i savo tetiage and age periods child (children); teenager paauglys; teenage paaugliskas; adult 1 grown-up suaugC(szmogus; a middle-aged woman; be 2 months 1 5 years etc sb's junior I senior She is 5 years my junior I senior. Ji penkeriais metais ui mane jaunesne (vyresne). elder vyresnis; eldest vyriausias; elderly pagyvenC(s;the elderly pagyven£2imones My elder brother is three years older than me. How old is she? - She is in his / her early I mid- I late thirties. What does she look like? Kaip ji atrodo? - She doesn't look her age. aged Most girls aged between 13 and 16 want to be models. grow old senti; retire iseiti ipensijit; be on pension; a pensioner He retired at 60. Now he is on pension. face plump putlus, apvalus, oval, long, square, thin; a serious - faced man, a freckle-faced girl strazdanota mergaite Her cheeks are chubby (putLUs)I hollow (ikrit~. She's rosy-cheeked (rausvaskruoste). Her lips are thin I full. The complexion (veido oda) is dark, fair, healthy, sallow (isblyskusi, pageltusi). The features (veido bruoiai) are regular, delicate, striking (pritrenkiantys, ispudingi), plain (paprasti; negraius). As far as I remember, he has (grown) a bushy beard. A year ago he wore a neatly-trimmed moustache 1m;}'sta.j/ (usai). eyes brown, dark, hazel, black or a green-eyed girl; have big/large wide-set I blue eyes with long, thick eyelashes. nose big, small, long, straight, a snub-nosed girl. crooked kreiva, rounded His/her 1almond-shaped eyes; He has small I deep-set I large I

nose is hooked (kumpa) I snub (trumpa riesta). She is

hair fair sviesus, dark, chesnut kastoniniai, golden, dyed IdaJdl dazyti; wavy banguoti; curly garbanoti; frizzy labai garbanoti; thin, thick, soft; with blonde highlights / streaks Istri:ksl sviesiomis sruogelemis; a straight-haired girl, a skinheaded man, a blonde, a brunette; shoulder-length, plaited I'plretldl sup inti i kasq, pony tailed suristi i 'arklio uodegit' She wears her hair plaited. fringe Ifnnd:Y' kirpCiukai She has a fringe. a crew-cut plaukai pakirpti eziuku; wear the hair in a tight knot 1 in pigtails trumpos kasytes I in dreadlocks virvutemis suristi plaukai (juodaodiil{ sukuosena) She wears her hair long Ishort 1 with a side I centre parting (sklastymas). He's bald I his hair is receding. He used to have black hair but now it's gone grey, almost white.

VOCABULARY
basement block of flats bungalow remote control curtains detached house nursery towel-rack semi-detached house landing table mat cooker dishwasher porch attic oven villa terraced house vacuum cleaner electric meter ground floor

cottage rubbish bin wardrobe ironing board

1 travel news estate 2 dining changing living 3

q.g~f!L
,{!gmt.

.
.

.r!gmL

.
. . .

4 telephone cookery note 5

. . .

7 flower hall umbrella 8 . . 9

. . . bell handle man

drier .... ................... dres ser . brush sill ........................... pane ..................... shopping

coat ......................... wife .................... warming

6

land ..................... economics ............................. work

_ :\1ake the opposites of the adjectives by using the prefix un- or the suffix ·less. Then fill in the gaps with the most suitable word. airy - ..q..i.df!.~L olourful .

.

practical tasteful -

useful spacious -

. .

tidy crowded -

. .

I I find an electric fan very to have at home when the heat outside is incredible. _ Pale carpets are if you have kids. A(n) room doesn't have enough fresh air. -t What a(n) room; the books and things are scattered everywhere. - The curtains in my room attract everybody's attention. 6 It was an ugly room with decorations and shabby furniture. - We have just moved to a new apartment as it is more than the previous one. The room was so with different pieces of old furniture that it was impossible to breathe.

Our house is not very large, but it is (1) c_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and well planned. It is a small two-storyed (2) d house. In front of the house there is a green (3) 1 and a lot of flowers. Behind it there is a little (4) 0 with a few fruit trees in it. On the (5) g floor there is a (6) k , a pantry, a dining-room, a (7) c sitting-room and my father's (8) s . There are several rooms (9) u_ _ _ _ _ _ _ on the first floor: my parents' (10) b , Grandmother's room, which is also my little brother's (11) n , my room and a (12) b . The (13) C is modern and quite new. But my father says he has to pay a lot of money for the house, (14) h , gas and (15) e .

1 George redecorated his room with flowery wallpaper 2 She furnished the rooms with what she had already owned 3 The old couple decided to buy a bungalow 4 My family has lived in this farmhouse for years 5 My home town is surrounded by lovely countryside 6 There's a knock at the door. 7 Their house was an old farm building, 8 Peter's bathroom didn't have a bath, 9 It had been raining for a week, 10 I live on the 25th floor of a block of flats so

a) with woods, fields and a small river. b) only a shower and a basin, but he didn't mind. c) because they both had difficulty climbing stairs. d) which had been rebuilt and turned into a modern house. e) and the flat felt damp and chilly. f) and painted the floor light brown. g) I always take the lift. h) because she couldn't afford to buy new furniture. i) and we have always raised horses here too. j) Can you see who it is?

1 A: B: A: B: A: B: 2 A: B: A: B:

Good morning. I'm Jack Green. I've come to see the 1.•................................ Come in and have a look, please. It's the one 2•...••....•..••.••..••.••.•..•..• mine. Are you a 3 here too? Yes, I've been 4 •.•.••.•••••••••.••.••.•......... from Mrs Kent for three years. Is Mrs Kent the 5 here? Yes, she's very kind and friendly. You look happy, Jane. Yes, we're going to 6 .•..•..•••...•........•...•..•... to our new house next week. Have you signed the 7...................••.......•.... ? Yes, and I'm going to pick up the 8 ......................•.......... from the 9•••••.••..•..•.••.•.•••••...•••.• tomorrow.

renting landlady room tenant next to

estate agent movem keys contract

3 A: What is your 10........•....••..••••........•..• like? B: It's not too bad. There's a fairly large sink and the cooker next to it, 11•.•..••.••.••........•.....•.••.•• A: Is there a washing machine? B: Yes, 12....................•.....•.••••• the stairs. And there's a freezer, too, 13 of the fridge. A: Lots of 14 .•••••.••.••..•..•.•.••••.••••.•. to put things! B: Oh, enough, I think. And there are shelves 15 •••.•••.•••.•.••••.•.•••••••••••. the cooker. And there's a round table 16•••••.......•.................... of the kitchen, with four chairs, to eat 17 ..••.....•..••....••.••..••.•...•• I think there's a cupboard on the floor 18.....•........................... the table and the cooker.

at on the right on top in the middle space under between kitchen over

1 It's the top shelf the kitchen cupboard. 2 The office is the fifth floor, the far end of the corridor. 3 We live Dunhill which is the west coast. 4 I have already put the picture . the wall the dining room. 5 You can see my girlfriend sitting that table, next to the woman . a green dress. 6 What time did you go home last night? 7 You may work hard all week, but you do nothing when you are home. 8 I don't mind being alone the house. 9 The children's toys were kept the comer by the window. 10 All the cupboards the kitchen and the bookshelves the living room are included the price. 11 This is the front entrance, but there is another door the side of the house. 12 There is a wooden fence one side of the garden, and a hedge the other. ill in the blanks with the grammatically correct form of the word in bold according e whole text. Mind the word order. The first has been done for you. to the meaning of

We (1 just buy) .. hf!.y(!.jU$.t!J.@g!J.L. our last house. As I (2 unpack) yet another box "'oIlowing our recent (3 move) , I began counting. I (4 realise) that 'y teenage children (5 so far live) in nine different houses. And that Pearl, who '- only three years old, (6 already live) in four different houses. , nat a shock! I'm not sure how it happened. Somehow, Ijust (7 stumble) from house to use, never stopping (8 think) about that (9 fable) word 'stability'. _'ow I'm stuck with the guilt of (10 realise) that my (11 old) . hildren will never have fond memories of (12 they) favourite tree in the garden. I (13 grow up) in two houses. I can still remember the camellia tree from which I (14 hang) upside down day after day until, (15 eventual) , I got too big and my head (16 hit) the ground. And, it was only one generation ago - my (17 parent) ............................... generation - when it (18 be) common to spend your entire (19 child) ............................... living in the one home. My generation (20 have) other values though, and I wonder how different our lives and the lives of our children (21 be) , if we had more of a sense of (22 belong) to a certain place rather than this constant drive to upscale. How (23 irony) that in the age where my children are facing far more stress than any other generation as they struggle to cope with a (24 doubt) future, they (25 notJhave) ............................... the stability of a home that never changes. I am (26 eternal) grateful to my parents, who provided a beach house for the past 20 years where my children (27 learn) . [0 swim, had their (28 high) marked on the doorframe every Christmas and now have hoto albums full of snaps (29 take) there. So here I am in our 100-year-old house with lots of rooms for the (30 grandchild) . vhen they come to stay, and a gorgeous old garden with not one but three camellia trees. As I roam through the "ght, (31 air) rooms or just sit (32 enjoy) the garden I find myself -~ ling in ever so (33 slow) for the long haul.

Did you feel satisfied with your new flat? Can you tell me ..if Y-Q/!.JrdUf!.t.i.s.fi.fId. w.irh .Y.Q.¥-.fJW.W.fl.tJ.t... _ Does your friend prefer living in a cottage in a small village? I wonder ~ Where is the book of instructions for using this washing machine? I can't remember ~ \\ no has left the tap running? Have you any idea : \\ nere does our colleague live? Do you happen to know ,

? . . ? ?

6 Where can I buy this valuable labour-saving vacuum cleaner? Would you mind telling me 7 Does the room have curtains at the windows or blinds? Do you know..................................................................................................................................... 8 The villa has excellent cooking and washing facilities, hasn't it? I've no idea 9 How can I get from the railway station to your house? Could you explain 10 Is your daughter's house insured against thefts or accidents? I'm not sure

? ? . ? .

Ask Louise Bucher if she and her family will ever move from their barn conversion in Kent and she smiles. 'Definitely not, this is the home we always dreamed of,' she says. 'Everything about is perfect. We've got all the space we need, the views are stunning, plus there's the fact that we've put so much work into it - we'll be here for a long time!' Louise, a print-maker who exhibits her work locally, and her husband, Tim, a surveyor, bought the barn 16 years ago. 'We were Iiving in a beautiful house in a nearby village,' she explains. 'Over the years the surrounding land was becoming more built up. We lost our gorgeous views and the peaceful atmosphere we had moved there for didn't exist anymore.' So, along with their two small children, Tom and Leonie, they started looking for something new. The black, clapboard barn, built around 1530, is supposed to be one of the oldest in Kent, and stands on top of a hill with stunning views across fields and orchards. 'The view from the back is one of the things I love most about this house - all the windows look over it, and a lot of those are floor-to-ceiling windows, so it becomes a part of every room.' The barn was really just that - a draughty barn. It hadn't changed for over 400 years. No one had ever lived in it, the floors were covered in straw, there were no windows, just huge doors banging in the wind. The whole structure had to be stripped back to its timber frame and re-built, so essentially it was like building a new house. 'The thought of having to start from scratch was actually one of the most appealing things,' Tim says. The conversion took nine months which, for the amount of work that had to be done - such as lowering the floor level by three feet to provide enough height for two floors - is actually not that long. 'While building work takes place, lots of people live in a caravan on site.' So they put all the furniture into storage and rented a cottage just down the road. That way they could keep an eye on what was going on, but could also escape from it at the end of the day.

'Everything went to plan. It did end costing us more than we had budgeted for, but I think these things always do.' Louise had kept all the decoration in the house incredibly simple. 'As this building itself is so beautiful inside - with all the original beams - I didn't want to distract from that.' All the walls are soft cream, except in the kitchen where they have been washed with a warm terracotta and a neutral-coloured carpet has been laid throughout the house. The pale walls and floors and the long floor-to-ceiling, south facing windows mean that the whole house is flooded with light. 'We were careful with the design and decoration to make our house light and airy,' Louise explains. The space above the garage, which used to be home to the children's table-tennis table, has now been transformed into Louise's studio, where she not only produces her own prints but also runs a series of arts and crafts courses. 'When Tom and Leonie moved out we tried to think of something new to do with the room. At first we thought to run it as a B&B, but then we came up with the idea of arts classes, which meant that I could still use it as my studio when they weren't taking place.' The creative courses cover topics like flower arranging, watercolour painting, even cooking. 'They've been very successful. People learn something new, have a nice lunch in the kitchen and meet like-minded people. It works really well. It's never going to make us a fortune, but I really enjoy doing it' The wonderful thing about the house is that it is full of oldstyle charm, with the original beams and pieces of furniture collected over the years. As it is actually a new building, it has all the modern conveniences of a modern home. There's no draughty windows or suspect plumbing to worry about, and there's no risk of the heating grinding to a halt in the middle of February. 'This house really does give us the best of both worlds,' says Louise. 'It was a lot of work, but definitely worth it - we've built the house of our dreams.'

1 Why are the Buchers planning to stay in their converted house for a long time? A This is the decision of all the members of the family. B Because it's the house of their dreams. C Because everything was done by themselves. D As the stability of a house has a certain appeal for all the family members. 2 Why did they decide to move from a beautiful village house? A Because their children were small. B Because they needed more space. C This was a whim of Louise. D Because the built-up neighbourhood changed the situation to the worse. 3 What becomes a part of every room? A Floor-to-ceiling windows. B The sight seen from the back. C The timber frame that goes back to 1530. D The ancient atmosphere of the barn. 4 Where did the family live during the building period? A They hired a bungalow nearby. B In a caravan. C On site. D In a storehouse. 5 Why was the decoration design in the house plain? A Because they laid a neutral-coloured carpet. B Because they wanted their house to be airy. CBecause the windows were on the southern part of the house. D Because the owner wanted to call everybody's attention to the natural charm of the house. 6 What is the attic above the garage used for? A As a children's playroom. B As art classrooms. C Interchangeably as a studio and an art classroom. D As aB&B. 7 What are the topics of the courses? A Art issues. B Domestic problems. C Floral decorations. D From art to domestic ones. 8 What is peculiar about that house? A It's ancient. B The past and the present match perfectly well together. C A homely atmosphere. D Up-to-date amenities.

What do Louise and Tim do? _ What did the barn look like? 3 How did they get enough height for two floors?

4 What makes the house light and airy? 5 What does Louise do in her studio? 6 Why are creative courses very successful?

- Work in pairs and make your own dialogues. Use the prompts given on p. 15l. a) Imagine that one of you is a student looking for a flat to rent and the other is a landlord / landlady. Discuss the following: • the rent and when you have to pay it • the time you can move in • if bed linen, laundering and cleaning are included in the rent • if a retaining fee is necessary during the vacations

b) Imagine that one of you is a person looking for a house to buy and the other is an estate agent. Discuss the following: • type of the house and parts of it • the amenities in the house • the neighbourhood; prove that the place is very convenient c) Speak about the type of the house you live in, its costs, its location and environment, rooms. describe the

a) Design your own ideal home. Draw a simple plan of the house you would like to have and after you have finished, describe your dream house to the rest of the class. • Make a list of the furniture and other furnishings (carpets, curtains etc). • Describe the colour scheme in your rooms. Give reasons for your choice. • Indicate special items (swimming pool, tennis court, greenhouse, fireplaces etc).

• • • • •

Which is better: to own a flat / house or to rent it? Why? Would you rather live in a quiet residential neighbourhood or in the centre of a big town? Why? Which would you prefer: living in a block of flats or in a detached house? Why? What are the benefits and drawbacks of living in a large city? If you could choose, would you rather live in a city or in the country? Why?

.WRITING

a) Write the address for this informal letter of invitation in the right order (Brighton, 62, England, London Road).

Dear Nelly, At last! I finally found a flat and moved in last week. It took me a month to find one that I liked and could afford. The one I found is kind of dark, but it's comfortable. The kitchen and bathroom are small, but the other rooms are big and I like the neighbourhood. There s good public transport and there are a lot of stores and restaurants nearby. I think I'm going to like it here. I'm having a housewarming party on Saturday. It should be fun. Would you like to come? I'm missing you so much. I want to show you my new place. I've invited my new neighbour Joanne with her boyfriend and some colleagues. I'm eager to introduce you to them. They're fine, sincere and they've been very helpful. I'm sure you'll get on well! Well, I guess that's all for now. I still have a thousand things to do for the party. Love, Pat

b) Capitalise and punctuate the note of

invitation. david I tried to call you but you werent at home the res a party on saturday night at pat durans my new neighbour i think itll be fun would you like to go it begins around 8:00 why dont you call me later i have to work tonight but ill be home around 10:00 Joanne

c) Complete the note of refusal sentences in the box below. Dear Pat,

using the

George and I would love to come to your party, but we already have plans for Saturday night. It's ourfamily reunion. 2 .••••.•..•.............•..•.•••...••••. In fact, let's go to the cinema next week.
1 •...•••.•..•••..••••••.••.••.•.•••••••

3

Yours, Maggie

Thank you for thinking of us. Thank you for your invitation. I hope we can get together sometime soon. _ -ou have just got a note of invitation from your friend. Unfortunately, you spilled some coffee over it. ewrite this note and also write a note of refusal to your friend saying why you can't accept hislher invitation. Dear , Thank you very much for your invitation. I'd love to , but . . 1/ It's . I hope we can get together soon. Infact, let's .

There's a hink it'll be ould you like to _':begins at _

. .
?

Why don't you

. ?

m's relatives from Canada are planning to spend their summer at the Baltic Sea and they asked him find out about the houses let on hire there. Tom has written a letter to his uncle George Harrison. ,e sentences in the letter are unsuitable because they are too formal. Decide which sentences should changed, cross them out and write the correct equivalents in the order they appear. Spalviskio k. Kirdonil{ pst. LT - 5270 Birzl{ r. Lithuania

With reference to your letter, which I got the other day. It was great to hear from you again. I am .:riting to inform you about the places you could stay in Palanga. One of the houses, which might suit you, is in a quiet neighbourhood but it will take you 20 minutes o go to the beach. The house has got a lovely garden and a garage. The front door opens into a spacious· hall. On the first floor there's a well-equipped kitchen and a small bathroom. The living room with a TV set and a hi-fi system is next to the kitchen. Upstairs there are three bedrooms and a bathroom. It costs I :',ousand Litas a month, the owners want to get a monthly rent beforehand. The other house is nearly the same size, it has got three bedrooms as well, it's next to the main street and quite close to the sea. It costs one thousand and two hundred Litas per month, which is rather rpensive, but your mother has some problems with her feet so she will prefer that one, I think? If the information is of some help to you, do not hesitate to contact soon. I will pay the deposit then. J look forward to seeing you. Lots of love, Tomas

1 Dear Uncle George, 2 3

. .

4 5

. .

5 You have just finished your studies and are leaving your home town. You have spent two weeks searching for a flat/ house to live in. Write a letter of 100-130 words to your penfriend abroad describing the new place. Be sure to:
• describe your new flat / house • describe your new surroundings • explain why you have chosen it or how different

it is from your previous

living place

WORD BANK
afford /;;/b:d/leisti sau appeal/a'pi:ll patrauklumas barn Ibo:nl kletis, svimas bang IbreI]1 trankytis beam Ibi:m! sija beforehand Ibr'b:hrendl is anksto benefit I'bemfrt/ privilegija; nauda caravan I'krer;:J,vrenl poilsine ant ratl.! charm Itfo:m! zavesys clapboard I' klrep, b:):d/lenta (sienl-{ apkalai) concern Ibn's3:nl tureti rysi, sietis; rupintis constant nuolatinis, nesiliaujantis contract I'kontrrekt/ sutartis conversion Ibn'v3:Jnl pa(si)keitimas cope Ibupl susidoroti, susitvarkyti craft Ikra:ftl amatas creative Ikri 'ertrvl kurybiskas distractldr'strrektl atitraukti, isblaskyti (demesi ir pan.) domestic Id;:J'mestrkl naminis, naml.!; seimyninis doorframe I'd:): ,frerm! dufl.!stakta doubt Idautl abejone draughty I' dra:ftil skersvejuotas drawback I' dr:):, brekl trftkumas eager l'i:g;:J1 trokstantis equipment lr'kwrpm;:Jnt/ iranga equivalent lr'kwrv;:Jl;:Jntl titikmuo a essentially lr'senJlil is esmes eternallr't3:nll affiZinas event !I'ventl ivykis eventuallr'ventJu;:JlI galutinis fable I'ferbll pasakeCia, pasaka fabulous I'frebjul;:Jsl pasakl.!, pasakiskas f1orall'fhr;:JlI gelil.! frame Ifrerrnl karkasas, remas fortune I'htJ;:Jnl kriiva pinigl.! generation l,d3en;:J'rerJnl karta grind toa haltl'gramd t;:J;:J'h:):ltl (su)gesti guilt Igrltl kalte hairbrush I'he;:J,brAJI plaukl.! sepetys hairdresser l'he;:J,dres;:J1 kirpejas hair-drier l'he;:J,drar;:J1plaukl.! dziovintuvas handle I'hrendll rankena hire I'har;:J1 issinuomoti housecoat I'haus,butl chalatas incredible Im'kred;:Jbll neitiketinas insulation l,msju'lerJnl izoliacija insure (against) 1m 'Ju;:J1ap(si)drausti interchangeably Imt;:J'tfemd3;:Jblilpakaitomis issue I'rJu:, 'rsju:1 klausimas, problema labour-saving I'lerb;:J,servrI]/lengvinantis darb£l like-minded l,lark'mamdrdl vienmintis locally !'I;:Juklil vietiniu mastu, vietoje long haul/,loI] 'h:):l1 ilga, sunki veikla match ImretJ I tikti, dereti prie meaningful I' mi :mI]fll prasmingas peculiar Ipr'kju:Ir;:J1 ypatingas plumbing I'plAmrI]1 vandentiekio varnzdynas print Ipnntl graviura produce/pr;:J'dju:sl gaminti provide Ipr;:J'vardl parupinti, aprupinti raise Irerzl auginti realize I'n;:J,Iarzl suprasti refusal/n'ju:zll atsisakymas relate In'lertl pritapti prie, bendrauti; bUti susijusiam reminiscent l,remr'ms;:Jntl primenantis roam Ir;:Jum! bastytis, klajoti settle in I'setll apsiprasti sight Isartl reginys site Isartl statybviete snaps Isnrepsl nuotraukos solar panel/,s;:Jul;:J'prenll saules akumuliatorius start from the scratch Iskrretfl pradeti nuo pradzios storage l'st:):nd31 saugojimas storehouse I'st:):,hausl sandel is stumble I'stAmbll klupineti suit Isu:tl tikti suppose IS;:J'p;:Juz! manyti, daryti prielaid£l surveyor IS;:J 'ver;:J1 matininkas, geodezininkas suspect I' sAspektl nepatikimas tap Itrepl ciaupas timber I'trmb;:J1 mediena unfortunately IAn'htf(;:J)n;:JtIil deja unpack IAn'prekl is(si)pakuoti upscale IAp'skerl/lygis aukstesnis nei vidutinis wallpaper l'w:):I,perp;:J1 tapetai watercolour I'w:):t;:J,kAbl akvarele whim Iwrrnl inoris windowpane l'wmd;:Ju,pem/lango stiklas (rem e) windowshopping zvalgymasis po vitrinas windowsill palange worse IW3:sl blogesnis

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
types of houses building pastatas: a five-storey(ed) building; brick house mUrinis namas; wooden house medinis namas; hut trobele; cottage namelis, troba uzmiestyje ar kaime; farmhouse ukininko troba; detached house atskiras, individualus namas; semi-detached house namas turintis bendr'l sien'l su kitu namu; terraced house terasinis namas; villa; bungalow I 'bAl)g;J,l;Jul vienaaukstis namas; skyscraper l'skaI,skrelp;J1 dangoraizis; block of flats daugiabutis namas; rented accommodation nuomuojamas bustas parts of a building flat! apartment (Am. E.); two I three room flat bathroom; bedroom; bedsit! bedsitter vieno kambario butas; drawing-room I sitting room svetaine; dining-room valgomasis; living-room bendrasis kambarys; lounge Ilaund;yl poilsio kambarys, vestibiulis; nursery l'n3:s(;l)ril vaiktt. kambarys; hall prieSkambaris; kitchen virtuve; study darbo kambarys, kabinetas; guest! spare room svecitt. kambarys; lavatory I toilet! we; basement pamatai, pusrusis; cellar I'sel;ll rusys; porch Ip:;:tfl veranda; pantry I larder I'la:d;ll sandeliukas; terrace I'ter;ls/; attic mansarda, palepe; roof; lift; balcony; staircase I stairs laiptai; downstairs I upstairs; landing laipttt. aikstele studio l'stu:dI;lUI dirbtuves; vieno kambario butas; garage l'grera:3; 'grend;yl ceiling f'si:liIJI lubos; high I low ceiling; parquet I'pa:kerl parketas; floor grindys; polished floor, painted floor The floor in my room is painted brown. floor aukstas She lives on the ground I top }loor. furniture armchair; bench suoliukas; bookcase; drawer Idf'J:I stalCius; chest of drawers komoda; cupboard indauja, spintele, :pinta; desk; dressing table tualetinis staliukas; flower stand stovas gelems; hall stand rubtt. kabykla prieskambaryje; stool taburete; bed table; towel-rack kabykla ranksluosciams; wardrobe f'w::J:dr:mbl rubtt. spinta; wall unit sekcija; double bed dvigule lova, sofa bed miegamoji sofa; bunk bed dviaukste lova; couch Ikautfl kusete; mat I rug kilimelis; rubbish bin siuksliadeze; blind I curtain 1'k3:tnl uzuolaida; draw the blinds uztraukti uzuolaidas; pull the curtains ide atitraukti uzuolaidas; curtain and carpet (pa)kabinti uzuolaidas ir iskloti kilimais The windows were curtained and the floor was carpeted. venetian blinds IV;l,ni:Sn'blamdzl zaliuzes The windows were shrouded in venetian blinds. amenities enities l;l' mi:n;ltizl, convenience~ Ibn' vi:ni;lnslzIpa togumai =0 ; gas meter; turn on I off the gas; electricity lr,lek'tns;Jti/; electric meter I fan elektros skaitliukas I ventiliatorius; . eating sildymas; central heatIng; heating is on I off; heat with electricity I gas; water-line vandentiekis; hot and ld running water; have I take a bath or a shower; (electric) light; switch on I off the light; vacuum cleaner I "Ckju;lm,kli:n;ll dulkitt. siurblys; fridge (infml) I refrigerator In'fnd3;l,relt;l1 saldytuvas; freezer saldiklis; electric cooker ~.=ktrine virykle; gas stove dujine virykle; oven IAvn/ orkaite; microwave oven; television; remote control In'm;lut 'tr;JuI!distancinis valdymas; radio; dishwasher; washing machine; ironing board l'aI;lI1IIJ,b:;:dlyginimo lenta; laundry l ~ bykla, skalbiniai; do the laundry skalbti; (tele)phone /'telI,f;Jun/; speak on lover the telephone; telephone call - using using gyvenamieji namai; gyvenimo s'llygos; maintain Imem'teml islaikyti, priziureti; maintenance l'memt;Jn;Jnslpridiura "¥ertise I'redv;l,talzl for a flat I house If you had advertised for a flat, you would have had more offers and a better choice. - infml.) I advertisement l;ld'V3:tIsm;lntlreklaminis skelbimas; estate agent !r'stelt,e1d3(;l)ntl nekilnojamo turto agentas a flat I house isnuomuoti but'l I namq; rent a flat I house issinuomuoti but'll namq; tenant nuomininkas; landlord I landlady omojamo namo I buto savininkas(e); move out issikelti; move to persikelti I was told that they had moved to another -e. move house Moving houses can be very stressful. .decorate a house I flat remontuoti (isdaiyti arba istapetuoti) nam'll but'l; renovate atnaujinti, restauruoti; repair a house remontuoti We must have the house repaired and redecorated. house I flat needs repairing Anybody can see that this • 'WlIseneeds repairing badly. convert Ibn 'V3:t/pertvarkyti, rekonstruoti warming ikurtuves; have a housewarming party sVt(stiikurtuves n sale I for sale parduodama This house is on sale. retaining fee isankstinis mokestis; pay the fee; down payment -- .s inasas; sign a lease Ili:sl pasirasyti nuomos sutarti; put down I pay the deposit sumoketi uzstatq; pay the rent ;, . uz nuom'l How much is the rent? - The flat is 32 pounds per week. be included in the rent buti itrauktam i ~ s mokesti Water is included in the rent. the rent I price is quite reasonable nuomos mokestis I kaina yra visiskai _~a; raise the rent pakelti nuomos mokesti !iDe view from the window; window faces I fronts I looks out on I overlooks The windows of the villa faced the forest. ~on and premises - of houses gyvenaml/.itt. namtt. kvartalas; premise l'premIsI patalpa, pastatas su zemes sklypu; be situated / located; urb I'SAb3:bl priemiestis; outskirts priemiestis, pakrastys; farmland; farm; residential neighbourhood I cen.f1'nelb;l,hud!gyvenamasis rajonas; industrial I agricultural area l,regn'kAltf(;l)r;l1 'e;lri;ll pramoninis I zemes ilio rajonas, 'side kaimo vietove; surroundings IS;l'raundIl)zIapylinkes; fields; valley s\enis; canal/b'nrel/; seaside pajuris;

coast pakrank; beach papludimys; pond tvenkinys; flower-bed geli4. lysve; fountain I'fauntm/; hothouse I greenhouse siltnamis; kitchen garden darias; lawn Ib:n/ veja; orchard 1':J:!f;Jd! vaisi4. sodas; shed darzine; cowshed karvide; stable arklide; yard kiemas; gate vartai; hedge Ihed:y gyvatvore; fence tvora facilities: j'f;J'srJ;Jtiz/ visuomenines paskirties irenginiai I pastatai sports facilities: swimming pool, sports I fitness centre, golf course, tennis courts, playing field zaidimo aikStele, stadium etc cultural I'kf.l!f(;J)r;J1!acilities: theatre, opera house, concert hall, radio station, art gallery etc f educational l,edju:'keISn(;J)lI facilities: school, college, university Iju:m'V3:S;Jti/, library, museum etc catering I'kelt;Jfll)1facilities vieso maitinimo istaigos catering and night-life facilities: restaurant, cafe, nightclub, dance-hall, disco transport facilities: bus service, taxi, car rental agency, car park etc other facilities: health centre, law court, job centre, shopping centre, hotel Ih;Ju'teIJ,hostel I'hostl! bendrabutis, chemist('s), police station policijos nuovada, Town Hall rotuse, miesto savivaldybe; municipality municipalitetas, savivaldybe; community centre miesto sale, bendruomenes centras adjectives used to describe premises airy l'e;Jril erdvus; ancient l'emJ(;J)ntl senas, senovinis; cheap pigus; chilly vesus; colourful spalvingas; comfortable I'kAmft;Jbl! patogus, jaukus; common I'kom;Jnl daznai pasitaikantis, iprastas; convenient Ibn'vi:m;mtl patogus, tinkamas; converted Ilc:m'v3:trdl perdirbtas, pakeistas; cosy jaukus, patogus; crowded I'kraudldl sausakimsas, tankiai gyvenamas; eco /i:k;Ju/,ecologically-friendly l,i:b'lod3Ikli'frendli I ekologiskai nekenksmingas; expensive brangus; damp dregnas; deserted IdI'Z3:tld/ istustejl(s; filthy l'frJei/ purvinas, bjaurus; flowery geletas; gorgeous I'g:J:d3;JsIpuikus, prasmatnus; historic istorinis; lively gyvybingas, linksmas; magnificent Im<eg'mfIsntl didingas, nuostabus; pale blyskus, blankus; peacful ramus; picturesque l,plk!f;J'reskl vaizdingas, grazus; plain Iplem I paprastas, kuklus; run-down suirl(s, sunykl(s; scattered I'sk<et;Jd!ssibarstl(s, pabiras; shabby /'J<ebil apleistas, vargingas; spacious I'SpeIS;JsI erdvus; stunning nuostabus, pritrenkiantis; i tasteful skoningas; tidy I'taldil tvarkingas; up-to-date naujausias, modernus; valuable I'v<eljugbl/ vertingas

I linlel 2 lamppost 3 knocker 4 doorbell

1 chinmey 2 chillmey-pot 3 eaves 4 gable

5 garage
13 6 drive 7 border

5 door 6 doorstep
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 drainpipe drain letter-bolt sash-window window-sill brick slate window-pane 12

8 hose
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 9 sprinkler lawn rackeTy trellis hedge picture window climber gutter dOlmer window

10

Row of terraced houses/Terrace

1 cowl 2 aerial 3 conservatory 4 French window 5 parasol 6 clothes-line 7 crazy paving 8 deck-chair 9 vegetable garden 10 garden shed 11 back door 12 tiles

1 skylight 2 roof 3 pane 4 wall 5 porch 6 hanging basket 7 path 8 fence 9 bay window 10 garden gate 11 casement window

1 Mrs Brown is a busy housewife. Which of the following household chores might she do: a) in the morning? b) at midday? c) in the afternoon? d) in the evening? How long do you think it takes her to do different chores? make the beds wash up air the rooms dust the furniture clean the windows do the ironing lay the table for breakfast do her daily shopping make dinner / supper pick up her children from school mend clothes and sew on missing buttons beat or vacuum the carpets and mats sweep the kitchen floor with a broom do / tidy the rooms if they are in a mess take the dirty linen to the laundry take her children to school take the rubbish out and walk the dog do some gardening and water the flowers

1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9

o

You should think about choosing a business / career / living before you leave school. If you're a(n) employee / employer / manager, you have to do what your boss tells you. Mrs Black was lifted / promoted / raised after she had worked for two years in the company. Usually companies look for workers with the right personality / qualifications / experiences. If you are paid monthly rather than weekly, you get wages / a salary / a reward. What do you plan to do for / on / in a living? Send in a CV when applying in / for / at a job. As you will see from my biography / CV / letter, I have experience of this kind of work. We have vacancies / free places / work for activity organisers to work with children at our camp. Terry was often late for work and in the end he was thrown out / sacked / turned out.

fired temporary interesting well-paid part -time skilled stressful

permanent relaxing unqualified full-time boring employed badly paid

1 It's not a steady job. 2 It's a risky job. 3 It's an interesting job. It's boring. S It's an exciting job. It's very tiring.

It's not well paid. It is poorly paid. You earn a lot of money. You do the same thing all the time. You travel a lot which is exhausting. You spend all day in front of the computer.

a) b) c) d) e)

You You The You You

apply for the post. seethe ad. company needs another person. earn more money. arrange an appointment for an interview.

f) g) h) i) j)

You accept the job. They advertise in the paper. You have the interview. You do well and get promotion. They offer you the job.

USE of ENGLISH
1 Use the word in bold to complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. You must use between two to five words, including the word given. 1 Normally I have a ten-minute journey to school. takes Normally it to get to school. 2 I can't come at eleven on Saturday as I have an appointment with the hairdresser. having I can't come at eleven on Saturday because hair cut. 3 I don't mind laying the table if you do the washing up. will I if you agree to wash up. 4 I have had enough of tidying after you every day. tired I after you every day. 5 They ate dinner and discussed the problem at the same time. were While discussed the problem. 6 Who's your baby-sitter for this evening? looking Who your baby this evening? 7 I managed to get up on time by going to bed early. late If I , I wouldn't have got up on time. S We were allowed to stay up late if there was a good film on TV. let My parents if there was a good film on TV. 9 First I'll get a bit of sleep and then I'll get the dinner ready. nap After I , I'll get the dinner ready. 10 I started this job five years ago. been I have for five years. 2 Use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits in the sentence best. If you have left school and haven't got ajob, don't despair. Job (1 advertise) can be found in local papers under 'Situations Vacant' or go to your local (2 employ) office. If they haven't got a (3 suit) job for you, at least good (4 advise) will be given there. Also, remember to read (5 notice) Job (6 vacant) are displayed on notice boards outside firms and factories. Local jobs are posted on cards in shopwindows and at post offices. If you have got necessary (7qualify) for the job that interests you, make an (8 appoint) ................................... for an interview. Sometimes an interview is arranged by telephone, but often a written (9 apply) is required. Sometimes the (10 apply) is tested at the interview. Don't be nervous, do your best.

3 Make all the necessary changes and additions to produce sentences, which together make a complete letter. The first sentence has been done for you. Dear Sir, 1 I/ write / apply / position / clerk-typist / advertise / 'The Daily Post' / 2yh November . .J. am .w.rit.ing.t9. .«pplx hr. tnf. [l{N4(Qn. 9j9Mrk-.tYp,i$t ..q$..qdy.£:.rJi$f.rJ. Th.€i.f)q4y. PQ$.( .'.Qn.2J.(l:z. N9.Y.€imQ.€ir. .(lJ.. 2 I / be / seventeen-year-old student / final year / Woodland High School. 3 During / last two years I / study / English, Maths, Social Studies, Shorthand, Typing and Commerce. 4 My shorthand / typing skills / be / good / I / be capable / use / personal computer. 5 As you / see / my curriculum vitae / I / work / Jones' Cut Price Store / checkout operator / Saturday mornings / school holidays last year. 6 I / be / always punctual/reliable / so / employers / be / satisfy / my work. 7 I believe I / be suitable / position / office. 8 I hope / application (take / consideration. 9 If you feel/qualifications meet / requirements, I / be available / interview / convenience. 10 I look forward / hear / you. Yours faithfully,
<;JJaVUoia; CWd.w.n"

Look carefully at each line. Some lines are correct, but some have a word that should not be there. Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which should not be there, underline the word and write it next to the number of the line. The first two lines have been done for you. Work is a very important part of life. It provides people with money. It also gives for them a daily routine and a place to be with other people. Losing a job is very stressful. It can be as much stressful as a divorce or the death of a close relative. People who are unemployed and often feel angry, depressed, helpless and worthless. Some people develop problems with their marriages and children, others will get sick or develop problems with alcohol. The unemployed usually apply for unemployment insurance. Others to use their savings or ask family or friends for money. Unemployment always hurts but you must remember that there are things you can to do and there are choices you can make.

o o
1 2

-/ fr.!.':

.
.
. .

3
4 5 6 7 8

.
. . . . .

contact pressure

compete promoted

depend gain recognised

knowledge solve

pace supervise

_ly VVork Values

= refer employment which enables me to:
ontribute to society have 1........•. ; with people vork alone ;vork with a team :"" with others - be creative others - work with details _ 4 •.••.••••. recognition - work out-of-doors
_ 3.......•...•.•..

- make decisions - work under s . - use power and authority • - acqUIre new 6 . - be a 7 ....••....••..•••.• expert

- make a lot of money - help others _ 8...............••. problems _ take 9 ..•••..••••..•.•.••••••• - work at my own 10.....•

READING and SPEAKING
1 Read the text and choose the most suitable heading A-J for paragraphs 1-10. The first has been done for you. A B C D E Try to stay calm Don't be upset Preparing Find out about the company / college The big day arrives F G H I Be confident Wear appropriate clothing Don't be too demanding Think over the questions you are likely to be asked Don't lie

J

This summer millions of pupils will soon be breaking up from school for the last time and heading off to pastures new. Whatever the next step is (whether it is college, university or a full-time job) the chances are that it will involve an interview of some kind. Your school can often help you prepare by giving you a mock interview. This is a useful process, but can be more beneficial and realistic if you don't know the person interviewing you. Talk to older friends or family members about their interview experiences. Write down any difficult questions they were asked and think about how you would answer them.

14
15

This way, you are less likely to be faced with a question you don't know how to answer, but be careful not to over-prepare. Your answer might sound 'learned' or lacking in conviction.

I

11

(;

I

This shows that it's not only the job type that you're interested in - you want to work lor this particular company. It will also help you ask relevant questions.

I

6 This needn't necessarily be a suit but you should look neat and tidy. It's important to wear something that you feel comfortable in, so tryon clothes before the day of the interview.

I

..1

12

IOn the day of the interview, remember

to take

17

the following things with you: - the address of the place where your interview is and a map. Make sure you know how to get there. - a copy of your CV or application form. It will be embarrassing if you can't remember the information you've given about yourself. It's also good to have a copy to hand if you have to clarify any points you've made. - a list of questions to ask. There are going to be things you want to know, so get them down on paper. It's easy to forget them when the pressure's on. - a mobile phone so that you can phone up if you are delayed, or find yourself hopelessly lost. Aim to be at the place of your interview about 15 minutes before it takes place. You can use this time to refresh yourself with your questions or just relax and take a few deep breaths. And, of course remember to answer any calls of nature (it could be some time before you get the chance again.)

1 Interviews can be a pretty nerve-wracking experience, but try not to feel frightened. If you find a question difficult, allow yourself a few seconds to think about what you're going to say. And don't let it ruin the rest of your interview if you think you have said the wrong thing. An experienced interviewer will be used to dealing with people's nerves.

Is

IDon't go into an interview with over-ambitious or inflexible ideas about what you want from the job. While it's good to show that you are in no position to make demands. Never appear too eager to talk about money or other added advantages. Employers will question your motives for applying for the job.

19

ILying is a risky business. Most people aren't as good at lying as they think they are and an interviewer can often tell when a response isn't honest. On the other hand, if you are a successful liar, you will have to keep up any response pretences you have made for a long time.

13

IEven if you feel like a bag of nerves, there are things you can do to give the impression of confidence; speak clearly and calmly. It's easy to talk too quickly when you're nervous - so relax and slow down. Sit in a comfortable position so you don't feel the need to fidget.

110

1 It's easier said than done, but don't lose heart if you are unsuccessful. It's worthwhile finding out why you have been rejected. Consider phoning or writing to the company and asking for some feedback. This will give you something to work on for your next interview.

1 2 3 4 5 6

beneficial (para 1) embarrassing (para 2) to clarify (para 2) confidence (para3) to fidget (para 3) lacking in conviction (para 4)

7 relevant (para 5) 8 dealing with (para 7) 9 inflexible ideas (para 8) 10 response (para 9) 11 rejected (paralO) 12 feedback (para 10)

3 Complete these sentences using the words from Ex 2. Make any changes that are necessary. 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 He was for the army because of his bad eyesight. You are too shy: you should have more in yourself. Fresh air is to everyone's health. I find it really very when I have to talk in front of a lot of people. How should the government with the AIDS crisis? Students will find a list of articles at the back of the book. There have been several to our advertisement. I wish you'd stop with that box of matches.

4 Read the dialogues. The following sentences have been removed from them. Decide where each of them should be fitted in. Make similar dialogues of your own.

A And may I ask about the salary? B And where do you come from?

C Can you tell me about the work schedule? D Have you got any hobbies or special interests?

You: 1 . Personnel Officer: Yes. Hours are from nine to five-thirty, with a lunch break at one. Sometimes we'll ask you to work overtime or at weekends. You: I see. 2•..•..•...•..•..•.•..•••....•.......• PO: Yes. The salary is five dollars an hour. Have you got any more questions? You: No, I don't think so. PO: Before we finish, tell me a little more about yourself. You: All right. Let me see ... I'm married. My husband is a security guard at the factory. We have two children, a son and a daughter. PO: 3 . You: I'm from Florida. PO: 4 . You: Yes. I play the piano and I take dance lessons. PO: I see. It was nice to talk to you. You'll hear from us soon. You: Thank you very much.

A Have you had any previous experience? B And have you got a driving licence?

C Now, do you know this area at all? D When would you be able to start?

rt ."hy _ [he

:you

Mr Brown: Come in, Ann. Take a seat, please. Ann: Thank you. Mr B: 1 . Ann: Quite well. My grandparents live just on the outskirts of the town so I have been coming here for holidays since I was little. I'm staying with them at the moment. Oh, that's nice. 2....................................• MrB: Yes. I've been driving for four years now. Ann: Good. Now, could you tell me why you think you would be right for this job? 3 . MrB: Well, I've managed to get quite a bit of experience by taking jobs and I always liked working with Ann: children. I see Well, I can't make any promises, but you do sound just the sort of person we're looking for. 4 . As soon as I finish my Nursery Teacher's course.

Secretary: Caller:

Smith and Watson. Can I help you? Good morning. This is Evelyn Hyde, the Personnel Officer of Candy and Cooky Sweets. Could I speak to your sales manager, Mr Smith, please? I'm sorry but Mr Smith is out at lunch and won't be back for at least another hour. Would you like to leave a message or shall I ask Mr Smith to ring you when he gets back? Please ask him to ring me at my office 500 8469, before 5.30 if possible. I want to take up a reference; Miss Marina Sullivan has applied for a job here and she says that Mr Smith knows her very well. I'll see he gets the message. Goodbye.

6 Tell about Tina's life joining the given sentences in the columns. Use the conjunctions and, so, but where necessary.

Plans 1 Go to university. 2 Find a job in Berlin. 3 Study English in London. 4 Stay with an English family. 5 Study English for a year. 6 Work in England after finishing school. 7 Not going to work in her parents' shop.

Reality 1 Failed exams. Left school at seventeen. 2 No jobs. Decided to go to England to study English. 3 Didn't like London. Went to Oxford instead. 4 Changed her mind. Stayed in a student hostel. 5 Didn't have enough money. Finished after ten months. 6 Couldn't find ajob. Came back to Berlin. 7 Needed money. She did.

• • • • • • • • • •

what her / his daily routine on week-days is what slhe would like to change about it and why where and when s/he has her / his meals how slhe feels at the end of the day which part of her / his working day is the most interesting / boring which part of the day is the most difficult for her / his family how housework is divided among the members of her / his family what slhe thinks of young people having part-time jobs what slhe usually does on her / his days off how s/he imagines her / his ideal day off

• if it is better to study after school, to combine work and studies or to take a gap year • if s/he had to choose, what s/he would prefer: keeping her / his career or staying at home. Why? • what her / his future career plans are • if slhe would like to have a temporary or a permanent job • if s/he prefers working with others or by herself / himself • what aspects of her / his future job he/she would find most rewarding (good salary, meeting people, helping others, chances to travel etc)

WRITING
1 Simon is a student at college and is looking for some part-time job. Read his letter of application. Put the paragraphs of the letter in the right order writing the numbers 1-5 in the boxes. The first has been done for you. 16 Lloyd Street Glenville 4223 28 November, 2003 The Personnel Manager Po. Box 112 Richmond 5200 Dear Sir or Madam,

CI:!J
D=:EJ

In addition, I would like to point out that I have got some experience in working with children. Last summer I worked as a group leader at an activity camp in Sherwood. In 2001 I helped to organise sport activities at a Sport Summer Camp and everybody was satisfied with my work. 1 have enclosed references from my previous employers. I look forward to hearing from you.

ITIJ

I am a nineteen-year-old student at Glenville College of Technologies. In spring I finished Woodland High School. I believe that I am suitable for the job for a number of reasons. Firstly, during the last two years I have been taking part and have won medals in various swimming competitions. Also, I was a member of the school athletics team for two years and played volleyball for the school 'B'team. So I am strong and physically fit. Secondly, I have attended a first aid course and I am capable of giving first aid in emergency situations. I hope you will consider my application. I am available for an interview at your convenience. I am writing to apply for the position of swimming pool attendant as advertised in the 'Mercury' on 25th November (Advertisement number DK564). Yours faithfully,
$im<Jn, gJflIl1wv

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rite the formal letter in Ex. 1 in the right order. Read the following statements and tick (/) the which' apply to the given letter. The writer: uses formal language without short forms and abbreviations knows the person he is writing to and doesn't use a formal greeting follows the layout of formal letters writes his address on the right with no name in it doesn't write the address of the person / company he is writing to states why he is writing in the opening paragraph writes in blocked paragraphs leaving a blank line between the paragraphs uses linking words to make his writing flow better includes the information that is relevant to the job he is applying for signs off on the right-hand side of the page

3 How does Simon organise his CV? Read the CV and put the following items in the correct order. The first has been done for you. work experience, starting from the most recent one interests outside school OJ c all the necessary personal information at the top D d information about his education (the name of the school finished, subjects studied)

oa ob

examinations taken the names of referees responsibilities he had in the past at school his most important personal qualities relevant to the post he is applying for D i key skills relevant to the job

De Df Dg Dh

Name Date of birth Age Nationality

Simon Parker 10 April, 1984 19 British citizen

Phone number Marital Status Address

8765432 single 16 Lloyd Street Glenville 4223

Personal profile Reliable, well-organised, used to working on my own initiative Key skills Familiar with Microsoft Word and Excel Clean driving licence First Aid Course Certificate Fluent in German Education 2003 - present 2003 1991 - 2003 Glenville College of Technologies General Certificate of High Education Woodland High School, Glenville

2003 Advanced Level examinations in History, Maths, Chemistry, Modern Technologies Responsibilities Member of School Council Captain of school's volleyball team Represented school at swimming, athletics and volleyball Work experience 2002 Children's Activity Summer Camp, Sherwood: group leader 2001 Sport Summer Camp, Glenville: assistant activity organiser Interests Member of the local folk song group Photography Referees Mrs Susan Taylor, leader of Children's Activity Summer Camp in Sherwood Mr Peter Roberts, Headteacher of Woodland High School

4 You have seen the following advertisement and have decided to apply for the job. Write your letter of application (120-150 words) and your CV. You may use the set phrases and expressions given below.
required for Halls Trade Centre to work at weekends at new souvenir shops near the Castle. Applicants must: • be 18 years of age and over • speak fluent English (German preferable) • be reliable and responsible • have a pleasant personality

Basic knowledge of PC (to issue receipts) is an advantage. Write to Personnel Manager of Halls Trade Centre, 26 Bank Road, Liverpool

Set phrases for writing a letter of application I am writing with regard to / in connection with your advertisement in ... J am interested in applying for the job of ... I am presently working for / at ... I have been working for ... I am familiar with / experienced in / fluent in ... As you can see from my curriculum vitae, ... I consider myself well-qualified for the position of ... If you feel that my qualifications meet your requirements, note that I am available for an interview at your convenience. I have enclosed a copy of my curriculum vitae describing my qualifications and experience.

_ccept I~k'septl priimti quire 1~'kwaI~1 i(si)gyti; is(si)ugdyti 'd leIdl pagalba . lelmf nu(si)taikyti; ketinti; tikslas ~ply I~'plar/ kreiptis, prasyti plicant I'<eplrbnt/ kandidatas, pretendentas ...:., pointment 1~'pDIntm~ntl paskyrimas, susitarimas susitikti propriate I~'pr~upn~t/ (ati)tinkamas ge 1~'remQ31 susitarti, organizuoti udant I~'tend~nt/ priziiiretojas . able I~'velidbl! galimas naudoti eficial l,ben~'fIS~11 naudingas, palankus m Ibru:m/ sluota on l'bAtn/ saga ble I'kelp~bll sumanus; galintis, link((s 'out I'ifekautl kasa re lif~:1 namll ruosa; nemalonus darbas . y I'kl<er~,far/ (pa)aiskinti pete Ibm'pi:tl variytis, konkuruoti dence l'konfId(~)nsl pasitikejimas 'deration Ibn,sId~'reISnl svarstymas, atidumas 'bute Ibn'tnbju:tl prisideti, tureti itakos ,'ction Ibn'vrkJ~n/ isitikinimas with) Idi:V tvarkyti; tureti reikalll _ Idr'ler! atideti, uzlaikyti ding IdI 'ma :ndIlJI reikalaujantis daug pastangll 'r IdI'spe~1 netekti vilties )" IdI'spler! isdestyti ree Idl'V~:sl skyrybos i:g~1 trokstantis, siekiantis rassing /rm'b<er~SIlJI nepatogus, gluminantis ",ency /r'm~:Q3(~)nsil kritiska padetis, nenumatytas atvejis ~::..:l:';e/m'k1duzJ ideti ting IIg 'z~:stIlJI varginantis ck I'fi:db<ek! griztamasis rysys fld3Iti nenustygti vietoje more l,f~:o~'m~:1 dar daugiau, be to ~ern/ igyti, igauti eiti, patraukti Im'klu:dl itraukti (daryti dalimi) Ie Im'f1eks~bl/ nelankstus . e!I'mJ~tIv/iniciatyva ce 1m'Ju~r~nsl draudimas ll'volvl itraukti Ci veiklq) -' ni lyginti drabuzius

lack /lrek/ netureti, stokoti laundry /'b:ndril skalbykla; skalbiniai layout 1'leIautl isplanavimas, isdestymas linen I'lmml lininis audinys; uztiesalai; skalbiniai mend taisyti mock Imokl netikras, apsimestinis nap Inrepl pogulis neat Ini:tl svai-us, tvarkingas nerve-wracking I'n~:v,rrekIlJI nervus gadinantis pace IpeIsl greitis, tempas pasture l'pa:stJ ~I ganykla permanent I'p~:m~n~ntl pastovus, nuolatinis preferable f'pref~r~bl/ labiau pageidautinas pressure I'preJ~1 spaudimas, itampa, nasta pretence Ipn'tensl apsimetimas pretend Ipn'tend! apsimesti previous I'pri:vI~sl ankstesnis promote Ipdm~ut/ paaukstinti, reklamuoti recent I'ri:sntl dabartinis recognition I,rebg 'mJni pripazinimas referee I,ref~'ri:/ rekomenduojantis asmuo reference I' refr( ~)nsl rekomendacija refresh In'freJI atgaivinti reject/n'Q3ekt! atmesti, at(si)sakyti relevant I'rel~v~nt/ svarbus, tinkamas, susij((s requirement In' kWaI;)m~ntl reikala vimas response In'sponsl atsakymas; reakcija rewarding IrI 'W~:dIlJIteikiantis pasitenkinim'l rubbish l'rAbIJI siuksles; nes'lmones, niekai sack (infml) Isrekl atleisti is darbo salary I'srel~ril alga savings I'seIVIlJz/ santaupos schedule I'Jedju:l, 'skedju:ll planas, tvarkarastis sew Is~ul siuti shorthand /'J~:t,hrendl stenografavimas sign IsaIni zenklas; pasirasyti skill igudimas, igudis supervise /'su:p~vaIZI priziiireti sweep Iswi:pl sIuoti temporary I'temp(~)r~ri/ Iaikinas vacancy /'veIbnsi/ laisva darbo vieta vacuum I'vrekju~m/ (is)valyti du1kill siurbliu wages f'welQ3lzl atlyginimas worthless l'w~:eJ~sl bevertis, niekam tik((s worthwhile l,w~:El'wadl vertas, prasmingas

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
at home do a room tvarkyti kambari [want to do the sitting room and the bedrooms before our guests arrive. doing up tvarkymas, valymas; duty I responsibility pareiga; help sb about the house [always help my mother about the house. housewife (housewives); housework namJ.!mosa; do the washing I ironing I cooking Who is going to do the cooking? do the dishes I windows I floors I laundry Let me help you do the laundry. bedtime; lie (lay, lain) down prigulti, guleti; lie in I sleep in: to stay in bed later than usual We usually lie in on Sunday. nap pogulis; have I take a nap; put sb to bed; relax atsipalaiduoti; rest I take a rest ilsetis; slow down I take things easy nepersitempti; stay in neiseiti is namll, biiti namie I'm staying in tonight to watch television. stay up neiti miegoti Our mum didn't let us stay up until late. at work apply for a job I the post I the position; a letter of application I an application form pareiskimas, prasymas You have to fill in an application form first. break pertrauka We have an hour's break for lunch at our factory. canteen Ikren'ti:n1 valgykla (istaigoje); commute Ib'mju:tl reguliariai vaiineti (i darbq ir pan.) cooperate I collaborate with sb bendradarbiauti; cope susidoroti, susitvarkyti He's taken more work than he can cope with. days off I free days iseigines dienos; deadline paskutinis terminas Friday is the deadline for presenting your projects. employer darbdavys Daniel's employers offered to pay for the course. employee darbuotojas Their employees worked a ten-hour day. engagement idarbinimas, uisiemimas; hectic: very busy I've had a very hectic day at the office. get the sack (infml) I be fired I be dismissed biiti atleistam is darbo; on business su reikalais She is away on business at the moment. open I vacant position I vacancy laisva vieta The position has been vacant for several months. They've got a vacancy at the Sales Department. teamwork; work permit You can't work here without a work permit. working life [lived abroad for most of my working life. the work schedule /'Sedju:l ,'skedju:l/ darbo valandos; short I long I steady I unsteady working hours; start work; stop I finish work; work by the day dirbti padieniui; shift IJrft/ pamaina; work shifts dirbti pamainomis; day shift I night shift My father works the day shift. work as She is working as a nurse. work for working on this problem for years. She works for an oil company. work on I at sth Scientists have been

unemployment nedarbas Last year unemployment rose to its highest level. unemployment benefit I insurance 1m' Ju;)r:ms/ bedarbio pasalpa She's been on unemployment benefit for the last few years. Employment Agency idarbinimo agentiira; social security socia line apsauga work challenging, monotonous, temporary, complicated, dangerous, dull, hard, important, light, manual permanent, physical, professional, (un)qualified, rewarding, voluntary I'vol;)nt;)ri/ savanoriskas rankJ.!, fizinis; mental seasonal, (un)skilled, protinis; steady,

worker careful, (in)competent, conscientious l,konJi'enJ;)sl s'l.iiningas, stropus; dedicated, freelance neetatinis, laisvai samdomas; hardworking, lazy, low-paid, the private sector, slow, thorough 1'8Ar;)/ kruopstus; workaholic; a blue-collar worker darbininkas; a white-collar worker tarnautojas to work . alone, efficiently efektyviai, nasiai; independently; round the clock istis'l. par'l.; smoothly sekmingai, sklandiiai

income income pajamos You have a good income. increase Im'kri:s/ augti, (pa)diddi, (pa)didinti; living pragyvenimas Do you know what she does for a living? earn uidirbti He earns a living by carpenting. earnings uidarbis; tax(es) valstybinis mokestis We do not propose to increase income tax. reward atlyginimas, atpildas; pension; grant I scholarship stipendija; tip arbatpinigiai; pocket money kisenpinigiai; allowance /;)'lau;)nsl pasalpa He was given an allowance of 50 Lt. salary is a fixed amount of money that people earn each month or year from their job. Teachers' salaries in London are quite high. wage(s) is an amount of money that people earn for working usually according to how many hours or days they work each week or month. She earns a good wage at the factory. pay is the money that someone receives as his salary or wages. She lost her 3 weeks' pay. How much pay do you get? prospects prospects perspektyvos, ateities planai There will be good prospects for me if [ accept this job. ambition /;)m'brJnI siekis, troskimas Her ambition was to be a lawyer. experience /rk'spr;)ri;)nsl patyrimas Do you have any previous experience of this job? qualify as igyti kvalifikacij'l., teis« dirbti I hope to qualify as a doctor. His training qualifies him as a teacher of English. qualifications; promotion paaukstinimas He has got / gained a promotion. curriculum vitae (CV) Ibr'rkjul;)m'vi:tar/ duomenys apie moksl'l. ir darbin« veikl'l.

!lse.

'ng?

5

nap easy
Ollr

have _ i:n1 orb sb :,:o·nes .;miel's , ment / be cant Sales . .,.most

• the activities you have done • the activities you are engaged in

• the activities you would like to take up in the future • the activities you would never take up

doing crossword puzzles, playing draughts / chess, video-making, dressmaking, knitting, gardening, fishing, camping, swimming, cycling, skateboarding, doing extreme sports (mountaineering, skydiving, hang-gliding etc), embroidery, playing sports games (football, basketball etc),jogging, photography, reading books, listening to music, collecting (antiques, coins, stamps, posters etc) .

2 Divide the words below into following groups: books, music, cinema, drama theatre. Some words may suit more than one group. chapter, screen, stage, orchestra, best-seller, scene, playwright, conductor, stalls, director, author, star, composer, cameraman, novelist, box-office, paperback, audience, musical, curtain, science fiction, poem, cinema-goer, documentary, actress, cloakroom, edition, disc jockey, plot, scenery, first-night, matinee, role 3 Decide which category (books, films) the phrases could refer to. Which words and phrases could refer to both? a high quality production a waste of time and money unpredictable ending breathtaking scenes funny and amusing parts vivid descriptions of characters true-to-life well-written action-packed worth reading informative blockbuster gnppmg exciting badly directed easy to read special effects slow in development appeals to all ages realistic dialogues powerful long and boring hair-raising stunts a box-office hit full of suspense highly entertaining the story is set enjoyable

work; shift /

ance
inimo

~otinis;
steady,

omas; worker

, Do you

~tybinis
ndija;
J.

Parts of the film were shot in the studio in Hollywood, but most were made in the streets of New York, which makes it at times like a documentary. 2 When I want to relax, I listen to classical music or go to watch in the Art Gallery. 3 Television does enable us to enjoy all kinds of sports events but, to my mind, stay-at-home sports fans should try to fit and take part in various outdoor activities themselves. 4 In 2004 Greece was the country for the Olympic Games. 5 Students of philology have to read a lot of , consult plenty of dictionaries and books. 6 We had some coffee during the between the acts and discussed the performance. Who is the most popular in your country and what sort of music do they play? My brother often borrows books from our public library because he is a great reader of . fiction, adventure and detective stories. 9 The plot of the novel is sometimes too complicated to follow but still it's a very book. 10 The enjoyed the play so much that they applauded for ten minutes.

5 Choose the word that fits each gap best. Sport and TV I think you will agree that there are three kinds of people who are 1..............•.. in sport: people who 2 ...........•• _. part in various sport activities, people who only watch sports, and people who watch sport 3 tele\·i.· It's very easy to make fun of stay-at-home sports 4 ••••••••••••••••• , but on the other hand, television does ena >~ to enjoy all kinds of sports events. We can watch a racing car 5 .•••.•.••.••..•.• another, see a cyclist 6 ...............•• finishing line, or 7 ••••••••••••••••• the goals of our favourite football team. The first time I watched a tennis 8 ..•.....••• _ was on television, and I found it unexpectedly interesting. It's not always easy to 9 long distan ?S football 10 •••••.••..••.•.•. , and television is a good solution. Of course, you can 11••.••.••••.•••••• used to sitting' all the time, and this is dangerous. We should all try to keep fit, and have other interests and 12 .............•••••• 1 2 3 4 5 6 a) playing a) take a) on a) people a) cross a) overtake b) succeed b) have b) through b) centres b) overtaking b) and c) interested c) make c) by c) fans c) or c) crossing a) like 7 a) match 8 a) trip 9 10 a) areas 11 a) got 12 a) customs b) enjoy b) court b) tour b) grounds b) get b) habits c) am -~ c) pi . c) tra\·~ c) t c) h ~ c)

USE of ENGLISH
1 PRODUCT 2 TENSE 3 DIRECT 4 SCENE 5 DESCRIBE 6 NOVEL 7 DEFINITE 8 ACTIVE 9 EQUIP 10 ENTERTAIN

This multi-million has a lot of breathtaking scenes. The special effects are spectacular and create an atmosphere of __ Steven Spielberg is one of the most outstanding 0 Junior students helped in painting the for our perfo{::;:::!::I::::=" The author presents vivid and detailed of the c Charles Dickens is a well-known British . The novel appeals to all ages and I recornmen i . Various outdoor relieve stress and give us energy. Photography is a hobby which requires expensive . It's a highly film and I'm sure everybody \ ill e .

2 Read the text carefully. Each line has a word missing. Use the words from the box to complete th You can use the same word only once. Put a stroke (I) in the place where a word is missing. the missing word next to the number of the line. The first has been done for you as an example.

I like cinema very much. I try to see all the best films that Ion at the cinema. I know the names of many actors, directors and cameramen. I no art is so accessible as cinema. Not long I saw an American film that once was called 'the greatest motion picture all times'. That film is based on the novel 'Gone with the Wind' by Margaret Mitchell. It is a beautiful young woman, Scarlet O'Hara and 12 years of her life just before, and after the American Civil War. Rhett Butler, a handsome dark hero is in love Scarlet, but she doesn't love him. She is in love with someone. A Hollywood film producer, David O. Selznick invited a young British actress, Vivien Leigh to the part of Scarlet. A famous film star of the time, Clark Gable, played the part of Rhett Butler. With great attention the detail of the nineteenth century setting director and the cameraman did their best to reveal the romantic story. I enjoyed the film even more I had read the novel before.

o
I 3 4

-_
--.-_ __

5
6 8 9 10
11 "'

__
. __ . __
_

Someone has counted about one thousand personal interests 1 ways to spend one's free time. Collecting coins, stamps and postcards 2 one of the most popular hobbies. Lots 3 ..........•..•........ people are interested 4 ••..............•...•.• music, art, cinema and theatre. Some people like taking photos 5 camcordering. Millions of people 6 fond of music and sport. I don't have 7 time for leisure during 8 week. Apart from aerobics 9 . Tuesday night and jogging in the morning most 10•.......•.....•.••.••.•.. my time is spent at school. 11•...•.•.•.•.•.•.••.•.•.•. the weekend I like 12.............•.•....•..... visit friends or go to the disco. 13.•.•.•.••.•.•.•.•••.•.• favourite pastime is 14•.•.•.••••..•.••.•.•.•.•.•.. do crosswords and to create 15 •.•..•..•..••.•.••.•••.•.•.•.• myself.

You: Friend: You: Friend: You: Friend: You: Friend: You: Friend: You: Friend:

What I ? Books that are easy to read and exciting. Who 2 •...••...........•...••.••...•.••..•........................................•..•••.•••......•••..•••... ? Oh, John Le Carre, Len Deighton - writers like that. Do 3 ? No, not only spy stories. I do read other kinds of books too. And what 4 ...............................•.....••.•.....•..••.••...•.•...•........•...................... ? At the moment? Well, I'm on the very last chapter of a book by J. G. Ballard. What 5 .•••...•..•.....•.•.•..•..•...••..•••..•...........................•....•.•.•••..••..•.••.•..••.•••.•. ? 'Empire of the Sun'. What 6 ...••.......•.....•......•..........................•..•..••.•.............•.•.•.••...•.•.••.•.•.••... ? It's about a boy who is separated from his parents during the war.

READING and SPEAKING
Read the text Film Star Wars and say whether the statements are true or false. Underline the sentences that led you to choose each answer. 1 The films Leonardo takes part in are not always popular. 2 Leonardo DiCaprio held a press conference because the filming of The Beach was blamed for destroying the environment. 3 The role of Arnie in What's Eating Gilbert Grape? revealed his talent. 4 Leonardo DiCaprio was awarded one of the greatest nominations for the main role in What's Eating Gilbert Grape? 5 Ewan McGregor took part in raising money for charity in the United States. 6 Ewan usually listens to Elvis Presley's songs when he wants to entertain himself. 7 Christina Ricci is popular with bad-tempered, horrible teenagers. 8 Christina doesn't deny that she had serious health problems. 9 Christina is a qualified actor. 10 Cameron Diaz says that she doesn't want to become famous. 11 Cameron enjoys taking risks and spending money.

Leonardo DiCaprio The box office factor: Well ... put it this way; The Beach has a budget of $ 45 million and Leo is being paid $25 million of it. Teenage bedroom walls are covered with him and there are 393,421 listings of his name on the Internet. Any film he is in is bound* to be a success. On the other hand, due to Leo mania, many people have gone off* him a bit and some might even see him as a bit naff* now.

[j

The 'nice' factor: Considered a 'party animal' , he travels everywhere with ten friends who he hangs out with constantly. By all accounts, he is also very generous. Accusations that the filming of The Beach was destroying the environment upset Leo so much that he held a press conference about it.

Body: When teenage magazine Bliss held a readers' poll for 'world's sexiest boy' Leo got over 70% of the vote. However, some scenes with him in his swimming trunks were cut from The Beach because he was looking a bit 'chunky'. Talent rating: The role that most showed his talent was as Arnie the 'mentally challenged' hyperactive younger brother of grocery clerk Gilbert Grape in Whats Eating Gilbert Grape ? His performance earned him an Oscar nomination for the best supporting actor. 'Cool' factor: He doesn't want just to be seen as a teenage heart-throb* and in the past he has accepted scripts for small films just because he liked the story. Other things: He's very close to his parents. He loves being a clown on the sets of his movies. However, it was no joke when a boat turned over while he was filming The Beach and he had to swim for his life. Ewan McGregor The box office factor: The world's his oyster*. Having been in Trainspotting, A Life Less Ordinary and numerous other films, he's been a major contender* for a while but his Phantom Menace success means 'The Force' is now definitely with him. He is also currently directing his own small film called Tube Tales. The 'nice' factor: Last year, he helped raise money for Red Nose Day (a charity day in the UK when people do silly things and buy and wear red plastic noses.) He adores spending time with his wife and daughter and is a family man through and through. Body: Several of his film roles have required nudity which he's been quite happy to do. Talent rating: He has had such a huge variety of roles and accents. When he rang up the producer of American hospital drama ER and asked to be in it, they gave him an hour-long special. Danny Boyle, maker of films like Trainspotting has chosen him for many of his films, although Boyle decided to pick Leonardo for The Beach. 'Cool' factor: When he was six, he used to pretend he was Elvis Presley to entertain his parents' guests. Other things: If he has to make himself cry for a role, he listens to Old Shep - a song about a faithful old dog that dies.

iii

to most people's minds because of the characters she plays. In fact, the makers of Sleepy Hollow (a film she's making with Johnny Depp) checked she didn't really have a dark personality before they agreed to use her. She jokingly says, 'I'll be bitter and twisted when I'm 40 because I'm kind of leaning that way already'. Body: She is quite open about the fact that when she was 15, she had anorexia but in her own words, 'I've accepted that I'm never going to be totally skinny and I've got over it. It's just a shame the way people link beauty and thinness'. Talent rating: Though she's never had an acting lesson, her acting has won universal praise. It all stems from appearing more angry than she really is and freaking people out. 'Cool' factor: People admire her honesty and her humour. She doesn't kiss up* to anyone. Other things: She's both self-assured and insecure. 'I want to be treated like an adult but at times when I'm filming away from home I want to say, 'I'm 18, you'd better assign me a parent. Or at least find me a hotel where someone can come and find my dead body.' Cher is one of her biggest fans and when she was younger she took Christina under her wing. ~ Cameron Diaz The box office factor: Since her success in Something About Mary, people have accepted that she is not just a pretty face. The 'nice' factor: She is nice but that's part of the problem; she would like to be gi ven roles where she is less of a nai ve child. She managed this with her latest movie, Bad Things where she plays a less than sweet bride. Body: She used to be a model and several movie magazines have called her the sexiest woman on earth. Talent rating: Although she had never acted, she has shown that she has talent for comedy. Danny Boyle, maker of Trainspotting, The Beach and A Life Less Ordinary says he was totally impressed with her. 'Cool' factor: She claims she isn't particularly fazed* by fame and it doesn't interest her, it's just that she likes acting. She proved herself to be game for a laugh while filming both My Best Friends Wedding and A Life Less Ordinary by agreeing to do karaoke in a room full of hostile strangers when she knew she couldn't sing. Actually she is quite gutsy in general. Firstly, she has racing car driving as a hobby and secondly, because when she was filming A Life Less Ordinary in LA, all the other actors requested drivers because they felt safer. Cameron turned down the offer and drove herself. Other things: She's a total spendaholic.

iii

Christina Ricci The box office factor: Having practically grown up on screen, her recent films such as The Ice Storm, The Opposite Of Sex, Packer, 200 Cigarettes and Go (and soon to be filmed Ghost World) show she has cornered the market in sarcastic, moody, bitchy* teenagers. The 'nice' factor: 'Nice' is not the first word that springs

GLOSSARY bound to be: almost certain to be; go off someone: to stop liking someone so much; naCC:(Br infml) unoriginal, without style; a heart-throb: someone whom everyone finds very attractive; the world is his oyster: (infml) he can do whatever he wants; contender: someone who competes with other people for a prize or job; be bitchy: to be mean and horrible to people; kiss up to someone: (infml) to do or say nice things to make someone like you; faze: (infml esp US) to upset or shock sb, esp so that they cannot continue doing sth.

Section A 1 is almost certain to be successful 2 spends a lot of time with 3 he loves his parents 4 had to save himself by swimming Section B 5 without any doubt 6 at the present time 7 to amuse

. . . .

Section C 8 bad-tempered 9 I have overcome 10 helped and protected Christina Section D 11 people think it's true that 12 she succeeded in doing this 13 she is courageous and enjoys taking risks 14 asked for dri vers

. . .

. . .

. . .

1 2 3 4 5 6

constant accuse perform current nude faith -

. . . . . .

7 person 8 joke 9 skin 10 thin 11 secure 12 total-

. . . . . .

who his / her favourite actors are if s/he would like to be a famous film star. Why? Why not? what his / her ideas about cinema as an art form are if there are any Lithuanian films produced nowadays if cinema attendance has fallen or risen lately what film s/he saw last and what it was about if s/he had to decide where to go: to the cinema, to a concert or to the theatre, which s/he would choose. Why? • what influences her / him when deciding on a film or show to see (stars, director, reviews, personal recommendation, advertisements, other influences) - Work in pairs. Answer the following questions and compare your answers with the information given in the text.
wry cers tsy
tlby

• • • • • • •

Less 'ers affer

1 Which is easier to get the news from: newspapers or TV? 2 Which is more interesting: to read a biography of a famous person or to watch a television programme about her / him? 3 Which is usually cheaper: a paperback or an evening at the cinema? 4 What books should be in every home? a) non-fiction books, such as dictionaries and encyclopedias b) fiction, such as novels, short stories and books of poems c) a mixture of both good non-fiction and your favourite fiction Why Read ? Some people think that as more and more people have televisions in their homes, fewer and fewer people will buy books and newspapers. Why read an article in the newspaper, when the TV news can bring you the information in a few minutes and with pictures? Why read a novel, when a play on television can tell you the same story with colour, picture and action? Why read the biographies of famous men and women, when an hour-long television programme can tell you everything you want to know? Television has not killed reading, however. Today, newspapers and magazines sell in very large numbers. And books of every kind are sold more than ever before. Books are still a cheap way to get information and entertainment. Although some books with hard covers are expensive, many books are published today as paperback

paperback books, which are reasonably cheap. A paperback novel, for example, is almost always cheaper an evening at the cinema or theatre, and you can keep a book forever and read it many times. Books in the home are a wonderful source of knowledge and pleasure and some types of books shoul every home. Every home should have a good dictionary. Every home should have an atlas of the world. large clear maps. It might be expensive, but a good encyclopedia is useful, too, because you can find info on any subject. In addition, it is useful to have on your bookshelves other non- fiction books, science tex . cookery books, books about medicine and health, etc. It is equally important to have some fiction 0 _ shelves, too. Then you can relax with a good story, or from time to time you can take a book of poem 0= __ shelves and share the thoughts and feelings of your favourite poets.
r

if slhe is fond of reading what kind of literature slhe prefers and why what book s/he read last and what it was about her / his opinion of films based on books if s/he believes that watching TV can replace reading books and why • if slhe buys books or borrows them from the public library

• • • • •

• who the most famous Lithuanian writer • what books by popular contemporary wri ~ would recommend to read and why • why slhe likes / dislikes reading books • who her / his favourite author is. Wh ? • what English / American writers slhe kno

paperback books, which are reasonably cheap. A paperback novel, for example, is almost always cheaper tha an evening at the cinema or theatre, and you can keep a book forever and read it many times. Books in the home are a wonderful source of knowledge and pleasure and some types of books should be : every home. Every home should have a good dictionary. Every home should have an atlas of the world, wi large clear maps. It might be expensive, but a good encyclopedia is useful, too, because you can find informati( on any subject. In addition, it is useful to have on your bookshelves other non-fiction books, science textbool cookery books, books about medicine and health, etc. It is equally important to have some fiction on yc shelves, too. Then you can relax with a good story, or from time to time you can take a book of poems off yc shelves and share the thoughts and feelings of your favourite poets.

• • • • •

if s/he is fond of reading what kind of literature s/he prefers and why what book s/he read last and what it was about her / his opinion of films based on books if s/he believes that watching TV can replace reading books and why • if s/he buys books or borrows them from the public library

• who the most famous Lithuanian writers are • what books by popular contemporary writers s, would recommend to read and why • why s/he likes / dislikes reading books • who her / his favourite author is. Why? • what English / American writers s/he knows

lOne cannot visit the ICA on because it is closed. 2 The phone number for information i: ............................ 3 If you want to get invitations to exhibitions previews, you have to pay . 4 A day pass costs 5 With a day pass, you have the right to visit . 6 Children may visit the ICA free of charge on condition that they are an< ............................... 7 The coffee and buffet counter is open from 8 One can have lunch at the restaurant between 9 In case you are looking for rare copies of magazines 0 newspapers, go to 10 For details about hiring the ICA's premises and facilities one shoulc contact 11 Visitors can leave their cars at the in .

8 Read the paragraphs. Choose the best hobby for Emily, Brian, Ann and John from the key phrase given in the box. Compare your and your partner's suggestions.
~ learn to playa musical instrument do voluntary work at a local hospital join a chess club -- - up badminton take up photography go to an evening class in flower arranging ..• in a walking club ; take flying lessons take up 'do-it- yourself' go jogging take up yoga
,

,
/

~is a translator and spends most of her day working alone. She has several hobbies - she makes her OWl lothes and enjoys gardening - but she would like to get out of the house and meet people. Brian has a very stressful job in an advertising agency. His friends think he is a workaholic and he does no ave much time for hobbies. However, he would like to find a hobby that is both stimulating and relaxing. Ann is a teacher, but she has been unemployed for almost a year. She spends most of her day reading but i now getting very bored. She is also worried about her future. d) John is a machine operator. His job is tiring and monotonous. He spends most of his spare time watching hi local football team and listening to jazz, but he would like an active, creative hobby that would give him mor personal satisfaction. -

are stimulating and relaxing olve meeting new people and socialising elp you to stay fit and are really good for your health e active and creative at the same time . oaden your outlook and develop your imagination reduce stress and tension after a hard working day best =or some people may seem monotonous and tiring ~nrich your knowledge of history and geography

'hat his / her favourite way - /he is interested in theatre -;: s/he ever goes to concerts, 'here s/he went last month

of spending an afternoon or evening out is and what Lithuanian theatres s/he has been to; what her / his impressions exhibitions; what kind of exhibitions s/he prefers and why; who s/he went with; what s/he enjoyed most about the occasion

we]

- - slbe plays a musical instrument and how long s/he has played it -hat type of music s/he likes to listen to when s/he is with her / his friends; when s/he is relaxing alone . 'hat bands s/he likes most, who her / his favourite singers and groups are . -hat type of music is the most popular now among young people -~ benefit / charity concerts are popular in Lithuania; what well-known bands and singers take part in then 0\ s/he would comment the saying 'Music heals, music harms'.

WRITING
1 Read the review of the book and fill in the gaps with the appropriate may use the word only once. words from the bank given. You

Money Talks 'Money Talks' is one of J. A. Horton's most famous novels, and has always been very popular since it was first 1 in 1957. The 2 .•...•.••...•.•••••••••••••• takes place in the South of England. The main character is a young doctor, Andy Brown. The central theme of the book is the young hero's 3 between his ideals and interest in money. At first, the enthusiastic young man 4 of doctors who are not well qualified and do not treat their patients 5•...........•..•............. He criticises the fact that they think only about money. But'at some point of the story Andy's enthusiasm for medicine changes into a(n) 6 ..............•...•...•..•.. to become rich. 'Money Talks' is a well-written book with 7•..••..•••.••••••••••••••••• and vivid character descriptions. Through Andy's character and his career, the author reveals some 8•.............•...........•• facts about doctors and their profession. Convincing characters and dramatic events make 'Money Talks' a(n) 9..•.........•......•... novel. Although the book was written long ago, I found it highly entertaining. It is one of the most unforgettable books I have ever read and I definitely 10•••.•••..••.••..••.••••••• it to those who enjoy true-to-life stories. You will find it hard to put the book away. 2 In what part (introduction, main body, conclusion) of your book I film review should you answer these questions? 1 What is the title of the book / film? 2 Who is the author / director? 3 What type of book / film is it? (a novel, a historical drama, an adventure story / film etc) 4 What is the book / film about? 5 Where / when is the action of the book / film set? Who are the main characters and what details about the characters are important? 7 What would you like to emphasise? (style of writing, acting, music, special effects etc) 8 What is your opinion of the book / film? 9 What did / didn't you like? 10 Would you recommend it to read / see? 6

3 Write a review of a book I film you have enjoyed. Descljibe the book I film and say whether you would recommend it or not. Remember to use the Present Simple tense when describing the plot. Writing your review follow the given plan. You may find the phrases and sentences in the box helpful.

Introduction Para 1 general information about the book / film (title, type of book / film, author / director) Main body Para 2 setting, main characters, brief points of the plot Para 3 general comments Conclusion Para 4 your opinion, recommendations

• • • • • • • • • • •

This is a thriller, a love story, a classic, ... The work is based on ... The film / story is set in ... The plot focuses on ... The film / book reaches a dramatic climax ... It is extremely well written / well produced. I didn't like the way it was written / produced. It is really imaginative / full of suspense / thought-provoking. The characters are very life-like / not very convincing. Parts of the book / film are very funny / sad / exciting. The ending is really unexpected / surprising / spine-chilling. I found the ending a bit boring / predictable / disappointing.

4a) Complete the note Amy has left to her roommate. Use the words from the box. There are more than you need.

Dear Vic, This is just a quick note to 1 you know that I've 2.••••..................... to the concert. Ma has got a 3•.•.•..•..•.•.•.•.........•. ticket and she asked me to 4•.•.•.....•..•............•.•. her company. I'll 5•.................•.•..... at approximately quarter to eleven. I've 6•.•.•..•.•.•.•..•..•......... your dinner in thefridgt Andrew 7.......•..••.•.••.•.•.•.••.•. me, will you be so kind as to 8........•••..•.••.••...•....•..• down his new phone numb, / hope you've 9..•.•..•....•.•..•.•....•..•.•..... your credit test successfully. Best wishes, Amy

Dear Vic, Gone to concert with Maria. Back about /0.45. Dinner in fridge. If Andrew phones, please get his new number. Hope credit test went well! Love, Amy

Writing a brief note: 1 you may leave out articles. 2 personal pronouns are not obligator 3 any part of the verb can't be left 01 4 you can use shortened verb forms. 5 you must be sure that the meaning laconic phrases is clear to the read

Mr David Jay 25 Hill Street Woodland Dear Mr Jay, Although we realise you are very busy, we do hope you can find time to accept the invitati, As one of our distinguished ex-teachers we would like you to address the parents and stude with a short speech before handing out the awards.

mJ
DID

We are looking forward

to seeing you.

We would like to invite you to attend our award ceremony at Greenwill College which being held on 28 June this year. The proceedings will begin at 4.00 and end around 6.00 in afternoon, after which a dinner will be given at 8 pm for our prominent visitors, teachers (. college students. Yours sincerely,
~d{danuY

Clare Adams You are a leader of your local youth club. Write a letter and invite a Peace Corps volunteer to give in English to a group of club members on popular youth pastimes in the USA. Be sure: to name the event to write the day and date, time, place of the meeting to indicate the time limit of her / his performance to give your telephone number in case your guest wants to contact you

7 Complete the fonnal thank-you boxes A-D.

letter below with appropriate

opening and closing paragraphs

given in

Maironio g. 52 LT-2001 Vilnius Mr Edgar Rowe Gedimino g. 100-2 LT-2000 Vilnius June 25, 2003

All the members thoroughly enjoyed your talk and your video of the annual youth festival in your home town was extremely interesting. The members were particularly excited to find out so much in common in the ways young people spend their leisure time. Your visit has stimulated the members to make a start on a new project to mount a joint folk dance festival.
z

Yours sincerely, d(~~lan<Up Algis Blandys

A Hello, Mr Rowe Thanks a lot for your visit. It was fine you could come.

B

Dear Mr Rowe, Thank you very much for corning to speak to our club members last Tuesday afternoon.

C So, see you next summer when you come to the festival.

D Thank you once again for taking time to visit us. It was a memorable afternoon for all.

8 Write a formal thank-you letter to Mr Rowe who worked with you after hours to get you through the Final English exam. Use the following ideas: • Thank Mr Rowe for his kindness / hard work. • Say in 2-3 sentences why his actions helped you or were important. • Close your letter with repeated thanks. NB Be sure to write the letter promptly. Do not wait more than a week after the exam.

WORD BANK
accessible /:lk'ses:lbV prieinamas amusing /:l'mju:zIIJ/ juokingas, Iinksminantis annual/' <enju:lll metinis apart from /:l'pa:tl isskyrus appeal/:l'pi:1I patikti applaud l:l'phdl ploti assign l:l'saml pavesti, paskirti attendance l:l'tend:lns/ lankomumas benefit I' ben:lfltl nauda blame /bleIm! kaltinti blockbuster /'blokbi\st:l/ ypac populiarus box-office hit ypac populiarus breathtaking /' bre8, telkrIJI kvap'!. gniauziantis broaden l'brJ:dn/ paplatinti, praplesti camcorder l'k<em,b:d:l(r)1 vaizdo kamera cameraman 1'k<em:lr:l,m<enl kino operatorius catering l'kert:lrrI)I viesasis maitinimas chapter I't;f<ept:ll skyrius charity I't;f<errti/labdara chess I't;fesl sachmatai claim Iklerm/ tvirtinti, reikalauti cloakroom I'kbukrum/ rubine commence Ib' mensl prasiddi conductor Ibn'di\kt:ll dirigentas

contemporary Ik:m'temp::lr::lril siuolaikinis convincing Ibn'vmSI1)1 itikinantis counter /'kaunt::ll prekystalis current l'kAf::lntl dabartinis custom l'kASt::lm/ iprotis, paprotys definitely l'defmltIil aiskiai, tikrai deny Id1'naI! neigti desire IdI'ZaI::lInoras, troskimas disgraceful IdIS' greIsfll gedingas, negarbingas draughts Idra:ftsl saskes embroidery Irm'br::nd::lril siuvinejimas enable II'ne1bI! igalinti, leisti engaged (in) 1m' geld3dl uzsiem«s enrich Im'rrtfl praturtinti, pagerinti fame Iferml garbe, slove fiction /'flkIn/ grozine literatiira forbidden/f::l'b1dn/ draudziamas freak out (infml) I'fri:kl uzgaida, keistenybe; su(si)jaudinti gripping /' grrpI1)1patraukiantis guts (infml) IgAtsl dr,!sa; valios stiprybe hang about Ih<e1)1 siaistytis, siampineti eal Ihi:l/ uzgydyti Ih::lustl seimininkas uence /' rnflu::lnsl itaka -ecure l,msI'kju::lI nesaugus olve Irn'voIvl itraukti ping /' d309 11)1 begimas ristele . Imtl megzti nic /l::l'konrk/ lakoniskas, trumpas e /'le3::l1Iaisvalaikis . ee l'm<etmeI! dieninis spektaklis, seansas, koncertas r /'mit::ll skaitiklis t Imauntl surengti -ty I'nju:d::ltil nuogumas l::lb'teln/ gauti, isigyti k I' aut,lukl poziiiris ~~.h'e/,::lUV::l'telkl (ap)lenkti ack I'pelp::l, b<ek/ knyga plonu virseliu

pastime I'pa:s, taIm! pramoga periodical l,pI::lri'Od1kl/ periodinis leidinys pitch IP1tfi (sport. iaidiml{) aikste plot/plotl siuzetas; intriga poll Ip::lulJ viesosios nuomones apklausa praise Iprerzl girti, garbinti; (pa)gyrimas predictable Ipn'd1kt::lbI! nuspejamas premises l'prem1s1zI pastatas su zemes sklypu prominent I'pronun::lnt/ zymus, pastebimas promptly I'promptlil tuojau pat, greitai provoking Ipr::l'v::luk11)1 rzinantis, provokuojantis e raise money I'rerz 'mAnil surinkti pinigll (labdarai) reduce Irr'dju:sl sumazinti reference book I'ref(::l )r::lnsl informacine knyga relieve In'li:vl palengvinti, sumazinti reveal Irr'vi:I! atskleisti review In'vju:1 recenzija, atsiliepimas scenery I'si:n::lril dekoracijos (teatre) science fiction I,Sa1::lnS'f1kInl moksline fantastika screen Iskri:nl ekranas script Iskrrptl scenarijus; tekstas (vaidmens) setting knygos, filmo veiksmo vyksmo vieta ir laikas skydiving I'ska1,da1VI1)1parasiutizmas solution IS::l'lu:In/ (is)sprendimas source IS'J:sI saltinis ,pectacular Isp::lk't<ekjul::ll ispiidingas spine-chilling I' spam, tf1h1)1 g,!sdinantis spy IspaI! snipas stalls l'st'J:lzl parteris stunt Istllntl kaskadinis triukas suspense IS::ls'pensl itampa tension/'tenIn/ itampa title I'ta1tI! pavadinimas unpredictable 1,lInprr'drkt::lbl/ nenuspejamas valid I'v<ehdl galiojantis vivid I'V1V1dlryskus, gyvas voluntary I'voldnt(::l)ril savanoriskas vote /'v';JUtl balsuoti

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
ering I video-making filmavimas video kamera; camping stovykiavimas; carpentry I'ka:pmtril mf:dzio dar "puzzles; model-making modeliavimas; painting tapymas; pottery keramika; sewing /'s::lUI1)1 siuvin otographs fotografavimas as a hobby; give up I took up golf when I was sixteen, but I gave it up last year. =~!ed in sth uzsiimti kazkuo At the moment I'm engaged in embroidery. club I wanted to learn to play chess, so I joined a chess club, ': audience publika; balcony; ballerina; ballet l'b<eIeI! dancer; box loze; box-office bilielll kasa; b '::Scl~.- ilietus; cast aktoriai; clown; composer; curtain uzuolaida; circle amfiteatras; entrance iejimas; emergE D' ;;::S:!::"Z:::5 '''i>jimas; first I opening night premjera; interval pertrauka; musical miuziklas; opera house operos ir b2 pit orkestro vieta; perform vaidinti, atlikti; performance vaidinimas; performer atlikejas; playbill a mrgas; props rekvizitas; puppet theatre leli4 teatras; put on a play I concert pastatyti vaidinimq; sur( . n of 'Hamlet' was put on at our school. revue In'vju:1 reviu; row eile; seat vieta; stage scena

cinema-goer Are you a keen cinema-goer? stuntman kaskadininkas; comedian; performance seansas Let's go to thl eight o'clock perfomance. be a success Thefilm was a great success. be a flop neturintis pasisekimo They put on a musical of 'Jane Eyre' bu it was a flop. play the part / role of sb atlikti vaidmeni A. Surna plays the role of A. Seputis in the Lithuanian seria 'Relatives '. be on There's a good film on at the cinema this week. Siq savait~ rodomas geras filmas. be based on stl sukurtas pagal The film 'Gone with the Wind' is based on the novel of the same title. be set The action is set in France Veiksmas vyksta Prancuzijoje. types of films / movies: action, cartoon, comedy, disaster, documentary, drama, historical, horror, science fiction thriller itempto siuzeto filmas; trileris; travelogue I'tr~vd,logl kelionill filmas; war film, western music cello I'tfel:ml violoncele; clarinet I,kl~rd'netl; drum bugnas; flute Iflu:tl fleita; guitar; organ vargonai; piano; saxophone trumpet trimitas; violin l,vard'lm/ smuikas; play the piano / violin She plays the piano very well. sing in a choil I'kwardl dainuoti chore; band: a group of people playing music; orchestra; musician types of music: classical music; folk music I'regerl rock' n'roll liaudiska muzika; orchestral music; pop music; jazz; rap; rave; regga,

exhibitions. museums. galleries antique Idn'ti:kl antikvarinis, senovinis, antikinis; applied art taikomoji daile; art menas; brush exhibit Irg 'zrbrtl eksponatas; eksponuoti; fine art vaizduojamoji daiIe; painting paveikslas genres in painting: landscape peizazas; seascape juros peizazas; portrait; self-portrait natiurmortas; water colour akvarele; oil aliejus; sculpture l'skAlptfdl; fresco I'fresbul

teptukas; canvas drobe autoportretas; still-Iif,

museums and galleries in Lithuania The Gediminas Castle Museum, the Museum of Applied Arts in Vilnius, the Trakai Castle, the Historical Museums in Vilniu and Kaunas, the Amber Museum in Palanga, the M. K. Ciurlionis Memorial Museum in Druskininkai, the Stone Museum i: Mosedis, the Country Life Museum in Rumsiskes, the Art Museum in Vilnius, the Ciurlionis Art Museum in Kaunas, th Zilinskas Art Gallery, the Art Exhibition Centre in Vilnius types of books fable pasakeCia; fairy tale pasaka; folk Ifduk/ tale liaudies pasaka; novel romanas; poetry; prayer book maldynas reference books (atlas, dictionary, encyclopedia Irn,sarkld'pi:did/); science fiction moksline fantastika; thrilleI travel book; western; short story novele, apsakymas; story apysaka; apsakymas expressions connected with bC?oks: be deep in; co-author bendraautorius; dedicate The book is dedicated to hi mother. inscribe The collector had many books inscribed to him by famous authors. skim (through) perbegti akimi~ perversti He skimmed through the book. bookworm informal someone who enjoys reading books and spends a lot of time doing it sport(s) athletics /~e'letrks/; baseball; bowls Ibdulzl kegliai; cycling dviracill sportas; cricket; darts smiginis; figure-skatin~ gymnastics; golf; hang-gliding sklandymas skraidykle; horse racing arklillienktynes; riding jojimas; rowing /rdUI~ irklavimas; skiing; sailing / yachting I'jotrIJI buriavimas; snooker / billiards I'brliddzl; tobogganing Itd'bogdnr~ roguciq sportas; windsurfing burlencill sportas; wrestling I'reshIJI imtynes sports facilities: gym(nasium) sporto sale; football field; swimming pool; stadium; tennis court expressions connected with sport: set the record pasiekti rekord'l.; break the record sumusti rekord'l. He broke th Olympic record last year. be good at; take part in dalyvauti; win; lose; penalty bauda; home team; goal ivarti: point taskas Our team won by two goals. end a game in a draw baigti zaidim'l.lygiomis The game ended in a dray, compete well / poorly; fan; event rungtis; training treniruote; score pelnyti, laimeti, igyti; a score rezuItat2 What's the score? - It's 2:4 in favour of our team. In most games you score goals (football, hockey) or points (table tennis, basketball).

A B C D E F G H I J 1 2 3 4 5 6

a journey by ship for pleasure a journey by plane the plan of the journey a journey by sea an informal word for journey, during which you visit a place and come back again an organised journey, especially a long one for a particular purpose a holiday which includes organised travel and accommodation a general word which means the activity of travelling an organised journey to see the sights of a place a journey from one side of the sea to the other

S; r; :is
IS,

The travel agent will send you the for your trip. My friends went on a guided of Rome. The first time I went from England to France we had a very rough . The first prize in the competition is a luxury Mediterranean . When you go on a , you pay one price which covers everything. The college organised an to search for the ancient ruins. Lithuanian Airways announces the arrival of LA 263 from Rome. The Titanic sank on its first in 1912. 9 is one of my main interests. 10 Mr Jones is away on a business at the moment.
:

g;
T]/ T]/

Complete the chart by putting the words in one of the following categories. Add three more words to e: category. bed & breakfast (B&B) bolidaymaker run out of petrol o some sightseeing book a holiday self-catering flat flight attendant youth hostel reserve a room go on foot miss the bus receptionist train station petrol station motorcycle helicopter guest house traveller ferry guide airport coach harbour guard train terminal bus sightseer lorry gate

boarding excess

~£f.':4

.
.

scheduled holiday

. .

check-in travel

. .

departure traveller's

. .

I 2 3 4

Single to Manchester, please. Do I have to change? Is there a buffet car? Where's the ticket office?

a) b) c) d) e) f)

7 Which platform? 8 Where's the lost property office?

g) h)

You want to know if this train is a through one. You want to go to Manchester but not to come back You are looking for the place in the station to buy tickf You want to know how much a ticket that lets you tra to a place and back again costs. You have to know exactly where in the station you; on the train. You are looking for the office where they keep thin) that people have lost in public places. You want to buy food and drink on the train. You are planning to sleep during the journey.

a) combined air-fares and car-hire b) doing your own shopping and cooking c) sleeping in tents d) accommodation and breakfast e) breakfast and dinner will be provided, not lunch

f) all meals will be provided g) an envelope, stamped and with your own address h) the price covers everything i) travelling by road, not air j) not in the most popular season

OJ

USE of ENGLISH
1 Use the word in capitals to form a word that fits suitably in the blank space. Make any changes tJ are necessary. The George Hotel A 1•..•...••..••.••••.• atmosphere is guaranteed at the George Hotel, which is situated in a quiet 2 ...•...•.....•.••••• area in the historic heart of the city, just a few minutes' walk from 3...............•.... London. All 30 bedrooms are 4 ••••.•••..•....•.••• to a high standard and most have en suite facilities. The 5•............... ~... is modem: colourful TV sets, tea and coffee-6 ••.•••••.....••••..• facilities and direct dial telephones. Some rooms are reserved for non-' . A full English breakfast is 8 in the price and is 9 ..................•. between 7 am and 10 am in the Breakfast Bar. Dinner can also be booked at 10••••••.•..•••••... for a supplement of 3 pounds.

FRIEND RESIDENT CENTER EQUIP FURNISH MAKE SMOKE INCLUDE SERVE RECEIVE

2 Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. Don't change the w( given. 1 I stayed in Italy for two weeks last year. fortnight I stayed in last year. 2 It is difficult to find anywhere to stay in this town in summer. accommodation It isn't easy this town in summer. 3 I'd like a room for the night, please. A room for two people. double I would like for the night, please. 4 That was a private house where you pay to stay and have meals. guest house The place we stayed at wasn't a hotel. It . 5 I'd like to reserve three single rooms for the next week, please. book I'd like for the next week, please. 6 It was raining, and the 1}olidaymakers couldn't find a place to put up a tent. campsite It was impossible for the . 7 I'd like a room for the night, please. Do you have a free one? vacancy Have you got , please? 8 The school has its own place for students to stay. hostel The studen ts . 3 Read the text below and decide which word or phrase A, B, C or D best fits each space. Circle the letter the right answer.

Holidays Which is better - to go on a package 1 or to 2 on your own? I suppose the answer depends 3 . what kind of tourist you are. A complicated tour organised by a travel 4 has some advantages. You h2 5 itinerary, which gives you definite 6 and arrival dates, and a list of all your 7 The 8 . may be cheaper, as it has been booked 9 •.....•..• , so you spend 10 .........• time worrying where you are going stay. If you book a hotel yourself, you might have trouble finding a(n) 11 •.•••••••. , unless you are going to sl 12•.••.••••• a fortnight, for example. On the other hand, organising your own 13 •••••••••• can be fun. 14•••••• students hitch-hike or buy cheap train tickets, and 15 the night in student hostels or guest houses. A travel A travel Aon A office AA departure A cancellations A bedrooms A before A most A empty Ain A voyage A much A have B tour B trip B from Bagent B the B parting B meetings B staying B advanced B more B free Bout B expedition B many B spend Cjoumey C voyage C about C tour Ca Cleaves C stations C flat C in advance of C less C vacancy C for C trip Clots C spends D cruise D tourist D of D operation Dan D quitting D destinations D accommodation D in advance D fewer D availability D since D package D plenty D have spend

nat
.f

6 7 9 _0 _1 .,
.>."7

-

1 'I won't be able to leave the hotel until six o'clock,'she told me. She told me 2 'We will take a taxi to the airport,' they told me. They told me 3 'Our luggage is damaged,' they said. They said 4 'The Wilsons have gone on holiday,' says Mr Smith. Mr Smi th say s 5 'How long have you been sunbathing,' he asked me. He asked me 6 'Don't skate on the lake,' the teacher warned the children. The teacher warned us 7 'I'm going to the airport to pick up my wife,' said Mike. He said 8 'Can you show me on the map where I am?' asked a passer-by. A passer-by asked me

.

. . . . . . .

1 Read the article and trace the events of Jullian's journey (A-I) writing the numbers in the order tJ events happened. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.

[]A] At the world-famous surf camp.

[=rID

CJm

[]Q A strange

[JQI
[]I]

ban. The surfmg of the Australians. Homesick, but longing for adventures. A serious injury.

c:=:IQ]
D.Hl

[]]E]

Astonishing and awesome surfing. In search of help. At the narrator's destination. A night out.

I arrived in Bali, it was sultry and I had nowhere to stay. I hadn't even left the airport when the taxi driver tried to con* me. Eventually though, he did take me to a very cheap and beautiful place, just outside the hustle and bustle of Kuta and I ended up spending a few weeks surfing some of the most amazing surf breaks in Bali. After this I caught a small boat to a tiny island called Nusa Lembogan. It was idyllic. One of the surf breaks was called Lacerations* because you have to surf in shallow water over some very sharp coral. It took me a few days to psych* myself up for it but I did it. When I got back to Bali I met up with some Australians. We sampled the nightlife wearing only a pair of shorts and sandals and we hired a car. This was a brave move considering that Balinese drivers are insane. Also, the police seemed a bit corrupt. Knowing we were tourists, they stopped us 3 times and demanded a fine. All we could do was pay it because they kept threatening to send us to jail. There was never a receipt or anything and they were obviously just pocketing the money themselves.

hi! When

SURF THE WORLD
I said farewell to the Australians there wa~ big religious ceremony on the island which involve everyone being forbidden by the police from enteriJ the water whether they were in a boat or on a surfbOat I watched all these amazing waves going to waste un I couldn't stand it any longer. I ran around the cli paddled out and had one of the best surfs of my Ii with the pick of the best waves. Luckily the poH were all watching the cockfighting in the centre of f island so I got away with it. My friend Brook and I had arranged to meet bal in Bali and then go on a surfer's dream trip to G-lan East Java, a world-renowned surf camp in the midd of thick jungle, next to one of best reefs in the wor] We arrived on the jungle edge where you can see tige monkeys, and panthers (if you are lucky) and snak (if you are unlucky). Money was a bit tight so we stay, in the cheapest accommodation - a three-sided op tent with two mattresses and mosquito nets about 11 metres down a winding jungle path. I was a bit worri about malaria so the nets were a welcome addition the pills and repellent.

I[] After

III

HI

that literally shook the ground. At two o'clock in the morning, I felt an exceptionally painful bite or sting on my toe. Everything was so wet and we had no light so I couldn't really see anything at all. I could feel the poison; it felt like someone was holding a lit cigarette on my foot. I was in agony. I had to get to the camp to get help, knowing there was no way of getting to hospital if we needed to. Due to the rain, the path had turned into a stream. I couldn't see it at all well so Brook had to lead the way, wadding through the surf while I clung onto therocks and was blinded by the lightning every two seconds. When we reached the camp, no one

IIThe fIrst night there was a thunderstorm

knew what to do and as the pain was dying down v, all went back to bed - this time with a torch. In tImorning a Javanese man looked at my swollen fOI and told me it was a scorpion sting. After hearing th: I was relieved that my last adventure on my trip hadn been my last ever! As it was our last few days, v, moved to nicer accommodation where only the ra would bother us. By the time you read this, I'll be back in Englan4 I'm looking forward to seeing family and friends agai but I'm going to miss travelling. Culture shock, here come!

a

GLOSSARY con: to trick someone (usually in order to make them give you money); lacerations: in someone's skin); psych up: (infml) to try to make feel mentally ready for sth

deep cuts or tears (usuall

(Para (Para (Para (Para (Para

1) 2) 3)
4)

5)

hot and humid; a lot of noise and activity; peaceful and pleasant; not deep examined by experiencing; rented; required; apparently included; stared at; couldn't endure; the choice agreed to do sth; boundary; short of money; chemical that repels insects unusually; damp; extreme mental or physical suffering; to show by going in front; held tightly onto; arrive at; my anxiety vanished

2 The behaviour of the police towards tourists in Bali was illegal: they . 3 Though there was a strict ban not to enter the water during the ceremony, Jullian . 4 Fortunately Jullian succeeded in avoiding punishment for disobeying the law because . 5 G-Iand jungle was teeming with various animals: . 6 The tourists were worried about malaria, so they needed . 7 That exceptionally sharp pain appeared to be :.. 8 They moved to a new accommodation because . 9 Although a feeling of confusion and anxiety caused by contact with the Balinese was great, Jullia

~ Read the text. Fill in the table below expressing your opinion on the pros (support) and cons (agains of travelling by plane, train and ship. If information is not available in the text, give your own point ( view. Be ready to report your opinion to the class. Travelling I hate seeing people off. I like being seen off myself. I'm very fond of travelling and I think that all ways ( travelling are good. Of course, if you can afford it, there is nothing like travel by air. It is the most comfortab and quickest way. You board the plane and in no time you find yourself in the remotest part of the world. n only thing I dislike about planes is delays by fog or snowstorm. Air passengers often suffer such delays. I woul like to say a word or two for trains. With a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. You s comfortably in a train and watch a view of the whole countryside. If you are hungry, you can have a meal in restaurant-car. You can also meet and talk to lots of people. I have never travelled by ship but I would like tl I would like to feel the deck of the ship under my feet, to see the rise and fall of the waves and to feel the fre~ sea wind blowing into my face. I like going to the harbour and looking at all the ships, cargo-ships, sailin ships, rowing boats. The only bad thing about a sea-trip is being seasick. Lots of people get seasick, especiall when the sea is rough.

TYPE OF TRAYELLING PLANE TRAIN SHIP

PROS

CONS

Sa) Work in pairs. Look at the Airport Departures notice-board and ask your partner questions on the following points given below the table.

Example: The number of flights to Paris. - How many flights are there to Paris? I The 2 The 3 The 4 The 5 The number of British Airways flights. destination of flight 604. airline flying to Amman. flight which takes off at 10.58. number of destinations. 6 The number of 7 The destination 8 The time flight 9 The number of 10 The departure flights between 10.25 - 10.45. of the Pan Am. 902 takes off. airlines. time of the flight for Stuttgart.

5b) Plan with your partner a trip by bus to a foreign country. Discuss the following points: the things you are going to take, the places you would like to visit, the accommodation. 5c) Use the following prompts to interview a partner about her / his holiday. • What / best holiday / you / have? Where exactly / you / go? Why / decide / go there? • Who / go with? Where / stay? How long? Recommend / accommodation / friends? Why? Why not? • It / be / famous place? What places / interest / be / there? What / you / see and do? What entertainment facilities / be / there? Where / you / go / evenings? You /like / food? Why? Why not? • You / sad / come home? Why? Why not? 6 Work in small groups. Fill in the table to show the advantages of different types of transport accommodation. Be ready to report your opinion to the rest of the class. Hitchhiking It's cheap. It's comfortable. You feel free to do as you like. It's interesting. No need to plan or book. It's quick. It's safe, not dangerous. Going by car Going by coach and

Hotel

Hostel

Campsite

Staying at friend's

../ ../ ../ ../ ../

WRITING
1 Read the postcard and underline the words that should be contracted while writing postcards. August 6''', 2002 Dear Mummy and Dad, Hi! We are having a fantastic time here in France - it is such good fun! We have been to the Louvre and have bought some great posters here. We are hoping to go to Disneyland tomorrow. Patrick has taken lots of photos with his new camera. I have got a slight cold at the moment, but do not worry it will soon go, I am sure. It is a pity you could not come with us. Anyway, we are looking forward to seeing you. Love, Isabel 2 Read AI's postcard to his penfriend in Lithuania. Capitalise, punctuate it and write proper following address:(LIETUVA), LITHUANIA, Asta Upyte, Vilnius, LT-2014, Subaciaus g. 120.

Dear Aunty,

[AJ lliJ
[Q

Meanwhile all is well with us. Mom and Dad mostly come home from work very late. I usually.j alone and play computer, listen to music or meet my friends. Mom and Dad are having their hoh in August and we are going to Holland for a week. I appreciate all the things you and Uncle Jack did to give me a good time. Thank you once more your kind attention and understanding.

Thank you ever so much for the most interesting holiday I ha\'e ever had! I had so many' experiences! Everyone is already getting tired of hearing me talk about my big holiday at y. farm. I had so much fun. I can't stop talking about it - the swimming and riding, feeding poultry, my first attempts to learn to milk a cow (it was one of the most challenging holil pursuits), the trip to town on Saturdays, the all-night party of the neighbourhood, and y, wonderful meals. Mom says I have been spoiled rotten. Sincerely, Al

• where you are on holiday and where you are staying • what the weather is like and what you have done already • your impressions of the place, the food or entertainment NB Don't forget proper opening and closing remarks. 5 Read the draft letter of enquiry for hotel accommodation. for structuring business communication given below. Paragraph it properly using the framework

Gelil{ g. 3-10 LT - 2001 Vilnius Lithuania Hotel Hayden Mariahilferstrasse 1060 Wien Austria Dear Sir/Madam My family and 1 are planninng a trip to Wien and 1 have found the name of your private hotel in the holiday guide received from the Tourists Information Centre. Please let me know if you have accommodation for a family of five persons for one week from Saturday 6 August. We shall require one double and one twin-bedded room and one single room. The single room should be near to the lift as it is for my elderly mother. If you can provide this accommodation, please send me a copy of your brochure and also your charges for full board. I hope to hear from you soon. Yours faithfully
'0na5/~~

57

Jonas Petraitis Introduction Background and basic Details Facts and figures Conclusion Response or action Close Why are you writing? Refer to a previous letter or document. Give instructions. Ask for information. Provide all relevant data. What action is necessary by a recipient? What action will you take according to the details provided? A simple, relevant closing sentence is all that is often necessary.

6 What are" the English conventional ways of writing dates? Cross out the dates which do not meet the requirements. 151 September, 2002 1 September, 2002 October 2nd, 2002 October 2, 2002 November 3, 2002. 3 November 2002 December 23nd, 2002 2002-12-23

7 Write a letter of enquiry of 100 - 120 words to the proprietor of holiday flats. Be sure to include the
following: • Your friends Mr and Mrs recommended you this accommodation, state when and how long they stayed there. • Your family consists of 3 people and you wish to take your dog with you. Mention rooms, dates and specific requirements. • Ask for confirmation and further details concerning facilities and charges.

advantage I~d'vo:ntrd31 privalumas amazing Ig'meIZrl)l nuostabus anxiety !leI)'zargtil nerimas, susiriipinimas apparently I~'peergntli/ aiskiai, akivaizdiiai appreciate Ig'pri:Ji,ert! vertinti arrange Ig' remd31 susitarti astonishing Ig'stonrJrl)l nuostabus attempt Ig' tempt! bandymas availability Ig,verld'brlgtil galimybe naudotis, turejimas avoid 1~'v'Jrdl isvengti awesome /''J:s(g)mJ bauginantis; stulbinantis ban Ibeenl (ui)draudimas behaviour Ibr'heIVj~1 elgesys bite Ibartl ikandimas blind Iblamdl apakinti bother I' boogl varginti, trukdyti boudary I'baund( g)ri/ riba challenging /'tfeehnd3rl)l reikalaujantis daug pas tang\.! charge ItJ o:d31 mokestis, kaina cling (clung, clung) Ikhl)l kabintis cock Ikokl gaidys damage /'deemrd31 (su)gadinti, apgadinti definite /'def(g)ngtl aiskus, tikslus, nustatytas delicious Idr'hJgsl skanus demand Idr'mo:nd/ (pa)reikalauti departure Idr'po:tJ gl isvykimas destination l,destr'nerJn/ (ke/iones ir pew.) tikslas dial /'dargl/ (su)rinkti telefono numeri disobey I,drsg'ber/ nepaklusti edge led31 krastas endure /rn' djugl pak((sti enquiry 1m' kwarril pasiteiravimas, (pa)klausimas en-suite lon'swi:t! liukso kambariai enter I'entgl ieiti equip /r'kwrpl irengti exceptionally /rk'sepJn~li/ nepaprastai fabulous I' feebjul~sl pasakiskas feed (fed, fed) lfi:d/ maitinti ferry /'feril keltas ortnight /' f'J:tnartl dvi savaites furnish /'f3:nrJI apstatyti baldais et away with issisukti nuo bausmes ard Iga:dl palydovas (traukinio) . e Ihargl issinuomuoti olidaymaker I'hohder,merbl atostogautojas omesick /'hgum,srkl besiilgintis nam\.! umid /'hju:mrdl dregnas tie and bustle bruzdesys, sujudimas egal /r'li:gl/ neteisetas elude Im'klu:dl itraukti elusive Im'klu:srvl imtinai jury /'md3gril suieidimas, suialojimas - - ne Im'seml ne viso proto, psichiskai nesveikas Tolve 1m 'vDlvj itraukti, iPainioti erary lar'tmgrgril keliones marsrutas Id3erll kaIejimas 1b:1 istatymas g (for) 1101)1 labai nordi, troksti ge Ilaund31 laukiamasis, holas

marvellous /'mo:v~lgsl nuostabus narrator lng' rertgl pasakotoj as net Inet! tinklel is night out naktis praleista ne namuose (linksminantis) obviously /'obvigslil aisku, akivaizdu off-peak lof 'pi:k1 ne piko overland /,guvg,leendl sausumos paddle /'peedll irtis, pliuskentis passerby Ipo:s~'bar/ (pI. passersby) praeivis path Ipo:81 takas pill Iprll piliule poison /'p'Jrznj nuodai poultry I'p~ultril naminiai pauksciai proper l'prop~1 deramas, tinkamas, reikiamas property I'propgtil nuosavybe, turtas proprietor Ipr~'prar~tgl savininkas; valdytojas provide Iprg'vardl patiekti pursuit Ip~'sju:t! megstamas uisiemimas rack /reekl lentyna reach Iri:tJI pasiekti receptionist In'sepJnrst! registratorius (viesbuCio ir pan. receipt In'si:tl kvitas receive Irr'si:vl gauti; priimti relieved Irr'li:vdl jauCiantis palengvejim,! remote In'mgutl tolimas, nuosalus renowned In'naundl pagarsej((s, iymus repellent In'pelgntl vabzdiius atbaidantis chemikalas requirement /rr'kwargmgntl reikalavimas, biitina s,!lyg, resident I'rezrd(g)ntl gyventojas resort In'z'J:tl kurortas run out of neturdi daugiau sample I'so:mpl/ (is)bandyti scheduled I'Jedju:ldl planinis, planuotas self-catering l,self'kertgnl)l suteikiantis galimyb(( atostogaujanciam paciam pasigaminti maist,! serve IS3:vl patiekti shallow I'Jeeldul seklus snorkeling l'smkhl)l plaukiojimas (su kvepavimo vamzdeliu) spoil rotten /'rotn/ (is)paikinti, (is)lepinti stamp Isteempl uiklijuoti pasta ienkl,! stand Isteendl pak((sti, isk((sti stare Iste~1 spoksoti sting Istrl)l igelimas sunbathe I's!l.nberol degintis sauleje surf IS3:fl bang\.! miisa; uisiimineti banglenCi\.! sportu sultry I's!l.ltril tvankus supplement /'s!l.ph,ment! papildymas swollen I'swgulgn/ patin((s teem with lti:mJ knibZdete knibZdeti thick 18rkl tankus threaten /'8retnl grasinti thunderstorm /'8!1.ndg'st'J:mJ audra su perkiinija tight Itartl nepakankamas (apie pajamas) tiny I'tamil mazy tis vacancy I'verbnsil laisva vieta vanish /'veenrJI dingti, isnykti waste Iwerstl eikvojimas, veltui praradimas wade Iwerdl bristi winding l'wamdlIJI vingiuotas

ADDITIONAL
TYPE OF TRANSPORT ROAD DIFFERENT KINDS OF VEHICLES /'vi:rklzl sports car; cab / taxi lorry sunkvezimis coach Ibutfl turistinis autobusas; bus van autofurgonas; bicycle / bike; motorcycle express / fast train; local train; slow train; through 18ru:1train tiesioginis traukinys underground / the tube(infml) metro yacht Ijot/; rowing boat; ship liner; ferry I'feril keltas trawler I'tr'J:!;;,1traleris

WORD BANK
ASSOCIATED FACILITIES petrol station degaline garage service station terminal didele stotis

PEOPLE WORKING IN 1HEM driver / chauffeur /'J:mf;;" J;;,u'f3:/ mechanic /mr'krenrk/ bus conductor

RAIL

engine-driver masinistas ticket collector kontrolierius guard Iga:dl palydovas porter I'p'J:t;;,1 nesikas

railway station; terminal; platform ticket-office; waiting-room compartment/bm'pa:tm;;,nt/ kupe carriage / coach Ibutfl vagonas buffet I'bufer! car I dining car / restaurant car cabin kajute; deck denis quay /ki:/ prieplauka; docks light-house - svyturys harbour /'ha:b:Jl/ port uostas airport oro uostas terminal terminalas; information office check-in bilietq registracija departure lounge isvykstanCiqjq sale; gate isejimas prie lektuvo cabin lektuvo salonas; security check Isr'kju:Jr:Jti,ifek/ patikrinimas

SEA

captain steward /'stju::JdJ stewardess /,stju::J'des/

!

AIR

(aero)plane jet Id3etl reaktyvinis lektuvas jumbo l'd3Amb:ml jet didelis keleivinis reaktyvinis lektuvas helicopter sraigtaspamis

pilot stewardess (female) / flight attendant (both) staff ground oro uosto darbuotojai crew Ikru:1 igula, ekipazas

I I

some more words connected with travel passenger keleivis; ticket: single bilietas i vienltpus((, return ticket bilietas ten ir atgal, open return bilietas su is anksto nenustatyta grizimo data, standby ticket rezervinis bilietas; book tickets uzsakyti bilietus; fare Ife'Jl mokestis uz vaziavimlt He hadn't enough money for his bus fare. destination l,destr'nerJnl keliones tikslas, paskirties vieta We should reach our destination by about midday. luggage I'IAgrd31 baggage l'bregrd31 bagazas; excess baggage I'eksesl bagazo virssvoris You have to pay excess baggage. trolley I'trolil veiimelis bagazui veiti I need a luggage trolley. board sesti i lektuv<t,laivlt ar traukini; a boarding pass I card leidimas sesti i lektuvlt ar laivlt at the Customs Customs muitine; Customs officer; pass I go through Customs; declare Idr'kle'J/; isvardyti / pateikti apmuitinamus dalykus Customs Declaration I,dekl;;,'rerJn/; fill in a form I declaration; list sltrasas Will you look through the list of goods you have to declare? duty Idju:til muitas; pay duty on sth moketi muito mokesti You must pay duty on spirits if you want to bring them to the country. dutiable apmuitinamas; duty-free neapmuitinamas, be muito; articles I items I belongings I things; taxmokestis; security Isr'kju'Jr'Jtil apsauga, go through security / passport control; entry visa ivaziavimo viza; exit visa isvaziavimo viza; frontier IfrAn'tr;;,/, border l'b'J:d:l1siena; immigration I,Imr'grerJn/ AIR flight Iflartl skrydis; reisas Yourflight is from terminal A. Flight BA 677 has just arrived. The flight to London is from gate 10. The flight BA 435 is boarding. Keleiviai sodinami i lektuvq vykstanti reisu BA 435. scheduled /'Jedju:ldl flight reisas pagal grafiklt Many airlines have cancelled scheduled flights because of bad weather. charter I'tfa:tdl flight uzsakytas reisas Many businessmen go to China on charter flights. cancel atSaukti Has our flight been cancelled? delay Idr'ler! atideti The plane was delayed by snowstorm. call a flight paskelbti lektuvo isskridimlt; be running late There s been an accident and all the trains are running late. take off pakilti; land nusileisti TRAINS Trains always run on time here. You have to change trains at Bristol. BristolyJe Jums reikia persesti. Your train leaves from Platform /0. I always travel second class. The train 10.05 from London is due to arrive (turi atvykti) at platform one. We got on the train andfound our seats. We missed (pavetavome) the 8 o'clock train. SEA The liner sets sail at noon. Laineris isplaukia vidurdieni. My parents took me on a voyage round Europe. Ifelt seasick. As susirgau Juros liga. We called at various ports. Mes uisukome i ivairius uostus.

i

CARS Our car does 10 km to the litre. It usually overtakes (aplenkti) other cars. It is dangerous to overtake on a bene, You get on a bus, train, plane, or ship, but you get in or get into a car or taxi. She kissed him, got into a car and drove awa) You get off a bus, train, plane, or ship, but you get out of a car or taxi. Both drivers got out of their cars and startee, shouting at each other. You go or travel by bus / taxi/ train/ferry / car etc. It'll be much quicker ifwe go by taxi. Sonu of the beaches can only be reached by boat. If you travel by air / sea /land, it means you travel by plane, in a boat, or on land. It s much quicker if you go by ail; but it s also more expensive. If you walk, you go on foot. The bus didn't come, so we set off on foot. types of travelling crossing persikelimas (per Up((ir jurv I want to take the night ferry crossing to Esbjerg. cruise /kru:zl turistine kelione jUra, aplankant ivairias vietas, kruizas They are planning to go on a cruise in the Pacific. expedition; go on an expedition The expedition to the North Pole was unsuccessful. flight skridimas, skrydis, reisas It has been my first flight. hitch-hiking I'hrtJ.harkrr]1 nemokamai keliauti pakeliui vaiiuojanciais automobiliais Motorists give hitch-hikers free rides. journey kelione (numatytas konkretus atstumas ar laikotarpis), pramogine kelione; ajourney of three days or a three da: journey; to be on a journey keliauti; take ajourney issirengti i kelion((; break one's journey pertraukti kelion((, trump, sustoti; reach one's journey's end; to make / go on a journey from •.. to •.• ; He went on a journey to London. package tour suorganizuota isvyka (su visu islaikymu) Package tours are becoming more and more popular. tour kelione (trumpai aplankant daugeli vietti), tume; a sightseeing tour of the town ekskursija po miestll I went on a to of Scotland during my holiday. travel (ilga) kelione, keliavimas Is he backfrom his travels yet? He is writing a book about his travels. trip kelione, isvyka, ekskursija; round trip kelione ten ir atgal; be away on a trip buti isvykusiam i kelion((; take a trip L you enjoy your weekend trip to the seaside? voyage kelione (jura); make a voyage Ifelt seasick during the voyage to Kiel. transport and traffic public transport /, ph blrk' trrensp:J: t/; traffic I'trrefik/ eismas, j udej imas, transportas; heavy flight traffic; traffic jam I w, stuck in the trafficjamforan hour. road; main road pagrindinis kelias; motorway greitkelis, autostrada; crossroads sankry: We came to a crossroads. street; one-way street vienos eismo krypties gatve; turning posukis Take the second turning ( the left. roundabout ziedas; road / street hump vole lis (greiCiui suletinti), crossing pereja; level crossing pervaza; peli~ crossing pereja, kuri pereinama mygtuku iziebus atitinkamll signalll; blue zone terminuota masinq stovejimo aikStele In t) blue zone you can parkfor one hour only. speed limit greiCio apribojimas He was speeding. fine tlauda He had to pay fine of$ 10. dangerous l'dernd3grgsl pavojingas; safe saugus; safety I seat-belt saugos dirias Fasten your safety-bell traffic lights sviesoforas; signpost I'sarn,pgustl kelio zenklas; follow sb or sth Follow this road until you get to the churc. distance atstumas; lose one's way pasiklysti; pedestrian lpg' destngnJ pestysis; traffic warden I'w:J:dnJ stovejimo aikstel< priziurdojas; driving licence I'larsnsl vairuotojo patymejimas / teises accommodation bustas, pastoge types of hotel accommodation: hotels in Britain are graded with stars from one-star to five-star (five-star hotels are the best an most expensive). You can also stay in a Bed & Breakfast (B&B) (also called a Guest House) where you pay for a bedroom an breakfast. a single room: for one person with a single bed; a double room: for two people with one large double bed; a twin room: for tw ;>eoplewith two single beds; full board: includes breakfast, lunch and dinner; half board: includes breakfast and dinner; book in uzsiregistruoti; reservation l,rezg'verJnl isankstinis uzsakymas; reception /n'sepJnl registrarura; receptioni! 'rr'sepJnrstl administratorius, registratorius; message l'mesrd31 zinute, rastelis; lounge Ilaund31 poilsio kambarys; bi S(lskaita; receipt/n'si:t/kvitas; pay cash moketigrynais; button mygtukas; lift; porter neSikas;chambermaid/'tJermbg,merc "ambarine a tip arbatpinigiai; give a tip I tip sb I tipped the porter who carried my luggage upstairs. other types of accommodation: camp-site: a place where people can stay in tents or caravans; youth hostel: cheap accommo ation, mainly for young people; self-catering flat: a flat which you rent but you have to cook for yourself, holiday camp; ;;pecially built village with accommodation and organised entertainment for people on holiday

:sto
fill

~ur

You

ave tem

ax ,isa

ight :ilti; ~ain orm

olidays oliday a period of time when you do not have to go to work or go to school I have six weeks' holiday each year. You 100! 'red, so what you need is a holiday. the holiday I summer holidays July 1st is the first day of the summer holidays. holiday: school holidays; the Christmas I Easter holiday We spent most of the Christmas holiday at my grandma s be I go on holida~ . spent my holiday / the holidays at the seaside. holidaymaker atostogautojas avel agency kelioniq agentura; guide Igardl gidas, ekskursij4. vadovas; itinerary /ar'tmgrdril marsrutas (numatyta keliom tlankytinom vietom) A detailed itinerary is supplied. route /ru:t/ kelias, marsrutas The fastest route from Birmingham t( lanchester is the motorway.

1 Find pairs of synonyms. Translate the phrases into Lithuanian.
Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 to to to to to to to to 1 to respect - e) to look up to a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) to idolise to fall out not to see eye to eye to break up to look up to to make it up to have an affair to get on well with each other

respect end one's relationship be friends again after a row argue and disagree have a row with sb have a good relationship admire or love a person greatly have a secret love relationship

2 Change the underlined words and express the same idea using the phrases from Ex 1.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 My friend Jane and I have a good relationship. My sister has had a row with her boyfriend again. He said silently: 'Let's try and be friends again after a row.' Everybody is talking about it! Don't you know that Jane is having a secret relationship with her boss! Diana and Paul ended their relationship a year ago. They are twins but they often argue and disagree with each other. Grandfather often told me that children should respect their parents. I think Jane doesn't just like Pete - she admires him too much.

3 Fill in the gaps with suitable prepositions about, on, down, up, of, with. You may use them more than once. Write down your own sentences with these phrases.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 to fall in love to look to act to agree to get angry to be cross to get sb on sb one's own sb sb sb sb's nerves 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 to be brought to be ashamed to complain to put to approve to be patient to take care by one's parents one's behaviour one's neighbours with people's differences sb / sth little children sb

1 I think it was her appearance that me most. 2 Teenagers hate being like children and they want to be independent. 3 My parents are very tolerant and they never me about my hairstyle or clothes. 4 I'm tired of so many and I do want to decide just a few things for myself. 5 Her father hates anyone with ideas on divorce and abortion. 6 Children have to try to themselves at school, otherwise they can be bullied. 7 What do you usually about with your family or friends? 8 I need your because I feel helpless and I don't know what to do. 9 Mother constantly me about my marks. 10 My dad always ; me and I could never let him down.

1 CONFIDE 2 BEHAVE 3 AGREE 4 ANNOY 5 APPROVE 6 DEPEND 7 PATIENT 8 DISCUSS 9 TIDY 10 SELF 11 EXPECT

I still feel the and harmony that we used to have at home when I was a c They are always moralising about young people's . We about music and politics but we still were good friends. It's awfully when your parents don't trust you. The older generation often of our manners, hairstyles and the way we dl I have my own ideas and principles and I feel quite of anyone My dad demanded a full explanation and was starting to lose his . Don't shout and try to show that you are able to take part in a reasoned . Polly was so that she drove her flatmates mad. Miranda was such a person that she never made any real frien Nobody's perfect, so try to have realistic and don't demand much of your best friends. I used to be very shy when I arrived here but my aunt always m get out and meet more people. Your friendly smile and can make people change their minds wid any force and anger. A, B, C or D fits each space best.

2 Decide which answer

Everybody 1 problems with parents and so have I. The problems with my parents 2•................. when I was sixteen. I wanted to get a Saturday 3....•..................... but my parents ordered me to stay at home study for my exams. Whenever I 4 ............•...........••. that all my friends had Saturday jobs, they always repL 'We don't care 5........................•... , it's you we're worried about.' Their standards infuriated me so much 1 I did whatever 16 ...•....•.............•..... to provoke them. I purposely dyed my hair white blonde and plastered face in make-up when I went to school. 7............•....•....•. , all I managed to achieve was mass arguments bef I left 8..•••.••••••••..•..•......... Every time I attempted to go out in the evening, my parents asked me 9.........•......••••••. out with and where we were going. They even 10•..••.••..............•..•••. my giving them my friend's telephl number in case they 11..........•••..••......•.•.....• to contact me. I felt that if! gave it'to them they 12........•............• on me. It never occurred to me that they were just worried about me.

~

A A 3 A 4 A 5 A 6 A 7 A 8 A 9 A 10 A 11 A 12 A
1 2

had started working pointed at what they do could Besides anyway who was I going insisted in need would check up

B B B B B B B B B B B B

has start work pointed to what do they do can Although anywhere who I was going insisted about would need will check up

C C C C C C C C C C C C

have had started job showed them what did they do was able However nowhere where I was going insisted of needed checked up

D D D D D D D D D D D D

was having have started occupation pointed out what they done will be able Moreover anyhow where was I goi insisted on will need check up

3 Look carefully at each line. Some lines are correct, but some have a word that should not be the Tick each correct line. If a line has a word which should not be there, underline the word and writE next to the number of the line. The first two lines have been done for you. I quite liked Andrew when we &first met. However, although my friends said they found him attractive I didn't fancy him at all. He invited me out and I must to admit that I was more impressed by his car than by him at first. However, I really enjoyed it being with him.

He fascinated me with his stories of his travels in the mountains. Moreover, we were both very keen on the music. Soon I realised I had fallen in love with him. His sense of humour really appealed to me. Now, two years later I so absolutely adore him and I can't understand why I didn't fall for him the moment we first set eyes on to each other. He is a very caring person, often fond of children. He is always affectionate and loving towards me and the people he cares for. I hope we'll always worship by each other and be as devoted to our life when toge!her as we are now.

3 4 5 6
7

. . . .
.

8
9

.
.

10 11

. .

4 Complete the sentences with the words from the bank. You may use the word only once. There are more words than you need.

How to get on with other people 1 2 3 4 5 Show interest in others. to others. Smile. Don't others. Show your appreciation. 6 Make others 7 Admit your 8 Respect others' 9 Be kind, polite and 10 Treat others in an open way. important. mistakes. . .

5 Read the text below. Each line has a word missing. Use a stroke to show where a word has been left out and write the missing word on the right. The first has been done for you. It is thought that friendship is more important / romantic love. It is one of most rewarding experiences in life. Without friends you would feel lonely and isolated. You would be deprived all the warmth and intimacy that come from sharing a close relationship someone. Moreover, the feelings of security trust can also help you when dealing with various aspects of life. A real friend is always faithful and reliable. It is to whom you can tell your deepest personal thoughts without fear being betrayed. However, nobody's perfect. So, try to have realistic expectations and demand too much'of the other. We all have been let down a friend at some point in our lives. Maybe your friend let out a secret or sided with the opposition during an argument. Have mind that friendships don't develop overnight. They deepen over time as you begin trust each other.

o
1 2 3 4 5 6
7

,thr:1J.

. . . . . . .
.

8 9 10

. . .

6 Make all the necessary changes and additions to produce sentences, which together make a complete letter. The first has been done for you. Dear Mr and Mrs Greens, 1 Thank / very much / wonderful weekend! .T.ht;ll1k Y.QH. Y.~ry.11;.l-!9h.h,r .. t;l.. WQIJ.4<!,rju,(.w<!f3.km4.!. 2 I / have / such / good time / visit / you / your family. .

Yours sincerely, Irene Howe

READING and SPEAKING

SWEET SIXTEEN
John Oliver takes a critical look at what it's like being sixteen. It isn't easy being sixteen. It's a time of conflicting feelings and desires. You want to go out and have fun, have a social life, have a boyfriend or a girlfriend, maybe start a serious relationship. At the same time, important public exams are clouding the horizon1 and your school work is becoming more and more demanding. At home you want your parents to treat you like an adult yet you still depend on them for food and practical help. It's also a time when friendships can be unstable as you experiment with your own self-image. You may feel a sense of loss as you drop your old friends or are yourself dropped by them. These :eelings of pressure and conflict at school, at home and -=.longst your peers are not generally helped by those tactless adults who tell you to 'make the most of the best years of your life because it's all downhill after you leave school'. The fact is that l6-year-olds today are a lot busier than those adults were 30 or 40 years ago. You seek your pleasures more actively and cram a lot more int02 your lives. You're impossibly busy (when you are not in one of your well-earned Sunday'morning comas) trying to get homework done, revising for a science test, playing in a match, rehearsing for a play, looking your best for your new boyfriend / girlfriend or going to a friend's party. Many of you are trying to solve your constant money shortage by doing a part-time job. At the same time, your parents are - ddenly expecting more help from you at home, with washing-up, babysitting and other domestic duties. You realise that you have to establish priorities3, but you find it hard, especially when your parents want to do it for you. It is the difference between your own and your parents' priorities that makes family life explosive when you're sixteen. Many parents don't worry too much about whether their child is popular, having a good social life or going out with friends. Instead, they emphasise the importance of doing well at school and getting good exam results. You know that they're right, up to a point - that you have to have qualifications to get anywhere in this competitive world. But at the same time you realise that however brilliantly you do in your exams, you won't be happy if you haven't got any friends. You also know that if you don't collect new experiences, and take social and emotional risks, you will not become an independent and self-reliant adult. Sex can be another cause of conflict between l6-yearaids and their parents. At the age of 16 it becomes legal in Britain for heterosexuals to have sex. However, this legal milestone does not bring with it a sense of liberation for all teenagers. For those who are shy with the opposite sex and don't have a boyfriend / girlfriend, it can actually cause a feeling of failure. Those who do want a sexual relationship face practical difficulties. Quite apart from a fairly prevalent fear of AIDS, there are very few l6-year-olds whose parents allow them to bring their boyfriend / girlfriend home for the night. What words of comfort or useful advice can we give to teenagers? You, not your parents, must decide on your priorities even if you won't always make the right choices. But try to keep your options open4 by balancing school work, social life, relationships and hobbies. Living with your parents won't last forever. So, while you are with them, make the most of not having to pay electricity and heating bills. Enjoy having a fridge full of food and your laundry done for you. And remember, being sixteen only lasts a year.

- erate )

GLOSSARY lc10uding the horizon: spoiling the future; 2cram ... into: pack tightly into; 3priority: a thing that is regard~d as more important than others; 4to keep one's options open: to avoid making a decision now, so that one still has a choice later

Summary
It's difficult to be sixteen. Firstly, you would like to be treated as a(n) 1 Still you cannot be otally 2...•..•••.•....................• of your parents because they provide you with money ~nd food. Secondly, it's the time when you may feel 3 ..........•..................... as your friendships break up. ThIrdly, teenagers n?wa~ays . ve more 4.....•................•......... than their parents used to have. Moreover, they often take part-time Jobs _ \l~ethe~ ate constantl)' s of money. Furthermore, when you are sixteen you are oilen in 6 with your parents because of the difference between your own and your parents' priorities. You understand that you have to be 7 ify?u wan.t to get. a good job, so you must tudy hard, also you know that new experiences, social and emotIOnal n~ks WIll help you to beco~e (n) 8 adult. Another reason teenagers and their parents about ~s sex. Though it is legal in Britain to have sex when you are 16, still very 10•...............•............. :. parents let th~Ir ~hildren bring their boyfriend / girlfriend home for the night. To sum up, though you lack expenence and practIce of life it is you who has to make 11•.•....•........................ and be responsible for them. Very often you may be

faced with a difficult 12 .••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• of your priorities, nevertheless, try to give equal importance to different parts of your life. So enjoy living with your parents and having no problems with 13....................•........... , 14•..••.••.•.••.••.•.......•.•.•.. and piles of various 15 ••.•.•••••.•.•.•••..••..•.•.•..•.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

being in serious needing a lot of likely to change not being careful

disagreement, argument, opposition - c . your time, attention or effort - d . or end suddenly - u . about saying or doing something that could upset someone - t.. .

.

causing strong feelings, making people angry or violent - e involving competition - c . making people have strong feelings - e . not wanting or needing anyone else to help you or do things for you - i

. .

9 not confident, especially about meeting or talking to new people - s 10 existing or happening generally; widespread - p .

3 Look through the questionnaire and tick only these definitions which characterise a good friend. Calculate your score and read about your attitude towards friendship in the Results Table below. A Friend 1 D never gets tired of listening to you 2 D tells you everything about himself / herself 3 D is always able to encourage you 4 D never criticises your behaviour 5 D runs to your help immediately 6 D knows when it is the right time to speak 7 D cares and is close to you in all situations 8 D 9 D 10 D 11 D 12 D 13 D

can give you helpful advice accepts your mistakes knows how to console you wants the best for you prefers you to others is on hand when necessary

Give yourself 5 points for answers 5,6,8,9, 10 Give yourself 10 points for answers 3, 7, 13 Give yourself 30 points for answers 1, 2,4, 11, 12

1 to 2S points

30 to SS points

You tend to choose your friends superficially. You get on well with them, but relations are only skin deep. Be careful, true friendship should be more rewarding. One day you could feel lonely and disillusioned.
60 to 100 points

It's difficult for you to make friends because you aren't very willing to get involved with other people. If you try to be more warm-hearted and accommodating, you'll see how others will like you.
More than 100 points

You enjoy getting to know other people and this helps you form close friendships. You are good at listening and giving sensible advice to your friends. In return, they trust you, so your relationships with others are nearly always sincere and loyal.

Friendship is a vocation for you and it fills your life. You are generous and open-minded, you know how to help others and you are prepared to shrug off their faults. All these characteristics enable you to form sincere relationships. Well done!

4 Choose the definition which states the meaning of the word or phrase best. Find and highlight the words and phrases in the questionnaire above. 1 to encourage a) to make something possible b) to give somebody confidence and hope c) to ask for information 2 to console a) to make someone unhappy and worried b) to hide something c) to make someone who is sad feel better

3 is on hand a) is near you and ready to help when necessary b) holding each other's hand c) is very busy 4 disillusioned a) annoyed or unhappy b) extremely unpleasant c) feeling disappointed because something is not as good as you thought

5 willing
a) wanting to do something

b) going to happen in the future c) reluctant to do something 6 sensible a) able to make good decisions based on facts rather than emotions b) easily upset by the things people say or do c) showing kind feelings such as sympathy, love

• • • • • •

why some people have many friends and some have very few; which is better? how your partner would define the phrase 'a true friend' if people with different personalities can be good friends how often s/he meets her / his friends and what they like doing together; why they get on well with each other if your partner's friends have ever caused him / her any serious problems; how he / she solves them why sometimes best friends break up

6a) Read the text and fill in the gaps with the appropriate words or phrases from the bank given. You may use the words only once. There are some extra words you will not need. fond of get acquainted can't stand care for get into conflict complains get on well receive falls out with equal rely

Our Family
Our family is rather large. I have a father, a mother, a grandmother, a sister and a brother. The members of our family 1 with each other; the children respect their elders. My father is a designer. He works hard at his office and at home he helps my mother who is a very busy woman. She is a doctor and works at a clinic. Father and Mother really love each other. If sometimes it happens so that they 2 •.••.•....•.••.••..••••••...... with each other, it takes them a short time to make it up. They really are 3 partners in life. I admire my parents sharing daily routines and helping each other to create a comfortable and cosy home to live in. They have shown me that two people can 4 ••...............••......•••... each other for their whole lives. My grandmother who has retired lives with us. She keeps house for us. Even though we all try to help her, she has a lot of work to do about the house but she never grumbles or 5 and fulfils daily routines without haste. My elder brother is an engineer. He adores his profession and thinks that it is the best one. He is married with two children. As he says he has fallen in love with his wife the moment he first saw her. They live not far from us and we often invite them for dinner. They come to see us at weekends. My sister is a student at University. She has a boyfriend and as it seems to me she doesn't just like him, she idolises him I suppose. I 6 him and we often argue. I am a schoolboy. This year I'm finishing school. I'm fond of music, I'm good at Maths and Physics and I'm interested in computers. I want to become a computer programmer. I'm 7 writing letters too, especially to my pen friends abroad. I suppose it helps greatly to learn a foreign language better. Not long ago I joined an International Pen Friend Club. It's a great fun to 8 ....................••........• letters from my new pen-friends. I enjoy corresponding with them and I'm glad to tell them about my country, its customs, national traditions and myself. I always look forward to the letters I receive because I am delighted to read them and to 9 ..................••.......•..• with the people I have never seen in my life.

6b) Express your opinion on the situation when three generations live together. Use your own arguments or refer to the text. How does life with parents and grandparents influence the relationships among the family members? Would you like to live with your parents when you are grown-up? Why? Why not? How could you describe the relationships among the members of your family? What do you admire in your parents? Are there any family traditions that your parents passed on to you? How can one achieve harmony at home? What do you think of big and small families? What are the advantages and disadvantages of being an only child in the family? Is it good when other relatives live not far from you?

Young people are often complaining that it is difficult to get on well with their parents because their elders do not understand them. How do your parents treat you? Is generation gap evident in your family? Do you often have arguments with your parents? What do you usually argue about? How do you behave when you feel that your parents don't approve of your behaviour, taste in clothes, choice of friends, hairstyle etc? What do you think is the best way to cope with this problem? 8 Write down five characteristics of an ideal wife / husband. Compare your list with the list your friend has made and explain your choice to each other. Discuss the following: • • • • • • • the right age to get married the importance of good looks, intelligence and money in a partner 'rules' for a happy marriage men's and women's traditional roles in the family divorce as the best solution to problems between a husband and a wife living with someone you are not married to living by yourself

WRITING

A The problem has to do with my parents. B I have no one to talk my problems over. C If you were in my shoes, what would you do?

D they don't take me seriously. E Anxiously waiting for your letter.

Dear Auntie, Thanks for your letter. It was nice to hear from you. How is your little doggy? I hope he's all right. Now that my school is ovel; I've decided to write you a letter because 1 . I need your advice. 2•••.....••••.•••.•••••.•...................••••••. My friends and I want to go on a camping holiday for some days. We agreed to take our tents, some food and to stay by the lake for the weekend. There will be five of us. But my parents don't want to let me go. They say it would be better for me to spend the time at my granny's in the village and to help her there with the gardening (which I hate). I've told them that I don't like staying alone in the country but 3 . Another problem is that they think I'm too young to go alone with my friends without an adult. What should I do to make them understand that I've grown up? I feel helpless and I don't know what to do. I shouldn't leave without their permission, should I ? 4 . Let me know what you think of the situation as soon as possible. I would appreciate your advice. 5.................................................. . Yours, Lucy

2 Divide these set phrases into three groups: set phrases for the opening asking for advice in the main part; set phrases for the closing paragraph. _,? Would ;:ribe the .' family _ mink of . y? Is it 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 g 9 10 11 12 What should I do? I hope I haven't troubled you too much . Do you think it would be a good idea to ...? I've got a problem and I'd like your advice . What do you think of the problem / situation? I hope you can help me with the problem I have. I need your advice because I don't know what to do. Sorry I haven't written for so long but I've been having problems with ... Please write back soon. I'm writing to ask for your advice. What do you suggest? If you were me, what would you do?

paragraph;

expressions

=rsdonot -:ieil have :bat your think is

3 Your family has moved to a new town where your parents have found jobs. You have to help your younger brother and sister with their studies because your parents are at work till late at night. It takes much of your time and you have fallen behind with your own studies. You don't know how to cope with the problem. Write a letter of 120-160 words to a friend or relative asking for advice on the problem you have.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

that is to say as soon as possible repondez, s'il vous plait (please reply) please turn over (the page) for example et cetera (and so on) compare

a) b) c) d) e) f)

8 postscript (a note at the end of a letter)

etc ie RSVP PS eg Cf g) PTO h) asap

5 Read the letter of apology written by Dave Moor to his new neighbour and underline the phrases which show that the writer: • has made an apology • has accepted full responsibility • has explained the circumstances of the accident • has offered to make amends • understands the gravity of the situation

50 Park Road Greenwill Dear Mr Wright, I must immediately apologise for your garden fence, which I am afraid, was my fault. I am very sorry if the news will affect your bright holiday mood. On Monday I decided to cut down the old apple-tree. While I was working, one very large branch, which appeared to have been dead, fell and crushed your fence. I have cleared the debris, and will, of course, pay to have the fence rebuilt as soon as possible. Please let me know when it would be convenient for me to discuss this with you. With my apologies once again. The news must have been very unpleasant but I assure you that I will do everything I can to make amends for the worry I have caused you. Yours sincerely,
~aAt€' ~

Dave Moor

6 You lost the book, which you had borrowed from the British library. Write a letter of 120-160 words pointing this out, apologise and offer to replace the book. Use the phrases given below if necessary. Don't forget to repeat your apology in the closing paragraph of the letter . • I do I must apologise for (doing) sth. • Please accept my sincere apologies. • I am ready to make amends for (doing) sth. • I would like to apologise (most sincerely) for any embarrassment caused I the damage I have caused.

accept I;}k'sept/ priimti accommodating 1;}'kom;},deltII)I paslaugus achieve I;}'tfi:vl pasiekti act on one's own lrektl veikti savarankiskai admire I;}d 'maI;}1 zavetis admit I;}d' mrt/ pripazinti adore I;}' d:>:1dievinti affair 1;}'fe;}1meiles rysiai, romanas affectionate 1;}'fekJn;}tl meilus agree (with) 1;}'gri:1 sutarti annoy I;}'n:>r!erzinti, pykinti anxiously I'rel)kJ;}slil neramiai, susiriipinus appeal to I;}'pi:ll patikti appreciate 1;}'pri:Ji,eltl vertinti approve (of) I;}'pru:vl pritarti argue l'a:gju:1 gincytis, teigti ashamed 1;}'Jelmdl susiged«s attract/;}'trrektl (pa)traukti, masinti betray IbI'trer! isduoti break up I, brerk' Api issiskirti bring up I, bnl)' Api uzauginti, isaukleti bully I'bulil santazuoti caring l'ke;}nl)l riipestingas cause Ib:zl biiti priezastimi, priversti coma I'bum;}1 koma comfort I'knmf;}tl paguoda competitive Ibm'pet;}tlvl linkis rungtyniauti, konkuruoti complain (about) Ibm'plem/ slatstis confide Ibn'faldl pa(si)tiketi confident I' konfld(;} )ntl (savimi) pasitikintis console Ibn's;}ul/ (nu)raminti, (pa)guosti constant I'konst;}nt/ nuolatinis, nekintamas cram Ikrrern/ intensyviai ruostis, mokytis cross with sb Ikrosl supyk«s deal with Idi:l/ nagrineti, biiti skirtam debris I'debri:, 'delbri:1 nuolauzos; griuvesiai delight IdI'lartl malonumas demanding Idr'ma:ndII)I reikalaujantis daug pastangl{ deprive IdI'prarvl atimti desire IdI'ZaI;}1 naras, troskimas devoted IdI'V;}Utldl atsidavzs disagree l,dIS;}'gri:1 nesutarti drive sb mad vesti is proto drop Idropl atsisakyti, mesti dye IdaII dazyti (plaukus) embarrassment Irm' brer;}sm;}ntl sumisimas enable 1m 'erbl/ igalinti, leisti encourage Im'kAnd31 padr'sinti, paskatinti establish /rs'treblrJI itvirtinti, ikurti, nustatyti

expectation l,ekspek'teIJnl liikestis, viltis explosive /rks'pl;}uSIVI sprogstamasis face IfeIsl stoveti pries, dr'lsiai pasitikti failure I'ferlj;}1 nesekme faithful /'feI8fl/ istikimas fall behind atsilikti fall for sb isimyleti fall out with susipykti fancy I'frensil noreti, patikti, traukti fascinate I' fresmeltl zaveti, traukti fulfil Iful'frll ivykdyti get acquainted I;}'kwemtldl susipazinti get on sutarti, sugyventi grumble I' gr Ambll niurneti haste IheIstl skubejimas, skuba infuriate Im'fjU;}n,eltl isiutinti involve Im'volvl itraukti laundry I'b:ndril skalbiniai let sb down nuvilti look up to sb gerbti loss 1I0si praradimas, netekimas loyal I' hI;}11 istikimas make amends I;}'mendzl atlyginti nuostolius make it up susitaikyti milestone I'marl,st;}unl gaire, labai svarbus ivykis nag Inregl grauzti, neduoti ramybes pass on to sb perduoti patient (with) l'peIJntl kantrus peer IpI;}1 bendraamzis pile Iparll kriiva plaster l'pla:st;}1 (uz)tepti, uzlipdyti pressure I'preJ;}1 itampa prevalent I'prev;}l;}ntl paplitzs priority IpraI'or;}til prioritetas, svarbiausias dalykas provoke Ipr;}'v;}uk! (su)pykdyti, (su)erzinti purposely I'p3:p;}slil tycia put up (with) pak«sti, toleruoti reasoned I'ri:zndl motyvuotas, protingas rehearse In'h3:s1 repetuoti, kartoti reluctant In'IAkt;}ntl nenorintis rely (on) In'lar! pasitiketi respect/n'spektl gerbti restriction In'stnkJnl apribojimas rewarding /rr'w:>:dII)I teikiantis pasitenkinim I row /raul skandalas, vaidas see eye to eye sutarti seek Isi:kl ieskoti, siekti self-reliant I,selfn'lar;}ntl nepriklausomas selfish l'selfIJI savanaudis

words sary.

for

_ I have

sensible I'sens~bl/ protingas set eyes on sb isvysti pirm~ kart~ share IJe~1pa(si)dalinti shortage !'J::>:tIcBIstygius shrug off I,JrAg 'of! neimti i galv'l., nereaguati superficially Isu:p~'fIJ~lil pavirsutiniskai sympathy I'srrnp~eil uiuojauta tactless I'ta:ktbsl netaktiskas tend buti linkusiam totally I't~ut~lil visiskai

treat Itri:tl elgtis (su kuo), laikyti trust /tr Astl pasitiketi unstable IAn'steIbll nestabilus untidy IAn'taIdil netvarkingas upset I Ap' setl susikrimtl(s, prislegtas violent l'vaI~I~ntl umus vocation Iv~' keIJ n/ pasaukimas will Iwdl naras, valia worship I'W3:JIpl garbinti

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
acquaintance I~'kwemt~nsl paiistamas adopt I~'dopt/ ivaikinti adoption/~'dopJn/ ivaikinimas anniversary I,a:m'v~:s~ril metines be delighted to do sth IdI'lartId/ daryti su malonumu be eager to do sth l'i:g~1 traksti k~nors daryti best man pajaunys bride I' brardl nuotaka bridegroom I'braIdgru:m/ jaunikis bridesmaid I'braIdsmeId/ pamerge colleague /'koli:gl kolega date IdeIt! pasimatymas dependent (on) IdI'pend~nt/ priklausomas (nuo) despise ldI'sparz! niekinti elders vyresnieji (tevai, suaugusieji) ex-husband leks'hAzb~ndl buvl(s vyras ex-wife buvusi imona fancy dress partY kamavalas fiance If!' onseI! suiadetinis fiancee IfI'onsi:1 suiadetine funeral I'fju:nr~l/ laidatuves get along with sb sutarti get engaged to sb 1m' geIcBd/ susiiadeti get pregnant f'pregn;Jnt/ pastoti give birth to a child /b3:8/pagimd yti go out with sb draugauti (su), susitikineti(su) have influence on sb /'mflu:ms/ tureti itak'l kam nars hostile f'hostaIi/ priesiskas idolise f' aId;J, aw idealizuoti l introduce sb to sb /,mtr;J'dju:s/ supaiindinti, pristatyti look down on sb iilireti is auksta mate /rneIt/ biciulis, draugas (classmate, flatmate, roommate) propose to sb /pr;J'p;JuzlpasipirSti relations /n'leISnzl rysiai; gimines relativef'rel;JtIV/ giminaitis(-e) resentful /n'zentfl/ pasipiktinl(s, isiieidl(s set a good example paradyti ger'lpavyzdi share one's experience pasidalinti patirtirni split up with sb issiskirti, susipykti take care of sb rupintis kuo nors take revenge on sb /n'vencBIatkersyti treat sb with respect rodyti pagarb'l twins /twmzJdvynukai (-es) wedding vestuves widow /'wId;Ju/nasle widower f'WId;JU;J/ naslys

friend: close, dear, good, great, intimate, real, special; faithful, loyal, true; lifelong, long-standing, old It was so relaxing to be among oldfriends. female, male He was last seen leaving a restaurant with afemale friend. mutual We met each other -hrough a mutualfriend. family, personal; childhood, school Do you keep in touch with any schoolfriends? become, remain, stay friends We stayedfriends even after we grew up and left home. find, make Hefinds it difficult to make friends. win He ;mn't win any friends ifhe carries on behaving like that. a circle of friends; a friend of mine He introduced me to his circle offriends. friendly: exceptionally, extremely He was exceptionally friendly towards me. be on friendly terms (with sb) Wehave managed w remain onfriendly terms. be friendly to sb Ifeell can ask her to help me because she's always been very friendly to me.

_;B friendly is an adjective, not an adverb, sodon't say 'they treated me friendly'. Say they treated me in a friendly way or they
were friendly to me. friendship: deep, firm, great, warm; innocent, true Their affair has started out as an innocentfriendship. Truefriendship is ":orth more than money. eternal, lasting, lifelong, long His friendships never last long. develop, establish, form, make, start up, strike up Betty struck up afriendship with a girl on her course. promote The aim of the culture festival is to promote - 'endship between two countries. renew; destroy, spoil, wreck How can you let such a silly incident wreck your friendship? etray He betrayed our friendship by revealing my secrets to his cousin. relationship between people. groups. countries 'endly, happy, harmonious, healthy, strong; stormy, strained The relationships between the two countries are strained. lose, intense, intimate, special; enduring, lasting, long-term, permanent, serious, stable, steady; brief, casual; family, uman, interpersonal, one-to-one person; business, contractual, formal, marital, physical, professional, sexual, nodal, trade, . orking Lithuania wants to have trade relationships with all countries. aegin, build (up), develop, establish, foster They established the relationship of trust. improve, strengthen; continue; handle, manage He's not very good at handling personal relationships. destroy Lack of trust destroys many relationships,

tongue bottom lips elbow waist

knee toes hair heel thumb

nose arm mouth chest

ear neck head hand

leg eye shoulder fingers

sole back tooth (pi. teeth) foot (pi. feet)

1 2 3 4

Ann's cut her The man's broken his Steve's got (a) He's bruised his

. 5 Sue's got a pain in her . . 6 The boy's hurt his . . 7 She her head on the cupboard door. . 8 My aches.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

The boy had no appetite. Steve was short-sighted. The old man was a bit deaf. Paul took things easy. My father went on a diet. Allan had a headache. Eddy cut down on cigarettes. My grandfather got a hearing aid.

A B C D E F G H

His head hurt. He didn't want to eat anything. He relaxed and avoided working too much. He bought something to help him hear better. He couldn't see things far away. He couldn't hear very clearly. He decided to eat and drink only certain things. He smoked less.

1 The doctor asked his patient A lie B 2 The doctor gives you a A recipe B 3 There were five A clients B

to stand receipt customers

down on the couch. Clay to take to the chemist's to obtain medicine. C prescription waiting in the doctor's surgery. C patients

4 Whenever there's a flu doctors are kept very busy. A breakout B outbreak C outcome 5 Can you please an appointment for me to see the doctor? A do B take C make 6 A walk in the forest will . A better you B do you good C be well 7 You keep sneezing. You must have caught . A a cold B a cough . C a headache 8 Each time I sneezed, everyone said, , you!' A cough B thank C bless 9 Helen hasn't quite her illness yet. A recovered B got over C suffered 10 That was a bad fall! Have you yourself? A damaged B wounded C hurt 11 I had severe toothache and half my face was badly . A swollen B rounded C injured 12 The doctor told me to the medicine three times a day. A have B take C get 13 Her little son with flu during his holidays. A go down B went down C went ill 14 Have you taken anything your headache? A at B for C against 15 Many people a cold in winter. A catch B catches C caught

examined advice

get better nurse well

sore fresh get tired pains prescription

chemist's patient

getting thin( ner) doctor a terrible

take cold

d door. ::.zhes.

Yesterday I decided to visit my 1................••.....•• I've been having 2 ••.••.•.•••.••••.•...•.• in my chest. I've lost my appetite and I think I'm 3.................................. I 4 easily, as well. Last week I caught 5....•...••.........••••. My throat felt 6 ............••...•.•.... and I could hardly speak. I hoped it would 7 •.••......•.••.••....... , but in fact it got worse. The doctor 8 me and gave me a 9 'You can get this medicine at the 10...•........•........... ', he said. 'Don't worry. You'll soon be all right'. I asked the doctor to give me some 11•••••••••.•.•.•.•........ 'When you feel better, 12 •.•••.••.....•..•••.••••• plenty of exercise, and you need plenty of 13 air. You'll be 14 in no time'. I thanked the doctor as the 15•.•.•....•.•..•••••...•. showed me out before leading in the next 16....•...•..•.•..•......••• se the words and collocations given below to complete the sentences. There are three extra collocations you don't have to use. Write your own sentences with these collocations. kill the pain acupuncture pull a muscle alternative vegetarian diet therapies blood circulation stressed badly swollen be operated on

J h. xtter.

feel

The ball hit him right in the eye and his eyelid was . _ Avoiding animal fat and choosing a reduces your risk of developing heart disease. Eating garlic is said to help . He has to his spine to cure his back problems. - Some people who suffer from migraine say that is the only thing that helps them. 6 It's said that traditional medicine and should go hand in hand.

1 There is a word missing in each line. Put a stroke ( / ) in the place where the word is missing and write the appropriate form of the word next to the number of the line. The first has been done for you as an example. depress able breathe consider harm important judge correct demand steady different
Physical exercise is one of the best ways of keeping / away: It helps you to improve your body and mind and you to perform better in the work place and at home. Proper is essential if you want to get the most from exercise and you should also take into your heart rate. It can be to do too much, which is why all good fitness instructors emphasise the of 'listening to your body'. When you first start you should use good, because it's easy to make the mistake of using the equipment or doing too much at one time. Start slowly and build up gradually. Exercise should not be seen as a task; it can be as easy as a quick walk. To increase your fitness, exercise for 30 minutes a day, 5 to 6 times a week and you'll notice a in your body and mind in a few weeks.

o
1

.4.r:;p.':.t;.~~~~!! .
.

2 3 4
5

. . .
.

6
7 8 9

.
. . .

10

.

2 Use the word given below to form a word that fits the gap.
The government should decide to take the unpopular 1•.•.•. 4f:<;,~~.ip.'!to ban smoking in a lot of public places. A study carried out in 1997 suggested that 25 % of secondary school students aged 15-16 are regular 2•.•.••.•.•.•.••..•.•.........• The number of boys who smoke has been falling recently, but not the number of girls. The research into the factors which influence young people to smoke suggests that parental approval or 3 of the habit is a major factor. Though a lot of people find smoking 4 ..•....•.•.•.•..•.•••...•••.•••.•.. and though experts all agree it is 5 ••.........•.•.•.•.••.•.•.•.•..•. 6 .................••......•.•.•..• and that it costs the state a lot to treat victims of , it is also undeniable that many people get 7 •••••.•••..•.•..•••.•.••••.••••.•• from the habit and find smoking 8 ••.•.•.•••••.•••••.••••.•••• when they are in company. However, it is now 9 to deny the anti-social nature of the habit. As advertising has proved ineffective with many smokers, the government should make smoking 10•.......••........•.........•..•......•. in most public places. Smokers who are 11 to stop smoking would be obliged to enjoy their pastime in private and might feel that such 12 •.•.•.•...•.••.•.••...•.•.•.•....••.. are unjust, but for passive smokers for whom a room full of smoke is 13••..•.••••••....••.•.•.•.•.•.•.•..•..•.• they would come as a 14•.•..••.•.•••••••.•.•.•......•••....... of fresh air. It has been suggested that any form of 15 •.....•.•.••.•....•.•.•.......••..•.. relating to cigarettes should also be banned.

1 2 3 4

DECIDE SMOKE APPROVE PLEASE

5 6 7 8

HEALTH SMOKE PLEASE RESIST

9 POSSIBLE 10 LEGAL lIABIE 12 MEASURE

13 BEAR 14 BREATHE 15 ADVERTISE

3 Complete the second sentence so that it is as similar in meaning as possible to the first, using the word given. Do not change the word.

o

My elder sister has had a baby boy and is feeling fine.

birth
My elder sister has

~.~~.~'!:.~!:.~~.~?.~.~c::~"!..~?y. and

is feeling fine.

1 His mother often has terrible headaches.

suffers
2 His mother Your parents terrible took care of you while you were ill. while you were ill. isn't having any effect now. . headaches.

looked
3 Your parents This medicine

wearing off
The effect of this medicine

. d write ou as an

4 Little Sally had to have a tooth extracted last week. out Little Sally had her last week . S After fainting the little boy regained consciousness after a few minutes. round Having fainted, the little boy after a few minutes. 6 Has your brother recovered from his illness yet? over Has your brother his illness yet? 7 Jane has gained a lot of weight since I last saw her. put Jane has since I last saw her. 8 The secretary caught flu and had to have time off work. went The secretary and had to have time off work. 9 Since his heart attack, my grandfather has not been well at all. poor Ever since his heart attack, my grandfather has suffered

health .

. places. _ regular -~. Is. The __oval or

READING and SPEAKING
1 Read the article carefully. Ten sentences are missing from this article. Study the sentences A-K and choose the one that fits each gap 1-10. There is one sentence you do not need •

• r people :: mpany. -.- proved _ in most

private full of .' . It has ed.
31

Although stress can sometimes be a good thing because it gives you the motivation to do your best, it can have a harmful effect on you mentally and physically if it is for too long. It can cause sleeplessness, anxiety, mood swings, depression and illness. These are the 10 ways to combat excess stress.

then their problems seem bigger and they can no longer put them into perspective.

16
17 18

If you think negatively, stress can take over. But if you keep reminding yourself that you can cope and that you know what you are doing, stress often goes away. You can't change them so why worry? Work on the things you can do something about.

I

11

~gE SE

By doing this you will feel in control and decide what things are more urgent and important. Feeling prepared can get rid of a lot of stress. Much stress is caused by doing things when there isn't enough time to do them, eg revising everything you have learned the night before a test.
E

I

I

2 Instead of worrying about doing something or avoiding it because you are scared of doing it (in case you fail) - just do it! The sooner you take action, the more time you will have if anything goes wrong.

I

Two cliches that people often quote are 'variety is the spice of life' and 'a change is as good as a rest' , the good news is that they are both true. Realising that the world holds a lot more possibilities than the things you generally focus on can make you forget your problems.

I

____ ____

I Keeping your body healthy reduces stress. I

Cut down on too much caffeine and sweet things. Make ·ure you get enough sleep and vitamin C. Deep breathing works because getting ore oxygen into your body relaxes you. You can either 'e up yoga or simply try breathing in deeply through .:our nose then exhaling through your mouth and then ~peat it ten times.

Telling people about your problems can often help. This way you will feel less isolated. You should also tell people such as teachers or boyfriends / girlfriends or parents how stressed you feel about certain things. Once they realise how you feel they might be able to help, eg providing to parents that you are adult and mature than shouting it at them during an argument often helps. 110 Find somewhere where you have space to think, rest and generally chill out. You should also use this space to write down some possible solutions to the things that are stressing you. Then write down possible ways you can do those things. Attacking the problem is better than waiting for it to just go away.

19

I

I

____

I Doing something you really enjoy means .'ou get a chance to take a break and 'recharge your _ teries' . People who do not do this feel depressed and ~

A B C D E F

Stop worrying about things you can't change. Don't procrastinate. Remember to have fun. Communicate. Organise and prioritise. Twice a year have a full medical examination.

G Stay positive. H Look after yourself. I Try new things and find out about new things. J Take charge and be pro-active. K Breathe.

2 Decide if the statements below are true (T) or false (F). Read aloud the part of the text that you think gives you the answer. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stress is not always harmful, it can also be useful. Planning and deciding which things are more important to you can reduce stress a lot. Don't do anything if you are not sure that you will succeed. Physical exercises and healthy food cannot help to get rid of stress. Don't try to change things that cannot be changed by you. You should always avoid changes and unknown things. Speak about the things that worry you and try to solve the problem as soon as possible.

breathing in depression 1 2 3 4 5

sleeplessness take over

perspective procrastinate

exhaling anxiety

chill out prioritise

action of sending air out of the lungs state of being sad and without enthusiasm or hope a worry or fear about something inability to sleep a sensible way of judging how good, bad, important, etc something is in comparison with other things

6 delay or postpone doing something 7 take control, dominate 8 action of taking air into the lungs 9 relax, calm down 10 give something priority ~

3b) Complete these sentences using some of the words and expressions above making any Cha~ge~re necessary. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The man committed suicide during a fit of . George as managing director when Philip retires. Try to a little before discussing these problems with them again. Her father's health has recently been a great to her. He until it was too late to do anything at all. Pain, noise, hunger, excessive tiredness, stress and worry usually cause .

4a) This is how the dictionary defines health, but everyone probably has their own definition of what it actually means to be healthy. health / heW / n [U] the state of being well and free from illness in body or mind; the condition of a person's body or mind Look at the chart below and tick the five statements which correspond definition of the word. Being healthy is • • • • • • having all your body parts in perfect working order eating right hardly ever going to the doctor getting lots of fresh air not being overweight or underweight living to one hundred years most closely with your own

• exercising to the point of perspiration several times a week • never suffering from anything more than a slight cold or headache • never smoking, drinking alcohol or taking drugs • hardly ever getting stressed or depressed • hardly ever taking any pills or medicines • having a 'good to be alive' feeling when you wake up • knowing how to relax • something else?

5 Work in pairs. Read the dialogue and study the sentences in the box below. Make similar using the given sentences and phrases from the additional word bank. A: Hello! What's the matter with you? B: I've got a headache and feel awful. A: Oh, I'm sorry. Why don't you take an aspirin? I've got stomach ache / earache / toothache / a blister. I've got a bad cold / a cough / a sore throat / a temperature. I've got a pain in my back / shoulder / foot. I feel awful/sick / ill. Why don't you take an aspirin /lie down / go home / see a doctor?

dialogues

00) Work in pairs. Imagine that you are feeling rotten: you are weak, shivery, with an aching head, back

and limbs. Your temperature is up over 38°C. You are sweating a lot, you have lost your appetite and feel sick. You've got flu.

• • • • •

to stay indoors and keep warm to keep away from other people as much as possible, in order not to pass the infection to have plenty of cool drinks - water, fruit drinks, milky drinks to take aspirin every four hours during the day and get in touch with the doctor to rest in bed and have light meals

) When you've finished, change the roles. Imagine that the friend is suffering from insomnia. What advice would you give?

-a) Work in pairs. Make a conversation sentences. Act out their dialogue.

between Jane Smith and her doctor from these mixed-up

1 2 3

4 5

Doctor When did this pain start? Now, Mrs Smith. What seems to be the matter? Well, I'm afraid you've got appendicitis. We must get you into hospital at once and have that appendix removed. Let me have a look ... Does it hurt when I press here? Have you been sick at all?

a) b) c) d)

Jane Ow, it certainly does. Yes, four or five times. I first felt it last night, but it was worse this morning. I've got this pain in my side, doctor.

Jane phones home and tells her husband about her visit to the doctor. She reports what the doctor asked, what she replied and what the doctor diagnosed. Prepare and role-play their conversation.

• the main rules for a healthy • the diseases you had when • how often one should have why it is important to have

way of life you were a child their check-up and it

• • • •

how often you have your check-up the best ways of loosing one's weight the ways of reducing stress and coping with i when and why you consulted your doctor las

• You are in England. You are taking Steve, your friend's 5-year-old son, to the doctor's. Here is a list of the symptoms he's suffering from. What would you tell the doctor? (Skauda ir svaigsta galva, karsCiuoja. neteko apetito, skauda pilvq ir pykina.) • You are on holiday in Greece and you have some problems with your health. You go to the chemist's to g some medicine. What do you say? (Ant kojos pirsto issoko pilsle, tode! reikia tepalo ir pleistro. Skaud nugarq, be to dar pradejau koseti. NoreCiau vaistl{ nuo skausmo ir mikstilros nuo kosulio.)

WRITING
Guidelines for writing a for-and-against composition

It is usually written in a formal style. While writing it discuss both sides of the argument to give a balanced VIew. INTRODUCTION MAIN BODY Paragraph 1: present the topic, but do not give your opinion

Paragraph 2: give the argumentsfor the topic together with justifications and examples Paragraph 3: give the arguments against the topic with justifications and examples Final paragraph: write a balanced personal opinion, or summarise the main arguments for and against

NB Use appropriate linkers to connect similar ideas and introduce opposing ideas. Start each paragraph with an appropriate topic sentence. 1a) Read the rubric given in the box. Underline the key words (eg write a composition, arguments for and against etc) and answer the questions that follow. Think at least of two positive and two negative aspects of including more sport in the curriculum. Your class has been discussing the importance of sports in schools. Your teacher has asked you to write a composition giving your arguments for and against the following topic: There should be more sport included in the school curriculum. Write your composition of200-250 words. • What are you going to write? • Who is going to read your piece of writing? • Should you use informal language? Why (not)? 1b) Now read the sample composition on this topic, underline the correct linkers and list the points for and against the topic. Are they similar to yours? What justifications / examples does the author give to support each point? More sport at school? There is no doubt that sport helps to get rid of overwork and stress which affect us both physically and mentally. It is only logical then, that more physical training classes should be included in the school curriculum. But will they really be beneficial? Moreover / To begin with, sport promotes co-operation and team spirit, which should be encouraged at every school as the ability to work in a team will be advantageous for young people in their future

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career. All in all / Moreover, more hours devoted to sport can only be of great value to students because exercising helps relieve the stress and frustration which build up after many hours in the classroom. As a result / Since, young people are less likely to suffer from stress-related health problems such as heart attack and cancer. Due to the fact that / On the contrary students have to cope with an expanding workload, very little time is left for them to exercise. For this reason / For example, inclusion of more sport in the school curriculum can be an answer to this problem. On the other hand / Furthermore, there are people who claim that the school curriculum already includes enough sport, and extra classes will add to students' hectic schedule causing more stress and tension. What is more / However, they argue that sport in school is a waste of valuable learning time, as examinations require students' deep knowledge of different subjects but not physical fitness. Although / In addition to this, exercising can be quite painful. You may pull a muscle or injure yourself if you are not fit enough. Last but not least / In conclusion, despite certain objections that some may have, it is obvious that the advantages of exercising outweigh the drawbacks. Therefore / Also more sport should be included in the school curriculum. 2a) Read the rubric below, underline the key words and plan your composition by writing down reasons for and against. Your local newspaper is asking readers to give their opinion on the following topic: Should smoking be banned in public places? 2b) Write your composition of 200-250 words using the notes you have made. plan below and the suggestions given in the key. Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph Paragraph 1 2 3 4 Introduction to the subject The harmful effects of smoking on our health Violation of personal freedom Conclusion and opinion / recommendation You can make use of the

pIes pIes

Your pen friend from abroad is coming to visit you. You had planned to meet her / him at the airport. However, you are in bed with pneumonia. Write a letter of 120-180 words to your pen friend, apologising for not being able to meet her / him and explain why. ents for negative You see was running a high temperature think caught a cold was pneumonia have some bad news apologise for to be on the safe side take the medicines feel better PauksCi1{ takas 7 LT-2001 Vilnius May 19, 2003 Dear Sally, How are you? I'm afraid 11 •...•......•........•......• I won't be able to meet you at the airport as we had planned. I'm really sorry. 2•••.....•••..........•.•...• , I went on a hiking trip with my friends last weekend. We slept in tents and the night was rather cold. Besides, it was raining all the time. 13 . and fell ill. The doctor examined me carefully and told it 4.....••....•.....••••...•••. I have to stay in bed now and 5 he prescribed. 16 ...•.....•.•••...•.......•.. and had a bad cough. This is what happened. I 7•...••.••••.••.•••••• now but, as my doctor says, I have to stay in bed for a few more days 8 .••••••.••••••••••••• Anyway, since my house is not so far from the airport, 19 ..•.•••••.••••..••••.••••..• it won't be very inconvenient for you to take a taxi to my place. Once again I 10 •....................•••.••.. the trouble. I can't wait to finally meet you. Bye for now, Marius

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for and r give to

cally and iculum. couraged ir future

Your aunt is coming to visit you. You had promised to meet her at the train station. However, due to the accident you have had, you are in bed with a broken leg. Write a letter to your aunt apologising for not being able to meet her and explain why. Apologise
I'm afraid that I won't be able to I'm sorry but I can't . I don't know how to explain but I apologize for . I'm really sorry . I'm sorry to say . . .

Explain Situation
You see . Let me explain . Let me start from the beginning But that's not all . Everything started when . This is what happened .

.

WORD-BANK
ache lerkJ skaudeti; skausmas acupuncture I'rekju opAI]ktf~1 akupunktfua, adatl! terapija adult I'redAlt, ~'dAlt/ suaug((s, pilnametis alternative 1:):I't3:n~trvl alternatyva, pasirinkimas ankle I'reI]kV kulksnis antioxidant I,renti'oksrd~nt! antioksidantas anxiety lreI]°zar~til susiriipinimas, nerimas appointment I~'pomtm~nt! paskyrimas, susitarimas susitikti approve I~'pru:vl pritarti avoid I~'v:)rd/ isvengti; salintis ban Ibren! uidrausti bear Ibe~1 pakelti, islaikyti, pak((sti blister I'blrst~1 piisle blood IbIAd/ kraujas breath Ibre81 kvepavimas breathe Ibri:ol kvepuoti bruise Ibru:z/ melyne; su(si)musti, uzsigauti cause Ib:z/ biiti prieZastimi cell IseV l'lstele charge Itfa:c5f atsakomybe, pareiga check-up I'tfekApl sveikatos patikrinimas chemist's I'kemrstsl vaistine chest itfestl kriitine; kriitines l'lsta cliche I'kli:Seri banali fraze; sablonas combat I'kom, bret! priesintis, kovoti consciousness I'konS~sn~sl s'lmone; s~moningumas cope Ibupl susidoroti, susitvarkyti couch Ikautfl sofa, kusete cough Ikofl kosulys; koseti deaf Idefl kurCias demand Idr'ma:nd/ reikalauti disease Idr'zi:z/ liga ear /r~1 ausis elbow I'elb~ul alkiine equipment /r'kwrpm~nt! iranga, irenginiai excess I'eks~sl papildomas,virsijantis norm~ exhale leks'herV iskvepti eye larl akis eyelid I'arlrdl vokas (akies) faint Ifemt! nualpti finger I'frI]g~1 pirstas (rankos) fitness I'frtn~sl gera tizine biikle flu lfIu:1 gripas garlic I'ga:lrkJ cesnakas get over l,get'~uv~1 atsigauti, pasitaisyti go down (with) I,g~u'daun! susirgti harmful l'ha:mfV zalingas, kenksmingas health Ihe181 sveikata hearing aid I'hr~nI] ,erdl klausos aparatas heel /hi:V kulnas hurt /h3:t! skaudeti, uzgauti illness I'rln~sl liga increase 1m kri :sl (pa)didinti, (pa )dideti influence I'mflu~nsl daryti itaklt, veikti isolate I'ars~,lert! atskirti, izoliuoti knee Ini:1 kelis lay (laid) Ilerl (pa)guldyti wear off nykti; (su)silpneti, praeiti lie (lay, lain) !larl guleti, atsigulti lungs !lAI]z/ plauciai mature Im~'tfu~1 subrend((s medicine(s) I'medsn! vaistai metabolism Im~'treb~,lIZm/ medziagl! apykaita migraine I'mi:grem, 'margrern! migrena mood Imu:d/ nuotaika neck InekJ kaklas, sprandas oblige 1~'blard.31priversti obtain I~'btern! isigyti, gauti ointment I':)mtm~nt! tepalas outbreak I'aut, brerkJ protriikis overweight 1,~uv~'weIt! sveriantis virs normos oxygen l'oksrd.3~n! deguonis pastime I'pa:s, tarm! laisvalaikio uisiemimas patient l'perSnt! pacientas perspiration I,P3:sp~'rerSn! prakaitavimas pill IpIV piliule prescription Ipn'sknpS~n! receptas (gydytojo) prioritise IpraI' on, tam teikti pirmum~ priority IpraI' ordtil pirmumo teise procrastinate Ipr~u'krrestI,neIt! atiddioti, vilkinti proper I'prop~1 tinkamas put into perspective Ip~'spektrvl objektyviai vertinti quote Ikw~ut! cituoti rate IreIt! tempas, sparta
0

r, due to
logising

receipt Irr'si:t! kvitas recipe f'resgpil receptas (kulinarinis) recover (from) In'kAVgl pasveikti, atsigauti reduce In'dju:sl sumazinti resist In'zIst! atsispirti, priesintis retire In'taIgl iseiti i pensij'l revise In'valzi kartoti (mediiag/) evere ISI'VIgl astrus, stiprus short-sighted !'J;,:t,saltld! trumparegis sneeze Isni:z1 Ciaudeti solution Isg'lu:Jn/ sprendimas spicy f'spaIsii su prieskoniais, astrus steady f'stedil tvirtas,pastovus suffer (from) I'SAfdl buti kamuojamam, kenteti 5Uicide l'su:I,saldl savizudybe

surgery f's3:Cl;)griigydytojo kabinetas swing ISWlfjlsvyravimas swollen I'swgulgn/ sutinzs therapy I' eergpil terapija, gydymas thumb leArn! nykstys tip Itlpl patarimas; informacija toe Itgul kojos pirstas tongue ItAfjl lieiuvis treat Itri:t! gydyti underweight I,Andg'Welt! sveriantis per mazai urgent 1'3:d.3nt! skubus vegetarian l,vecBg'tegrigni vegetaras victim f'vlktrml auka wound lwu:nd! zaizda yoga f'jguggl joga

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
es of diseases ppendicitis Ig,pendr'saltIsl apendicitas; bronchitis Ibrofj 'kartrsl bronchitas; cancer I'kcensgl vezys; chicken-pox . IkIll,poksl vejaraupiai; constipation Ikonstr'perJnl viduriq uzkietejimas; diabetes I,darg'bi:ti:zl diabetas; . rrhoea I,darg'ri:gl viduriavimas; food poisoning I'fu:d ,p;'IZllIfjl apsinuodijimas maistu; hay fever f'her ,fi:vgl sienlige; atitis I,hepg'taltrsl hepatitas, gelta; indigestion l,rndI'd.3esifn/ virskinimo sutrikimas; inOuenza (Ou) I,rnflu 'enzgl grip as; - rnnia Irn'somnigl nemiga; leukaemia Ilu:'ki:migl leukemija; measles f'rni:zlzl tyrnai; mumps ImAffipsl kiaulyte; uIDonia Inju:'mguniaJ plauciq uzdegimas; scarlet fever f'ska:lgt ,fi:vgl skarlatina; stroke Istrgukl insultas; tonsillitis ~ srlaltrsl angina; tuberculosis Itju:, b3:kj u'lgusrsl tuberkulioze; whooping cough f'hU:Plfj ,kofl kokliusas The names of illnesses are usually uncountable in English, including those ending in -soIf you 've already had measles, you can't get it again. There s a lot offlu around at the moment. The words for some minor ailments are countable: e.g. cold, a sore throat, a headache. However, toothache, earache, stomach ache and backache are more often ountable in British English. In American English, these words are generally countable if they refer to particular ::::-.acksof pain. Compare: Love isn't as bad as toothache. (GB) Love isn't as bad as a toothache. (US) Aichael Swan Practical English Usage ist's I drug-store (Am E) vaistine e a chemist s in the hotel? J must drop at the chemist s to have my prescription made up. : this prescription made up. Man rei/da vaistl-b pagamintl{ pagal si receptq. -_give me something for a headache. Prasom kq nors nuo galvos skausmo . .1 ablespoonful three times a day. Gerkite po valgomqji saukStq tris kartus per dienq . . 'ne(s) I remedy vaistas; take medicine(s) gerti vaistus [. cough mixture, painkillers, antiseptic, antibiotics I,centibar'otrks/, throat ~ -i:tgmoI/, sleeping-pills; (sticking)-plaster pleistras; cotton wool vata d The medicine did not do me any good. Vaistai man nepadejo. entist's otb uzplombuoti danti; pull out a tooth
f arts ofthe bod

sweets,

paracetamol

istraukti danti; filling plomba J had to have two fillings at the dentist s

- e kulksnis; back nugara; chest krutines l'lsta; collar bone raktikaulis; foot (feet); hair; hand; head; heart; s galUnes; lungs plauciai; neck kaklas; stomach skrandis, pilvas; tooth (teeth); shoulder petys; sole padas; __ ~as re useful phrases for talking about health .11;" lil. You don't look too good. Whats the matter? Whats the trouble? Is anything the matter? .1 Dad cough / a sore throat / a headache / stomach ache / a pain in my back / toothache / earache / a filling. ~'oh temperature. I'm having a heart attack. Man sirdies priepuolis. _ appetite. I've caught a terrible cold. As persalau. J sneeze and have a runny nose. I've got some serious medical/ -'-ems. I feel very dizzy. Man labai svaigsta galva. : _·ou take an aspirin / some antibiotics / go to bed / see a doctor / send for a doctor / lie down for a bit / have .':-rayed? Have you taken anything for your headache? Ar gerei kq nors nuo galvos skausmo?

1 You have to try your best to your final exams. 2 The teacher observed that my work was the same as Mary's, and she asked if! had it. 3 To means to stay away from school without permission. 4 The teacher saw Andrew trying to in the test. 5 Mathew was very upset when he his exams. 6 We are going to the examinations for the School Leaving Certificate in May. 7 The course is so popular that everyone is trying to on it. 8 None of the teachers could control Mark. Finally, the head teacher was forced to him from school. 9 Susan liked learning poems by heart and them in front of the class. 10 Try to the most important rules. 11 In a mixed class, boys generally worse than girls. 12 The teacher told us to the forms of irregular verbs for the test.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Someone Someone Someone Someone Someone Someone Someone Someone

in charge of a school. who teaches at a college or university. in the same class as you. responsible for teaching a small group of students. with the highest academic position in a university. who has successfully completed his / her first degree. who trains a sports team. who studies at primary or secondary school.

3 Complete the sentences. Compare your ideas with the ones of your partner's. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The nicest thing about English is The most difficult thing about English is Listening to English English grammar is When I'm speaking English I (don't) worry about When I can't think of a word in English The best way to learn English is I'll stop learning English My favourite English words are . . . . . . . . .

EDUCATION. LANGUAGES 4 Fill in the table for English and non-English Slhe comes from ... Slhe is ... (adjective, noun) Arrerican Slhe speaks speaking countries. Slhe comes from ... 11 .......... 12 .......... 13 Japan Lithuanian 14 .......... 15 Denmark Russian Portuguese Swiss 16 .......... 17 Finland 18 .......... 19 .......... Swedish 20 China 21 .......... Turkish, a Turk Polish Spanish Slhe is ... (adjective, noun) Greek Italian

UNIT8

Slhe speaks

o the USA
1 .......... 2 Canada ry. 3 .......... ~ _... it. 6 .......... 7 .......... 8 France
001.

English English

4 Britain 5 ..........

Norwegian Dutch

9 .......... 10 Germany

USE of ENGLISH
Write the questions that were put by a university teacher to the answers given by a student. Example: TEACHER: How many exams are you going to take? - STUDENT: Three. 1 2 3 4 5 T: T: T: T: T: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
?

6 T: 7 T: 8 T: 9 T: 10 T: 11 T:

?

S: I'll be sitting A-levels in maths, physics and chemistry. S: Oh, I'm most interested in physics. S: I'd like to specialise in electronics, I think. S: I don't know but I'm certain that I don't want to teach. S: This university has a better reputation for teaching physics than the colleges near my home. S: I suppose I'll go home once or twice a term. S: I swim and enjoy disco dancing - when I have some spare time, that is. S: Yes, I do. I read up a lot on the subject. S: In my first year I would like to live in the hostel and, perhaps, move into a flat in my second year. S: Yes. I have applied for two Scottish universities. S: This is my first choice.

: Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. L:se between two and five words, including the word given. I looked through my work once again in case I had missed anything. to check I looked through my work once again hadn't missed anything. _ We have to start revising earlier so we could do more work. order We have to start revising earlier do more work.

3 I'd better write an essay now because there might not be time later. case I'd better write an essay now time later. 4 She worked extremely hard so as to get good marks. wanted She worked extremely hard to get good marks. 5 They mark our written papers in the Marking Centre. marked We in the Marking Centre. 6 Read the instructions first in order to save time later. as Read the instructions first waste time later. 7 During the Speaking exam, the examiner fills in your assessment sheet. have You in by the examiner during the Speaking exam. 8 The boy invented an illness in order to avoid having to go to school. so The boy invented an illness to go to school.

How to Learn Efficiently There is usually one important 1 missing from most schools 2 Very few students are 3 how to organise their learning, and how to 4 the best of their time. Let's take some simple 5 Do you know how to 6 up words in a dictionary, and do you understand all the 7 ••••••••••••••••.•••••••. the dictionary contains? Can you 8 •••••••.•.••••.••.••.•••• notes quickly, and can you understand them 9 ......•....•.....•..•...• ? For some reason, many schools give learners no 10..............•....•....• with these matters. Teachers ask students to n pages from books, or tell them to write six pages, but don't explain how to do it. Learning by 12 ..•....•....•....•......• can be useful, but it is more important to have a genuine 13 ....•........•......•.... of a subject. You can 14 ........•................ a lot of time memorising books, without understanding anything about the subject! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A theme A agendas A taught A do A examples A find A information B curriculum B timetables B educated B make B rules B look B advice C subject C terms C learnt C get C prospects C get C message 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 A make A after A help A remind A heart A information A use B do B afterwards B instruction B cross Bear B understanding B pass C produce C at last C learning C memorise C yourself C success C waste

4 Re,ad the sentences about the things every language learner should know. Change the form of the word given in capitals to fill the gaps. 1 You can learn to a language. 2 A language can be learnt, but it cannot be . 3 Positive attitudes are very . 4 to learn the language is not the enthusiasm, but the will and determination to accomplish the task. 5 language learners learn a little every day. 6 Speaking skills in a foreign language are learned by constant and use. 7 Language are successful because they use the language every day and everywhere they can, and at every opportunity. 8 Mistakes are part of learning. They should be viewed as positive steps in the right We learn from our mistakes. 9 Good language learners take full for their own learning of a language. 10 has the beginning but no end. SPEECH TEACH IMPORTANCE MOTIVATE SUCCESS PRACTISE LEARN

DIRECT RESPONSIBLE LEARN

5 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick (/). If a line has a word which should not be there, underline the word and write it next to the number of the line. Examination Tips • Go to the bed early so as not to be tired in the morning. • Eat a breakfast or lunch before the exam in order not to feel hungry later. • Check the time and place of the exam so as not to arrive to late. • Read the instructions carefully to find out what you have to do. • Begin by reading the exam paper so carefully. • Answer the easiest questions at first so as not to waste time and marks. • There is no point in spending too long on one question. • Plan draft answers before you write paying attention on to your final answers. • Avoid careless mistakes leaving some time to check all your answers. • Reread your answers in order that to make corrections.

1 2 3 4 5 6
7

. . . . . .
.

8 9
10

. .
.

READING and SPEAKING
1 Who founded Eton College and when was it founded? _ Is it easy to enter this school? Why? How do Etonians behave with each other in later life? Why does David Wolfendon, a former student, appreciate his parents?

ew

- elr

ElOn would probably be the world's most famous school ~'en if Prince William hadn't spent the happiest days of , life there. An incredible19 British Prime Ministers have ended Eton as well as various minor Royals, poets and ~elebrity swindlers*. But no girls. blic schools _ hough they are called 'public schools', with annual fees to £14k*, these institutions are really for very rich people. ~-e name comes from when the children of important families ed to attend schools with ordinary people, rather than - . g educated at home. -=. n was founded in 1284 by Henry VI and is divided into boarding houses. The boarding houses compete at sports education, but the fiercest competition is with Harrow, . er famous old school. It prides itself on taking the :' . not many get through the entrance procedure.

=-

tige prestige of attending such a well-known school is • s more important than the excellent facilities and small you can expect at Eton. The 'old boys' network' of .:ollege means Old Etonians can expect the lifelong _ rt from fellow Etonians. They try and help each other they come into contact in later life. Traditionally the _ b in Britain and her Empire were reserved for ex;: s hoolboys, and it is still true that an Eton education . n doors years after you have left the school and ~ 'en get you out of trouble!

A day in the life of an Etonian David Wolfendon, a former student, recalls a typical day: 'At 7:30 am a loud and obnoxious* bell would go off for about one minute making sure that no one could think of not waking up. Even if you tried to go back to sleep, another bell would go off ten minutes later. Where one ate breakfast depended on which 'house' you were in. I had the misfortune of being a seven-minute walk from my dining hall. For half the boys this dining hall was where they would eat all their meals. The other half would eat in their 'houses'. I don't think that the quality of the food differed greatly from one dining hall to another. Breakfast was pretty good and was served from 7:30-8:05. At 8:40 all the boys would go to either chapel or a morning assembly*. This would last for about 20 minutes before the day of lessons started. Classes would go on till 11:20, at which point there would be a break of 25 minutes. This would give both students and teachers a chance to have a break and to meet if there was a problem . If it was a Thursday, a Tuesday or a Saturday, then lessons would be finished at lunch time and sport or free time would take over. This would also allow us to take off our school uniform which had to be worn in every lesson and school event. However, on the other days of the week, except Sunday, classes could last until six. The evenings, on weekdays, would consist of the same things nearly every night: dinner at 7:30 pm, a meeting with everyone in the house, called 'prayers', and then most people would go off and do their homework.

Weekends could be very boring and consist of nothing other than TV and work - but not all of them. In my first couple of years I would go home quite a lot, but in my sixth form days, I would go to London or Brighton.' His opinion of Eton 'I have mixed views on Eton. I would not send my children there or to any other private school because I think that there is probably a greater sense of achievement if you come through the state system with good grades. On the other

hand, I can't say how much I appreciate my parents for t ~ work, effort and sacrifice* they put in to get me throu~ those five years. It was strange to see so many famous people at Eton. Ion saw Gianfranco Zolajuggling with a football. Another time I was in my house when I ran into Jerry Hall and Mic Jagger. And, of course, there were the regular sightings 0; the two Princes and the armed bodyguards.'

GLOSSARY swindler: criminal; k (infml): one thousand; obnoxious: horrible; assembly: a meeting of all students whicb usually takes place in the morning; sacrifice: if you make a sacrifice, you give up something that is important to you for the benefit of another' person 2 Read the article Life at Eton College once more and decide which of the statements ones are false. In the text highlight the sentences proving your answers. 1 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 are true and which

Prince William spent his unhappiest days there. Eton is a public school so it is accessible to everyone. The name 'public' originally means a mixed school for rich and ordinary people. Harrow is the name of one of the boarding schools at Eton. Parents choose Eton for their children because it has got small classes and excellent facilities. An Eton education opens doors to the best jobs in Britain. The first bell in the morning means that you can sleep until the second one goes off. The boys eat half of their meals in the dining hall and the other half is eaten in the boarding houses. School uniform has to be worn not only in every lesson and school event but in sport and free time activities as well. 10 David Wolfendon thinks that finishing a state school with good marks can be even more challenging than finishing a private one.

3 Read the text My School. The sentences A-D have been removed from it. Decide where they should be in the text. A B C D It is surrounded by beautiful lawns and playgrounds The atmosphere in the school is friendly and democratic. I have been going to this school for twelve years now. We have special classrooms for most of the subjects taught at school.

My School I attend Secondary School No 3./ 1 I lour school was built in 1978. It is a white, three-storeyed building. There are about a thousand pupils and a hundred teachers in it. Our school is situated in a nice and quiet place. I 2 I I Behind the school there is a large sports field. There is a wood behind the school. We like going for walks there, especially in spring. In front of the school you can see a lot of young trees planted by our schoolleavers. As my school is quite large, it is very noisy inside during breaks, so pupils enjoy being outside. We study Lithuanian and Modem Foreign Languages, History, Geography, Mathematics, Chemistry, Music and other subjects. There are lessons of Home Economics for the girls and Manual Training for the boys. 13 I I We have also got woodwork and metalwork shops, a home economics room, a gymnasium, a school hall, a library and a canteen. There are plenty of extra-curricular activities in our school, sport being the most popular one. The aim of these activities is to promote creative and physical abilities of every individual. The Folk Singers' Club and Dancers' Club enjoy great popularity with our pupils, too. f 4 ( ( [think ['II remember my classmates, my teachers and the years spent at schoof for a fang time. I realise that I will have more frustrations and difficulties later in comparison with the problems I have at school.

4 Read the texts Education in Lithuania and The British Education System and fill in the table comparing education systems of Lithuania and Britain.

the

0=
o'

on. lance other time . and Mick -ightings of

-=~ntswhich portant to

EDUCATION IN LITHUANIA The CUlTentsystem of secondary education is comprised of primary school (l sl to 41h forms), basic school 1h to lOth forms), general education secondary school (l st to 12th forms) and 4 years of gymnasium corresponding (5 to the 9th to 12th forms of secondary school. There are also special education institutions for children with special needs, youth schools which provide basic education and adult education institutions. Secondary education ends in taking one compulsory and at least three optional examinations. Successful students are awarded a School Leaving Certificate. Education is free in all state secondary schools. Tuition normally begins at the age of six or seven. Compulsory education lasts until the age of 16. Pupils can stay at school for twelve years but some of them leave school having finished the tenth form. These pupils usually go to vocational junior colleges or trade schools where they can get both secondary education and the qualifications. Higher education can be pursued by individuals who have secondary school graduation certificates. There are 15 state schools of higher education in our country: 7 universities, 6 academies and 2 institutes, as well as 3 clerical seminaries. In Lithuania children go to school five days a week. There is no school on Saturdays and Sundays. The school year begins in September and ends in the middle of June. There are optionally three terms or two semesters in the school year. The curriculum may slightly differ from school to school, though basic subjects such as Lithuanian, Mathematics, History, Science, Computer Studies, modem foreign languages are included in the curriculums of all schools. Religious education is provided for all pupils, but parents can choose either to send their children to classes of religion or ethics.

ses. ~ activities

Secondary Schools Most secondary schools are comprehensive schools, which offer a general education to children of all abilities. In some areas children are selected for either grammar school (which is more academic) or secondary modem school. Education in Britain is free, and most age children go to state schools. However, some 4 parents pay to send their children to 5 6 independent schools. In England and Wales 7 some of the more traditional independent 8 9 chools are called public schools, although 10 !hey are not really public at all. Many of 11 these are boarding schools, where children 12 13 live and sleep during the term.
14.

building. =:: iet place. ~ going for schoole. STY, Music . he boys. a school • :he aim of _. Club and g time. I ~ at school.

The Curriculum The national curriculum is the group of ubjects (English, Mathematics, History, cience, modem foreign languages etc) that ust be taught in England and Wales.

15
16

17
18

College of further education University College of art,
(general, vocational. and

technical) Exams music, etc. In England Wales and Northern Ireland . upils take GCSEs (the General Certificate Secondary Education) at the age of 16. This chart shows how education is organised in England and Wales. - orne children take three or four; others The system is a little different in Scotland and Northern Ireland. :2.keas many as ten or eleven. Pupils who . ve passed their GCSEs may remain at school for another two years and take their A (Advanced)-level =xams. All grammar and most comprehensive schools have a sixth form, where pupils study for their A-levels . .-\ny student who wants to go to university needs to pass at least two or three A-levels.

IDgher Education Most courses last for three or four years. Students receive grants from the government to pay for course fees, : , accommodation etc. Some students also receive loans, which they have to pay back when they start work.

Country Lithuania Britain

Age of Starting School
.....................

Types of Schools
.....................

The Curriculum

Exams
.....................

Higher Education
..................... .....................

..................... .....................

.....................

.....................

.....................

5 You have been studying at school for ten years at least, so taking turns tell your fr~end~ wh;t y~ know about education in Lithuania. Speak about the changes that have .ta.ken place l~ e uca 1O~~ our country recently. What changes are still to be made? Express your opmlOn about biased teachm,
What are positive and negative aspects of it?

6 Work

for secondary school? Read out yo list of aims to each other. Give reasons or examples to back up your points. Report back the resul of your work to the rest of the class. Possible Aims for Secondary Schools • teach you how to read and to write well • keep you occupied • help you to know what is going on in the whole world nowadays • show you how to get on with other people; such as, those you work with, your future wife or husband • help to develop your own personality and character • teach you what is right and wrong • help you to do as well as possible in the exams • teach you about different sOlis of jobs and careers so that you can decide what you want to do • make school a pleasant place to be in • help with things you will need to know when you leave school (for example sewing, cooking, running a home. bringing up children, repairing your home, decorating etc) help you to become independent

in pairs. Which five aims do you think are most important

7 Working in a group choose three of the points for discussion. Justify your opinion by giving examples and reasons. Begin your speech with: In my opinion, I'm convinced that I'm not sure I agree I assume that It seems to me To tell the truth, . . . . . . As far as I know, Taking into account I really believe that Personally, I think Regarding the fact that From my point of view . . . . . .

• Most of what you learn at school is useless in later life. Schools should teach vocational subjects such as secretarial skills, accountancy, handicrafts, metalwork and woodwork, rather than the traditional academic subjects like history, geography, chemistry. • Classes should be divided according to the age, regardless of the ability of pupils. • Education should be compulsory for all people up to the age of eighteen. • Pupils should be able to choose the subjects they want to study and not have them imposed by teachers or educational authorities. • Schools should be responsible both for academic education and for personal and moral development of students. •

8a) Speak with your partner about the most important characteristics of a good teacher. Here are some ideas which may be helpful. Share your ideas with the rest of the group. A good teacher is the one who: • has a sense of humour • shows great enthusiasm for his / her subject • brings out the best in each student • gives students a sense of self-esteem • is able to maintain discipline and order • knows all students' problems and is always ready to give a piece of advice • is very professional and up-to-date in his / her subject • makes students work hard

hat you tion in te.aching.

out your e.results 9 Many people think that teachers give pupils too much homework and that it is unnecessary. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of doing homework. These statements may support your point of view: • • • • • • • pupils should not work in their free time homework is a waste of time homework can be given on working days only pupils should be able to do homework at school under the guidance of their teachers homework helps students to see if they understand everything the teacher has said homework gives students the chance to practise what they have learnt in class doing homework teaches students to rely on themselves

1 2 3 4 S

There is top much English everywhere. There are too many English words getting into Lithuanian. Singers should sing in their own language, not in English. Too many employers want staff with good English even if they never have to use it. We should have more TV programmes in English. It would help us to learn the language better.

11 Most people are very keen on learning languages as they realise the importance of knowing foreign languages. Discuss these questions with your partner: Why have you chosen to study English? Is it possible to learn a foreign language at school? What makes learning effective? What sort of materials and teaching aids do you think are most effective for an English lesson? How can people improve their knowledge of foreign languages? How will the knowledge of English be useful to you in the future? 12 You and your friend would like to go to Britain to improve your English in summer courses. Make up a role play on the matter considering the following points: • • • • • • • choosing the place in Britain the length and level of the course you would like to join the way of travelling to the country accommodation (discuss various options) possible sightseeing the things you should take with you the amount of money you'll probably spend

WRITING
1 Kristina wants to go to England to attend a summer course in English. She has seen this advertisement in the' BBe English' magazine and has decided to write to the school and ask some questions about the course. Read the advertisement, Kristina's'notes and the letter she has written. Find and underline the set phrases used to begin and end the letter. Can you think of any other phrases that could have been used instead? Underline the linking words. What would be wrong with the letter if the linking words were missing? STUDY ENGLISH • • • • • THE HEAR OF ENGLAND where exactly? any courses preparing for A-level exams?

All levels from Beginners t~ Frien .ronment and up-to-date<f.i!filiti~ Sport and Social€tivit~ Tri s to Oxford and Stratford-up on-Avon ccommodati can be arranged in the range of £ 80.00 a eek. For@itioi§!J information please write to: The Internationa Office Manager, Warwickshire College, 5 Warwick New Road, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire CV32 5JE

Ramybes g. 99 LT-5300 Paneveiys Lithuania

The International Office Manager Warwickshire College 5 Warwick New Road Leamington Spa Warwickshire CV32 5JE England Dear Sir or Madam, I am writing to you with regard to your advertisement published in the magazine "BBC English". I would appreciate it if you could give me some extra information about your school and courses. To begin with, I would like to know where exactly in Leamington Spa the school is situated and I would also like to know what type of accommodation is offered and what kind of facilities there are near the school. In addition, I would be interested in knowing whether there is a course of Business English as well as a course preparing for A-level exams. Furthermore, I would be grateful if you could inform me about the definite social and sport activities in order to know what clothes and equipment to bring with me. Finally, I would appreciate it if you could send me a brochure with additional information regarding your school. Thank you in advance for your time and assistance. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully, ~3imJu.ah

2 You are interested in taking part in a student exchange programme. You have seen this advertisement in the magazine 'English For You' and you need more information. Write a letter of 120-180 words to the organizers of the exchange programme in an appropriate style covering the points in your notes. You may use the set phrases and expressions given below. utin tthe eset used were EXCHANGE SCHOOLS & HOMES! Travel to countries in Europe • ccommodatlO with host family • planned<e.KcurslQIis>nd recreation @iviti~ a • information<129okl9>available SPECIAL PRICES FOR LIMITED ~~) For further information please write to: The Director, House of English, 24 Portland Place, Brighton BN2 IDG, England Set Phrases for Opening Paragraph I am writing to you in connection with ... I am writing with regard to / in regard to / with reference to ... I am writing to ask if you could inform me about .... I was interested in your advertisement in .... I would appreciate some further information about .... Referring to your advertisement published in ... Set Phrases for Closing Paragraph I would be very grateful if you would / could reply as soon as possible. Thanking you for your time and assistance. I would like to thank you in advance. I look forward to your reply at your earliest convenience. I look forward to hearing from you.

will meals be provided?

nes o for

Kristina has received a letter from the manager of Warwickshire College. Fill in the gaps with the phrases given below to complete the letter. Underline the words and phrases which make the letter sound formal. Find and underline the linkers. Everything else is provided As for the accommodation also available of some help all essential facilities Regarding the situation to stay with To begin with

Warwickshire College 5 Warwick New Road Leamington Spa Warwickshire CV32 5JE England 1 July. 2003 Miss Kristina Simkute Ramybes 99 LT-5300 Paneveiys Lithuania Dear Miss Simkute, I am writing to give you some additional information about the courses at Warwickshire College.

1 , there is a wide range of courses that you can take part in. A course of Business English as well as _a course preparing for A-level exam are 2 •.......••••••••••. 3

of the college and facilities near it, I would like to inform you that the college is in the centre of the town so ./ are within easy reach of it. 5 , you can choose from two options - either to take a room in a youth hostel or 6 a host family.

Concerning sport activities, you do not need to bring any equipment with you, apart from a pair of comfortable hiking boots. 7.•...•.......•.•.•. by the organizers. I hope this information contact me. Yours sincerely,
9;Aofluv.;.
SmitfJv

will be

8

to you. If you need any further information,

do not hesitate to

Thomas Smith

4 You are one of the organisers at Giruliai Camp. A teenager from Britain has written to the camp asking for some extra information about the points underlined in the advertisement given below. Read the advertisement and the notes you have made. Then write to the teenager giving the necessary information. You may use the set phrases and expressions given below. HAVE FUN AT GIRULIAI CAMP! swimming in the sea, hiking, discos, sports qualified teachers from the USA and Germany a trip to Nida guided by fishermen

A variety of activities to take part in! Foreign language classes organised! Something special for travel lovers ! Fishing in the sea! Note: bring a swimsuit and hiking boots GOT INTERESTED? Write to: Gintas Petrulis, Giruliai Camp, Pusyno g. 12, LT-5800 Klaipedos r., Lithuania

Set Phrases for Opening Paragraph I am writing to give you some information about ... I am writing in reply to your letter . In reply to your letter concerning . With reference to your letter of .

Set Phrases for Closing Paragraph I hope this information will be of some help to you ... I would be happy to supply you with any further information ... If you need further information, do not hesitate to contact me.

Guidelines for writing a paragraph A paragraph is like a mini essay in which you express your point of view in a condensed way. While writing a paragraph follow these tips: • Begin the paragraph with the topic sentence which introduces the main idea of what your paragraph will be about. If the topic sentence is given, you have to rewrite it making no changes. • Then write several supporting sentences. Each supporting sentence should be backed up with examples or justifications. • Finish your paragraph with the conclusion or the closing sentence which restates the main idea or sumrnarises the main points of the paragraph. • Use linking words for: ordering or sequencing: to begin with I first of all / in the first place, secondly, next, then, thirdly, finally / in the end / last of all etc adding: furthermore, moreover, in addition to this, as well as this, besides this etc giving examples: for example, for instance, such as etc making contrasts: on the other hand, however, nevertheless, in contrast, in comparison etc showing result: consequently, as a result, thus etc concluding: in conclusion, to sum up, all in all etc 5 Read the following paragraph. Highlight in different colours the topic sentence, the supporting sentences and the closing sentence. Circle the linking words and replace them with the synonymous ones. Nowadays it is truly important to learn languages. To begin with, knowing foreign languages broadens one's outlook and develops mentality. The more languages we know the more intelligent we are. Moreover, knowing foreign languages gives us an opportunity to socialise and correspond with people from other countries. For instance, we can travel abroad and communicate with other people easily which gives us great satisfaction. It also helps to understand traditions and customs of the country better. Furthennore, you can study or work abroad not facing the language barrier. As a result, you have better employment opportunities abroad and in your own country as most positions take people with a good command of two or three foreign languages. To sum up, there are a lot of reasons why people should learn foreign languages.

'" p asking . Read the ormation.

6 Here are some ideas oflanguage learning using the guidelines given on p. 88. Start

expressed by different people. Read them and write a paragraph with the topic sentence: There are different ways to improve one's

language skills.
Sam: When I read a text in which much of the language is unfamiliar, I 'guess' - I use my general knowledge of the world and knowledge about the particular topic to help me to understand. Elizabeth: I use my bilingual dictionary a lot to try to find ways of expressing what I can say in my own language. Jan: I try to notice other students' mistakes - particularly if they are not speaking to me - and sometimes I realise I make that mistake myself. I try to correct the mistake and think what the person should have said. Marina: I like to repeat things over and over so that I can memorise them. Jonas: I go up to tourists and pretend I am lost so that I can get into conversation with them in English. Anna: I have a fascination for the systems of language, and read about the grammar and phonology of English in my own language. I get pleasure from discovering the underlying grammar in some expressions I use, and this helps me to remember it. Martin: I like to write everything down and revise all my lessons very carefully and systematically. I enjoy reading, and keep a record of the new vocabulary I come across.

sports Germany

ation ... ntact me.

porting nymous

roadens oreover, / other /ves us

essible l:lk'ses:lbll prieinamas, gaunamas ommodation 1:l,kom:l'derJnl patalpa, bustas omplish 1:l'kAmplrJI ivykdyti, atlikti ording 1:l'b:drlJI pagal, remiantis ountancy l:l'kaunt:lnsil s<lskaityba, buhalterija .evement l:l'tJi:vm:lntl pasiekimas, laimej imas uda l:l' d3end:l1 darbotvarke ply l:l'plar/ kreiptis, prasyti preciate/:l'pri:Ji,ertl (Dvertinti; branginti; pripazinti . tance l:l'srst:lnsl pagalba, parama . de I'retr, tju:dl nuostata, pozicija, paziura, poziuris id 1:l'vJrdl vengti; issisukineti, salintis ve Ibr'hervl elgtis d I'bar:lstl (Cia) profilinis gual Ibar'lrI]gw:l1l dvikalbis ding house I'bJ:drI] ,hausl (Cia) mokyklos bendrabutis brity IS:l'lebr:ltil izymi asmenybe, garsenybe . cate IS:l'trfrbtl atestatas, mokyklos baigimo paiymejimas enging l'tJrelmd3rI]1 reikalaujantis visljjegll, sunkus pel l'tJrepll koplycia, baznytele t ItJi:t1 apgaudineti, sukCiauti ch IbutJI treneris, instruktorius parison Ibm'prensnl palyginimas, sugretinimas lete Ibm'pli:tl uzbaigti rehensive school I,kompn'hensrvl valstybine ':ojo lavinimo mokykla ulsory Ibm'pAls:lril priverstinis, privalomas rning Ibn's3:mI]1 del, apie =TInce Ibn'vmsl itikinti . f'kDpil (nu)kopijuoti, (pa)daryti kopij<l 'Ye Ihi' ertrvl kurybingas, kurybiskas 'culum Ib'nkjubml mokymo planas; programa - 'te I'def(:l)ndtl aiskus, apibreztas, tikslus; nustatytas Idr'gri:1 laipsnis 'nation Idr,t3:mr'nerJnl ryztingumas; pasiryzimas lop Idr'veldpl pletoti(s), rutuliotis; vystyti(s), is(si)vystyti; roJtl apmatai; projektas '{'ntly /r'frJntlil efektyviai, nasiai

effort I'efdt/ pastanga, stengimasis enrol Im'rdull uz(si)rasyti, iregistruoti entrance I'entrdnsl istojimas; stojamasis essential /r'senJdll pagrindinis, butiniausias dalykas exactly /rg 'zrektlil kaip tik excellent I'eksdldntl puikus expel /rk'spell pasalinti, ismesti extra-curricular I,ekstr:lb'nkjubl uzklasinis extremely /rk'stri:mlil labai, be gala facilities Ifd' srldtrzl visuomenines paskirties irenginiai fail Iferll nepavykti, nepasisekti fascination l,fresr'nerJn! susizavejimas fierce Ifrdsl inirs«s, nirtulingas find out I,famd 'autl suzinoti force Ihsl (pri)versti former I'hmdl buv2:s frustration Ifr AS'trerJ nl nusi vylimas genuine l'd3enjuml tikras, nuosirdus graduate l'grred3u,ertl baigti (mokslus) graduate I' grred3udtl absolventas handicrafts I'hrendi,kra:ftsl rankdarbiai hesitate I'hezrtertl dvejoti, nesiryzti hostel I'hostdll bendrabutis impose /rm 'pduzl uzdeti, primesti, apsunkinti incredible 1m' kreddbll neitiketinas independent I,mdr'penddntl nepriklausomas invent sugalvoti, israsti juggle I'd3A91l zongliruoti loan l!dunl paskola maintain Imem 'tern! palaikyti; priziureti; islaikyti memo rise I'memd,rarzl isiminti, isidemeti misfortune/mrs'htJnl nelaime observe lob'Z3:vl stebeti; sekti; laikytis (tradicij/{) order I'J:ddl liepti, isakyti; uzsakyti particularly Ipd'trkjuldlil ypac pass Ipo:sl islaikyti (egzamin1) play truant I,pler'tru:dntl praleidineti pamokas permission Ipd'mrJnl leidimas

position Ip;J'zrJnI paddis; postas, tarnyba prayer Ipre;JI maIda, poteriai pride Iprardl pasididziavimas primary I'prarm;Jril pradinis promote Ipr;J'm;Jutl paremti, puoseldi; skatinti provide Ipr;J 'vardl patiekti, pariipinti pursue Ip;J'sju:1 t«sti; uzsiimti recite In'sartl deklamuoti, isvardyti recreation I, rekri 'erJnI pramo ga, laisvalaikio uzsi emimas regarding In'ga:du)1 del

regardless In'ga:dl;Jsl nepaisant to responsible /rr'spons;Jbl/ atsakingas royal l'r:)1;J1Ikaraliskasis self-esteem I,selfrs'ti:ml savigarba sighting I'sartrl)1 reginys staff Ista:fI tarnautojai, personalas supportls;J'p;):tl paremti, islaikyti tutor I'tju:t;JI vieno studento arba mazos grupes destytojas vocational subjects IV;JO 'kerJn(;J)1'sAbd;)lkts/ profesin. dalykai waste Iwerstl veltui eikvoti, svaistyti

ADDITIONAL

WORD BANK

school nursery 1'll3:s(;J)ril 1 kindergarten I'kmd;J,ga:tnl 1 nursery school (Am E) vaikq darielis; primary 1 elementary school (Am E) pradine mokykla; secondary 1 high school (Am E) vidurine mokykla; public school (in the UK) prestizine privati mokykla; private school privati mokykla; state 1 public school (Am E) valstybine mokykla; boarding school internatine mokykla; trade 1 vocational-school profesine mokykla NOTE: there is no the before school when you are talking about a teacher or pupil going or being there to teach or leam; the is used before school if you are talking about a place, or a building and are going there as a visitor. School starts in September. I'm going to the school to see Frank's teacher. places where people over 18 can study university: a place where students study one or two subjects at high level to get degrees. be at university: to be a student at a university Both my brothers are at university. go to university: to become a student at a university. I want to go to university to study medicine. college: in Britain, a place where people can study academic subjects or practical skills after they leave secondary school, but which does not give degrees; in the US, a university finish school or university leave: to leave your school 1 college 1 university permanently When he left college he worked in an office. graduate from: to finish studying at university successfully He graduated from Oxford with a degree in law. qualification l,kwolrfr'kerJnl specialybe, kvalifikacija, tinkamumas, pasirengimas; diploma; school leaving certificate; test; credit iskaita; examination 1 exam; final exams baigiamieji egzaminai; entrance exams stojamieji egzaminai; examination period egzaminl.l sesija; take 1 sit an exam laikyti egzamin'b pass an exam islaikyti egzamin<t; fail an exam neislaikyti egzamino; do well 1 badly in an exam; paper: a set of exam questions on a particular subject The physics paper was very difficult. examine sb in 1 on sth Candidates will be examined on their written and oral skills. someone who studies or works at a school, university etc schoolboy f schoolgirl (especially British): a boy or a girl who studies at school; schoolchildren (especially British) children who study at school Only 10 % of British schoolchildren attend private schools. pupill'pju:pl/: a child who studies at a particular school, especially in a school for children under the age of 12 With over 1000 pupils, this is one of the biggest schools in our town. student: in British English, it usually means someone who studies at a university or college; in American English, it means anyone studying at a school, college, or university. classmate klases draugas; school-Ieaver abiturientas professor; headteacher (more usual) 1 headmaster f headmistress f principal (Am E) direktorius; teacher; class teacher klases aukletoja(s); a coach; tutor; lecturer lektorius, destytojas; instructor subjects subject mokomasis dalykas What subjects did you take / have / learn at school? biased I'bar;Jstl subjects profilines disciplinos Has your school got any biased subjects? optional pasirenkamas, fakultatyvinis art daile; biology; chemistry; computer studies f information technology (IT) informatika; economics I,i:b'nomrksl home economics naml.l mosa; geography Id3i:'ogr;Jfi/; history; mathematics l,mreS;J'mretrksl maths ImreSs/; physics I'frzrks/; physical training (PT) kuno kultura; Lithuanian; foreign languages: English, German, French, Russian, Polish, Spanish, Greek, Japanese, Chinese etc but: the German language, the Russian language etc; religion; science gamtos mokslas; technical drawing braizyba marks f grades (Am E) mark pazymys My worst mark was a D. mark for 1 in What was his markfor history last term? give sb a high flow 1 good 1 poor mark The teacher gave me a low mark in English. get a mark You can't get another low mark in maths. top marks She always gets top marks for history. mark ivertinti pazymiu I spent the evening marking your essays.

organisation of teaching period I lesson I class pamoka, u:lsiemimas There'll be no school/lessons / classes today. free period I break pertrauka course mokymo, paskaitll kursas 1 took a course in mathematics. Who runs the course? This course has been held by the University. term trimestras, semestras; holiday(s) atostogos; break up baigtis School breaks up in June. curriculum mokymo planas, ugdymo turinys Is German on your school curriculum? extra-curricular activities uzklasine veikla; grant / scholarship stipendija What scholarship do you receive? class: a group of students who are taught together We were in the same class at school. form: class at school She is now in the sixth form. be promoted to the next form bUti perkeltam i aukstesn~ klas~; year one / two etc pirma I antra klase ir 1.1. My sister is in the year one of primary school. breaking the school rules play truant I to skip classes praleidineti pamokas In my last year 1 played truant a lot. cheat apgau(dine)ti; crib 'spargalka' She used a crib in the exam. be expelled for sth buti ismestam He was expelledfor irregular attendance. languages mother tongue I first language gimtoji kalba; foreign language uzsienio kalba; bilingual dvikalbis Are we allowed to use bilingual dictionaries in the exam? official language: the language used by the government; modern languages suolaikines kalbos; informal I colloquial Ib'bukwI::ll/ snekamoji kalba; slang zargonas 'Cool' is teenage slang for fantastic', 'great' or 'marvellous '. language barrier I'been::l/; dialect; accent akcentas, tartis communication with other people speak Do you speak English? pronounce Ipr::l'naunsl tarti How is this word pronounced? pronunciation tarimas 1find the English pronunciation very difficult. conversation pokalbis Can you hold conversations in English? spell pasakyti ar parasyti paraidziui; Can you spell your name, please? understand 1 understand you, but it is difficult for me to speak English. well (better, best) 1 do not know English well enough. interpret: to translate what someone is saying He spoke to the audience in French and she interpreted his speech. translate: to put sth said or written into another language He translated the book from French into English. dictionary, pocket dictionary, use a dictionary; question May 1 ask a question? clear It's not clear to me. explain sth (to sb) Will you explain to me what this means? useful expressions She has a good command of the Polish language. Ji gerai moka lenkllkalb:t. I know three languages fairly well. As pakankamai gerai moku tris kalbas. I'm quite at home with my English. As gerai moku anglll kalb'l. They took me for an Englishman. Jie mane palaike anglu. You speak English clearly I fluently I fairly well. Tu kalbi angliskai aiskiai I laisvai I pakankamai gerai. Your English has improved. Tu pradejai geriau kalbeti angliskai. He is very good at I interested in I talented for I gifted for languages. He is very quick at picking up languages. My English needs brushing up. Man reikia vel prisiminti ir pasimokyti anglll kalbos. My knowledge ofthe Spanish language is weak. As prastai moku ispanllkalb'l. He spoke broken English. Jis kalbejo lauzyta anglll kalba. He speaks poor English. His English is poor. Jis prastai kalba angliskai. He speaks with a very strong accent. Jis kalba su stipriu akcentu. I want to take up English. As noriu pradeti mokytis anglll kalbos. What does the word 'rush' mean? I cannot think of the right word, but you know what I mean. Could you spell that, please? How do you spell that? Could you write that down, please? I don't know how to put it in English I express myself. What do you call it? I don't know this word in English. What's the English for 'mokslo metai'? How do you say it in English?

VOCABULARY
cheese newspaper medicines brooch cabbages bracelet hammer flowers sausages rolls meat biscuits ring whisky salt matches crabs bacon stamps sweets oyster magazine plaster sugar cigarettes potatoes typing paper screwdriver bar of chocolate pair of glasses

pen bread fish
wme

cereals painkillers

TOBACCONIST'S NEWSAGENT'S JEWELLER'S GREENGROCER'S OFF-LICENCE BUTCHER'S IRONMONGER'S GROCER'S FISHMONGER'S STATIONER'S BAKER'S CHEMIST'S OPTICIAN'S FLORIST'S CONFECTIONER'S 2 Complete these phrases with an appropriate word from the list. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 a a a a a a a a a a a a of moisturiser or shampoo of milk or apple juice ~ of soap or chocolate ~ of jam or pickle of tissues or chocolates of toothpaste or glue of coke or beer of beans or paint of cigarettes or biscuits of mineral water or bubble bath of grapes or flowers of ice cream or margarine ~

3 Group the words according to the categories in the chart. Some words may suit more than one category.

Look up the words in the word bank and additional word bank if necessary.
blouse jacket sweater overcoat tracksuit PYjamas trunks bracelet FOOTWEAR high heels flip-flops T-shirt trousers V -neck jacket knickers / panties trainers / sneakers handbag UNDERWEAR cap bra hat shirt polo-neck jumper tights brooch waistcoat scarf boots anorak overalls raincoat underpants shawl suit fur coat shorts bow tie nightdress slippers Jeans beads belt socks skirt leggings dressing -gown parka sandals necklace ACCESSORIES

CASUAL CLOTHES

FORMAL CLOTHES

4 Complete the sentences using the words given below. Make changes if necessary. You may use some words more than once.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

My brother was dressed The white dress Who's the man The blue of her dress It was very cold. He had an overcoat I want a brown jacket to She's got a dark green dress These jeans don't Melinda's the girl I remember her. She was the one

a black suit. her properly now she's lost some weight. a red tie? the blue of her eyes. . my skirt. . me, they are a bit too loose in the waist. the red blouse and black skirt. red high heeled shoes.

A

wrong

telephone play cordless mobile answering fax long-distance e-mail

number machine machine phone box phone call address back

1 2 3 4 5

Steve is not at home but we can call him on his I phoned Isabel but she was out so I left a message on her I want to send a message to Jose in Portugal. Do you have his I tried to phone the hospital but a policeman answered - it was the It must have cost you a lot to make that

. . ? . to New Zealand.

VERBS: NOUNS:

cash an account

make a mistake

open money

change a cheque

borrow interest

7 Match the verbs to their opposites. lend sell add receive withdraw / take out find give borrow buy put in / deposit lose subtract

First pick up the 1..........•••..•...... and then insert your money. Then 2 .•.••••••••••••••••.•• the number, remembering to put the area 3 •••••••••••••••••••••• in front of the number. You should hear a 4 ••••••••••••••••••••••• tone before somebody 5....•....•.•..•....•... Ifyou hear the 6....•........•........ tone, try again later. When your money has run out you will hear the 7•••••••••••.•••..••••• ; either put more money in to continue your call or 8••••••••••••••••••••••• If you cannot phone direct, call the 9•...•...•••••.•.•..... and ask him or her to connect you.

USE of ENGLISH
1 Most of the lines in this text have a missing word. Use a stroke ( / ) to show where a word has been left out and write the missing word next to the number on the right. Tick the lines that are correct. An example is given. Your Consumer Rights Anyone I buys goods in a shop is protected by law. As a consumer you have certain rights. If you buy something doesn't work properly, like calculator which adds up wrongly, you should take it back to the shop where you bought it. You can either exchange it, or ask for your money back. You don't have show a receipt, although it helps if you are able to prove that you bought it that particular shop. You don't have to get touch with the manufacturer to complain. The shop where you bought it is responsible repaying you, or

o w.hp 1./
2 3 4 5 6 . . . . .

7
8 9 10 11

.
. . . .

replacing the item if you prefer. 12 You don't have to accept a replacement or offer of a 13 credit note you can use to buy something else in the 14 shop. You can insist having your money back. 15 If you receive something as present, however, you 16 are not protected. The person gave you the present 17 is the only one can take it back and demand a 18 refund. 19 And as far clothes are concerned, shops do not by 20 law have give you your money back, or even let you 21 exchange things, if only thing wrong is that you 22 decide you don't like them or they don't fit. 23

. . . . . . . . . . . .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

the jewellery department they sell beautiful rings and bracelets. May I try this dress ? I don't think it fits me perfectly. This hat won't go your coat and besides its colour is too bright you. Have you got these blouses dark-green? At last I've decided this light-blue T- shirt. What do you usually buy the stationery? The jackets that rail are all your size. Look them and you may find something your taste. 8 Don't you think it's too hot summer wear? 9 Must I buy anything else the butcher's? 10 I prefer to do the shopping a self-service shop. One takes a basket and moves . the counters which are filled various foodstuffs. After you've chosen the things you want you come the cash-desk and pay them.

11 These jackets are reduced 12 She asked 13 There is normally a label 14 I want to look 15 He bought a lot of things

price. a refund. a jacket. the animals mail order. a pet shop.

3 Fill in the gaps in the dialogue with a suitable word from the bank given. Use each word only once. There are some extra words you will not need. here pleasure it's decide Buying a Jacket Salesperson: May I help you? Customer: Yes, please. I'm looking for a jacket. S: What size do you 1........................................•..... ? C: 36, I think. S: Here you are. How do you like this one? C: Hmm. I think it's a bit 2••.•...••.••••••••••.••••.•• light. 3•••••••••••••.....•.•.•••• you show me any jackets that are 4.•••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••.•••••• darker? S: Yes, we have a wide selection. Look s all of our jackets on your own and pick 6..••...••••••••.....•.....••••••• the one you like. C: Can I try them on? S: Of course. You can try them on in the fitting room over 7 •••••••••••••••.•...••••.•••••••••••••••••• (five minutes later) S: Well, how do you like it? How 8•......................•.....•.....•........ it fit you? C: I'm afraid 9••••••••.•.•.•.•.••. a little too 10••••••••••••••••••••• Have you got any jackets that are a bit 11•••••••••••••••.••• ? S: Yes, we have. I think you'll like this one. Would you mind coming over here and looking at it? It's a little looser than the one you've just tried on. C: Will you take it back if I 12 ..••..•••••.•..••.••.....•..•. to return it? S: Of course. No problem at all. Just bring it back. C: Fine. I think I'll take it. How much does it 13 ? S: The 14 •••.•.••..........•.•.•••..... price is 50 pounds. But you are lucky. We're having a 1S......•....•.•.•.••••.• this week, and all of our prices are 25% off the regular price. C: That's fine. I'm glad I decided to buy a jacket this week. Thanks for your help. S: My 16.••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••.•.•......•.•...•. Please come again. out looser cost Could usual tight coast through wear its sale a few there usually wore too a little does sell

do

1 Why would you go to an optician? (eyes / look at) 2 Why would you take your watch to a watchmaker's? (it / mend) 3 Why would you go to a drycleaner's? (clothes / clean) 4 Why would you go to a barber's or hairdresser's? (hair / cut) 5 Why would you take your car to a garage? (it / service) 6 Why would you go to a fortune teller? (fortune / tell) 7 Why would you go to a shoemaker's? (shoes / mend) 8 Why would you go to a laundry? (linen / wash) 9 Why would you go to a photographer's? (photo / take) - Read the passage about the postal services and think of the word which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space. We cannot imagine our life without the help 1 certain services such as: a post office, a hairdresser's, a bank, a laundry or various medical institutions. We need these services very often. One of them is a post office. The mail serves 2 ••••••••••••.••••.•••• a connection between members of a family, between friends, and between producers and consumers. It not only delivers or

sends letters and other mail, but it 3 controls the telegraph and the telephone. We buy stamps, send letters, parcels, telegrams or get poste restante letters 4 the post office. The post officer weighs the letter or parcel and tells us 5 much we have to pay. We can drop ordinary letters 6 a post-box in the street. When the letters reach the place of destination, the postman delivers 7 to the people they are addressed 8 The post clerk may also sell you postal orders. If you want to cash a money order don't forget to take your passport or PIC 9 ••••••..•..•.••••••... you. Nowadays you can send a message 10 •.•••••••••••••.•.•.•. fax or e-mail, the newest means of communication. In conclusion, 11 more developed society is the 12 we have to apply for the services of different institutions hoping that a specialist will do the job better 13 any individual may do 14 •.....••••..•..•.•.•.• his or her own. 6 Read the text and fill in each gap with the appropriate Bank Accounts It's very simple to open a bank 1 in Britain. There are very few formalities. Just go to your local branch and 2 a few forms. You will probably only have to pay 3 if there is no money in your account or if you borrow money from the bank, in other words if you have an 4••••.•••••••.••.•••••••.•••• For regular everyday use most people prefer a 5•.••••.•••.••••.•••••••••• account. This normally earns no 6 •••••••••••••••••••••••••• but you are given a 7 •••••••••••••••••••.•••••• book, which makes shopping and paying bills very easy. A deposit account earns interest but it's not so easy to 8 your money. At regular intervals, perhaps monthly, you will receive a 9 from the bank, giving details of each 10•••.•.••••••..•••••.•••••• (money you put in) and 11•.•••.•.•.••••.•.•••••••.• (money you take out). If you have to make a regular payment, like rent, you can ask the bank to pay this amount for you automatically. This arrangement is called a 12••••.••..•••••••••......••..• statement cheque withdrawal· withdraw interest fill in bank charges standing order overdraft account deposit current word from the box below.

READING and SPEAKING
1 Try to follow the history of money and even predict some future developments by putting the following statements in their proper order. A B C D E F People use salt, feathers, tobacco and cattle as payment. Credit cards are used instead of money. Coins made of some precious metal appear. People trade by exchanging different goods. No money is needed, smart cards lead to a cashless society. Paper money is introduced.

Money shapes our world. Almost every society now has a money economy based on coins and paper notes in one form or another. Of course, that hasn't always been the case. In 'primitive' societies, the market place was filled with people bartering, or exchanging goods which they thought were of equal value. Barter trade still goes on in some parts of the world but as a universal system it failed. It must have been very frustrating and difficult trying to change what you had for something that you wanted.

From salt to silver A more practical system of exchange needed to be worked out so, before long, people started trading with goods that were important or valuable in their world. Roman soldiers received at least part of their pay in salt, giving us the modemday word, salary. Other cultures used shells and stones, as in the Southern Pacific islands, while some cultures traded with skulls and teeth. Other examples of 'early' money include cattle, feathers, ivory and tobacco. The first real money as we recognise it was developed by the Lydians in Asia Minor in about 700 Be. The introduction of coins of silver and

gold alloys was a revolution. Money had become portable, durable, recognisable and divisible into smaller and larger units. The promise to pay the bearer Coins come in all shapes, sizes and metals. Originally, however, a coin was given its value on the amount of precious metal it contained. In medieval times, problems arose when the coins themselves became so heavy and large that they ceased to be portable. Another problem was that some people started shaving off small amounts of the precious metals which the coins contained. The development of paper money was first introduced by the Chinese in the 9th century but curiously didn't catch on in Europe until the 17th century. Paper money is, in real terms, worthless. Like coins these days, it is merely a 'promise to pay the bearer' from the government. The problems of paper money have also been many. The value which it truly represents varies constantly according to inflation. Violent bank robberies are committed almost daily in order to get it. And on top of that, counterfeiters never seem to stop trying to forge it. The symbolic value of money In order to stop the counterfeiters, bank notes have

developed intricate and often beautiful designs which are difficult to reproduce. These are usually combined with the portraits of heads of state and national heroes, which gives paper money its great symbolic value. That value disappears quite quickly as smaller denomination bills are converted to coins, making them so much 'loose change'. Precious plastic? So, what about the future of money? In our world plastic, which was once considered useful but otherwise worthless, has now become most valuable. In fact, the plastic credit cards you carry tell more about you than the cash in your wallet. As with all other systems, plastic has problems: multibillion dollar computer frauds, the temptation to live beyond your means and the automated machines which sometimes swallow your precious plastic. The French started using a 'smart' card - that is, a card which contains a microchip holding extensive data about its user. Like information, money has become quite simply an electronic code in the brain of a computer. Some science-fiction writers predict that one day computer chips containing all that information may be grafted into our skin. If that is the case, let's hope that the truly' cashless' society is far, far off in the future.

barter trade counterfeiters; forge cash; cashless society 3 In the text there are a few adjectives print.

precious metal intricate computer frauds

inflation loose change computer chips the expressions in bold

which end in -able. Use them to shorten

1 With the introduction of credit cards, worthless plastic became something that is valued 2 Different bank notes ought to be easy to recognise . 3 The shoes which I bought last year have turned out to be something that will last for a long time

.

1 What is the position of barter trade in today's world? A Though we have things like credit cards, people still think bartering is the easiest way of trading. B In spite of the present money economy, bartering has not completely disappeared. C As soon as coins and paper money were introduced, bartering ceased to exist. 2 Why did people choose to use salt, feathers or tobacco as payment? A They were easy to move from place to place. B They were goods of special value in those days. C Roman soldiers were especially keen on them. 3 How was the value of coins defined in medieval times? A The Lydians decided the value of all coins in those days. B Coins of different value were produced in different shapes. C The more metal a coin contained, the more valuable it was. 4 What was one of the problems that arose with the use of metal coins? A Gold and silver, the necessary valuable metals, ran out. B The weight of the coins caused problems. C The coins were not durable enough - they broke easily.

5 What do we know about the early history of paper money in Europe? A The Chinese introduced paper money into Europe in the 9th century. B People in Europe were the first to accept the use of paper money. C Europeans did not start using it until the 1600s. 6 Why must the designs of bank notes be so intricate? A It is extremely hard to reproduce notes with intricate designs. B Only intricate designs are considered beautiful. C If the design is too simple, the note has little symbolic value. 7 What is said about the value of plastic credit cards in modem society? A Plastic cards are very popular because they cause no problems. B The informative value of plastic credit cards is greater than that of ordinary money. C Plastic cards are considered so precious that people are tempted to collect them. 8 What is a 'smart card'? A It is a card with a microchip containing a lot of information. B It is a card smarter than the brain of a computer. C It is a card that can be grafted into our skin.

• what slhe spends her/ his money on • if slhe saves any money; if so, how (bank, cash) and what for • what bills slhe has to pay

• if slhe often lends money; who slhe lends it to • if slhe often borrows money; who slhe borrows it from • if there is something slhe would like to do or to buy but can't afford to

6a) Read the dialogues and underline the words or phrases relevant to the topic 'Bank services'. Make similar dialogues of your own. Use the phrases you have underlined. A: I think we should stop at the bank. B: Why? Do we need cash? A: Yes. Remember ... we have to buy some souvenirs and we are going to the zoo tomorrow. B: You're right. I've forgotten. How much do you think we should get? A: I think 100 pounds will be enough. B: I think so, too. Let's change 180 dollars then. A: What's the rate of exchange now? B: I'm not very sure about that, but every bank gives the current rates on its notice board. A: Good morning. I want to open an account, please? B: Have you got any accounts with this bank at present? A: No. B: What sort of account do you want to open? A: I'm not sure. I think a savings account will be fine. B: Have you got any identification, sir? A: Well, I haven't got my passport, but I've got my driving licence. Will that be all right? B: Yes, please fill in this form and we will give you a new account book. A: Thank you.

• if shopping is a pleasure or a must for her / him • what slhe prefers: small specialised shops or supermarkets • what the advantages and disadvantages of shopping in a supermarket are • if slhe usually believes what advertisements and commercials promise and if slhe ever buys things because of ads • what services s/he applies most often to and what services are the most popular with people • if s/he could do without any services and why 8 Work in pairs. Prepare and act out your dialogues around the following situations: • share your thoughts with the partner about the dress / suit you would like to buy for your cousin's wedding party and the present for him / her • you have to buy a lot of foodstuffs for the coming party, discuss with your partner the shops you are going to visit, the amount of food you are going to buy

9 Work in small groups or pairs. Look at each other's clothes. What are you all wearing at the moment? Make sure you can describe each item of clothing, its colour or pattern. What would you be wearing if it were much colder / hotter today? What do you wear if you want to look extra smart? Ask your friends to answer these questions.

WRITING
1 Read the rubric below and the letter of complaint. Complete the letter using the phrases given in the box below. You ordered a book you had seen in an advertisement in a catalogue. However, the book you received was not the one you had ordered. Read carefully the advertisement and the notes you have made. Then write a letter of complaint to the company selling the books, covering the points in your notes and adding any relevant information. Write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style. ENJOY YOURSELF WITH OUR BOOKS !!! not the one I ordered was asked to pay the full price had to wait more than a month to complain about within two weeks I hope that I would be grateful if Liep1i al. 37 LT-3001 Kaunas Lithuania Subscriptions Dept. Books by Post 96 Grove Lane Douglas IM99 1BQ England Dear Sir or Madam, 1 am writing 1.....•......................................... order company. On November the book which I have just received from your mail

as soon as possible Also enclosed together with Your advertisement stated the one I had ordered

lOth I sent an order form for the book 'Rebecca's Tale' by Sally Bewman. was the required payment to cover the cost of the book, postage and packing. 3.....•..... : that any book ordered from you would be received 4••••••.•••.•.......••.••..•.•••••••.•••••.••. of placing the order. Not only did I have to wait more than a month, but the book 1finally received was not 5...................•..........•............... To make matters worse, I was asked to pay the full price, whereas in your advertisement you state otherwise. I am, therefore, returning the unwanted copy of 'GCSE Survival Guide' by Nicky Hayes 6 ••..•...•..••••...•.•••.•••••.•••••••• a copy of my original order form.

2.......................................

you could sort out this matter and send my copy of 'Rebecca's Tale' 8................................................ 9 this kind of mix up and delay will not occur again with any future orders I place with your company.
7.............•.••.•.....••••••.....•.•.••......

Yours faithfully,
, {l;/AlOO

CfjJ 0f,'l/{l;U/'ff,~

Jayne Petraityte

2 Read the rubric below and the opening paragraph of the letter of complaint. Write the main part and the closing of the letter stating your complaints. Use at least five of the linking words / phrases given in the box and any appropriate expressions. You ordered a tent you saw in a mail order catalogue. Unfortunately, when you received it, you realised that there were many things wrong with it. Read carefully the advertisement and the notes you have made. Then write a letter of complaint to the company selling the camping equipment, covering the points in your notes and adding any relevant information. Write a letter of between 120 and 180 words in an appropriate style.

Y • 39.99 (including postage and packaging) .Fit~eop~ • Made of high quality, durable€n~aj) didn't receive! FREE !!! <T§h and batt,with <@.ILABgin every ent!

red, blue,);: How,pink

wanted red, got pink

slightly torn and zip got stuck

zn addition you led me to believe unfortunately although taking all the above into consideration finally definitely misleading therefore however in fact firstly what is more moreover demand an immediate replacement or a full refund in your advertisement you state

Gedimino g. 16 LT-4230 Kaisiadorys Lithuania Subscriptions Dept. Goods by Post 21-7 Oxbridge Road London W5 7SA England

I am writing to you to complain about the tent which I bought through your mail order catalogue last week. I am very disappointed with what I received, as it is nothing like the one I saw in your advertisement.

Yours faithfully, ~~ Kostas Karvelis

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intricate I'mtnbt! sudetingas, painus introduce I,mtr::>'dju:sl ivesti, pradeti ivory I'arv::>rildramblio kaulas jar lc!3a:1stiklainis laundry I'b:ndrrl skalbykla; skalbiniai lend (lent, lent) !lend! skolinti loose Ilu:sl laisvas luxury I'lAkJ::>rilprabangus, prasmatnus match Im'i£lfl degtukas match Im'i£lfl derintis (apie spalvas) medieval I,medi'i:vl! vidurarniiq microchip I'markr::>u,lflpl mikroschema moisturiser I'm::>Islf::>,rarz::>1 drekinantis kremas money order I'mAllI ,o:d::>1 erlaida, pervedimas p necklace I'neklrsl verinys (perlIL karolit{ ir pan.) optician/op'tIJn! akiq gydytojas overdrafti' ::>uv::> ,dra:ft! pereikvoj imas, (kredito) pervirsis parka I'pa:bl silta striuke su kapisonu pickle /'prkll marinuotos, raugintos darioves I vaisiai pips I'plpsl pypsejimas plaster l'pla:st::>1 pleistras portable I'po:t::>bl!nesiojamas, portatyvus postage I'p::>ustrdy' pasto islaidos precious metall'preJ::>s 'metl! brangusis metal as predict Ipn'drkt! nuspeti, pranasauti producer Ipr::>'dju: s::>1amintojas g refund I'ri:fAild! pinim gr'!zinimas replacement In'pleIsm::>nt! pakeitimas ring off l,nI] 'ofl baigti pokalbi telefonu roll Ir::>ul! bandele sachet I' S'i£ erl mazas plokSCiaspopierinis I plastikinis maiselis J salary l's'i£1::Jril lga a scraf I'ska:f! salikas, kaklajuoste science-fiction I, saI::>ns' nI moksline fantastika flkI screwdriver I'skru:,drarv::>1 atsuktuvas shawl IJo:l! skara, salis skull IskAl! kaukole smart card I,sma:t'ka:d! elektronine kreditine kortele standing order l,st'i£ndII] 'o:d::>1 pervedimas statement I'stertm::>nt! pranesimas subtract Is::>b'tr'i£kt! atimti suit Isu:t! tikti, dereti suspenseful Is::>' spensfl! i temptas swallow I'swol::>ul nuryti, praryti tight Itart! siauras, ankstas tin Itm! skardine (kons. maisto ar dail{) tissue I'tIJU:, 'trsju:1 popierine servetele torch Ito:lfl zibintuvelis tracksuit I'tr'i£k,su:t! sportinis kostiumas trade Itreld! prekiauti tryon I, traI' on! pasimatuoti tub ItAbl kibirelis tube Itju: bl tiibele underwear I'And::>,we::>1patiniai riibai a wear (wore, worn) Iwe::>1 deveti, nesioti withdrawal IWle'dro:::>l!semimas i

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
shopping facilities bookshop l'buk,Jopl knygynas; boutique Ibu:'ti:kl madingtt brangill riibll parduotuve; children swear I'tfrldr;;mz,wedl vaikiski riibai; china I'tfamdl porcelianas; clothes !ready-made clothes Iklduov drabuiiai, apdarai; cosmetics Ikoz'metrksl cutlery /'kAtldril stalo irankiai; department store universaline parduotuve; domestic electric appliances buitiniai elektros prietaisai; fabrics I'frebnksl medziagos, audiniai; florist's I flower shop gelitt parduotuve; furniture l'f3:nrtfdl baldai; furs If3:z/ kailiai; glassware I'gla:s,wedl stiklo prekes; haberdashery l'hrebd,dreJdrii galanterija; hardware store I ironmonger's ukines prekes; household goods I'haus,hduldl namll apyvokos reikmenys; jeweller's 1'd.3u:dldzl juvelyriniai dirbiniai; kiosk; news agent's I news-stand (Am E) spaudos kioskas; kitchenware I'krtfdn,wedl virtuves reikmenys; ladieswear I'lerdrz,wedl moteriski drabuziai; lingerie /'lren3dril mot. apatiniai rubai; market I'mo:krtl turgus, prekyviete; menswear I'menz,wedl vyriski drabuziai; pet shop naminill gyvlinll parduotuve; second-hand store naudotll prekill parduotuve; self - service shop savitarnos parduotuve; shoes I footwear I'futwedl avalyne; shopping centre prekybos centras; sportswear and equipment sportine avalyne ir iranga; stationery l'sterJnril kanceliarines prekes; supermarket l'su:pd,mo:kIt! prekybos centras; toiletries I't:nldtriv tualeto reikmenys, parfumerija; toy shop zaislll parduotuve food shops baker's I'berbv duonos parduotuve; butcher's l'butfdV mesas parduotuve; confectioner's Iconfectionary konditerija; dairy products I' de;}ril pieno produktai;· drinks I off-licence I' of,larsnsl alkoholiniai gerimai; greengrocer's I'gri:ngrdusdv darZovillparduotuve; grocer's I'grdusdv bakaleja; tobacconist's Itd'brebnrstsl tabako gaminiai names of clothes anorak I'rend,rrek! silta striuke; blouse Iblauz/ palaidinuke; coat Ibut! paltas, apsiaustas; culottes Ikju:'lotsl kelnessijonas; denims I jeans ld.3i:nv dzinsai; dress Idresl suknele; hat Ihret! skrybele; overalls kombinezonas; overcoat apsiaustas; polo-neck (sweater) I'PdUldU ,nek! golfas; raincoat I'rern,but! lietpaltis; shirt IJ3:t! marskiniai; shorts I J:>:tsl sortai; skirt Isk3:t! sijonas; socks Isoksl puskojines; stockings I'stokIl)v kojines; suit Isu:t! kostiumas; sweater I'swetdl megztinis, nertinis; tights Itartsl pedkelnes; trousers I'trauzdv kelnes; waistcoat liemene; windcheater I'wrnd,t;fi:t;;ll lengva striuke underwear bra Ibm:1 liemenukas; panties (Am E) / knickers I'nrbv mot., vaik. kelnaites; nighties I'nartrzl naktiniai marskineliai; pyjamas Ip;;l'd.3a:mdv pizama; slip Islrpl apatinukas; trunks ItrAl)ksl glaudes; T-shirt l'ti:J3: portiniai marskineliai; underpants I'Andd,prentsl vyr. apatines kelnaites; vest Ivest! berankoviai marskineJiai; liemene (Am E) footwear boots /bu:tsl batai (auliniai); flip-flops pliazines basutes (be uzkulnil{); shoes IJu:v batai. slepet6s; trainers I sneakers (Am E) sportiniai bateliai; high heels I,har'hi:lv aukstakulniai style long-sleeved ilgomis rankovemis; short-sleeved trumpom rankovem; formos iskirpte; round-neck apvalios formos iskirpte sleeveless a eliai: slippers a:eliai I'SlrpdV

be rcnko i ~ Y-neck I'vi:,nek! V

material I texture cotton I'kotnl medvilninis; medvilne; denim I'denrm/ dzinsinis audinys; leather 1'leo'Jl I silkas; suede Iswerd/ zomsinis; zomsas; velvet I'velvrt! aksominis; aksomas; woollen I'wu.:r:: pattern checked Itfektllanguotas; flowery I'flau;;lriJ geldas; plain Iplern! lygus; polka-dotted I~tralptl dryiu()ta~, jU()~tu()ta~',tartan I't<l·.tllllanguota skotiska mediiaga I'po

: silk Isrlk! silkinis; •.-,;Jonis: wool vilna

.b.d. - D

'

taskuotas; striped

household articles bottle I'botl/ butelis; cup lkApl puodelis; dish IdrJI indas; fork 1fJ:k! sakut6; frying-pan l'fraul),prenl keptuve; glass Iglo:sl stikline; jar 1d.30:1 stiklainis; knife Inarfl peilis; matchesl'mretfrzl degtukai; plate Iplert! lekste; pot/pot! puodas; saucepan /'S:>:SPdnlpuodas su ilga rankena; saucer I's:>:sdl lekstute (po puodeliu); spoon Ispu:nI saukstas; string Istnl)l virve foodstuffs (see Unit 10 Food and Drink) we can buy a box of matches; a packet of biscuits pakeli sausainill; a bar of chocolate plytel« sokolado; a can of Coca-Cola; a tin of sardines sardinill dezut«; a jar of honey stiklaini medaus; a dozen eggs tuzinll (12) kiausinill; a carton of milk I cream I popcorn; a kilo of bananas; a pound of meat svarll mesos; a loaf of bread kepalll duonos; a pair of shoes I some shoes; a pair of trousers; a bottle of perfume buteliukll kvepalll; a tube of toothpaste; a bar of soap muilo gabaleli; a bunch of roses

Vegetables Cereals Dairy products Fish Fruits and berries Herbs Meat aubergine, bacon, barley, basil, beans, blackberries, chicken, cream, dill, gooseberries, grapes, herring, yoghurt, lamb, maize, mint, mustard, mutton, onions, parsley, pear, peas, plaice, rabbit, rice, rye, salmon, sausage, thyme, trout, veal, lemon 2a) Find the pairs of antonyms. 1 2 3 4 tasteless sweet raw fresh 5 6 7 8 slimming spicy tender ripe 9 10 11 12 fattening sour mild cooked 13 14 15 16 stale tough delicious unripe

. . . . . . .

I 2 3 4 5 6 7

I mustn't eat this cake - it's too and I'm on a diet. The curry burnt my mouth, it was so . Could you pass me the sugar, please. I'll put some in this lemon juice, it's too This steak is so , I can't even chew it! I can't cut this bread, it's so . These apples are still green and not very , I suppose. This fish is almost , you have to cook it for fifteen minutes more.

.

3 Choose the adjectives from the list to describe each of the foods. You may use some adjectives more than once. The adjectives delicious, tempting and nasty can be used for different foods depending on individual taste.

Raw carrots are Salted peanuts are An avocado is Lithuanian food is Strong coffee is Red chillies are Tinned sardines are A lemon is Yoghurt is

. . . . . . . . .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

baking boiling frying roasting simmering steaming stewing

a) b) c) d) e) f) g)

cooking cooking cooking cooking the food cooking cooking

in steam; used for puddings, fish, vegetables etc meat or fruit in a small amount of water and its own juices foods in enough water to cover them, at a temperature lower than 100° C in fat; used for chips, doughnuts, chicken, potatoes etc is placed in the oven; used for preparing cakes, breads meat or vegetables in an oven or over a fire foods in enough water to cover them, at 100° C

1 2 3 4 5

fattening food fast food junk food to cut down on sth (eg fizzy drinks) nutrients

6 7 8 9 10

a balanced diet a poor diet overweight a hearty eater to contain

11 12 13 14

to provide artificial additives a substantial meal ingredients

1 Waiter, could you bring me my account / bill / receipt please? 2 The salad is not what I called / commanded / ordered. 3 This dish / plate / serving is a speciality of our restaurant. 4 Waiter, I can't eat this meat. It's underdone / underweight / uncut. 5 The prawn cocktail was fantastic. Could I have a second plate / course / helping please. 6 Have you decided what to have for your main course / food / helping? 7 It's a very popular restaurant - we should apply for / book / order a table. 8 Can you give me the prescription / instruction / recipe for this pie? It's very delicious. 9 According to my doctor I'm 10 kilos overweight / too fat / overeaten. 10 The fish was dry and overdressed / overdone / overused.

USE of ENGLISH
1 Read the text. Fill each of the blanks with a suitable word from the word bank. Use each word only once.

Food, Dangerous Food
Britain is the proud holder of the title for the fattest European nation, with 17 percent 1••.•..•....•....••. men and 20 percent 2 •••••••..••...••.•• women considered to 3....•••.••.•••••••• clinically obese. Thirsty? Tired? Reach for a can of fizzy drink, and feel the buzz. We all do 4 •••..•.•••..••••.•• , but for many English school kids, this is breakfast. 5 than 50, 000 8-10 year-aIds miss food in the morning and arrive 6•••..•••...•..•...• school tired, empty and irritable. And 7 •••••••••.••••••••• are the prospects for healthy eating at school? Many schools now have a 'canteen culture', 8 ••.•..••....•••..•• kids have a choice. And when 9 •..•••..••••..•••.. bell goes, they opt for a pizza and chips 10 .•.......•••••••••• of salad and fish. When you're still young, you feel immortal, untouched 11 .......•..•.•....••••.• 'adult' concerns of obesity and heart disease. The Heart Foundation 12 ..••..••••••••••••• just launched a campaign to show 13....•....••..•••..• bad habits formed when we're young are often the root causes of heart problems when we're older. Modem eating habits are 14 •••••.••..•••..•••. destructive. Today's children are more at risk of developing osteoporosis, heart and respiratory diseases and 15••••••••••••••..•.• forms of cancer than their parents and grandparents. They also face the dilemmas of eating genetically-modified food (GMOs) 16 ••••.•.••..•••••••• organic products containing no artificial chemicals - an increasingly popular option in Britain.

2 Read the text below and look carefully at each line. Some of the lines are correct, and some have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, put a tick (/). If a line has a word which should not be there, write the word next to the number of the line. Irish Stew (enough for 4 people) You need: 0.45 kg stewed lamb; 0.68 kg potatoes; 0.23 kg onions; 0.28 litres water; salt and pepper; 1 teaspoon chopped fresh parsley. 1 2 3
4

Cut the meat into fairly small pieces, removing of the fat. Slice the onions. Peel the potatoes and cut them into thick other slices. Put the meat and vegetables into a saucepan in layers, finishing with a layer of potatoes. The season with salt and pepper. Add to some water. Bring to the boil, then cover and simmer gently for about two hours. To serve, pile the meat and few onions in the centre of the dish, with the potatoes at round the edge, and pour the sauce over the meat. Sprinkle the parsley over the potatoes.

. . .
.

5 6 7

. . .

8

:
changes.

.

3 Use a word in brackets to form a word that fits suitably in the space. Make any necessary The first has been done as an example.

The Sandwich It seems strange that the modest and (0 democracy) ..... .4~1JJ.Q~r.qtir:. sandwich was the (1 invent) .... .......................... of an aristocrat. The Earl of Sandwich, the head of the British navy, was a (2 passion) .......................... card-player. In 1762, during a 24-hour (3 gamble) session, he got hungry. So he picked a piece of beef and popped it between two slices of bread. Then he carried on (4 play) ....................... while eating what was to become Britain's biggest (5 contribute) to gastronomy. The word soon entered the English language. In 1762, the famous (6 history) . Edward Gibbon wrote about a restaurant where 'twenty or thirty of the 'first men' in the (7 king) .......................... could be seen having supper at little tables upon a bit of cold meat, or a Sandwich'. Today the sandwich is (8 enjoy) by all classes and both sexes. In fact, almost every office (9 work) .......................... in the country has one for lunch. It is either plain or toasted, on (10 tradition) . British bread, Italian ciabatta, French bread or Middle East pitta. Popular (11 fill) include tuna salad with mayonnaise, prawn cocktail with avocado, cheese and pickle. Cucumber sandwiches are (12 probable) the most uniquely British type of sandwiches. 4 Put the words in the right order to make a dialogue. Capitalise and punctuate A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B: must / some / have / chicken / you / more. you / no / thank. 1/ too / had / already / much / have. it / me / take / just / to please. OK / I / manage/ a / piece / maybe / small / could / very. about / a / coffee / you / before / cup / how / of / go? if/having / you / one / are / only. take / milk / do / sugar / and / you? much / too / milk / not / and just / please / a / spoonful. you / to / what / like / drink / would? light / just / please / a / beer. with / you / have / tonic / won't / a / me / gin / and? kind / that's / of you / very / but / don't / I / will / I / think. driving the words where necessary.

.r.q.'! .. ,!!!-,:~.~. h(}YfU,c!.'!!f:. !fI:9.':~. I}..i.qkt;.,!:. ~
.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. / am / I / know / you. ..

Starting Points for Healthier Eating If you want to lose 1•.••.•••..• weight, eat normally and exercise. 2 •.•..•••.•• diets are hard to maintain and it's all too easy to start bingeing. Particularly, exercising in 3•.•.••.•..• morning will help you keep trim, while late-night snacking is 4 ..••..••.•. guaranteed way to put on 5 •••.•.•••.• weight.

If you're 6 •.••...••.. meat-eater, 7•••••••.••• chicken and fish high in Omega 3 are far better than 8••.••••..•• red meats. They're good for your brain, too. 9••••••••••• fizzy drinks, 10••••••••.•• tea and 11••••••••••• coffee are all 'diuretics'. This means that they take 12••••...•••• water away from your body, rather than replenishing it. 13....••..... fizzy drinks also contain 14..........• phosphorous, which reduces 15••••••••.. amount of 16•••••....• calcium your body can absorb from 17 .••.......• food. So, if you suffer from 18..•••••.•••• headaches, 19.....•.••••• mood-swings, or just 20 ......•••.. general lack 0[21 ••••••••••• energy, try replacing all those drinks with lots of 22 .••••.•.... water. Your complexion will get clearer and 23 ....••....• eyes will start glowing like 24 ••••••••••• headlamps!

1 Read the text and fill in the summary with the proper words that suit the content of the text. The words should not be necessarily taken from the text. Use one or two words only.

GREASE
Greasy spoons* very rarely appear in guidebooks, but they are an essential part of life in the UK, especially for people living in the bigger cities. Current's Sam Jordisan sings the praises of this great British institution. Cafe life in Britain In London, the capital city of the greasy spoon, there are hundreds and hundreds, fuelling the population with bacon, eggs and sausages. These small restaurants are so common and everyday - like baked beans or phone boxes - that they are barely even noticed, but if greasy spoons were removed, the country would be on its knees. Greasy spoon cafes are so called because any cutlery that comes into contact with the food on offer is immediately coated with a sticky, greasy layer of lard*. It almost seems like an oily mist hangs in the air, as if fat drips from the walls. More calories can be found in a cup of tea in a good greasy spoon than in a whole meal at a normal restaurant. The setting Greasy spoons are generally found slightly away from the main streets of most towns, on the shabbier* roads. Always a bit dirty and down at heel, they usually have large (grease coated) glass windows, a plastic sign with the name of the cafe - usually containing the name of the owner eg Mario's, Bob's Place, Rita's Cafe - and a huge menu offering a wide variety of artery clogging* delights. Inside they are generally clean, functional and scruffy*. You'll see old wooden seats, tables covered with cracked linoleum and plain walls. Each table has on it a bottle of brown sauce, tomato ketchup and vinegar, and pots of salt and pepper. In the background, behind a chipped counter, are huge gleaming tea urns* and a steaming kitchen where the gruff* chefs work their magic. The people In a typical greasy spoon, you will find people from all walks of life. Poets, drop-outs*, hurrying businessmen, students lazing around with huge mugs of tea. Some read novels, some stare into space, and others catch up on the day's news. There will be young couples staring into each other's eyes or lonely old men coming out for a change of scene. At weekends there will always be large groups of friends, recovering from a night on the town. They are all united by one thing: the food. They are all looking for some seriously stodgy grub*. The food The meals are dangerously unhealthy, and absolutely delicious. All kinds of fried food can be bought for incredibly low prices. The centrepiece is usually the traditional English breakfast. Although it's called a breakfast, it takes a brave soul to eat it first thing in the morning, because it is huge. At least two pieces of bacon, two sizzling sausages, two fried eggs (sunny side up), fried mushrooms, baked beans and bread soaked in hot oil and fried. The very finest greasy spoons will also offer several pieces of black pudding surprisingly tasty, considering that it's made from - wait for it - dried pigs' blood and lard. The English breakfast is full of meat and fat. If you want something less filling, there's still a lot to choose from; particular specialities are bacon or fried egg sandwiches (or of course, bacon and egg sandwiches). There is also often a range of vegetarian sausages and burgers. Greasy spoons have some devoted followers. Tapping 'Greasy Spoon' into an internet search engine* will bring up a hundreds of entries. One of the best sites is http:// www.greasy spoon. co. uk!. With pictures, reviews, menus and stories, it's the next best thing to going to a greasy spoon cafe yourself. But of course, nothing can beat going to a real one - especially on an empty stomach.

GLOSSARY:
a greasy spoon: a cheap restaurant specialising in fried food; lard: pig fat used in cooking; to condition through much use or being badly cared for; to clog: to block; scruffy: untidy or dirty; in which liquid can be heated and stored; gruff: rough and unfriendly; a drop-out: someone society; stodgy grub: sticky, heavy and filling food (slang); internet search engine: a website the internet be shabby: to be in poor an urn: a large container who leaves conventional that allows you to search

In a Restaurant Waiter: Mr Brown: W: Mr B: W: Good evening, sir ... madam. Shall I take your coats? Thank you. Where shall we sit, Jane? Oh, would you like to sit over here, sir? Near the window! Ah, yes ... Could we see the menu? Yes, certainly. Here it is. What would you like for a starter? Mm ... I think I'll have the prawn salad. I'm very fond of prawns. What about you? I'm not sure. I can't decide. Oh, I'd have the trout, if! were you. You always say that you like trout, and you haven't had it for a long time. Are you ready to order, sir? Yes ... a prawn cocktail for my wife and the trout for me. And the main course, sir? Veal for my wife. I can't decide between the veal and the chicken. What do you recommend? Oh, if I were you, I'd have the veal. OK! I'll take it. And two mixed salads, please. Any vegetables, sir? Yes. Some cauliflower, some tomatoes and some boiled potatoes, please. Anything to follow? Yes, we'd like a bottle of dry white wine. May I suggest something? Of course. Why don't you try a bottle of English wine? You'll be surprised ... it's very good.

Mr B:
Mrs B: Mr B: Mrs B: W: MrB: W:

Mr B:
W: Mr B: W:

Mr B:
W: MrB: W: MrB: W:

• • • •

where slhe usually has her / his meals if s/he often eats out if there are any special occasions for her / his eating out if it is a custom in her / his country to leave a tip to a waiter / waitress

7 Read the text about healthy eating and fill in the table. The Food Pyramid Guide to Healthy Eating Here is the latest diet - the Pyramid diet. Actually, it is not a diet to help people lose weight. It is a diet for a healthy life. The Pyramid diet is very simple. Different kinds of food are placed at different levels of the pyramid. The higher up the pyramid, the less of the foods you should eat. Bread, pasta, rice and other whole grains are at the bottom of the pyramid. These foods contain complex carbohydrates, which provide us with energy and heat. Besides, they are a source of fibre, that is essential for good digestion. Carbohydrates should make up about 50 % of your diet. Fruit and vegetables are at the second level of the pyramid. These should be 30 % of your diet. They provide vitamins, minerals as well as fibre. Above fruit and vegetables are the protein-rich foods like meat, fish, beans, nuts, milk, cheese and yoghurt. They also provide a lot of calcium. These protein-rich foods should make up about 18 % of your diet. At the top of the pyramid are fat, oil, sweets and sugar. We should eat as little as possible of things at this level. These foods provide very little in the way of useful nutrients, but they have a damaging effect on teeth and should only form a small part of our diet. It is also recommended to drink 6 glasses of water a day and have daily physical activities in order to be healthy and fit.

Levels
1

Food types

Provide

Percentage

2 3 4 8 Discuss the following questions • • • • • • with your partner:

how often s/he eats the foodstuffs in the pyramid what foods s/he doesn't eat enough what things s/he eats that are good for her / him what things s/he eats that s/he knows are not very good for her / him explain why these foods are good or bad for us (eg a lot of vitamins, too much fat etc) what nutrients are essential for our body every day

9 Work in small groups. Design a suitable meal for your new boyfriend who is a vegetarian; for your tenyear-old sister's birthday party; for a romantic evening; for a friend who is on a diet; for your brother on the occasion of his graduation from the university. The meal should consist of at least three courses.

Lithuanian national food and eating traditions. How would you describe the Lithuanian cuisine? Give a recipe of your favourite dish. • What are your favourite foods? Can you cook anything yourself? Do you ever use cookbooks and try recipes from magazines or TV programmes? • The food in your school canteen. Is the choice big enough? Are there any offers of junk food on the menu? What would you change if you were the head of the canteen? 11 Study the given menu and then role-play the situation with your partner. One of you is the waiter / waitress (A), and the other person (B) would like to have lunch in the restaurant.

• • • •

A meet the customer ask about the main course, recommend some dish inquire about the dessert ask if everything was okay and bring the bill

• • • •

B tell the waiter where you'd like to sit order a starter and the main course choose the dessert ask for the bill

1 a) Andrew went for dinner with his girlfriend. However, he was not satisfied with many aspects of the restaurant. He read the advertisement carefully and made the notes. Then, he wrote a letter of complaint to the manager of the restaurant, covering the points in his notes and adding some relevant information. Read the letter. Underline the sentences covering the points in Andrew's notes. The Fleet Inn & Restaurant Berthed at Twyning-on-Avon Relax in open Enjoy steaks of<@me qua@p <WIde select19D>ofmouth-watering desserts c@asona~rices Hospitable Staff / ~ci~ Se . You'll find the Fleet Inn & Restaurant at Twyning-on-Avon, situated some 2V2 miles from Tewkesbury in delightful Gloucestershire countryside.

<t€::

:ili>

22 Church Road Longlevens Gloucester GL33QN

The Restaurant Manager The Fleet Inn and Restaurant Twyning Glousectershire GL20 6FL

I am writing to complain about the dinner we had at your restaurant on Friday 13th May. Unfortunately, nothing like what we expected.

it was

To begin with, the dishes we ordered were not tasty because of being overdone. The steakes were so burnt that it was impossible to eat them. Furthermore, even though the ice-cream we had ordered was delicious, it was the only choice we could make. While in your advertisement you state that you have a wide range of desserts. I would also like to complain about the prices which were far from reasonable. Contrary to what was stated in your advertisement, we found everything outrageously priced. To make matters worse it began to rain. As the system of setting up a marquee was out of order we had to move indoors, which was hot and stuffy. Finally, I would like to point out that though your staff were very hospitable, they came rather late to serve us. Taking into consideration all the above, I demand a full refund. I feel sure that this matter will receive your prompt attention. I look forward to hearing from you. Yours faithfully,
dltufM.w,~

Ib) What kind of language does the writer use to make his complaints and show his feelings? Tick which of the following apply and underline the expressions in the letter to prove your choice. The writer is:
friendly displeased

0 0

indifferent rude

0 0

fIrm
apologetic

0 0

2 You saw this advertisement in a magazine and decided to try the diet. However, two months later you are not satisfied with the results, as you have realised that the advertisement was misleading. Read the advertisement and the notes you have made. Then, write a letter of complaint of 120-150 words to the company which advertised the diet, covering the points in your notes and adding any relevant information. CLAUDIA'S WONDER DIET ~se we~ast and keep it off!

- Try our new diet Nutriplan! - We cook for you! - Our calorie-controlled food is healthy and €licio~ - Join now and pay~or-your meals. -Sdelivered to your door.

3 Study the checklist for healthy eating and carry out a survey on eating habits in your group. Then write a survey report referring to the guidelines given in Unit 11 on p. 120.

4 Read the jumbled recipe (A-D) and put it in the correct order. Then write the recipe of your favourite Lithuanian dish. Pan-fried Chicken With Mushroom Sauce
This delicious chicken dish makes a fine supper for guests or even a quick midweek • • • • • • • family treat.

Calories: Fat: Serves: Costs: Takes:

296

llg 4
25 Lt 15 minutes

1 tbsp olive oil 4 x 5 g /150g chicken breasts 1 x 295 g can condensed mushroom soup 1 x 300 g can button mushrooms, drained 2 tbsp fresh chopped parsley (optional) 1 x 411 g can asparagus spears, drained Carrots and peas to serve

A Meanwhile, place condensed soup in a small pan with the drained mushrooms and parsley, and heat over a low heat for 6-7 minutes, stirring until piping hot. B Place the asparagus on a plate and heat in the microwave for 1 minute. C Arrange the asparagus between 4 warmed serving plates, place the chicken on top, then spoon over the mushroom sauce. Serve with carrots and peas tossed in butter if desired. D Heat the oil in a large heavy-based frying pan and cook the chicken breasts over a moderately high heat for about 10-12 minutes until golden on both sides and cooked through. 5 Read the letter giving advice and making suggestions. Rewrite it filling in the gaps with the most suitable phrases given below. Some phrases suit more than one gap. I strongly advise you to ... How I what about ... ? Why don't you ... ? It would be a good idea to ... Another thing I suggest you do is ... In my opinion, you should . If I were you, I'd . I suggest that you should . It would be wise to . The way I see it, you can . I think you'd better . What I always find helpful is ... I've given your problem a lot of thought ...

Dear Judy, It was nice to hear from you. I was sorry to find out that you feel so depressed about your weight. (I) and I hope the following advice will be of some help to you. Firstly, (2) keep away from all strict diets that our women's magazines are full of Most of these diets just don't work. (3) eat more vegetables, fruit and low fat dairy products which are really slimming. (4) have a diet yoghurt instead of a fattening sandwich? Have in mind that starvation and crash diets (it's when you want to lose weight in a very short time) are not as effective as a well-balanced vegetarian diet. Moreover, (5) . avoid sugary drinks, to say nothing of desserts and other sweet things. I know that you've got a sweet tooth but try to hold back from cakes and biscuits. Furthermore, (6) kick the habit of having snacks between meals or late at night. (7) taking more sport. Exercising helps to get into shape and lose some weight. As far as clothes are concerned, don't trouble yourself too much. You dress fashionably, so just wear what you've got and try to be easy-going and relaxed. Be yourself! Well, that's all the advice I can give you. I hope I've been of some help to you. Keep in touch and let me know how everything turns out. With love, Aunt Helen

account/;}'kauntl sllskaita additive /'red;}trvlpriedas (maisto) amount/;}'mauntl kiekis, mastas artificial l,u:tr'frSI/ dirbtinis asparagus I;}'sprer;}g;}sl sparagas aubergine /';}ub;},3i:nIbaklazanas bake Iberkl kepti (duonq, pyragq) barley /'bu:lr/ mieziai basil I'brezl/ bazilikas batter l'bret;}1 (su)plakta tesla bill Ibrll sllskaita binge Ibmd31 piktnaudziauti bitter l'brt;}1 kartus, aitrus blackberry /'blrekb(;})rilgervuoge bland Iblrendl preskas breast Ibrestl kriitine canteen Ikren'ti:nI bufetas; valgykla

carbohydrates /,ku:b;}u'hardrertsl angliavandeniai cereals /'sr;}n;}lz1 (maistiniai) javai, griidai; javainiai chop ItJopl pjaustyti, smulkinti (maistq) complaint Ibm'plernt/ nusiskundimas, skundas complexion /bm'plekSni veido spalva consider /bn'srd;)/ manyti, laikyti; apgalvoti contain /bn' tern/ tun,:ti(savyje); talpinti contribute Ibn'tnbju:t/ aukoti, duoti; inesti inasll course Ib:sl patiekalas crockery /'krobril indai (moliniai, porcelianiniai) cuisine Ikwr'zi:nl virtuve (sa lies, regiono) cutlery l'kAtbril stal0 irankiai dairy I'de;}ril pieninis, pieno delicious Idr'hS;}slskanus, gardus destructive /dr'strAktrvl griaunamasis; zalingas digestion Idar' d3estInI maisto virskinimas dill Idrll krapas

disease Idr'zi:zl liga dish IdrSI valgis, patiekalas doughnut l'd'JullAtl spurga drained Idrerndl nusausintas feel the buzz IbAZI (snek.) jausti malonum<! fibre l'farb'J/· skaidulos filling (uz)pildymas; pripildymas; idaras flour lflau'Jl miltai foodstuff I'fu:d,stAfl maisto produktas gamble I'geembll losti (azartinius zaidimus) gooseberry l'gusb('J)ril agrastas grape Igrerpl vynuoge grease Igri:sl taukai, riebalai haddock I' heed'Jkl menke herbs Ih3:bzl (vaistiniai, prieskoniniai) augalai, zoleles herring l'hew)1 silke hospitable Iho'sprt'Jbll svetingas, vaisingas host, hostess Ih'Just, 'h'Justrsl seimininkas, seimininke immortal !r'm:):tll nemirtingas, nemarus, amzinas increase Irn'kri:sl (is)augti, priaugti, (pa)dideti kidney I'krdnil inkstas lack (of) /leek! stoka, triikumas lamb Ileernl eriuko mesa, eriena liver I'hv'Jl kepenys maintain Imern'ternl islaikyti (esamqpadetiJ maize Imerzl kukuruzai marquee Imo: 'hi didele palapine; nuosvyra; uzuolaida mint Imrnt/ meta mustard l'mAst'Jdl garstyCios mutton I'mAtn/ aviena nutrientl'nju:tn'Jntl maistine medziaga obese l'Ju'bi:sl aptuk«s, nutuk«s obesity l'Ju'bi:srtil nutukimas, aptukimas onion I'Anj'Jnl svogunas opt (for) loptl rinktis, pasirinkti option l'opSn/ pasirinkimas outrageous laut'rerd3'JsI nepagristas; neiPrastas ovenl'Avn/orkaite overdone I ,'duv'J'dAn! perkeptas, perkepintas; pervir«s overweightl,'Juv'J'wertl sveriantis virs normos parsley I'po:slil petrazole passion l'peeSnl aistra, potraukis pasta l'prest'Jl makaronai pate I'preterl pastetas pickle I'prkl/ marinuotos, sudytos darzoves pile Iparll sukrauti plaice Iplersl pleksne porridge l'pond31 kose

poultry I'p'Jultril paukstiena pour Ip:):1(Upilti, (i)lieti, pripilti prawn Ipr:):n! krevete prescription/pr'J'sknpSnl receptas (gydytojo) protein(s) l'pr'Juti:n/ baltymai provide Ipr'J'vardl tiekti; parupinti raw /r:):/ zalias; puszalis (nebaigtas virti / kepti) reasonable l'ri:z'Jnbl/ pagristas; prieinamas receipt In'si:t/ kvitas, s<!skaita recipe l'res'Jpil receptas; bud as reduce In'dju:sl sumazinti relevant I'rel'dv'dntl tiesiogiai susij«s, tinkamas replenish In'plenrSI pripildyti, papildyti rice /rarsl ryziai rich IntSI astrus, maistingas, riebus roast /r'Just/ kepti rye /rarl rugiai salmon I'so:m'Jnl lasisa sauce Is:):sl padazas saucepan I's:):sp'Jnl prikaistuvis season I'si:znl pagardinti, paskaninti serving I's3:vrfjl porcija, gabalas simmer I'srm'Jl uzvirti; virinti ant letos ugnies slice Islarsl rieke; griezinelis; pjaustyti gridineliais slim Ishml lieknas, laibas; suploneti skimmed milk I,skrmd'mrlkl nugriebtas pienas . sour Isau'Jl rugstus speciality l,speSr'rehtil firminis patiekalas spicy I'sparsil su prieskoniais; pikantiskas spinach l'sprnrd31 spinatas sprinkle I'spnfjkll (ap)slakstyti, apibarstyti staff Ista:fl darbuotojai, tamautojai; personalas stale Isterll suziedej«s, senas (apie duonq ir pan.) steak Isterkl mesos gabalas (kepsniui); zlegtainis, bifSteksas steam Isti:rnI Vilti garuose stew Istju:1 troskinta mesa I zuvis; troskinti(s), sutinti stir Ist3:1 maisyti, ismaisyti, pamaisyti stout Istautl stiprus porteris tender I'tend'Jl minkstas (apie mesq) tinned Itrndl konservuotas thyme /tarm! Ciobrelis tough ItA£/ kietas treat /tri:t/ elgtis su; laikyti; vaisinti; pa(si)lepinti trim /tnml gerai issilaik«s; sveikas, tvirtas trout /trautl upetakis turnip I't3:nrpl rope wholemeal bread I'h'Jul,mi:1 'bredl rupill miltll duona veal Ivi:1I versiena

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
types of food and drink cereals: barley /'ba:lil midiai; buckwheat grikiai; maize Imerz/ corn (Am.E.) kukuruzai; dutsl avizos; oatmeal avizines kruopos; rice /rarsl ryziai; rye Irarl rugiai; wheat kvieciai millet f'mrht/ soras; oats I

meat: beef jautiena; Iamb; mutton aviena; pork kiauliena; bacon lasiniai; lard lydyti kiaules taukai; liver kepenys; ham kumpis; hot dog ddrainis; hamburger mesainis; sausage l'sosrd31 desra; desrele; beefsteak; salami IS;;J'la:mi/; cutlet maltinis; minced meat I mincemeat malta mesa fish: cod menke; sardine Iso: 'di:n/ sardine; carp /ka:pl karpis; eel ungurys; pike Ipark/ lydeka; mackerel /'meekr;;J1/ skumbre; stuffed fish farsiruota zuvis; tinned fish zuvies konservai

seafood: prawn I shrimp krevete; crab; lobster omaras; crayfish vezys; oyster l''Jrst'dl austre; mussel/'m!l.sll midija; octopus astuonkojis; squid Iskwrdl kalmaras; caviar(e) /'krevi,a:/ ikrai

moliuskas,

poultry: chicken visciukas, vistiena; chicken broth sultinys; duck antiena; egg; egg in its shell nenuluptas kiausinis; hard I soft-boiled egg; scrambled egg(s) plakta kiausiniene; bacon and eggs; shell an egg nulupti kiausini; white I yolk /j'duk/ of an egg baltymas I trynys; goose (pl geese); omlet(te); pheasant I'fezntl fazanas; turkey I't3:kil kalakutas dairy products: butter; cheese; cheese sandwich; cream grietineIe; sour cream grietine; ice-cream cottage cheese varske; yoghurt I'jog'dt/; milk; skimmed I whole milk nugriebtas I nenugriebtas pienas ledai; curds I

fruits: apple; apricot; avocado; banana; cherry vysnia; coconut kokosas; lemon; orange; mango; melon; nectarine; peach Ipi:tSI persikas; pear Ipe'dl kriause; pineapple ananasas; plum slyva; pomegranate I'pomr,gnen'dt I granatas; tangerine /,trend3'd'ri:nI mandaxinas; grapefruit; watermelon arbuzas vegetables: asparagus; aubergine; beans pupos, pupeles; beetroot burokelis; cabbage I'krebrdy kopustas; carrot morka; cauliflower /'kolr,flau'd/ ziedinis kopustas; celery I'sel'dril salieras; cucumber /'kju:kAmb~/ agurkas; garlicl'go:lrkl cesnakas; leek poras; lettuce f'leusl salotos; mushrooms; peas Ipi:zl zirniai; potatoes; pumpkin moliugas; radish l'rredrSI ridikelis; tomato /t~'ma:t~m/ pomidoras berries: bilberry melyne; cranberry agrastas; grape vynuoge; raspberry spanguole; currant l'kAr'dntl serbentas; black I red I white currant; aviete; strawberry braske; wild strawberry zemuoge zemes riesutas; gooseberry pistachio krienai;

nuts: almond I'o:m'dndl migdolas; cashew nut /'kreSu:,n!l.tI anakardzio riesutas; peanut nut Ipr'sto:Si'du,n!l.t/ pistaeija; walnut graikiskas riesutas; hazelnut lazdyno riesutas

spices: cinnamon I'sIn'dm'dn I; ginger I'd3rnd3'd1 imbieras; nutmeg l'OAt,megi muskato riesutas; horse radish mustard I'm!l.st'dd 1 garstyCios; pepper pipirai; paprika; vinegar I'vrnrg'dl aetas sweet foods: chocolate; hot chocolate; jam; honey; marmalade; idaru); tartlto:t1 vaisinis pyragaitis

sweet; biscuitl'brskrtl sausainis; cake; pie IpaIl pyragaitis (su

beverages 1 drinks: beer Ibr';)l alus; champagne/,Jrem'pern/; cocoa I'k~uk~ul kakava; Coca-Cola (coke); cocktail; coffee (black, with milk); make coffee; juice; lemonade; milkshake pieno kokteilis; mineral water; soda water; tea; wine; whisky; fizzy gazuotas, purslojantis, burbuliuojantis; still negazuotas ways of cooking food cook gaminti (valgO She cooked the chicken. make She made coffee while the guests were finishing their dessert. bake barbecue l'bo:br,kju:1 kepti ant zarij~; boil virti; fry Ifrar! kepti (riebaluose ar aliejuje); grill kepti (ant grotelit{); roast kepti (orkaiteje); simmer; steam; stew ways of preparing food prepare ruosti Wash your hands before preparing food. cut pjau(sty)ti; grate tarkuoti; grind coffee malti kav't mash trinti, grusti (bulvil{ ko§~); mince malti (mesq); mix; peel (nu)lupti, (nu)skusti; pile; slice; sprinkle; stir maisyti flavours and tastes: sweet; salty; bitter kartus; sour; hot 1 spicy astrus, pikantiskas; bland; mild; delicious / tasty 1 yammy (informal) skanus; tasteless; taste How does your salad taste? Would you like to taste this pie? I don't like the taste. overcooked 1 overdone pervir((s; perkepintas; undercooked 1 underdone neisvir((s, neiskep((s; done to a turn: just perfect, not overdone This chicken's done to a turn. nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fibre, minerals, proteins, starch Ista:tSI krakrnolas; vitamins I'vIt'dmrnzl I'd like to have a snack before

meals: breakfast; lunch; dinner; supper; snack 1 bite lengvas uzkandis; have a snack going to the cinema. meal: the food taken at one time She eats three meals a day.

substantial meal/s!l.b'strenSII sotus maistas; dish: food prepared for the table There are five meat and three fish dishes. course: a division or part of a meal Whats the main course? dessert /d'd'Z3:t/ desertas; starter 1 hors d'oeuvre /,'J:'d3:vzl uzkandis; refreshments ufrandziai; gerimai eating and drinking out restaurant I'rest('d)ront/; snack bar; cafe I'krefer!; pub aline, smukle; bar; self-service 1 help-yourself savitarna; fast food; waiter padavejas; waitress padaveja; menu I'menju:/; on the menu There was no roastbeef on the menu. choose (chose, chosen); order uzsakyti; uzsakymas Please, take my order. What would you like to order? bill s~skaita; receipt cekis, kvitas I paid the bill and he gave me a receipt. change gqza; leave 1 give a tip palikti 1 duoti arbatpinigi~ Shall we leave a tip for the waiter? service; service charge aptarnavimo mokestis; treat sb to sth vaisinti She treated us to a very delicious cake. pass Pass me the salt, please. help oneself to pasiimti, pasivaisinti Please, help yourself to some more cake. helping porcija (patiekiamas maisto kiekis) He asked for a second helping of the cake. portion porcija (vienu metu suvalgomo maisto kiekis) If you eat smaller portions, you will begin to lose weight. hearty eater megejas gerai pavalgyti; have a sweet tooth / be sweet-toothed My friend has a sweet tooth. Mano drauge didele smaliZe. recommend What would you recommend?

VOCABULARY
1 Work in pairs. Add three more items to each list. Use a dictionary finished, join another pair and compare your lists. Wild mammals: Domestic animals: Reptiles: Birds: Insects: Molluscs & Invertebrates: Trees: Flowers: dolphin, badger, cheetah, goat, turkey, sheep, lizard, python, grass-snake, eagle, owl, hawk, cockroach, fly, wasp, octopus, snail, jelly-fish, birch, lime, maple, lilac, carnation, poppy, ; , , , , , , , , if necessary. After you have

, , , , ,

, . , . . , . .

. .

.

1 a 2 a 3

hot day climate cold

4 a 5 a 6

cloud spell rain

7 a 8 9

wind fog weather

CI~D
cEtter~ 3 Complete the collocations below by adding an appropriate one noun. disaster resources 1 2 3 4 5 recycled nuclear tropical acid global fuels fumes rainforest changes . . . . . transport warming noun. Some can combine with more than

energy effect . . . . .

pollution rain jams 11 12 13 14 15 clean sea ozone traffic public

layer gases waste products . . . . .

6 air 7 natural 8 exhaust 9 solar 10 greenhouse

humid (thick) fog 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

smog

sleet pouring

overcast downpour

fine mild scorching

unsettled / changeable freezing / bitterly cold

Cloudy air near the ground that is difficult to see through. A short period of heavy rain. Dark and with clouds. Weather when the air feels hot and wet. Snow and rain falling together. Describes very cold weather. When it rains heavily, we can say 'It's down.'

8 Describes extremely hot weather. 9 Weather that often changes. 10 Pleasant and warm. 11 Describes warm and dry weather. 12 A mixture of smoke and fog.

1 Insert the preposition

which best fits each space. Use only one word in each space.

1 Winter sets in at the end December our parts. After a hard frost the rivers and ponds are frozen When the temperature falls twenty five degrees zero it gets freezing cold. 2 It was bright the morning, but it became quite dark later. 3 The day started clear, but became cloudy midday. 4 It looks like rain: the sky is covered dark clouds, a cold wind is blowing the sea. 5 It's a lovely picture when everything is covered hoarfrost and glistens the sun. 6 I prefer to stay indoors rainy weather. 7 Nature looks its best early spring. 8 Indian summer is a short period warm sunny weather the beginning autumn. 9 The temperature has fallen zero and it is freezing. 10 If the weather is fine, we can go the country Sunday. 11 Many people are fond winter sports. 12 It's pouring rain. You'd better stay indoors. 2 Read the text and look carefully at each line. In most of the lines there is an extra word that does not fit there. Underline the word and write it on the right. If a line is correct, put a tick (/). The first two are given as examples. This week in Sesimbra in Portugal the latest conference on the environment is being taking place. The whole world is been watching to see what happens as delegates from more than 75 countries discuss what measures should need to be taken to reduce the fumes that do create the Greenhouse Effect. They hope as to agree on ways of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other many gases that we send them into the atmosphere. These gases act the way a greenhouse does and, as a rule, the Earth is being getting hotter and hotter all the time. The temperature is rising gradually and in 100 years' time the Earth it will be hotter by about 4° C. The problem is getting most worse as more cars make an appearance on our already crowded roads. The solution in Sesimbra that depends on what the US, the most powerful nation on Earth, feels it is in its interests.

o o
1 2 3 4 5
6

f.
/;J,t;ing

.
.
. . . . .
.

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

. . . . . . . . .

Dolphins are not an only animals besides humans that use sounds in an apparent intelligent manner. Whales also use a complex system of sounds that is similar in much ways into a human language. One type of whale even sings, and its songs can go on for as longer as three or four hours. What is

o
1 2 3 4

thf?

. . . . .

more, they can been heard under water at distances of more than 300 kilometres. Chimpanzees uses a system of different sounds to cOlIlJIlunicate with each other. One type of cry is seeming to mean something like 'danger in the air' or 'big bird' and another apparently mean 'danger on the ground' or 'snake'. The first cry causes they to hide in holes or under trees and looking up in the sky. When they hear a second cry, they hide in the upper branches of trees and stare nervously at the grass.

6 7 8 9 10 11

. . . . . .

4 Read the text carefully. Use the word given in brackets to form a word that fits in the sentence. There (0 be) (?r.~ a lot of reasons why it is (00 importance) ..impfll:tant to save rainforests. One is that many plants which could be (1 use) in medicine (2 grow) in the rainforest. We (3 not / know) all the plants yet - there are thousands and thousands of them. (4 Research) are trying to discover their secrets before they (5 destroy) The problem is that less than 50% of the world's rainforests (6 exist) today. The rest (7 already disappear) . Rainforests (8 have) an important effect on the earth's climate. They are a (9 nature) . habitat for many species of animals, birds, insects and plants. We mustn't forget that plants produce oxygen, which is necessary for (10 live) on Earth. They also control the earth's temperature by (11 absorb) ............... carbon dioxide. People (12 not / do) enough to save rainforests. Many (13 science) ............... believe that temperatures (14 already rise) If the polar caps (15 melt) , the level of the sea (16 rise) and cause terrible floods. We must do everything we can to prevent (17 globe) ............... warming, and that (18 include) preserving the rainforests!

READING and SPEAKING
GREEN ISSUES
Young people today are more aware of the environment than ever before. This is the first really 'green' generation. But there are so many different green issues. There's the greenhouse effect, acid rain, air pollution, nuclear waste, habitat destruction ... the list seems to go on forever. Which of these seems to you the most important, the most urgent? Mark Farrell asked some teenagers in London about their green priorities. A Nick, 17 I'm a member of Greenpeace, and I go on any protest marches or things that they might organise. I think the most important issue is nuclear power. The waste that it creates is not being disposed of satisfactorily. This is a problem because it takes so long - like thousands of years - to become safe. There's no acceptable way to store it in that time. For example, at the moment it's buried in the ground, and yet it's destroying the soil where it's buried. I mean, we can't predict what will happen in the future. If anybody happens to dig it up, it will destroy all the land around. I think the government should close down the nuclear plants and stop producing nuclear waste. It's difficult to say what should happen about the waste that is in existence at the moment. But definitely production should stop. I do think it's important to look at the issues now. Nuclear waste could potentially cause irreversible damage. But overall I would say that I am fairly optimistic. I think that the Earth has a way of getting round these things. B Sophie, 15 I worry most about the rainforest. We learnt about it in geography. Too much is being cut down for the benefit of rich corporations. It is difficult to replant once it is cut down, because the nutrients in the soil are washed away. The forest houses so many varieties of birds and other animals that do not exist anywhere else in the world. When they lose their home, they become extinct. We should grow our own supply of trees if we want to cut them down to make paper. The other thing that bothers me is pollution in the city. I go to school in London, where there's a disgusting grey smog most of the time. In the future people will be working from home with computers. So there won't be so much traffic and so much pollution. I'm going to work from home I hope. In the meantime, I think more people should take a bus, or walk, or ride a bike instead of driving in their own cars.

e James, 17 At the moment what's affecting us most is the greenhouse effect, the climate changes all over the world, reduced rainfall, higher water levels, things like that. It's being caused by old fridges, aerosol cans ... but I'd say the main offenders are probably things like cars and coal-powered power stations.

Obviously they should try and make things more efficient within the power stations, and encourage people to be more efficient in their homes. We need research and development into other sources of power such as solar power, wind power and wave power. Nuclear energy is an alternative, but in the long run we could end up regretting
it.

much. It's not worth voting for the Green Party, because they're so small. And the other parties don't want to do anything serious because it would be unpopular. I suppose in the end things will get so bad that they'll just ha ve to do something. E Nadia,17 The main problem in my opinion is building roads, cities, factories, car parks, airports. Agriculture is bad as well. Soon there won't be any real countryside left. We're not leaving room for wildlife to survive. Habitat is the most important thing for animals and plants. You can't save species by having a few individual animals in zoos around the world. I'm particularly sad about the tiger. I think it's the most beautiful animal in the world. I just love to see tigers moving about - even on TV They're so elegant and so strong. They used to be hunted a lot, but that's not the problem these days. Now they don't really have enough of their own habitat left. Their forest is being used for agriculture. It's so sad ifthere isn't enough room on Earth for humans and tigers. At the same time, I love cars. I'm learning to drive at the moment, and I would like a car when I get a job. I know that cars are part of the problem. But it's hard to apply your ideas to your own life, isn't it?

I use CFC-free aerosols. I like to recycle and things like that, so resources aren't wasted - cans, bottles, papers, magazines, and anything like that I can find that will recycle and that I don't need any more. I am optimistic. I believe there's probably a wind of change. D Claudia, 19 There are lots of environmental problems - the greenhouse effect, acid rain, the hole in the ozone layer, and so on. There's also air pollution causing asthma. And there's nuclear waste and other kinds of toxic waste. But my problem is that I don't feel I can do anything about it myself. It's all so big and out of control. For one thing, how can you have clear opinions about all these scientific things? You would have to be an expert on nuclear energy, on the weather, on chemistry, on everything. And another thing - only the politicians are in a position to do anything about it, and they don't seem to care that

Which of the teenagers:

CQ.::ITI
I I
~ 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15

o=r==J
3

1

I I

I I I I I I I

I
~

I

I I

I
I

I

I
I

I

I
I

I

thinks the most important issue is nuclear power believes that many species become extinct because the rainforests are being cut down thinks the government should ban producing nuclear waste and close down the nuclear plants thinks there's no possibility for wildlife to survive says that other sources of energy should be researched and developed thinks more people should use public transport is worried about nuclear waste being disposed in an improper way doesn't believe that s/he, as an individual can do much about environmental problems believes that things will get better in the future is rather pessimistic about the willingness of the politicians and political parties to help in solving environmental problems in the nearest future is sad about the tiger being hunted and loosing its habitat is sure that rich corporations make profit from cutting down the rainforests does something as an individual in order resources were not wasted is eager to drive a car thinks we should plant and grow trees for paper production hopes that there will be less pollution and less traffic in the future because most people will be working from home with computers

2 Highlight the following words in the text, look them up in a dictionary and write a sentence of your own with each of these words. issue waste soil rainforest extinct supply pollution greenhouse effect offenders species recycle habitat

3 Complete the following sentences using the information from the text. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Nick strongly believes that the government should There are two things that Sophie is worried about, namely James thinks that the greenhouse effect is caused by There are many other sources of power such as Claudia feels she cannot do anything about environmental problems because In Nadia's opinion there won't be any real countryside left soon because . . . . . .

4 Work in small groups. Discuss these statements. Which do you agree / disagree with? Why? Such phrases as 'I agree strongly', 'I agree', 'It depends', 'I (totally) disagree', 'I'm afraid I don't agree with you' can be of use. • • • Animals should be kept in zoos. People shouldn't buy clothes made of animal fur or leather. It is wrong to kill animals for food. Hunting and fishing are good, natural sports. Governments should spend more money to save rare animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Millions of people starve to death every year. Governments should spend less money on animals and more money on people. The world has become a better place to live in because of economic growth and development. The motor car was a terrible invention. It's better to live in a big city than in the country. Any effort to save the world must start at home. There are lots of things you can do on a personalleveI.

~.

r.
/.

_:. •

I. ·r.

• the reasons why people keep pets • the most common pets kept in this country • unusual pets some people keep and why

• the threats to the environment • the ways of protecting endangered species • the influence of the weather on your mood

6 Study the list of things that we face or consume every day. First pick the top five - the ones that you feel are vitally important. Then in small groups discuss what you think we should or shouldn't do and also give the reason why. Make use of the sentence starters given in the box and make full sentences. Use the verbs like give, sort, recycle, dispose of, consume etc. We must ... because ... We shouldn't ... because ... We mustn't We might because ... because .., We should We can't because because . .

waste rubbish cast-offs plastic carrier bags excess packaging public transport CFCs animal tests biodegradable products unleaded petrol bottle bank and paper bank

reduce emissions avoid waste protect nature damage the ozone layer contribute to a better and safer future be environmentally-friendly be cruel to animals be a bargain for someone else be a waste of money be a waste of energy save energy

7 Get into two teams and make a competition. Answer the following general knowledge questions about the natural world. 1 Is a whale a fish or a mammal? 2 Which reptile alive today is a descendant of the dinosaurs? 3 Are the following trees deciduous or evergreen - elm, oak, pine? 4 What does the bee take from flowers to make honey? 5 Name as many animals that hibernate in winter as you know. 6 Which is the fastest of all land animals? 7 What plants or animals are the symbols of England, Scotland, Canada and New Zealand? 8 Name as many endangered species of plants or animals as you know. 9 Do you know any animals which are already extinct? Name them.

WRITING
Guidelines for writing reports Reports are pieces of factual writing which are usually based on some type of research. There are many types of reports such as: survey reports, reports assessing good and bad points of something, travel reports etc. Reports on events or experiences are written to inform a wide audience about an event, get them interested or perhaps persuade them to do something. Below there is a plan of a report of this type, with questions to guide you. What is your report about? When / Where did the event(s) take place? Who was involved? Why did the event(s) take place? What exactly happened? What did you do? What did you see? What is your opinion? What did / didn't you like? How did you feel? You should start your report by pointing out the recipient's name, the writer's name and the subject of your report. To: . From: . Subject: . Reports are organised in paragraphs which usually have sub-headings. Sub-headings are not used when writing news reports. A formal and impersonal style is normally used for all types of reports. Do not forget that the formal style includes: impersonal- not colloquial or chatty language; only facts - not insignificant details; use of reporting verbs and passive voice. Below there is a plan of a report which can be used when assessing the good and bad points of something or when reporting on some general theme. INTRODUCTION MAIN PART What is your report about? How did you get the information? What points do you want to make about the subject? What do you know about each point? Are there any negative comments you would like to make? What conclusion have you come to? Are there any recommendations / suggestions you would like to make?

CONCLUSION

1 Read the report which a student has written for the school newsletter. for each paragraph. The sub-headings are given in the box. MrJohnson (the editor) Alice Brown Excursion to the zoo

Choose a suitable sub-heading

From: Subject:

1 .. Jntr.Q.4.l!.c;(i(H1; . This report describes an excursion to the zoo, which was organised for Mrs Smith's Underwater Biology class. The excursion took place on Wednesday 19th September. World 2 . As soon as we arrived, a zoo official greeted us and led us to an amphitheatre where we were shown interesting slides of some endangered species and animals which are on the verge of extinction. Each of us was given a map of the zoo in case we got lost. 3 . After that, we were taken to the aquarium, where we were shown many different species of marine life. Even though the sharks were extremely interesting, most of the students enjoyed watching the piranhas being fed. Furthermore, we were given the opportunity to touch the dolphins as well as feed them. 4 . After we had lunch, we were taken on a tour of the Reptile Word. The reptiles varied in sizes and shapes, but what really got everybody's attention was a man who was extracting the venom from a snake. S . Before we were taken back to our bus, we were given badges and posters as souvenirs and were invited to visit the zoo again. 6 . In general, it was a very busy and tiring day, but from my point of view it was extremely useful and interesting. We all had a good chance to learn a lot about many different kinds of animals.

You have carried out a survey among your school students to find out how they think your school could help the environment. Write a report for the headteacher of the school saying what you have found out and making suggestions for the actions to be taken by the school. Introduction The present Suggested Conclusion situation actions • the report is the result of a survey • you carried out the survey in the school • many students come to school by car • the schoolyard and the park near the school are full of litter • more students should walk or cycle to school • to organise a day out to the park to clean it • a safe place for bicycles • more recycling bins

• measures would help the environment and would educate the students

It is important that everyone does whatever they can to protect the environment. 1•..•••••..•..••••...••..•... , everyone can take part in recycling. If the local council placed recycling bins for aluminium cans, bottles and paper on every street, residents would be more willing to do their part in recycling because the bins would be near their homes. 2 ••••.••..•••••••••..••.•••• , the residents of a neighbourhood could get together to plant trees and clean their parks once a month. 3 , local schools should organise days out to the parks and clean them up. 4••.••..•..••••.•.•...•..•.. , advertisements promoting the protection of the environment should be put up around the neighbourhood in order to remind everyone to be environmentally friendly. 5 , it is clear that everyone can help to protect the environment, and they can start by keeping their neighbourhood clean. If everyone made an effort, we would definitely live in a much cleaner world.

acid I'resrdl rilgscil!, rilgstus affect I;)'fektl (pa)veikti;paliesti apparent I;)'prer;)ntl matomas, aiskus assess I;)'sesl ivertinti bargain I'bo:grn/ sekmingas pirkinys; sanderis; deretis ban Ibren/ (uz)drausti benefit I'benrfrtl nauda, pelnas bin Ibrnl deze, konteineris . biodegradable I,bar;)udr'grerd;)bll mikroorganizml! (su)skaidomas bitterly I'brt;)lil labai, smarkiai, baisiai bury I'beril (pa)laidoti, uzkasti(zemeje) carbon dioxide I,ko:bn dar'oksardl anglies dvideginis cast-off I,ko:st 'ofl nedevimas drabuzis cause Ib:z/ 15iitipriezastimi, sukelti CFC I,si: ef 'si:1 chlorofluormetanas, freonas coal Ibull akmens anglis consume Ibn'sju:m/ sunaudoti, suvartoti contribute Ibn'trrbju:tl prisideti, tureti itakos damage I'dremrdj nuostolis, zala; zaloti deciduous Idr'srdju;)sl lapuotis descendant Idr'send;)ntl palikuonis, iPedinis disaster Idr'zo:st;)1 nelaime, neganda, katastrofa dispose Idrs'p;)uz/ atsikratyti, sutvarkyti downpour I'daun,p:l:1 liiitis efficient /r'frInt! veiksmingas, efektyvus endangered Irn'dernc5;)dl esantis pavojuje, nykstantis environment Irn'varr:mm;)nt! aplinka, aplinkuma excess I'eks;)sl papildomas, virsijantis norm'! excess /rk'sesl perteklius, pervirsis exhaust /rg 'z:l:stl ismetimas, isleidimas extinct /rk'strIJktl ismin;s, isnykt(s feed (fed, fed) lfi:dl maitinti, valgydinti, serti flood /flAdl potvynis, tvanas freezing I'fri:zrIJI labai saltas, ledinis frost Ifrostl saltis, speigas fuel l'fju:;)l1 kuras, degalai fumes I'fju:mz/ diimai, garai fur l'f;):1 kailis; kailinis generation l,c5;)n;)'rerInl karta, generacija glisten I'ghsnl blizgeti, spindeti, zvilgeti greenhouse I'gri:n,hausl siltnamis, oranzerija habitat I'hrebr,tretl (augalo, gyvuno) tevyne, buveine hibernate I'harb;),nertl rniegoti ziemos miegu hoar·frost I'h:l:,frostl serksnas humid I'hju:mrdl dregnas ir siltas (apie orq, klimatq) influence I'rnflu;)nsl itaka, poveikis insect I'rnsekt! vabzdys invertebrate Irn'V3:trbr;)tl bestuburis irreversible l,rrr'V3:s;)bll negriztamas issue I'rIu:, 'rsju:1 svarstoma problema, gincas

jam Ic5rem/ spiistis, sangrilda, kamstis layer I'ler;)1 sluoksnis, klodas leather 1'lea;)1 oda, odinis litter I' ht;)1 siuksles mammal I'mremll zinduolis marine Im;)'ri:nl jiifl!,jiirinis measure I'me3;)1 priemone nutrient I'nju:tri;)ntl maistinga medziaga offender 1;)'fend;)1 pazeidejas, nusikalteIis overcast I';)uv;),ka:stl apsiniaukt(s, debesuotas oxygen I' oksrc5;)n/ deguonis persuade Ip;)'swerdl itikinti; ikalbeti pollution Ip;)'lu:Jnl (su)tersimas, tarsa pouring I'p:l:nIJI smarkus (apie lietl{);liiitingas preserve Iprr'z3:vl (is)saugoti; islaikyti prevent Ipn'ventl (su)trukdyti, uzkirsti keli,! priority Iprar'or;)til pirmumas, svarbiausias dalykas profit I'profrtl nauda, pelnas public I'pAblrk/ viesas, visuomeninis rainforest I'rern.forrstl atogr,!zl.! miskas recipient Irr'srpi;)nt! gavejas recycle Iri:'sarkll perdirbti, pakartotinai panaudoti
(gamybos atliekas)

reduce In' dju:sl (su)mazinti, (su)silpninti reptile I'rep, taIlI roplys, sliauzikas research Irr's3:tfl tyri(neji)mas; mokslo tiriamasis darbas resources In'z:l:srz/ istekliai, resursai, atsargos sleet Isli:tl slapdriba, sniegdriba scorching I'sb:tfrIJI deginantis, svilinantis smog IsmDgl smogas (ruko ir dum/{ bei suodii/{ misinys) solar l's;)ul;)1 saules soil IS:lrll dirva, dirvozemis, gruntas source IS:l:sl saltinis; istaka species I'spi:Ii:z/ rilsis, atmaina, veisle spell Ispell trump as laikotarpis, periodas starve Isto:vl badauti, alkti supply Is;)'plar/ atsarga, kiekis survey l's3:ver/ apzvalga; apklausa survey Is;)'ver, 's3:ver/ apzvelgti, istirti survive Is;)'varvl islikti gyvam, gyvuoti teenager l'ti:n,erc5;)1 paauglys threat 18ret! gresme traffic I'trrefrk/ eismas,judejimas unleaded IAn'ledrdl be svino (apie benzinq) venom I'ven;)m/ nuodai (gyvates) verge l'v3:c51 krastas, riba vital I'vartll gyvybiskai svarbus vote Iv;)utl balsuoti waste (products) I'werst! atliekos, likuCiai, atrnatos waste I'werstl veltui eikvoti, svaistyti wildlife I'warld,larfl laukiniai gyviinai, gyviinija ir augalija

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
animals antelope I'rentI,I;mpl antilope; badger l'bred3;JI barsukas; bear Ibe;JI lokys, meska; beaver I'bi:v;JI bebras; camell'kremV kupranugaris; cheetah l'tfi:t;JI gepardas; deer (pI. deer) IdI;JI elnias; dolphin I'doIfml deIfinas; elephant l'elIf;Jnt! dramblys; elk leIkJ briedis; ferret I'fent! seskas; fox Ifoksl lape; giraffe 1d3;"l'ra:fl zirafa; guinea pig l'gmI pIgl jiiros kiaulyte; hamster I'hremst;JI ziurkenas; hare Ihe;JI kiskis, zuikis; hedgehog l'hed3,hogl ezys; hippo (potamus) l'hIp;JU, ,hlp;J'pot;Jm;Jsl hipopotamas, begemotas; jaguar l'd3regju;JI jaguaras; kangaroo l,krel)g;J'ru:1 kengiira; leopard I'Iep;Jdl leopardas; lion I'Ial;JnJ Iiiitas; lynx Ihnksl liisis; mink ImIl)kJ audine; monkey I'mAl)kil bezdzione; otter 1'0t;JI iidra; panther I'prenS;JI pantera; raccoon /r;J'ku:nJ meskenas; rhino(ceros) I'ram;Ju, ral'nos;Jr;Jsl raganosis; roe Ir;Jul stirna; seal Isi:V ruonis; squirrel I'skWlr;JI! vovere; tiger l'talg;JI tigras; walrus l'w::dr;JsI jiiros veplys; whale IwelI! banginis; wild boar I'waIld 'b:J:I sernas; wolf (pI. wolves) IwuIfl vilkas; zebra I'zebr;JI zebras birds crow Ikr;Jul varna; eagle l'i:gII ereIis; emu l'i:mju:1 emu (Australijos paukStis); hawk Ih:J:kl vanagas; nightingale I'naltll),gelI! lakstingala; ostrich I'ostnt;fl strutis; owl lauI! peleda; parrot I'prer;Jt! papiiga; peacock I'pi:,kokJ povas; penguin I'pel)gwml pingvinas; pigeon J'pld3;JnJ balandis; robin J'robm/ Iiepsnele; seagull J'Si:gAII zuvedra; sparrow l'sprer;Jul zvirblis; stork Ist:J:kJ gandras; swallow J'swo\dul kregzde; swan IswonJ gulbe; woodpecker J'wud ,pebl genys reptiles crocodile l'krob,dalI! krokodilas; grass-snake I'gra:ssnelkJ zaltys; lizard l'IIZ;JdJ driezas; python J'paISnJ smauglys; rattlesnake J'rretl,snelkJ barskuole; snake IsnelkJ gyvate; tortoise l't:J:t;JsI sausumos vezlys; turtle I't3:tV jiiros vezlys amphibians frog Ifrogl varIe; salamander l'sreI;J,mrend;JI salamandra; toad It;JudJ rupiize molluscs and invertebrates earthworm J'3:S,W3:rnJ sliekas; jelly-fish 1'd3eh,fIII mediiza; octopus l'okt;Jp;JsI astuonkojis; IsneIV sraige; worm IW3:rnJ kirmeIe oyster J':JIst;JIaustre; snail

fish carp Jka:pl karpis; cod IkodJ menke; crawfish vezys; eelli:V ungurys; goldfish J'g;JuId,fIII auksinis karosas; aukse; herring J'henl)l siIke; perch IP3:t;f1eserys; pike IpalkJ Iydeka; plaice IpIeIs/ pIeksne; salmon I'srem;Jn! lasisa; sardine Isa:'di:n! sardine; shark IIa:kJ ryklys; trout Itraut! upetakis insects ant lrent! skruzdeIe; bee Ibi:1 bite; butterfly J'bAt;J,flaii drugeIis; cockroach J'kokr;Jut;f1 tarakonas; fly lf1aIl muse; gnat/nret! uodas, grasshopper I'gra:shop;"ll ziogas; ladybug !'Ieldi, bAgl boruze; mosquito Imo'ski:t;Jul uodas; moth/moSI kandis; spider I'spald;JI voras; wasp Iwospl vapsva; tick erke trees alder 1':J:Id;JIalksnis; ash lreJ! uosis; asp Irespi drebuIe; beech Ibi:t;fl bukas; birch Ib3:t;f1bedas; elm leIrnJ guoba; fir If3:1 egle; lime JlaIrn! Iiepa; maple ImelpI! klevas; mountain I wild ash sermuksnis; oak l;JukJ 'tzuoIas; pine IparnJ pusis; poplar J'pop\dl tuopa; willow I'wIl;Jul gIuosnis, karklas flowers aster l'rest;JI astra; bluebell I'bIu: ,beV katileIis; carnation I,ka: 'nelIn! gvazdikas; daffodill'drefddlI! geltonasis narcizas; daisy J'delzil ramune; forget-me-not If;J'getmi: ,not! neuzmirstuole; lilac !'IaIl;JkJ alyva; lily !'IIlil IeIija; lily of the valley 1,!IIi;JVO;J'vreIeIl pakalnute; pansy I' prenzil nasIaite; poppy I'popil aguona; ruth lru: SIrota; snowdrop I' sn;Ju, dropl snieguoIe; tulip J'tju:hpl tuIpe; violet I'val;JI;Jt! zibuokIe

VOCABULARY

The Daily Sun is a very good newspaper. It has all the latest 1............•............. , and there is also an excellent page with well-written and interesting 3 ........•................. of football and hockey matches. The middle pages contain two crossword 4 ......••.••••......•••••• and some very well-drawn 5 •••••••••••••••••.••.•••••• of famous people and events. Finally, there are always interesting 6 •.........•...•..•.•.....•. to the editor.
2•......................•..

2 Here are some words and phrases connected with the media. Think over their meanings in Lithuanian and then write sentences of your own. 1 to catch the news 2 a quality newspaper 3 the biggest circulation 4 a very readable paper 5 to be delivered 6 a tabloid newspaper 7 to browse 8 to be hooked on the Internet 9 the classified ads 10 a couch potato 11 paparazzi 12 to broadcast

3 What type of TV programme are you probably watching if you see the following? Match the descriptions on the left with the programmes on the right. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 People trying to answer questions. Actors doing and saying funny things. People discussing politics. The animal life in Antarctica. Guns, murder and police. A long interview with a famous person. The everyday life of the same group of people. Characters played by moving drawings, not people. Someone talking about a new soap powder. A person telling you what happened today. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) a detective series a commercial a soap opera a comedy series a talk show a current affairs programme a nature documentary the news a quiz show a cartoon

presenter newsflash drama

newscaster broadcast episode switch on / off series cartoon viewer commercial quiz repeat sitcom announcer producer comedy host interviewer documentary talk show turn up / down

~

Grintv c:&py dijD C!i.yboa;V ~
0..ouse mat/pad ~
. . . . . . . . .

@driV"0

1 a set of keys that operate a computer 2 a small flat circular object on which large amounts of information can be stored to be used by a computer 3 the part of a computer which is used to pass information to or from a disk 4 a piece of electronic equipment that allows information to be sent from one computer to another 5 the flat part in front of a computer which you look at 6 a machine linked to a computer for printing text onto paper 7 a small flat thing of plastic for storing information from a computer 8 a small object that you move with your hand to operate a computer 9 the flat piece of rubber or plastic which is used under a mouse 10 the central unit which is used for processing data .

6 The digital revolution has produced changes in the English language. Here are some examples of these changes. Fill in the gaps using the definitions. an error in computer program to start a computer to break a computer code to move around the Internet Word to boot a bug to surf a pirate a geek to crack a flame Original meaning to kick a small insect to ride on a board on the waves of the sea a person who robs ships at sea an entertainer who bites the heads off live chickens to make something split a red or yellow burning gas a person who illegally copies software an insulting or unfriendly e-mail a rich successful person in the computer industry

New meaning 1 .. fa. ,5.(art. /1..(:Qmp.lf.ler. ............ 2 ............................................ 3 ............................................ 4 ............................................ 5 ............................................
6 ............................................

7

............................................

Media Hype The mass media (1 refer) to the people and organisations that (2 provide) . news and information for the public. Until recently these (3 be) mainly newspapers, radio and television. Today, computers (4 play) a very important part. The Internet (S be) .......................... a computer system that (6 allow) millions of people around the world to receive and (7 exchange) information about almost anything. Ordinary post (8 take) .......................... over bye-mail which (9 stand) for electronic mail because it (10 send) .......................... and received via a computer. It (11 be) a system that (12 allow) . people to send messages to each other quickly and cheaply. Now ordinary post (13 refer) to as 'snail mail' and one (14 wonder) if the postman is a job in danger of extinction.

1 2 3 4 5 6

I hardly ever browse ......................... the ads. Is it risky to be hooked ......................... the Internet? You can't keep in touch ......................... what's happening if you don't read the papers. It's boring - let's switch ......................... to another channel. Turn the sound ......................... , it's a bit loud. My mother always listens ......................... the nine o'clock news bulletin every night. 7 Don't turn the TV ......................... - I'm trying to read. 8 What time is the film ......................... ? 9 Do you subscribe ......................... any newspaper? 10 I have a radio, but I seldom turn it ......................... except for concerts.

on down on through with on to up to over

3 Fill in the gaps in the text with a suitable necessary. it's to inventions were was for

word from the bank given. There are more words than

such provides

despite on

almost about

its talking

comfortably deny

Television is one of the most important 1.•......................• of the twentieth century. The first TV programme 2 ....................•.•.• broadcast in 1929, and by the beginning of the 1950s, 3 every home had a television set. For the first time, people were able to watch historical events, 4..•....••••...••••......• as man's landing on the moon, in their homes. However, since 5.................•....•.. appearance, there has been a lot of disagreement 6 ••••••••••.••••••••....•• the benefits oftelevision. Many people blame it 7•••.....••.•....••...••.. the lack of communication in today's society. Instead of 8.•...............•....... or playing games in the evenings, families prefer to watch their favourite programmes. People have become couch potatoes, sitting 9 ....•.•.•................ in front of the TV and eating junk food. However, 10 •••••••••••.•••..•••••••• these drawbacks no one can 11••••...................•• the variety and interest television 12•..•••••••.........••..•.. Nowadays, hundreds of channels are available. More than ever before, television offers us a window 13 .............•........... the world. 4 Fill in the gaps with only one word which fits each space best. Living in the Electronic Age All my friends 1•••••••••••••....••••.... I know how to use a computer. We spend lots 2 •.............••..•...... time playing computer games and surfing 3.........•............... Net. However, recently I have started to worry that we rely 4 ..................••.•••• much on electronic gadgets. There was time when people managed 5 .•........••••.•••••••... write and think using their brains, now people can't 6 .•.....•••••••••.•••..... anything without using machines. There 7 ....•......•••..••.•••••• so many people who depend on electronic gadgets completely. 8 .••••......•..•.....••.•• instance, my parents and many of 9...........•...•••••••••• friends sit at home in the evening and watch television. They don't realise 10 .......••..••.•••........ all those things that television promises us: love, sex, friendship n .

not true. A plastic box can't give us any 12••.•.•••••••••••••••••••• those. I believe, that our descendants won't have anything to do 13 .............•..•........ television. They'll be shocked 14 .•.•.•.•.•.•.•.•.•.•...•• what we did with our time. Someone has calculated that 15 average time that people spend watching TV is four hours a day. It means that one day a week they do 16•.••.•.•.•.•...•....•..•• but sit and stare. We can make more calculations and find 17 ....•...•....•...•.•...•. how much of our life we spend watching TV. Of course, there are many electronic gadgets that save time, though some of them take time 18 . I am 19 favour of some gadgets, but I am strictly against our lives being dependent 20......................... pushing a button. 5 Use the word in capitals to form a word that fits suitably in the blank space. Make any changes that are necessary. About the Internet . er 0f ne t wor k s Th e In t erne t III compu t" SCIence IS an open 0 interconnection that 1 connected computers to communicate 2•.•.•.•.•.•...•••.••.•.• In 1996 there were about 30 million computers connected via the Internet. One important 3 available for the public is e-mail (or 4 ...............•......•.... mail), which allows a message to be sent from one computer to one or more of computers. One unique feature of e-mail is the 5..................•.... it gives a group of people with a common interest to join a 6 ..•..........•.•.•.•... list and 7 ....•............................... receive the same mail. The World Wide Web also allows 8 to create and use documents which are linked across the Internet to form an 9 ••.•.••.•••.•.••••.•..•.•.•.•.•... supply of information about almost any subject under the sun. If you are 10 ••..••.•.•....••..•.•.•.• to the Internet, you can find particular information or just browse. The Internet continues to grow 11•.••.•.••..•••..••.••••••••.•• It is 12•.•.•.••.••••••.••.••.•.•.•. that in the year 2010, there will be at least 500 million people on the system enjoying virtual 13•..................•..••.•.•....

INTERCONNECT ABLE DIRECT SERVE ELECTRONICS POSSIBLE MAIL AUTOMATIC USE END CONNECT RAPID BELIEVE REAL

Newspaper The Daily Telegraph The Sun

Type

Circulation

Topics

Probably in no other country as in Britain there are such great differences between the various national daily newspapers - in the type of news they report and the way they report it. On the one hand, there are the 'quality' newspapers: The Times, The Independent, The Guardian, The Financial Times and The Daily Telegraph. These concern themselves, as far as possible, with factual reports of major national and international news stories, with the world of politics and business and with the arts and sport. 'Quality' newspapers are also called broadsheets as they use the large page format. On the other hand, there are the 'populars' or 'tabloids', so-called because of their smaller size. The tabloids - the most widely-read of which are The Daily Mail, The Daily Express, The Daily Mirror, The Sun and The Daily Star - concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often featuring sex, violence, the Royal Family,

film and pop stars, and sport. It is often said that the popular press aims to entertain its readers rather than inform them. The tabloid press is far more popular than the quality press. The most popular quality paper is The Daily Telegraph with a circulation of around 1,100,000 per day, compared with The Sun s circulation of over 4,000,000. Of course, more than one person usually reads each newspaper that is sold (the readership of The Sun, for instance, is probably over 11,000,000 per day). It is estimated that two out of every three adults regularly read a national daily newspaper, and that three out of four adults regularly read a local newspaper. This means thatthe British are one of the biggest newspaperreading nations in the world. In addition to the 12 national daily newspapers there are 9 national papers which are published on Sundays.

1b) Look at the following list and decide in which type of newspapers either tabloids (T) or quality newspapers (QN) they are likely to occur. 1 2 3 4 5 Sensational headlines Emotional language Objective reporting Balanced comment Great use of pictures . . . . . 6 7 8 9 10 Formal style Short sentences Exaggeration Factual information Celebrity gossip . . . . .

The Internet is fast becoming the contact medium for the new millennium. Although sitting in front of a computer seems a particularly lonesome pursuit, the truth is that the vast majority of people who surf the Net are there in search of social interaction real contact and companionship, not just information overload. The most fundamental law of contact on the Net is communication. The basis is always about pursuing some interest with like-minded people or just shooting the breeze* about nothing in particular. Connecting people These days you don't even have to leave your room to get in touch with people who have similar interests to yours right from the start. And, what's more, distance needn't be a problem. One of the best places to meet and greet people is IRC*, This collection of online forums or newsgroups contains postings from people who have asked for some info, and answers from those who have replied. If you learn how to use the anonymous posting programs that are around, you don't even have to reveal your real name or location. Another advantage is that since no one can see you, you certainly don't have to worry about looking your best all the time. Indeed, as on line goes virtual, you could create visual images of yourself that suit your mood or contactee. And it goes without saying that engaging in a heavy romance on line is the last word in safe sex. Cyberspace viruses may kill your computer but they won't kill you. Near - yet far There are, of course, drawbacks to this new medium. Ironically, the very technology that pulls most people together also keeps them apart. After a while, the safe sense of distance that, at first, seems so liberating to newbies* on the Net, can become an obstacle to letting the friendship develop further. Some may begin to feel that particularly human sense of unease that something is missing from a friendship conducted via* machines. 'As people, we need a tactile* physical presence to make a complete bond. We need to see their face, see their gestures

and smell their breath,' points out psychologist Michelle Weil of Orange, California. Nevertheless, on a romantic level, psychologists claim that the Net is a successful medium, particularly so for women, whose on-line affairs are conducted at a level of thoughts and feelings, not just appearances. 'It forces men to do something they don't normally engage in: communication,' says psychologist Al Cooper of the San Jose Marital and Sexuality Centre. But when eye to eye contact is missing, what about the human urge to exaggerate, fantasize, or just plain lie? It's a fact that some marriages are truly made in cyberspace, but there are just as many romantic disappointments. Take the case of the unfortunate middle-aged man from Boston who thought he was having a steamy* Internet affair with a 23year-old woman, only to discover that 'she' was an 80-yearold man in a Miami nursing home. The question is, how wrong was the deception*, given the satisfaction the two got from the romance before the truth was revealed. Surfing the Net for contact, romantic or otherwise, also satisfies our need to daydream and liberate ourselves from our sometimes dreary* reality. Indeed it may be the closest we may ever get to reinventing ourselves and having more than one life. Risks of the Net But isn't that open to abuse? Couldn't people be misled and harmed? The answer to those questions is, in all probability, yes. But only as much as magazines, pictures, videos and the like have harmed us in the past. As with all other media, on-line communication does have its dark side but then, so does the telephone, if it's used improperly. Until the Net is more carefully regulated, all surfers run the risk of lurkers* secretly tapping into their private Internet conversations and crackers* unlocking their passwords and accessing their most personal details. Navigators on the Net may get into murky* waters. Still, many people think it's worth the risk to reach out and be carried along on a wave of imagination, creativity, poetry and who knows romance ...

GLOSSARY: to shoot the breeze: to spend time talking about unimportant things; IRC(Internet Relay Chat): a virtual meeting place where people from all over the world can meet and talk; newbie: someone who has just started to use the Internet; via: using a particular method to send or deliver smth; tactile: concerning the sense of touch; steamy (infml): sexually exciting; deception: the act of tricking someone by telling them sth that is not true; dreary: making you feel bored and unhappy; lurkers: people who wait hiding in order to frighten, annoy or attack someone; crackers: people who deliberately break sth open to get what is inside; murky: dark and difficult to see through

Summary The Internet is becoming the contact 1........................•...• for the new millennium. It may seem that sitting in front of a computer is a lonesome occupation. Actually, the greater part of people who surf the Net are looking for 2 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• and 3 •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• It is so pleasant to talk to people 4 ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• the same ideas and interests with you. You can make 5 and get 6 just sitting at the computer. One of the best places to meet and greet people is IRe. If you know how to use the anonymous programs you don't have to reveal your real name or address. You can even have 7 ............•...............• on line not worrying about your looks. You can 8 to be and look whatever you like. But, of course, 9••.••...••..••••......•..•.•. through this medium has got disadvantages as well. A pleasant sense of distance only at first seems liberating. Later you may begin feeling 10 •.•••.......••..•...•.••••••• of human physical presence. You want to see your Net partner's face and gestures or smell the breath. Despite 11••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• of real personal image, a romantic affair on the Net is quite possible, especially for women whose feelings are more 12...•..•••..•••..•......••..•• by words and thoughts, not just appearances. The Net makes men also do what they usually are unlikely to do - to communicate. There are even some cases of marriages in cyberspace, but there are quite many cases of 13 , too. Imagine how distressed you would feel if your imaginary beloved person of 23 appeared to be an 80-year-old man or woman. On the other hand, surfing the Net for distant contacts helps us to 14•••••...••.•..••••••••••••..• from dreary reality and reinvent ourselves. We also have to 15 ....................••....... that the Net is open to abuse. People can be misled and harmed. But magazines, pictures, videos, the telephone can harm too, if used improperly. We have to be aware that lurkers can secretly tap our conversations, crackers can unlock our passwords and get 16 .•....•..............•....•.. to our personal details. In spite of all these 17••..••.••..••••••••••••••••.. millions of people think it's worth the risk to open the gate into the world of imagination, creativity, poetry and maybe romance.

3 Read the text again and answer the following questions.
1 What does the majority of people surf the Net for? 2 What are the advantages of communicating on the Net? 3 What are the drawbacks of it? 4 How do people tend to behave when eye-to-eye contact is missing? 5 What kinds of risks do surfers face on the Net? 6 Why do people like taking risks?

1 2 3 4 5

a meeting with someone a thousand years thinking in the same way benefit to make known or seen

6 7 8 9 10

to set free a disadvantage a strong desire to do sth to treat somebody or something badly or violently a secret code

5 Write the corresponding nouns used in the text and translate them into Lithuanian. The first has been done for you as an example. Word deceive contact interact pursue locate distant 7 romantic 8 present 9 m~or 10 real 1 2 3 4 5 6 Noun deception Lithuanian apgavyste, apgaule

(

(

(

\

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

slaptazodis informacijos perteklius pokalbis rysiq priemone kontaktuotojas pasalUnas isibrovelis apgavyste bendravimas intemeto naujokas

____ _____

RM RS

_ _

MM

_

WB
or abroad. Plan your presentation

7 Give a brief talk on the newspaper or magazine published in Lithuania following the instructions given below. Start Then

by giving some background information about the newspaper / magazine. You can talk, for example,
about its circulation, readership and its history.

present the newspaper / magazine in detail, talking about its choice 0:- : - ":;:~es and other features typical of its content (culture, feature articles, s~orts ~ages, ad\1ert.\semems, dasslfled ads, use 01 pictures etc). Finish by telling your audience why you like to read this particular newspaper / magazine.

• • • • • •

which medium s/he gets most of the news from what the most readable paper in Lithuania is what its circulation is if s/he buys papers or subscribes to what kind of things s/he likes to read in particular ask her / him to recall a news story that has caught her / his eye recently with your partner.

9 Work in pairs. Discuss these questions

1 How much time do you spend watching television? What are your favourite types of programmes? What TV programmes do you never watch? 2 How many different television channels has your country got? What is the difference between them? What channel do you watch most often? 3 Does Lithuanian TV produce good programmes? 4 Why do some people like watching soap operas? 5 Why are so many people fond of watching reality shows? What is your opinion of them? 6 Why is it useful to watch quiz shows on TV? 7 Some people say that TV does more harm than good. What's your opinion? Do you think there is too much sex and violence on our TV? 8 Does the radio have any advantage over television-? 10 Work in pairs and discuss the changes in television since you were children. Use the present perfect tense and the prompts given below. Join another pair and compare your answers.

Example: Picture quality has got better. • • • • programmes in general amount of advertising number of channels picture quality • • • • price of TV sets programmes for young people number of educational programmes transmission quality

11 Here are some statements on positive and negative aspects of television on our lives. Discuss them with your partner and tell which ones you agree / disagree with. Explain why. TV has an educational value. The news and documentaries can be very informative and educational. Grownups as well as children can learn a lot about the surrounding world. It is a useful babysitter when mothers are busy doing housework. TV is a cheap form of entertainment - you can watch movies and listen to music staying at home. Television is a good companion for lonely people. It is a good idea not to have a TV. Then you would have time. Television does not affect our minds as we don't remember much from it beyond how good or bad a programme was. There is too much sex, violence and terror on TV. The violence children witness on TV brutalises them. There have been many cases of crime when children imitated actions they saw on TV. Commercials for food, alcohol and other goods condition our minds. Television will never have the impact on civilisation that the invention of the written word has had. 12a) Work in groups. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages which may help you to support your point of view. of computers. Here are some ideas

Advantages • You can access a lot of information. • Computers can do some jobs very quickly. • Computers let you communicate very quickly, bye-mail or using the Internet. • Computers make it possible to work from home. • Word processors make it easier to write letters and reports, and to do work for school or college. • Computers make learning more exciting. • Large amounts of information can be stored on computer in a database. Disadvantages • Some people would prefer to deal with a person not a computer. • Computers get viruses. • Software often has bugs, and sometimes computers crash destroying all work. • Computer games can be very violent, which is harmful to children. • Information put on the Internet cannot be controlled, so criminals can use it. • Computers become old-fashioned very fast and need to be replaced. • If a computer breaks, not many people can fix it.

• how long you have been using a computer • what you use it for • what effects the Internet has on your life

• • • • • • •

if s/he has got an e-mail address how many e-mail messages s/he gets a day if s/he answers them immediately or not how many of the messages s/he saves and how many deletes what messages s/he saves and which ones s/he deletes if s/he gets a lot of spam (virtual ads) and what usually s/he does with it which s/he prefers: to write an e-mail message, to write a regular letter or to talk on the phone

WRITING
Guidelines for writing e-mail (email) messages E-mails between friends can be very informal but business e-mails may be either semi-formal or formal depending on the individual relationship and what the e-mail contains. However, all e-mails should follow certain basic rules: • Be consistent in style. Don't vary between formal and informal. • Layout is still important - remember to use paragraphs and proper sentences. • Keep it short and to the point. Always write a subject heading. This will give the recipient a good idea of the contents of the message. • It is better to start a formal e-mail with Dear Mr / Dear Mrs Bell and end with Regards, Yours, Thank you (if it was a request). Yours sincerely is not needed. • Begin an informal e-mail withjust a name Alan or Hi, Hello and finish with something short like Best, Best wishes, All the best or just write your name.

Informal e-mail Hi Pat Just to remind - our school's anniversary on 1st October. Hope to meet you at our class reunion party. Let me know if you're coming. Emily

Formal e-mail Dear Mr Bell I am writing to ask you if you would be able to give me more information about the course organized at your school. I would be interested in knowing what type of accommodation is offered and what cultural facilities are available in your town. I would be grateful if you let me know as soon as possible. Regards Alice Jackson

The advantages and disadvantages of the computer
The worldwide progress never stops and many agree that the electronics industry has been the fastest developing industry for the last four decades. Undoubtedly, the personal computer or PC is considered to be the most universal and fascinating tool humanity has ever invented. Still some people seem to be against the computer even now when we live in the age of new technologies. So what are the pros and cons of computers? Using a computer is advantageous for many reasons. 1 , a PC is an ideal device for students to study. They write reports by computer, surf the Internet looking for necessary information and perform various calculations. 2.•..•........••........•..• , time can be saved using computers in our daily life activities. You can do the shopping, pay bills and withdraw money from your bank account with a single click. Thus, once time-consuming and tiring operations have now become a matter of seconds. 3••....•.••••......•••...... , computers can be educational and fun. Children gain basic computer skills working through learning, drawing and playing programs. 4••..•.•.....•.•......•.•.•. , the negative aspects of the computer should also be taken into consideration. 5 , computers promote unemployment. Many jobs have been lost due to the fact that computers can do a lot of tasks more efficiently. 6..................••....... , computers have a negative impact on our health. Endless hours in front of a screen cause eye strain, headaches and weaken our body resulting in high blood pressure. 7•.•.••.•.••.•.•.•.•..•.•.•. , computers can be dangerous for children as children get addicted to them in an early age. Spending too much time at the computer they have no time to exercise and socialise with friends. Besides, cruel computer games can make children violent and aggressive. 8••....•••........•.....•... , computers are a useful addition to our fast-moving world of high technology. However, considering the variety of their usefulness it must be remembered that they are here to senle us - not to replace us.

3a) Read the sample paragraph.

Choose the correct underlined words / phrases to complete the sentences.

There are many reasons why people use computers. (1) As / In the first place. it is a modern and convenient means for working and communicating. Knowing how to use a computer makes one feel up-to-date and confident. (2) Because / Another reason for using a computer is the time that can be saved. This is very convenient in the workplace, where work can be done very fast. (3) In addition to this / However. our everyday life can be made easier. Daily procedures like shopping, bank operations, communication with friends can be done with a single click. The reason why children and young people adore the computer is the fun it gives playing games and surfing the Net. (4) In conclusion / As a result. it seems that computers playa significant role in our lives and people use them for different reasons.

abuse 1:J'bju:sl grubiai elgtis, uigaulioti; piktnaudziauti access I'reksesl pasiekti, gauti addicted 1:J'drktrdl ijunk«s advertisement (ad) l:Jd'V3:tlsm:Jntl skelbimas, reklama affair 1:J'fe:JIatsitikimas, istorija amount 1:J'mauntl kiekis; suma announcer /;/nauns:JI pranesejas available 1:J'verhbl/ galimas naudoti, turimas benefitl'ben:Jfrtl nauda blame (for) /blerrn/ kaltinti bond Ibondl rysys broadcast (broadcast, broadcast) /'bfJ:dka:st/ transliuoti browse (through) IbrauzJ vartineti; ziUrineti calculation I,krelkju' lerJnl (ap)skaiCiavimas, (ap)svarstymas cartoon Ika: 'tu:n1 karikatUra; animacinis filmas cater /'kert:J1 tenkinti (reikmes); tiekti maist'l. celebrity IS:J'lebr:Jtil izymybe, garsi asmenybe circular l's3:kjul:J1 apskritas, apvalus circulation /,s3:kju'lerfn/ tiraias commercial Ib'm3:JI/ reklama per radij'l. ar TV commission Ib'mrJnl komisiniai pinigai; uzsakymas common I'kom;ml paprastas, plaCiai paplit«s; bendras concern Ibn's3:nl riipintis, nerimauti concisely Ibn' sarslil glaustai condition Ibn' drJ nI s'l.lygoti, nulemti conduct Ibn' dAktl vesti, vadovauti; atlikti consider Ibn'srd:JI apgalvoti, apsvarstyti; manyti, laikyti consume Ibn'sju:rnI vartoti content /'kont:mtl turinys current I'kAf;mtl dabartinis, einamasis cyberspace I'sarb:J,spersl virtuali erdve database l'dert:J, bersl duomenq bankas deceive Idr'si:vl apgauti, suklaidinti deliver Idr'lrv:JI pristatyti deny Idr'narl neigti device Idr'varsl budas, priemone; prietaisas digital I'c;hd3\t11 'iokaitmeninis drawback I' dfJ:, brekl triikumas editor /'edrt:JI redaktorius efficiently Ir'frJntlil sumaniai, efektyviai, nasiai encounter Irn'kaunt:JI susitikimas, susidurimas engage (in) Irn'gerdy' uzsiimti (veikla) entertain l,ent:J'ternl priimti, vaisinti; linksminti episode I'eprs:mdl serija, dalis; epizodas

equipment Ir'kwrpm;mtl iranga, irenginiai exaggeration 1r9,zred3:J'rerJnl perdejimas exciting Irk'sartr1]1 jaudinantis extinction Irks'tr1]kJ:Jnl isnykimas gadget l'gred3rt/ itaisas gossip I'gosrpl apkalbos, paskalos hardware I'ha:d,wc:JI technine iranga harm Iha:rnI blogis, skriauda; pakenkti headline /'hed,larnl antraste hooked Ihuktl on the Internet pamis,<s del intemeto host Ih:Justl vesti laid<t; laidos vedejas hostess l'h:Justrsl laidos vedeja impact I'rmprektl poveikis; itaka increase Irn'kri:sl augti, dideti insult Irn'sAlt! izeisti interaction l,rnt:Jr'rekJnl s'l.veika interviewer /'rnt:J,vju::J1 pokalbio vedejas keyboard I'ki:,b::>:dl klaviatlira lack /Irek/ stoka, stygius liberate l'lrb:J,rertl islaisvinti, isvaduoti; paleisti link Ilr1]kl grandis; rysys, s'l.saja lonesome (mainly Am E) /'l:Juns(:J)rnI vienisas means Imi:nzJ priemone, budas medium (pi media I mediums) /'rni:dr:JrnI informavimo priemone murder l'm3:d:JI zmogzudyste newscaster I'nju:z,ko:st:J1 ziniq laidos vedejas newsflash /'nju:z,flreJI paskutiniq ziniq santrauka obstacle l'obst:Jkl/ kliutis ordinary 1'::>:dn(:J)ril iprastas, eilinis overload 1,:Juv:J'hudl perkrauti paparazzi I ,prep:J' rretsil paparaciai presenter Ipn'zent:JI laidos pranesejas promote Ipr:J'm:Jutl paaukstinti; puoseleti; remti provide IprJ'vardl patiekti, pariipinti pursue Ip:J'sju:1 t«sti, uisiimti pursuit Ip:J'sju:tl pomegis, megstamas uzsiemimas quiz JkwrzJ viktorina rapid /'rreprdl greitas regular l'regjuI:JI iprastas, normalus, paprastas refer (to) In'hl uzsiminti apie, nurodyti; sietis reinvent I,ri:rn'ventl naujai atrasti; israsti dar kart'l. reunion /ri:'ju:nrJnl susitikimas (seimos, klases, mokyklos) reveal In'vi:1/ atskleisti; atidengti rob /robl apiplesti

schedule l'Iedju:l, 'skedju:l/ planas, tvarkarastis significant Isr9' nrfrbn tl reiksmingas sitcom I'srt,koml jumoristinis serialas software /'soft,wf:JI programine iranga spam Ispreml virtuali reklama speculate I'spekju,lertl spelioti store Ishl sukrauti, laikyti, saugoti strain Istrernl itampa, krUvis subscribe (to) ISdb'skrarbl prenumeruoti supply ISd'plar/ tiekti, apriipinti

tabloid I'trebbrdl populiarus mazo formato laikrastis transmission Itrrenz'mrInl perdavimas up-to-date I,Aptd'dertl siuolaikinis, modemus; naujoviskas urge 13:d31 knietejimas; didziulis noras value l'vrelju:1 verte, kaina via I'vard, 'Vi:dl per (biidu) viewer I'VjU:dl ziurovas violence /'vardldnsl smurtas; siautejimas violent I'vardldntl smurtinis, smarkus, umus witness /'wrtndsl buti liudininku, paliudyti; liudininkas

ADDITIONAL WORD BANK
mass media mass media: means of communication which reach very large numbers of people; radio; listen to the radio; television (TV); to watch TV; cable television kabeline TV; satellite television; network tinklas, sistema; programme programa, laida; channel kanalas; broadcast (broadcast, broadcast) transliuoti This channel broadcasts sport matches mostly. switch on 1 turn on ijungti; switch off I turn off isjungti; switch over I turn over perjungti Can i we switch over to Channel 4? turn up I down pagarsinti I pritildyti Will you turn down the sound, please? button mygtukas; remote control distancinis valdymas; TV aerial I'edndl/ antena types of TV programmes the news What time is the news on BBC? current affairs dienos aktualijos; commercial reklama per radij~ arba televizija..; sports programme; weather forecast; music programme; wildlife programme; documentary; feature film I movie meninis filmas; soap opera; serial: a story that continues from one programme or episode to the next; a series: a number of programmes about the same situation or the same characters in different situations; sitcom jumoristinis serialas; cartoon animacinis filmas; game show: a programme on television in which people play games and answer questions in order to win prizes; quiz show: a programme in which people or teams compete against each other by answering questions; chat I talk show: a show in which an interviewer and his 1 her guests talk in a friendly way about different topics equipment recorder magnetofonas; cassette recorder I player; tape recorder; video recorder; videotape vaizdajuoste; camera foto aparatas; camcorder I video camera; record plokstele; a record player patefonas; compact disc (CD); CD player; high fidelity (hi-fi) system aukstos kokybes muzikinis centras; television set; Walkman ausinukas types of newspapers A popular or tabloid newspaper focuses more on sensation than on real news, it prefers stories about film stars, crimes and the royal family. A quality newspaper I a broadsheet professes to be more interested in real news than in sensation. A journal is the name given to an academic magazine. A comic is a magazine, usually for children or teenagers. Parts of the newspaper: advertisements (ads); cartoons karikaturos; crossword kryziazodis; the editorial vedamasis; feature article terninis straipsnis; headline antraste; horoscope; the letters page; news I sports reports; business I local I world news; review In'vju:1 apzvalginis straipsnis subscribe to a newspaper or a magazine prenumeruoti I started subscribing to a Sunday paper. daily; weekly; monthly; issue I'isju:, 'rIu:1 leidinys, numeris editor redaktorius; columnist /' koldmnrstl apzvalgininkas; reporter computers and computer equipment computer; on I by computer The new information is available on (the) computer. Ticket reservations are all done on computer. The accounts are processed by computer. computer-literate: able to use a computer; computer program; computer programmer; computerize I computerise; IT / information technology: the study or the use of computers and other electronic equipment for storing, sending and developing information; hardware technine iranga (prieSpriesinant programinei irangai); software programine iranga; program: a set of instructions that makes it possible for a computer to do a particular job; floppy disk diskete; modem vartiklis, modemas (prietaisas kompiuteriL{ telefoniniam rysiui); CD-ROM; laptop nesiojamas kompiuteris; keyboard klaviatUra; word processor programa, skirta laisklL pranesimll. ir 1ot.rasymui; virtual reality: the effect produced by using computer images to make places or situations seem almost real when they are not; virus I'varrds/; database duomenll baze the Internet the Internet / the Net tarptautinis kompiuterill tinklas, intemetas; be on the Internet buti prisijungusiam prie intemeto Are you on the Internet? on the Internet per intemet'\., intemetu You can read some newspapers on the Internet. surf the Net narsyti po intemetq; WWW / World Wide Web: the system that stores information for computer users around the world to use; home page pirmasis tinklapio puslapis; online: online services, conversations, games etc that take place or exist on the Internet; e-mail elektroninis pastas; be on e-mail: to have a computer that can send and receive e-mail messages; send sb an e-mail I e-mail pasillsti elektronin« zinut«; I will e-mail you about it.

1

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.... .$.Q.c;.(qJ
..... (f!.'JJJ.~L

.
club
.

4 ............................

. holiday

7 ............................

. culture

2 . ............................ agency

5 ............................

. custom

8 ...............................

. hotel

3 ............................

. facilities

6 . ............................ country

9 . ............................ places

faraway proper crowded cheap original stunning expenSIve peaceful fascinating modem

~

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unique ~-pri~ ~ ~

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3 Read the following description and replace the underlined words with the most suitable word from the list given.

Scotland is la marvellous country! There are so many places for you to see and things to do that you'll hardly have time to rest while you're there. A lot of places in Scotland are a(n) 2natural paradise, still untouched by men. Scotland's landscape is very 3attractive with glens (narrow, deep valleys), wild mountains and deep lochs (a Scottish word meaning 'lake'). The capital of Scotland is Edinburgh, 4well-known for its castle and for the Edinburgh International Festival which is held Severy year in August. Rich in history and steeped in tradition it has a timelessness which the bustle ofthe modem city cannot destroy. Scotland is also the land of myths and mysteries: every 6ancient castle has its ghost, and who has never heard of Loch Ness Monster? Nessie is said to be about six metres long, with a long thin neck, a 7small head and two or three humps. Since 1934, thousands of people have claimed to have seen this 8enormous animal. Scientists have investigated the loch and taken pictures, but no scientific explanation of the mystery has been given. Sightings of such monsters and 9strange beasts in lOlonelylakes could mean that animals exist that we still don't know about ...

the river the garage

the mountains the plane

the island sea the west coast the right my way to work the station

hospital the airport

1 Look at those people swimming 2 There's something wrong with the car. We'd better stop 3 Last year we had a wonderful skiing holiday . 4 There's nobody living It's uninhabited. 5 In most countries people drive ...................................... 6 I usually buy a newspaper in the morning. 7 San Francisco is of the United States. 8 My train arrives at 11.30. Can you meet me ....................................... ? 9 A friend of mine was injured in an accident a few days ago. She's still ..................................... 10 Our flight was delayed. We had to wait for three hours. 11 I enjoyed the flight but the food wasn't very nice. 12 Paul works on ships. He is away most of the time.

USE of ENGLISH
1 Look at the picture and complete the sentences using the given prepositions. Some will be used more than once. on top of outside along above beyond through on at down up zn in front of beside by below under behind inside between among a(round) past opposite across

off

- 12

- rr·

1 The clouds are the plane. 2 The plane is the sky. 3 There is snow the mountain. 4 There is a waterfall the bridge. 5 Trees grow the snowline. 6 The train is ............... the bridge. 7 There is a hut the trees. 8 Two people are climbing the mountain. 9 One person is coming the path. 10 The valley lies the two mountains. 11 The bridge stretches the valley. 12 The tunnel goes the mountain. 13 The river flows the bridge. 14 The river runs the road. 15 A fisherman is sitting the river. 16 There are a lot of fish the river. 17 There is a telephone the crossroads. 18 There is a line of people ............... the phone box. 19 The traffic is going the road. 20 The motorbike is going the comer. 21 The cow is the phone box. 22 The van is driving the cow. 23 The car is ................. the van. 24 There are lots of people the bus. 25 The cyclist is the bus. 26 The car is parked the road.

1 They live Oxford Street number 14.2 Jack works Cambridge the University. 3 I've left my briefcase the office. I think I left it the chair the comer. 4 Meet me the bus-stop ......... the end of Weston Road. 5 They live Seal, a small village the road to Folkestone. 6 When we were the south we stayed a small hotel the coast. 7 My briefcase is the table the sitting room. 8 Sign your name the dotted line the bottom of the page. 9 Meet me the entrance to the supermarket Marple Street. 10 I've applied for a job the United Nations . Geneva. 11 Hello! This is Julie. I'm London the Hilton Hotel. 3 Fill in the blanks with the grammatically the text. correct form of the word in bold according to the meaning of

The city of London (1 found) by the Romans in the year 43AD. During the next few years it (2 quick) became the main (3 trade) centre in Britain. For two hundred years after the Romans (4 leave) , the city was almost forgotten. Its full (5 important) did not return until the (6 eleven) century. By the end of that century, the (7 govern) of England was based in Westminster and the Tower of London (8 start) During the Middle Ages London (9 continue) to grow, and by the time of Shakespeare it had become a (10 prosper) ..................... capital city with many fine buildings. (11 Fortunately) , most of these buildings (12 make) of wood and in 1666 they were almost all destroyed by a fire which (13 last) ...................... several days. This was a great tragedy for the people (14 live) there at that time, but it is (15 truth) that many of the areas which are most (16 attract) today were planned during the (17 rebuild) that followed. 4 If the line is correct, put a tick (/) next to the number of the line. If the line has a word that shouldn't be there, cross it out and write that extra word next to the number of the line. Cosmopolitan Cities

New York, Tokyo, Paris andj.l;r€other cosmopolitan cities are exciting places to live in it. There are many interesting things to see and do. You can go to different kinds of museums, plays and films. You can also go shopping and buy the things from all over the world. But there are any serious problems in big cities too. The cost of living is high and there are too many of people in some neighbourhoods of big cities. An every year many newcomers move to these cities because of the opportunities to find jobs, to study at good schools and to receive good medical care. But sometimes these people cannot find some work or a decent place to live. Also, too many people in a so small place make it as hard to keep the cities safe and clean. Cosmopolitan cities have their advantages and such disadvantages. Some people enjoy living in them; others do not enjoy it. Before few people move to a big city, they should not think about the problems of living there.

o
1 2 3 4 5 6
7

th~
. . . . . .
.

.

8 9 10 11 12 13

. . . . . .

READING and SPEAKING
UNITED KINGDOM England has the highest population density of the four lands and Scotland the lowest. For centuries people from overseas have settled in Britain, either to escape political or religious persecution, or in search of economic opportunities. There are sizeable ethnic communities of Jews, Irish, Caribbeans, and Africans. There are also longestablished Chinese, Greek, Turkish Cypriot and Italian communities. Overall, ethrite minority groups represent just under 6 per cent of the population of Great Britain. English is the official language, but many people know 1 Physical Geography. Climate The United Kingdom is made up of the countries of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Its full name is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Britain (or Great Britain) comprises England, Wales and Scotland. It is the largest island in Europe, which lies off the north-west coast of mainland Europe. Britain's closest continental neighbours are France and Belgium. Covering an area of some 242,500 sq km, Britain is nearly 500 Ian across at the widest point, and almost 1,000 Ian long. The capital, London, has a population of around 8 million. Other major cities include Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff, Glasgow, and Belfast. Thanks to the influence of the Gulf Stream, the British climate is generally mild and temperate. While the weather is very changeable, temperatures rarely fall below _10° C or go above +32° C. Rainfall is fairly well distributed throughout the year. The wettest parts are the mountainous areas of the west and the north. 2 Politics The United Kingdom is a parliamentary democracy. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II is Head of State, with a largely ceremonial role. The powers of the Queen are limited by Parliament and it is hereditary, and not elective. The House of Commons and House of Lords, with the monarch, comprise Parliament. The Prime Minister heads the Government and appoints ministers (the Cabinet). Elections are held at least every five years. The largest political parties are the Conservatives, Labour and the Liberal Democrats. The country's long-established democratic system of government has provided political stability for many years. Britain has been a member of the European Union since 1973, and has close ties with marty countries elsewhere, notably with the nations of the Commonwealth. 3 History The people who now inhabit the British Isles are descended mainly from the people who inhabited them centuries ago. It is impossible to attempt here to estimate the importance of the first early peoples - pre-Celts and Celts, as well as the Romans who ruled England and Wales from AD 43 to around AD 409. Over the next 600 years there were invasions and settlements by peoples from northern Europe. The last successful invasion was by the Normans in 1066. In 1712 the King of England made himself Lord of Ireland. The uniting of England with Wales (between 1536 and 1542) and with Scotland (in 1707) led to the union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. In 1921 Ireland was partitioned, Northern Ireland remaining with Britain. Britain is an influential member of the Commonwealth, the European Union and the United Nations. 4 People Although the United Kingdom is quite small in terms of land area (242,000 sq. Ian), it has a large population of nearly 58 million. Britain is a relatively densely populated country.

·f

more than one language. Around 20% of the people in Wales speak Welsh and children learn it in Welsh schools. About 80,000 people in Scotland speak Gaelic. People from overseas have brought with them their languages, cultures and religions. Everyone in Britain has the right to religious freedom. Britain is predominantly Christian - one British citizen in 10 is a member of the Roman Catholic Church and there are 1,7 million members of the Anglican Church - the 'established church', that is the church legally recognised as the official church of the State.

1 Read the text about the UK. For questions 1-8, choose the correct answer A, B or C. 1 The United Kingdom consists of A England, Scotland and Wales B Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales. C Northern Ireland and Great Britain. 2 Bdtt{{ais cae largest is{an<i A in the north-west of Europe. B in the west of Europe. C in the north of Europe. 3 The climate of Britain is A warm and sunny most of the time. B mild but not too warm and changeable. C very cold, especially in winter. 4 The political system of the UK A combines constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy. B is absolute monarchy. C is fully democratic. 5 Political power rests with A the Queen. B the government led by the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. C the Prime Minister alone. 6 How often must General Elections be held in the UK? A Every three years. B Every four years. C Every five years. 7 Great Britain is a powerful state which A always keeps its political neutrality. B is a member of strong, influential organisations. C is not a member of an international military bloc. 8 Great Britain was occupied by the Romans A in 1006. B from AD 43 to 409. C for the last 6 centuries. 9 The smallest part of inhabitants Iive in A in England. B in Wales. C in Scotland. 2 Find English equivalents sentences below. (section (section (section (section 1) 2) 3) 4) in the text and use some of them in the correct form to complete the

sudaryti; plotas; vidutinis klimatas; permainingas oras; krituliai; kalnuotas valdzia; paveldimas; vadovauti; paskirti apgyvendinti; biiti kilusiam is; vertinti; uzpuolimas; susivienyti; padalyti; itakingas gyventojll skaiCius; tankiai apgyvendintas; isvengti; persekiojimas; didokas; bendruomene; maZuma; atstovauti; daugiausia

1 His income is quite , now that he has been promoted. 2 Is musical ability ? 3 My husband company director last year. 4 You have been chosen our association at the conference. 5 He a team of scientists investigating cancer. 6 The refugee ............................ his chances of escape as very good. 7 The house now by a Polish family. 8 Annual was lower last year than ever before. 9 Luckily she the infection. 10 The group oflawyers and doctors. 11 What is the of Lithuania?

3 Look at the list of words and put them into the correct group. Each word is a river, town or capital in Britain. There is one odd city out. Which one and why? Ballymena Lagan Belfast Glasgow Birmingham London Severn Towns England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland The odd city out is ...................... the the the the because ............................. Cardiff Dublin Rivers Clyde Swansea Edinburgh Thames Capitals

LITHUANIA Physical Geography. Climate The Republic of Lithuania lies in the centre of Europe, on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. The country has borders with Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. The length of the Lithuanian coastline is 99 lan. Lithuania covers an area of 65,200 square kilometres and it is larger than that of Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands and Switzerland. From east to west the country is 373 lan, and from south to north it is 276 lan. The country has a diverse landscape - three hilly uplands, and three lowland plains. The highest point is Juozapines Hill, not far from Vilnius; it is 293,6m above sea level. Approximately 30% of the country is covered with woodlands. The traveller is soothed by quiet, picturesque landscapes: hills, rivers and brooks, valleys and woodlands, and some 4,000 lakes and 722 rivers. The longest river is the Nemunas (937 km) which flows into the Baltic Sea. Its length through Lithuania is 475km. Lithuania's climate is mild, it is transitional between maritime and continental. The average winter temperature is _50C, while the average summer temperature is + 17,80 C. Westerly winds prevail. Annually, there are 40-100 foggy days and 15-30 days with thunderstorms. During the colder season of the year, there are 10-15 days offreezingrain and snowstorms. Thaws are frequent. Politics Lithuania is a republic. The Parliament of the Republic or the Seimas is the highest body of state power. It consists of 141 MPs elected for four-year terms. The President of the Republic is elected by direct suffrage for a term of five years. The Government is composed of the Prime Minister and 14 ministers. The Prime Minister is appointed or dismissed by the President with the approval of the Seimas. People Lithuania has a population of 3.8 million people, 81 % of which are Lithuanians. Russians make up the second largest ethnic group with 8.4 % of the population.

The state language is Lithuanian (it's the official language since 1989). It is also one of the oldest Indo-European languages. The 32-letter Lithuanian alphabet is Latin based. Lithuania was the last country in Europe to adopt Christianity in 1387. The majority of the population are Roman Catholics.

4 Work in groups of three or four. Your class is looking forward to seeing a group of friends from Latvia who have never visited your country before. Discuss together the following points: • • • • the places of Lithuania you want to take them to means of transport you are going to use possible accommodation for your guests their free time activities

5 Find out how important your country's culture is to you, and how much you know about it. Discuss these questions and give the feedback to the class. What traditional songs in your native language do you know? When and where did you last sing or listen to traditional songs? What traditional dances and games do you know? When did you last do any of these activities? Why do you think national song and dance festivals are so popular with the Lithuanians all over the world? What other features can distinguish one country from another? Think of some aspects of 'imported' culture that you are happy to accept, and some that you are less happy about? What traditions and customs are observed celebrating Christmas and Easter in Lithuania? What national dishes can you prepare? 6 Work in pairs. A foreigner has come to your town on a short business trip. Taking turns explain where the following facilities are. The given pattern and phrases may be of use.

Foreigner: You: Foreigner: You:

Excuse me, is there a chemist near here? Yes, the nearest one is in Gedimino Street, opposite the supermarket. How can I get there? Cross the square and turn left into Mindaugo Street. Walk down the street as far as the traffic lights. Then turn right into Gedimino Street, and the chemist's is about half way down, on the left. turn left / right / into; go straight on / past; carryon / keep going until you get; walk down / as far as; take the first / second turning on the right / left; cross ...Street is the first / second / next turning / street on your right / left; it's at the beginning / end of the street; it's half way down the street; on the comer; over there

7 Study the spidergram and choose a topic that interests you. Do some research on the topic you have chosen. Make use of material available in libraries, newspapers, tourist brochures, reference books, TV programmes, on the Internet etc. Present your work to the rest of the class.

c=!0PUlation~

0eOgraPhY~

C
/

Education ~

C
C

Nature ~

CToumm ~

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/

~~

C C
C

Climate ~

Industty ~

CITlIUAN~

~

Spom ~

Food~

/

\

~
Free time activities

CFeStivm ~

C

Cities

~

~jterature

~

CFamous~ people

WRITING

INTRODUCTION Paragraph 1: introduce the subject and state your opinion clearly MAIN BODY Paragraph 2: first argument and reasons / examples Paragraph 3: second argument and reasons / examples Paragraph 4: opposing viewpoint and reasons / examples CONCLUSION Final paragraph: restate your opinion using different words • The number of paragraphs in the main body depends on the number o~ "nts you want to present. • You should list your arguments with Firstly, Furthermore, Moreo r..~ 50 e c and may include the opposite viewpoint using On the other hand, However, Others cl' , argue that etc in the last paragraph of the main body. • Avoid strong personal expressions (eg I know) and feelings (eg I 's abs: . w believe ..., or Everybody hates ...) and use milder phrases such as I (tend to) believe, In my op' _In my view, It seems to me that etc to express your opinion. • Use formal style - do not include colloquial English. • Do not use short forms. • Use topic sentences to introduce each paragrapll. 1 Read the following composition expressing opinion. Correct the mistak for word order, WW for wrong word, GR for grammar or P for punctuation. 'rite S for spelling, WO

Living in a small town
The idea of living in a small town may sound strange and °unatrac "e SP unattractive) to those who lwas (. ) brought up in cities. As I was born in a small 0\' and spent my young years there, I believe, that life in a rural area is lmore much beneficial (. ) than in a city. Firstly, it seems to me that many people prefer living in a small town bee _ 0 its calmness and slow 3race (. ) of everyday life. You don't have to rush and ei' '0 c jams as all facilities are within reach of your hand. Besides, there is more of a feeling of4comiDL' ) as you know your neighbours and you can talk to them. Thus, close an . relationships smakes (. ) your life less stressful. Secondly, it is healthier to live in a rural area as there are fewer indo so there is less pollution and noise than in a city. 6Moreover ( ) small Ol r. - suallv are surrounded (. ) by lots of greenery and you can enjoy picturesque \ i .'•. open space and wildlife every day. All that makes people feel more relaxed, less nervous or upse:. In contrast to a city, the crime 8level (. ) in the co .-r:- _.~ : 100\'erand it is quite safe to go out at night on your own. What could be better for children har.. rowing up in a safe and peaceful 9village (. ). However, certain aspects of living IOat a small town ( ) can be unpleasant. Scarce job opportunities, poor entertainment, lack of privacy and limited possibiliTies 0 oeTting a good education Ilshould be consider (. ) before deciding to move to The countryside. In conclusion, I believe that the benefits 110utweight (. ) he drawbacks of living in the countryside and whether you enjoy living in it or not depends on the type of person you are. 2 The teacher city centre'. has asked you to express your opinion on the topic 'There is nothing like living in the Write a composition of 180-240 words following the guidelines given.

INTRODUCTION Paragraph

1:

set the scene (name and location of the place / building, reasons for choosing the place / building) overall look and particular details (Place: sights, facilities, free-time activities. Building: fIrst look and specifIc details) feelings and final thoughts about the place / building plus recommendation

MAIN BODY
Paragraphs 2, 3:

CONCLUSION Final paragraph:

3 The paragraphs of this descriptive paragraphs in the correct order.

composition

have been mixed up. Use the plan to put the jumbled

Oxford, the city of dreaming spires
~ With its mix of ancient and modern, there is plenty to see and do in Oxford. For sightseers and lovers of culture there are numerous historic buildings, museums and art galleries to visit, while enthusiasts of walking, fishing and boating can enjoy marvellous opportunities provided by colourful college gardens, busy rivers and rowing clubs. Shoppers can take pleasure browsing in vast department stores and exclusive boutiques. The catering life is equally brilliant with a wide variety of restaurants, bars and pubs to choose from. [[D On the whole, Oxford is a remarkable city to visit with something for everyone, and it is recommended to anyone seeking beauty, variety and fun. For those who want to study there is no better place like Oxford which reputation for outstanding academic achievement is known world-wide. @[] Oxford, the city of dreaming spires, is famous the world over for its University and place in history. Located in the centre of England on the rivers Thames and Cherwell with a population of over 200 000 it is the destination of thousands of visitors who come here either to study or experience the excitement of one If tie lost interesting cities in Britain. D The most fascinating thing about Oxford is the University, originally established in 1214. Through centuries it continued to expand and develop, meeting the needs of each generation. Learners, who arrive in Oxford, are surprised to find out that Oxford University is made up of a collection of many different colleges and institutions, each with its own history and characteristics.

accept l;;lk'sept/ priimti; pritarti, pripazinti adopt l;;l'dopt/ priimti, isisavinti ancient l'emI;;lntl senoves, senovinis annual I'renju;;lll kasmetinis appoint l;;lp:Jmt/ paskirti ' approval l;;l'pru:vll pritarimas approximately l;;l'proksrm;;ltlil apytikriai, maidaug attempt l;;l'temptl stengtis, meginti, bandyti available 1;;l'veI1bll alimas naudoti, turimas g average I'rev(;;l)nd:)! vidurkis; vidutinis, vidutiniskas beneficial l,bem'frIII naudingas, palankus beyond Ibr'jondl anapus, uz border I'b:J:d;;l1 siena boutique Ibu: 'ti:kl madingtL brangiq daiktq parduotuvele brook Ibruk/ upelis, upoksnis bustling I'bASlrIJItriuksmingas (apie vietq) challenging l'tIrelmd3rIJI viliojantis, idomus Christian I' knstI;;ln! kriksCioniskas, kriksCioniq Christianity I,knstr'ren;;ltil kriksCionybe

collocate I'kol;;l,kertl tinkamai suderinti zodzius community Ib'mju:n;;ltil bendruomene, visuomene comprise Ibm 'pralZl susideti is, apimti compose Ibm 'P;;lUz/sudaryti continental I,kontr'nentll kontinentinis, zemyninis cover I'kAV;;l1zimti u crowded I'kraudrdl sausakimsas, tankiai gyvenamas decent I'di:sntl padorus; neblogas, gana geras demande Idi 'ma:ndl paklausa, poreikis densely I' denslil tankiai density I'dens;;ltil tankumas descend Idr'sendl kilti, atsirasti destination I,destr' nerI nl keliones tikslas direct/dr'rektl tiesioginis distribute Idr 'stnbju:t/ dalinti, skirstyti diverse Idm'v3:s1 skirtingas, ivairus elective /r'lektrvl renkamas established /r' streblrItl nusisto(ve )j«S, pripazintas, zinomas estimate I'estr,mertl apytikriai paskaiCiuoti; ivertinti

ethnic I' eenrkl etninis expand Irk'sprendl plestis facilities If;}'srl;}trz/ irenginiai, visuom. paskirties pastatai fairly l'fe;}lil pakankamai, gana fascinating I'fresmeltII)1 zavus foggy I'fogil Ukanotas, apgaubtas riiko found Ifaundl (i)steigti, (i)kurti frequent I'fri:kw;}ntl daznas, daznai pasikartojantis generally l'd3en(;})r;}lil daugiausia, dazniausiai generation I,d3en;},reIJ nl karta ghost Ig;}ustl smekla, vaiduoklis govern I' gAvn/ valdyti hereditary Ih;)' red;}t(;} pa veldimas )ri/ hi-tech I,hai'tekl moderniosios technologijos hump IhAmpl kupra; kauburys, giibrys influence I'mflu;}nsl itaka, poveikis influential Imflu'enJII turintis lemiamos itakos include Im'klu:dl itraukti, apimti increase Im'kri:sl augti, (pa)dideti inhabit 1m' hrebltl gyventi, apgyvendinti invasion Im'veI3n/ uzpuolimas, invazija lie (lay, lain) lIar! guleti; biiti maintain Imem'tern! islaikyti, priziiireti, eksploatuoti majesty I'mred3;}stil didenybe major l'me1d3;}1 pagrindinis, didesnis, svarbesnis maritime I'mrentarm/ pajiirio; jiif\!, laivybos marvellous l'mu:v;}I;}sl nuostabus, zavingas mild Imarldl svelnus; nesaltas, malonus minority (maI'nDf;}til mazuma notably I'n;}ut;}blil ypac odd lodl keistas, neiPrastas outstanding laut'strendII)1 ispiidingas; garsus, izymus outweigh laut'wer! nusverti, biiti svarbesniam overpriced I,;}uv;}'prarstl per brangus oversea(s) I,;}uv;}'si:zl uzjiiros; uZsienyje, i uzsieni pace IpeIsl greitis, tempas partition IPU:'tIJn/ padalijimas; suskaldymas

persecution I, :::: plain Iplein/ IYo.: pollution Ip;}' . =-' e=-;:=-:~:::2.s. possiblity I,p - • predominantly ~=.::~~ prevail Ipn\-e prosper I'pro:.. rarely I're;;lr . ~ rate !reltl proce:: .. recent I'ri:sn relatively I're d_ rule lru:U \. rest!rest/bii ': ur":fu~~ row !r;;lu/' ,rurall'w;;lr;}l' , 'rush !rAJI sk rush hour I'r. scarce Isked =ej~~k.arn:s securing I I' 'u.;;_~_ ~.:!:"!:~~::l::is. apsaugantis seek Isi:k/ ici settlement/'se' -:c.:. separate I' e soothe Isu:O/ nu..-z== =~~;;::i spire l'spaIdl • suffrage I'sAfn - . thunderstorm I .'- thaw le':1:1 atl throughout Ie : traffic jam I'tr<r ~n:;:;:;;\)'bi'ili' '!kamstis transitional/tr<r Zl. - ~ IS uplands I'Apldnciz. ~Gi::=::::l:!S.. -? 'ota vietove up-to-date I,Ap ;;l'.~- S=c!.-!:1::::.5.s.. odemus; naujausias valley I'vreli/ sJe 'vast/vu:stl erd\ :' =-=..:.waterfall I'w-::J: woodland I'wu ;u:. ~~:.=.
r _

ADDITIONAL WORD B
prepositions of direction and place across, along, back to, onto, out of, past, round, to, through, towards, up above, among, at, below, beneath, beside, between, in, in front of, inside, near, next to. 0_ location in the south / west I east I north of Brighton is in the south of England. They live north or westof England. on the southern I western I eastern I northern coast of Liverpoo::s London lies on the river Thames. Newcastle is situated close to the sea. motion (or movement) climb: go upward The tourists climbed the mountain. fall: go downforward Leaves fall in autumn. hurry: go quickly Hurry up! We'll miss the train. pass: go past You have to pass the railway station. Bristol is in the southme western coast of Britain.

return: go back When are. v' ianning to return? arrive The train arrived in 1.,0 on at 14.00. leave (left) The plane left Hor.a ' no at 7.00. come, go, enter: go in(to) Am. emered the room.

how to measure distance We measure distance in inches (coliais), feet (pedomis), yards, miles or in centimetres, metr measuring distances is widely used in English-speaking countries.

VOCABULARY

housing benefit income tax a (trade) union student grant / allowance unemployment recession unemployment benefit family allowancelchild benefit! child allowance priority 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 a temporarily bad time in a country's economy an organised association of workers in a particular job / profession the most important thing the situation in which many people are out of work the money you can get when you are out of work the money you can get when you study the money you can get if your rent is very high the money you can get to support your children the money you pay to the state from your earnings

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

a country which has a president and is governed by elected representatives to rule (a country, city etc) a state ruled by a monarch (a king or a queen) a group of countries under a single supreme authority system of government run by a dictator freedom from outside control; self-governing to choose in a formal way, eg by marking a ballot paper the head of state in many modem states someone for whom politics is a career a government made up of several parties to choose someone or something by voting

empIre republic to govern monarchy independence dictatorship politician to elect President to vote coalition

forgery hooliganism 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

domestic violence pick pocketing

burglary hijacking

mugging blackmail

hacking vandalism

The burglar's presence was betrayed by a creaking floorboard. The neighbours often saw Mrs Fowler with bruises on her face. Three youths attacked the old lady in the dark side street and ran off with her handbag. They are still holding eight people hostage on the plane. The criminals were caught red-handed as they were exchanging fake notes at the bank. She threatened to show the photos to his boss unless she got a thousand dollars. Some drunken fans ran around smashing things and fighting other youths. The students accessed the secret information from the bank computer system. The teenagers were accused of deliberately damaging ten new phone boxes. The wallet with a big sum of money was stolen from his back pocket.

1 My uncle's running / sitting for Parliament in the next election. Q:ed / elected MP for our city. 3 What is your country's economic politics / policy? 4 Marc e Prime Minister / the Minister offoreign affairs of Great Britain in 1979 - 1990. 5 I do ': ( politics / policy, but I always support the Centre Coalition Party. 6 Next week studen _ =/ ' 'ng a demonstration in favour of multi-party system. 7 There has been another increase f r. - -'-' nt of crime. 8 They accused / blamed Andy of stealing the money. 9 Stephen could no· ._- \' = been at the scene of the crime. 10 The murderers of the girls received a life sentence / .::-~rf==~::.. __ ~e youths didn't realise that they had broken / committed the law. 12 Alan won his very good defence / _ sentence. prosecution lawyer. 13 If you plead / find guilty, the judge will pI'

-= •

1 The EU is the European supranational organisation dedicat strengthening co-operation among its member states. 2 The EU countries work together to make the world a safer pIa ~ nuclear safety, long-term unemployment, industrial decline an states, the integration of young people into working life, disease: 3 Under the Treaty on European Union, customs and immigration agI:ee;::£,:~'citizens greater freedom to live, work or study in any of the relaxed. 4 May 9th is Europe Day. This is the day on which the EU membe _ cel~-.::~ 1950 when the idea of a united Europe was first thought of. 5 Any European country can apply to join the EU but they have 0 r standards. 6 Most EU decisions are made by the Council of Ministers which CO'llS1S~ member countries who meet regularly. 7 Central questions are decided at a higher level at Euro-summit ill 8 Influential political forces usually don't speak out against the E

ommon problems as areas of its member ~ o· illegal drugs. ;cd to allow European rder controls were

USE of ENGLISH
Mr Milelock: Something awful has happened. I (1 burgle) Policeman: When (2 it happen) ? Mr M: Just this afternoon. They (3 must get) in while I I P: Could you tell us what things (5 they take) _ Mr M: I lost some antique (6 paint) , a laser portable CD-player. Apart from that, a black leather .................................. the criminals (9 take) __ (10 find) my place just (11 complete) ._. and the rooms (12 total) devastat .................................. and (14 tear) .................................. that the money (16 hide) _ .................................. thing is to think that my own private life 1 in some ways and that someone (19 be) . .................................. through all of my private papers, addre ses P: How (21 they break) into the house? Mr M: Well, the person must have got into the sitting-room by (22 fa windows. _

~ . \'hich (8 obvious) - ~ --' =5 away in. And I upside down he (13 furnish) ~: 15 must think) .. _. ~ ~ most (17 stress) ouse, (20 look) ~::::. sruff and ...

2 Read the text and think of the word which fits each space best. Use only one word in each space. Good evening, and here is the Eight O'clock News. There is no 1..•................ news about the famous Lanstable painting, Norfolk Sunset, 2...•...........••.... was stolen last night 3 ....•....•..•••.•.. the National Gallery. The painting, which 4 worth half a million pounds, was given 5 the gallery in 1978. It hasn't 6 found yet, and all airports and ports 7 ••••••••.•••••••••• being watched. Cars and trucks are 8 ••••••••••••••••••• searched. A reward of $10,000 has been offered 9 ..•••••••.••••••••• the information. Two of the four accused men 10 ..............••.•. convicted at yesterday's trial. 11••••... .'..••••••.•• the trial, the jury sat 12 silence and listened 13 ...•............... all the evidence. They were not allowed to interrupt 14 ••••••••••••...••.. witnesses. Although the lawyer defended the accused men 15•••••.•.•.•.•.•.•.•.• well, they were still found guilty 16 the jury. Judge George Patt sentenced 17 to three years in prison. They'll probably be released 18•.••••.••••.••••••. two years. The 19••••••••.••••.•.••• accused men were acquitted and left the courtroom smiling and happy.

1 My handbag wavit.Qlf;r! at the concert yesterday. 2 So far only two of the six accused men at the trial. 3 Last night this bank by an armed gang. 4 The company promised that he by the best lawyer. 5 No one knew that he by the judge to ten years in prison. 6 The man left the courtroom happy and smiling because he . 7 The sentenced man probably in three years. 8 An old lady by a gang of youths in the park. 9 Their country house twice this year. 10 The plane while on the flight to Delhi.

acquit burgle convict defend mug release rob sentence -Steat-: hijack

1 Charles said that he hadn't punched the girl. Charles denied 2 'I forged my father's signature', said Arthur. Arthur admitted 3 Harry stole 10 000 pounds and was arrested. Harry was arrested 4 'We saw the accused break into the house', said the witnesses. The witnesses stated ; 5 'You can't park here'. The police officer told us 6 Calling the police isn't any good. It 's 7 My advice is to inform the police. I think you'd 8 There didn't use to be so much crime in our area in the past. There is much 9 It's difficult to see so many beggars on the streets. I find it 10 The local people identified one of the victims. One of the victims

. . . . . . . . . .

READING and SPE.AlCC'G
1 Eight sentences have been removed from the text. From sentenc appropriate gap. Write the letter of the sentence next to the n extra sentence you do not need. A But when the messages continued
B

_ -I oose the one which fits the r 1· of the gap. There is one

C

n
E

F
G H I

to arrive, Nicola found it diffi study from home. I stopped going out because I felt so scared. If someone violates that, it's as if they are attacking you persona11.·. Normally the sender's name is listed at the end of the message. People are being caught and punished for this crime, so it's imPOllUlJl( Her phone is like her best friend packed into a cute little plasti New figures from research company NOP show thousands of tee Like Nicola, Hayley Saunders, 14, had to study for her GCSEs a abusive text messages each day and couldn't concentrate. Hayley used to take her mobile phone to school.

rims of text bullying. ..., ,-~ be was getting dozens of

Think again. A terrifying new trend for text message bullying could turn the hotline to your mates into the bane of your life. By Katie Aston. Jessica Hansard has been glued to her mobile phone since her parents bought it for her 16th birthday last year. She loves texting her friends - at college, on the bus, in her bedroom, anywhere. 1 . So imagine her shock when, a couple of months ago, she opened her messages to find 'Die bitch!' shouting back at her angry black letters. 'At first I thought it must be a mistake or a sick joke so I didn't do anything', she says. 'But the messages kept coming, getting more threatening, saying they knew where I lived. 2 I didn't even feel safe at home'. Jessica eventually told her dad, who rang the number and told the person on the other end to stop or he would phone the police. The phone went dead. 'The messages have stopped, but I still feel scared. I have no idea who was behind it all', says Jessica. 'Every time my phone bleeps I feel sick'. And Jessica isn't alone. 3 Of 3.6 million schoolage mobile owners, 14% have received a deliberately hurtful call or message. Even scarier, text bullying is at its worst among 14 to 16-year-olds, with one in five receiving a nasty call or message. Nicola Wilson, 15, from Grindleton in Lancashire, was bombarded with threatening messages. '1 was terrified when I got the first message', she remembers. 'I was babysitting on my own and it'said, 'I am watching you'. I thought someone was going to murder me'. Nicola realised a group of girls in her year at school were responsible when they started to send messages that were the same as what they were saying to her at school. 'It was almost a relief to find out it was them', she says. 4 . 'It was hard to study with no teachers, and I am sure it affected my grades. I had to take my GCSEs in a school for disadvantaged children. The police went to see the girls who did it, and they've stopped it now, but I'm really angry at what they put me through.' 5 Mobiles are banned at Hayley's school, but

pupils sneak a er Deborah says, 'You hear about young . g suicide because of problems like these. P '. seem a realise how serious it is'. Mobile pho ~ - : -...,.:0 ·ggered such a sense of hopelessness in I' oyez Gail Jones that the Merseyside schoolgirl killed b 1:.- overdosing on paracetamol. She had been torme onths by anonymous messages, receiving up to _0 in half an hour. The police had asked her not to change the number or get rid of her phone in an attempt to catch the culprit. 'It's the feeling of no escape that's so distressing', believes psychologist Dr Anu Sayal-Bennet. 'For many people, a mobile phone is almost an extension of themselves. 6 And of course they can get at you anywhere, any time. Text bullying is an invisible crime and fear of the unknown is the worst fear of all'. So how can you protect yourself from text bullies? First, if you get any weird messages, tell someone. Only six out of ten young victims tell a parent, a teacher or the police, but you should. As support website bullying. com explains: 'It is a criminal offence to send offensive or threatening phone messages and, if it continues, it can amount to harassment. The poli an do take action'. It is difficult to track down the bullies, but because all text messages are processed through central call centres (unlike voice calls). it's not impossible. 7 If they have sent it from a \vebs'te \" a --ers free anonymous text messaging via the net, he \"eos'te's name will usually be displayed, and the police should be able to track the sender with the help of the site's managers. Detective Inspector Hamish Brown of New Scotland Yard is keen to encourage victims to come forward. 'Senders of maticious tex.t messages can be arrested and face up to five years in prison if they give the victim the cause to fear for their life. 8 Just remember that the message is evidence, so you must save it' . It's reassuring to know that, although textual harassment is a sinister, often secret activity, there is help for victims. Sending malicious m -- c.i""'. ~.:. _. __ e. Make sure you don't
g •

If''.t thf".m p-~t ;]W;]V

with

iT.

1 2 3 4 5

texting her friends ... went dead ... text bullying is at its worst ... on my own ... were the same as what they were saying ...

6 7 8 9 10

pupils sneak them in ... they can get at you anywhere ... to track down the bullies ... to come forward ... don't let them get away with it ...

1 2 3 4 5

Jessica was terrified when she received the first message. text message bullying is widely spread among 14 to 16-year olds. there were cases when mobile phone bullying influenced teenagers' studies. many people find text bullying similar to an unpredictable assault. if you report the fact of text bullying to the police, there's a great possibility to detect the bullies.

4 Have you ever experienced bullying? Work in groups. Discuss different forms of bullying and the ways of dealing with this problem. Share your experiences and present your opinion to the class. The phrases given in the box might be useful for your presentation. Bullying can be: • physical (hitting, pushing or kicking) • verbal (name calling or teasing) • emotional (not talking to someone, humiliating or annoying them)

a bully a victim of bullying fight back bully younger kids be (severely) bullied young offenders encourage worry about bullying ignore the problem report bullying / being bullied force sb to do sth have (frightening) experience of being bullied most cases / incidents of bullying happen / occur (at school, travelling to / from school) 5 Work in pairs or small groups. Make a list of the 5 most common types of crimes in Lithuania nowadays. Indicate the type of punishment that you suggest and explain the reasons why these crimes are committed. Then comment on your list and compare it with the one of your friend. Provide solutions for reducing crime in your area. Consult the additional word bank and the phrases below if necessary. types of crimes: drink driving, pickpocketing, speeding, forgery, rape, joyriding, a minor / serious criminal offence, drug-related crimes types of punishment: to fine sb for (doing) sth, to get a light / severe sentence, to imprison sb for (seven) years, to charge sb with (doing) sth, to take into custody ways of preventing crime: to patrol an area, to report a crime to the police, to promote neighbourhood watch schemes, to install a network of cameras scanning a crowd of people (in a street / shop etc), to keep an eye on sth 6 Read the text and fill in the gaps in the sentences given below. Government in the United Kingdom and the United States of America

The political system of the United Kingdom combines monarchy with parliamentary democracy. The UK consists of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. London, the capital, is the centre of government for the whole of Britain, but local authorities are partly responsible for education, health care, the police and other things. Laws are made by Parliament. There are two chambers ('houses'): the House of Commons and the House of Lords. The House of Lords consists of about 1000 hereditary members and has little power. 650 members of the House of Commons are called MPs; a Member of Parliament is elected by the people from a particular area (constituency). Parliamentary elections are held every five years or less. The leader of the majority party in Parliament becomes Prime Minister, and he or she chooses the MPs who will run the different departments ofthe government - the ministers. The Prime Minister and the most important ministers

make up the Cabinet, which is the real government of the country. -:;-:: -~ main political parties: the Labour Party (left-wing), the Conservative Party (right-wing), and the -=:-LiberalAlliance (centre). Britain has a ceremonial Head of State, the King or Queen, who has - -; The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of - :-."'<C =....:-:- -" has its own government and constitution and is joined to the others by a federal govern me 3_ - tion the government of the nation is entrusted to three separate authorities: the Executi ve, the =..e.: . - .; :.::" Judicial. The executive power is given to the President, who holds his office for a term of - _. - is "lected together with the Vice-President. A presidential candidate must be at least 35 years ~ :. native-born American citizen. The President's job includes suggesting laws to the Congress. :;' g laws. The President is also Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The Presiden .!icy of the USA, and meets foreign heads of states for talks. The job also includes ap eral officials, such as judges and ambassadors. Official residences include The White Ho -~ in Florida. The whole legislative power in the USA is given to the Congress. There are \ 0 - - -. -'S Congress: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is entrusted with . -. - .::: r rejecting all treaties o made by the President. There are two main political parties: the Re:=- ---= _ . the Democratic Party.

-= --- :-

Parliament in the UK consists of two 1...................•....... : the H ....::~ :In the House of Commons there are 650 2 •••••.•.....•....•.•.••••.. , each.:ruling party in the Parliament is the one which gains a 4 ••.................•••• __ .: is called the 5 The Commons is elected for a ma..'ti2 the Prime Minister may call a general election at any time within The USA is 7 .•.••.•....•.••..••••••••• consisting of 50 states. The eO =::-8 The President is elected for 9 ..•..............•.•• _. 10 •.••••••••••.•.•••••.•••.•.• There are two chambers in the US Congres:: ::...
12

d the House of Lords. The . figure in that party .: _.although

=' ~._

~ -;

_ ~~:'

.

tion is entrusted to ent's job includes . The Senate can

1 2 3 4 5

Where was democracy first developed? Do you know who the Mayor of your town is? Name the President and the ex-Presidents of Lithuania? What politicians represent you in local and national government? What are the main political parties in your country? (the Con :- Democrats, the Socialists, the Communist Party, the Centre Coali . 6 Which is the oldest parliament in the world? 7 Name two monarchies. 8 What do these political abbreviations stand for - MP, PM, UN, EC _ -.-:: 9 Where are the headquarters of the EU? 10 Which six countries were the first members of the EU? 8 Tell your partner which three things from the list below worry yo explain why. Then talk about the things you are optimistic about. • lack of morality in our society (corruption in politics, financial ID.25.e money; total indifference towards others; domestic, drug-related • globalization of economy and culture • environmental pollution • natural disasters (flooding, famine, drought etc) • the growth of population • long-term unemployment • racial and religious intolerance • new incurable diseases • genetically modified food • something else?

Party, the Liberal - . _' !ican Party etc)

--_..:: overimportance of

--

)

• • • • • • • •

why it is important for Lithuania to be a member of international organisations (NATO, the ED) what the benefits and shortcomings of being a member of the ED are what peacekeeping operations our country participates in which is better: to vote or abstain from voting? Why? if the government takes good care of disad vantaged families, ageing, disabled and unemployed people if there are any voluntary organisations providing help to the elderly people in your area if the quality of life is getting better or worse why families with a high standard of living feel more socially secure than the ones living on low or below-average incomes

In my opinion, . Well, I suppose . However, . Despite the fact that

.

I'm not sure I agree As far as I know I assume that . To my mind, .

, ,

Regarding the fact that From my point of view, Taking into account . In spite of the fact that

, . .

WRITING
1 Read the composition expressing opinion and label the paragraphs with the headings below. Then write your composition expressing opinion. Use the suggested tasks for writing on pg. 158. • second argument and reasons • restatement of opinion • first argument and reasons • opposing viewpoints

Should teenagers be sent to prison?
As we enter the age of globalisation and new technologies, we are faced with new social problems. One of them is juvenile crime and a great number of teenagers in prison. In my view, teenagers should not be sent to prison for a number of reasons. For a start, once in prison, young people are exposed to many dangers. They are forced to socialise with professional criminals who have a negative influence on teenagers. Therefore, they may also become more aggressive and learn how to commit even more serious crimes. Moreover, these young people may get addicted to drugs and are likely to become more difficult as they are taken away from their families and friends. As a result, the life of a teenager behind bars becomes a vicious circle of crime. Another serious point worth mentioning is that once out of prison these teenagers find it difficult to get a good job. It becomes almost impossible because of the criminal records which will follow the teenager forever. Despite the fact that they have a chance to learn new skills while in prison, many employers simply refuse to employ ex-criminals. For this reason, teenagers who have served a sentence have minimal chances of finding a good job. However, the opponents say that imprisonment keeps teenagers off the streets and stops them from committing more crimes. They strongly believe that locking young people up is the experience which will be unpleasant for them and they will hopefully learn their lesson. In conclusion, I believe that prison is not suitable for young offenders because it can do more harm than good.

Guidelines for writing a composition

providing

solutions

INTRODUCTION Paragraph 1: state the problem(s) MAIN BODY Paragraph 2: first suggestion and result / consequences Paragraph 3*: second suggestion and result / consequen e: CONCLUSION Final paragraph: summarise your opinion or give the best sucge- 'on and result
*The number of the paragraphs in the main body depends on the number of sugge rio you~" :
0

make.

• Writing a composition providing solutions you should state the pro Ie learly, then present your suggestions and the expected results or consequences these sugge"o mich have. • Use formal language - do not include colloquial English, do not use short . - avoid personal expressions. • Start each paragraph with a topic sentence which summarises '.\ha[ graph is about. • Use appropriate linking words and phrases given below to show me 0 tion between paragraphs and within a paragraph as well. Expressing cause: since, the reason for / why ... is that ... , because 0 /o;;ing to / due to Expressing effect: so / consequently, as a result / consequence, he resulI of would be Expressing purpose: with the purpose of(+ ing) ... , so as / in order (lUJ) to , so that ... Expressing probability / possibility: ... is probable / possible / cenain co ... , it can / could / may 1 Read the composition providing solutions. The topic sentence of each paI"aeoraph is missing. Choose five of the sentences a-fgiven below and match them with the appropriate ~oraph in the composition. There is one extra sentence you do not need. What are the ways to improve the lives of the lderl ,? Shortage of money to live on, failing health arullo liness make old people feel miserable and depressed. As the senior citizens make up a great parr 0 our society, steps should be taken to improve their lives. (2) The government could solve the problem ensurin re uJar monthly payments for old people. This would help to reduce the financial problems of the re 'r p ople as much as possible. (3) Consequently, old people need not fear falling ill an.d b in unable to pay for the treatment. Thus, they would enjoy both better health and peace of mind, (4) Community centres should encourage local schools iO "e care of the old people living in the neighbourhood. In such a way young people would be rau " :0 respect their elders and appreciate their experience of life. In consequence, old people should eel less isolated and ignored. (5) What a difference it would make if retirement I:ere a eriod for relaxation and leisure!
(1)

a We all know that old people feel economically and socially disadvQII a_e b Another way to deal with the situation would be to provide free medica." care to all people over a certain age. c Firstly, the elderly should receive adequate sums of income for covering heir basic needs such as accommodation and food, d All things considered, there are many ways in which the lives of old people could be improved. e A lot of elderly people find their last period of life rather challenging due 0 mrious reasons. f A useful suggestion for improving the lives of the elderly would be to solve the problem of social isolation which so many of them face. 2 Read the rubric and write your composition the ideas provided in the table. of 200-250 words. Follow the guidelines and make use of

Your class has been doing a project on crime. Write a composition on the topic: What are the ways to make your home and neighbourhood safer from crime?

Suggestions
install an alarm system get a trained dog promote neighbourhood watch scheme

Results / Consequences
deters thieves and automatically notifies the police or security firm alerts the owners / people inside the house that someone unknown is prowling outside people living around will see someone suspicious prowling around the neighbourhood and call the police

abstain Igb'steml susilaikyti abusive Ig'bju:srvl uzgaulus access I'reksesl pasiekti, patekti; priejimas accuse (of) Ig'kju:zl (ap)kaltinti acquit Ig'kwrtl isteisinti affect Ig'fektl (pa)veikti ageing I' erd3rI)1 senstantis alert Ig'13:tl ispeti alliance Ig'largnsl sqjunga allowance Ig'laugnsl ismoka, pasalpa annoy Ig'mr/ erzinti, pykinti assault Ig's:>:1tl uzpulti assume Ig'sju:m/ manyti average I'revgnd.31 vidutinis ballot paper I'brelgt,perpgl slapto balsavimo biuletenis ban Ibrenl uzdrausti bane ofsb's life gyvenimo skaudulys benefit I'benrfrtl nauda; pasalpa blackmail/'blrek,merll santazuoti bleep Ibli:pl pyptelejimas border I'b:>:dgl ribotis bruise I'bru:zl melyne, sumusimas bully I'bulil priekabiauti, (Ubauginti, skriausti bUllying l'bulirI)1 priekabiavimas, bauginimas burgle I'b3:gIl isilauzti, isilauzus apvogti by-election I'baII,lekInI papildomi rinkimai capital punishment I,kreprtl 'pAnrImgnti mirties bausme case Ikersl byla caught red-handed pagautas nusikaltimo vietoje chamber I'tIermbgl riimai citizen I'srtrznl pilietis commit Ib'mrtl ivykdyti, padaryti (kq nors bloga) common f'komgnl iPrastas; paprastas confess Ibn'fesl prisipazinti constituency Ibn'strtjugnsil rinkimine apygarda convict Ibn'vrktl (teis.) pripazinti kaltu, nuteisti courtroom I'b:t,ru:m/ teismo sale creak Ikri:kl girgzdeti culprit f'kAlpntl kaltininkas, prasikaltelis custody l'kAStgdil arestas customs I'kAstgmzl muitine decline Idr'klarnl silpnejimas, mazejimas dedicated (to) I'dedr,kertrdl atsidavlts defence Idr'fensl gynyba deliberately I dr' h b( g)rgtlil tycia deny Idr'nar/ neigti, atmesti detect/dr'tektl susekti, aptikti deter Idr't3:1 atbaidyti, sulaikyti devastate I'devg,stertl (nu)niokoti disadvantage I, drsgd 'va:ntrd.3! nepalanki aplinkybe, kliutis disgust Idrs'gAstl kelti pasibiaurejim~

drought Idrautl sausra drug IdrAgl vaistas; narkotikas earnings f'3:nrI)zl uzdarbis ensure Im'I:>:1 garantuoti entrust Im'trAstl patiketi evidence I'evrd( g)nsl (teis.) irodymas; parodymas executive Irg 'zekjutrvl vykdomoji valdzia extension Irk' stenI nI didinimas, ispletimas fake Iferkl netikras, padirbtas famine I'fremml badas fine Ifarnl bauda forgery l'hd.3gril klastojimas; klastote gain Igeml igyti, pasiekti glue Iglu:1 klijuoti; prilipti govern/'gAvnl valdyti grant Igra:ntl dotacija, stipendija guilty I'grltil kaltas hacker f'hrebl kompiuteriQ piratas handle f'hrendIl susitvarkyti (su) harass I'hrergsl neduoti ramybes hereditary Ihg' redgt( g)ril pa veldimas hijack I'har,d.3rek/ uzgrobti (lektuvq) horrific Iho'nfrkl siurpus hostage l'hostrd.3! ikaitas humiliate Ihju: 'mrli,ertl (pa)zeminti hurtful I'h3:tfll skaudinantis, izeidus income(s) l'mkAm/ pajamos indifference 1m' drfrgnsl abejingumas influential l,mflu'enIII itakingas interrupt l,mtg'rAptl pertraukti investigate Im'vestrgertl (is)tirti invisible 1m 'vrzgbIl nematomas joyriding f'd.3:>r,rardrI)1 automobiliQ vagyste (pramogai) jury f'd.3ugril prisiekusieji juvenile crime f' d.3u:Vg, narll nepilnameCiQ nusikalstamumas kick Ikrk/ spirti legislative f'led.3rslgtrvl istatymQ leidziamasis malicious Img' hI gsl pikta valiskas, tycinis minor f'mamgl nedidelis modified I'modr,fardl pakeistas mug ImAgl uzpulti ir apiplesti murder l'm3:dgl (nu)zudyti object 19b' d.3ektl priestarauti, nesutikti offence Ig'fensl nusikaltimas offender Ig'fendgl nusikaltelis offensive Ig'fensrvl uzgaulus, izeidZiantis package l'prekrd.3! paketas, siuntinys patrol Ipg'trgull patruliuoti, patrulis pickpocketing f'prk,pobtrI)1 kisenvagyste plead Ipli:dl atsakyti i kaltinimq, (ne)prisipazinti portable f'p:>:tgbIl nesiojamasis

priority Iprar'or;)til prioritetas, svarbiausias dalykas process I'pr;)uses/ apdoroti, perdirbti proof Ipru:fl irodymas prosecution l,prosr'kju:JnJ kaltinimas; prokuroras provide Ipr;)'vardl patiekti, pariipinti prowl Ipraull smizineti punch /pAntJI kumsCiuoti punishment l'pAllIJm;)ntl bausme put through l,put'8ru:1 uzbaigti, ivykdyti rape Irerpl isprievartauti recession In'seJnJ nuosmukis reassure l,ri:;)'Ju;)1 nuraminti, patikinti rejectln'<tekt! atmesti, at(si)sakyti release In'li:sl isleisti, paleisti representative I,repn'zent;)trv/ atstovas reward In'w:J:d! atpildas; atlygis rob lrobl apiplesti rule Iru:lI valdyti run for l,rAn 'hi kelti savo kandidaturfl rural 1'[O;)r;)ll kaimo secure /sr'kju;)1 saugus self-governing l,self'gAv;)llIIJI savivalda sentence I'sent;)nsl nuosprendis; nuteisti severe /sr'vr;)/ smarkus, sunkus, grieztas shortcoming !'J:J:t,kAmrIJI triikumas sinister I'sIllrst;)1 kraupus, gresmingas

smuggling ~:: sneak Ism:,,- -'. _.: speak out pzre: .'suicide I'SU:l, summit (meetina /'s. virSunill susitikimas supportls;)'p:J:t! paremti. palaikyti supreme Isu'pri:m/ auksciausias, didziausias tease Iti:zl erzinti tormentlh 'ment! kankinti, kamuoti track Itnekl (su)sekti trade union J'trerd 'ju:nj;)nJ profs~unga treaty (on) I'tri:til sutartis (del) trend Itrend! kryptis, tendencija trial J'trar;)l! teismo procesas trigger l'tng;)1 duoti postumi unpredictable I,Anpn' drkt;)bll nenuspej amas up-end lAP' end! apversti verdict J'V3:drkt! (prisiekusit{jl{ teismo) sprendimas vicious J'vrS;)s/ piktas, nirsus victim J'vrktrml auka voluntary I'vol;)nt(;))ril savanoriskas vote (for; against) Iv;)ut! balsuoti (ui; prieS) website I'web ,sart! tinklapis weird Iwr;)d! keistas witness I'wrtn;)sl liudininkas, -e; liudyti

ADDITIONAL

WORD BANK

l:overnment and politics Federation: a political union of several states for control of foreign affairs, defence, etc by the central (Federal) government but keeping regional (State) government for other things. The USA is an example of such a political union. Republic: a country which has a president and is governed by elected representatives. Empire: a group of countries under a single supreme authority. parliament: a supreme law-making assembly (in GB the House of Commons and the House of Lords) Member of Parliament (MP): a representative of the people in Parliament elect: to choose someone or something by voting; to call I hold an election; politics: the actions or activities which people use to achieve power in a country, society, or organisation I don't know much about politics, but I always support the Centre Coalition Party. Politics is a difficult science. policy: the programme of action of a particular party or government or a rule of behaviour (not necessarily connected with politics) After the war British policy was rather confused. Is honesty the best policy? (the best way to act?) politician: someone for whom politics is a career; leader; leadership He took over the leadership of the Liberal Party two years ago. names of political parties: the Conservatives, the Labour Party, the Liberal Democrats, the Socialists, the Communist Party, the Centre Coalition Party, the Republican Party etc; the judicial l<tu:'drSl! system teismine sistema NATO J'nert;)ul - North Atlantic Treaty Organisation: a military association between the USA, Canada and several western countries; UN - United Nations; supranational /,su:pr;)'meSn;)l! going beyond national boudaries; involving more than one country war and peace air force oro laivynas; ally J'relar/ sfliungininkas The two countries were allies at that time. ally I;)'lar, 'relar/ prisijungti, tapti s~ungininku; alliance I;)'lar;)ns/ s~unga; army; be in the army tarnauti armijoje; battle Hundreds of people were injured and dozens of buildings were dnmaged in the battle. During the battle the dead and wounded were flown out in helicopters. break out prasideti, kilti Civil war has broken out in the north of the country. bullet J'bulrt! kulka; casualty auka (sliZeistasis ar uZmustasis) The enemy suffered heavy casualties. disarmament Idrs 'a:m;)m;)nt! nusiginklavimas; neutral A country that declares that it will not involve itself in a war is a neutral country. missile I'rnrsarlJ raketinis ginklas; a ground-to air missile; nuclear missiles; guided missile valdoma raketa The explosion of the missile resulted in 650 casualties. a refugee l,refju'<ti:1 pabegelis Thousands of refugees have crossed the border looking for food and shelter. war; be at war kariauti; weapon I'wep;)n/ ginklas; nuclear weapon Rifles, arrows, bombs and tanks are all weapons. crime and justice defend sb in court ginti kfl nors teisme; find guilty pripazinti kaltu; handcuff uzdeti antrankius; send sb to prison / jail pasodinti i kalejimq; set free islaisvinti; take fingerprints; to release sb from prison / jail paleisti is kalejimo; be on trial teisiama(s) She is on trial for murder. break the law nusizengti

IRREGULAR VERBS
Netaisyklingieji veiksmazodziai
Bare Infinitive bendratis Past tense biltasis laikas
.

Past Participle biitojo laiko dalyvis arisen been beaten become begun bent bitten blown broken brought broadcast built burnt burst bought caught chosen come cost cut dealt dug done drawn drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten frozen got given grown hung had heard hidden held hurt kept known laid led left

Meaning reiksme

Bare Infinitive bendratis

Past tense biitasis laikas

Past Participle biitojo laiko dalyvis lent let lain lost made meant met paid put read ridden risen run said seen sold sent shaken shone shot shown shut sung sat slept spoken spent split spread stood stolen stuck struck sworn swum taken taught torn told thought thrown understood upset woken worn wept won wound written

Meaning reiksme

arise be beat become begin bend bite blow break bring broadcast build bum burst buy catch choose come cost cut deal dig do draw drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget freeze get give grow hang have hear hide hold hurt keep know lay lead leave

arose was, were beat became began bent bit blew broke brought broadcast built burnt burst bought caught chose came cost cut dealt dug did drew drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbad(e) forgot froze got gave grew hung had heard hid held hurt kept knew laid led left

iskilti, pasirodyti biiti suduoti, musti tapti pradeti (su) lenkti k'lsti piisti lauzyti, dauzyti at(si)nesti, at(si)vezti transliuoti statyti degti, deginti sprogti, prasiverzti pirkti gaudyti, sugauti rinkti, pa(si)rinkti ateiti, atvykti kainuoti pjauti, kirsti, kirpti !ureti reikalll kasti daryti piesti, tempti gerti vairuoti, varyti valgyti kristi maitinti( s) jausti kovoti, kautis (su)rasti skristi uzdrausti uZffiirSti susalti, uzsalti gauti, pasiekti duoti augti, auginti kabeti, (pa)kabinti !ureti girdeti slepti laikyti suzeisti, lskaudinti, skaudeti laikyti, saugoti zinoti, moketi (pa )deti, (pa )guldyti vesti, vadovauti palikti

lend let lie lose make mean meet pay put read ride rise run say see sell send shake shine shoot show shut sing sit sleep speak spend split spread stand steal stick strike swear swim take teach tear tell think throw understand upset wake wear weep win wind write

lent let lay lost made meant met paid put read rode rose ran said saw sold sent shook shone shot showed shut sang sat slept spoke spent split spread stood stole stuck struck swore swam took taught tore told thought threw understood upset woke wore wept won wound wrote

(pa)skolinti leisti guleti pralaimeti, pamesti (pa)daryti, gaminti reiksti suesi)tikti moketi (pinigus) padeti skaityti joti, vaziuoti keltis, kilti begti sakyti matyti parduoti,pardavineti sillsti kratyti, purtyti sviesti sauti rodyti uzdaryti, uZverti dainuoti sedeti miegoti kalbeti (is)leisti, praleisti skaldyti, (su)skilti, plysti (pa)tiesti, sklisti stoveti vogti smeigti, klijuoti suduoti, musti prisiekti, keiktis plaukti imti, nesti, vesti mokyti plesyti pasakyti, pasakoti, liepti galvoti mesti, sviesti suprasti nUliiidinti, prislegti pabusti deveti, nesioti verkti laimeti (pa )sukti, prisukti rasyti

VERB TENSES. ACTIVE VOICE
Veikiamosios rUsies veiksmazodziqlaikqlentele

Pavyzdziai • reguliariai pasikartojanCius veiksmus • bendras ties as ir desnius • budingas veiksnio ypatybes • iProcius ir paprocius • busim'lii veiksmq, kuris ivyks pagal tvarkarasti, bendr<t planq, program<t • veiksmq, vykstanti kalbamuoju momentu • siuo laikotarpiu vykstanti veiksm<t • suplanuot<t netolimos ateities veiksm<t • veiksmq, kuris nuolat pasikartoja ir erzina kalbetoj<t NB veiksmazodziai, neZymintys veiksmo, nevartojami tltstine laiko forma (like, hear, love, fear, want, see, believe, remember, belong, seem etc) • praeities veiksmq, susijusi su dabartimi (tikslus veiksmo laikas nezinomas) • veiksmq, prasidejusi praeityje ir besitltsianti dabartyje (su veiksmazodziais neturinciais Continuous form1.0 • vis dar aktualll praeities veiksmq, kurio padariniai jauciami dabar • veiksmq, daug kartll vykusi praeityje ir dar nesibaigusi • praeityje prasidejusi veiksmq, kuris vyksta ir dabar • veiksmq, prasidejusi praeityje, besitltsianti arba kit tik pasibaigust Pasibaiglts veiksmas daznai yra kito veiksmo rezultatas. Kalbantysis aiskina dabartines situacijos priezasti. I study every day. The sun rises in the east. On Sundays banks don't work. He doesn't always study hard. Carol usually gets up at six o'clock. Does she like knitting? The train to Dover leaves at 8.00 pm. What do you think of my new car? Look! It is raining. What are you doing now? - I am revising for the exams. What are you thinking about? Carol is not working this weekend. We are having fish today. I am meeting Phil on Friday. You're always I constantly forgetting people's names.

Nurodomieji zodziai usually always often, never sometimes every (day, time etc) in (the morning etc), twice a year now still at the moment this (week) at present nowadays

do not + V does not + V do V? does V?

am
is are

+ Ving
am not is not +Ving are not

am

Ving? is Ving? are •.. Ving?

have has

+ V3

have not has not have has V3? V3?

I am free now because I have just finished my work. The cake he has made is on the table. Has he written the letter? We have known each other for two years. I've had a headache all day. I still feel the pain. He has played for England four times so far. We have been waiting for twenty minutes. Mes laukiame dvideSimt minuCiI{. How long has she been talking on the phone? Kaip ilgaiji snekasi telefollu? I am very tired because I have been painting the room all day. AS esu labai pavargfts, nes visq dienq daiiau kambar{ I saw Andy last month. When did they marry? We didn't go camping in May. She often played dolls when she was a child. He opened the window, looked down the street and saw a strange car.

yet, just since, for already lately recently so far ever, never today all day etc

have been has been have not been has not been have has

+ Ving

for since lately all morning (week etc) how long

been Ving? been Ving? • veiksmus (faktus, bl1senas), ivykusius praeityje ir nesusijusius su dabartimi (veiksmo laikas dafuiausiai zinomas) • kartotinius, iPrastUs veiksmus, vykusius praeityje ir nesusijusius su dabartimi • veiksmus, vykusius vienas po kito praeityje 'veiksmq,vykusi tam tikru momentu praeityje (veiksmo pradzia ir pabaiga neZinomi) • du ar daugiau tuo pat metu vykusill veiksmll • veiksmq, vykusi tam tikru momentu praeityje ir pertraukt<t kitu trumpu momentiniu veiksmu

Ved/V2 (played, went) did not +V (did not see) did (did V? see?)

yesterday last (October, week, night) ago, when ... ? in (1998, May) on 28 July when (we were in Paris) etc

was were

+ Ving

At 9 o'clock last night we were watching TV. I was studying while my brother was watching TV. What were you doing when I called you yesterday?

while when

was not were not + Ving was ... were ...

at 6.00 last Mondayetc

+ V.

? mg'

had + V] (had wri tten) had not + V] (had not found) had (had V]? drawn?)

• veiksm1i, kuris ivyko pries tam tikril momentil praeityje • veiksm1i, ivykusi pries kitil veiksmil praeityje • veiksmil salutiniuose laiko aplinkybes sakiniuose su jungtukais before, after NB lei pagrindiniame sakinyje pavartotas Past Simple, 0 salutiniame - Past Perfect, tai reiskia, kad salutinio sakinio veiksmas (Past Perfect) vyko (ar ivyko) anksciau uz pagrindinio sakinio veiksmil (Past Simple). • veiksm1i, kuris prasidejo pries tam tikr'l momentil praeityje ir tuo momentu dar tl<sesi • veiksm1i, kuris tl<sesi tam tikrillaikil ir jo rezultatai buvo akivaizdiis praeityje

By six o'clock in the evening, Tom had finished all his work. Iki seStos valandos vakaro Tomas buvo pabaiglts visq savo darbq. When we got to the airport, the plane had already landed. Kai mes nuvykome i oro uostq, lektuvas jau buvo nusileidlts. Before we had walked ten miles, she got tired. Dar mums nenuejus desimt mylil{, ji pavargo. NB She said she had had no time to make a cake. ii pasake, kadji neturejo laiko iskepti pyrazq. I had been repairing the car for three hours, when he called. Kaijis paskambino, as jau tris valandas taisiau masinq. She was exhausted because she had been travelling all night. ii buvo isvargusi, kadangi keliavo visq naktj.

when by the time before after already just tillfuntil by ten o'clock (midday etc.) never etc

when for, since before after how long until etc

• pranasaujam1i, numatom1i, spejam'l ateities veiksmil. Labai dafuai po veiksmazodziq be sure, think, believe, expect, hope, know, suppose ir su prieveiksmiais perhaps, possibly, probably, surely. • spontanisk'l sprendim'l • kalbanciojo pasiryzim'l atlikti veiksmil

I expect we'll see them at the party tonight. Let me help you. I'll carry that suitcase for you. I'll come there, I promise.

tomorrow next (week, month etc) tonight soon in a week (year etc)

• veiksm1i, kuris vyks ( tl<sis ) tam tikru momentu ateityje

They will still be working at five. Penktq valandqjie dar dirbs. This time next week we will be packing for our holiday. Tokiu laiku kitq savaitlt mes krausimes daiktus atostogoms. At IO o'clock tomorrow she'll be working in the garden. Rytoj 10 val. ji dirbs sode. By 2003 he will have worked here for ten years. 2003 metaisjis bus dirblts Cia deIimt met!{Will they have bought a new house by the end of this month? AI' jie bus nusipirklt naujq namq iki sio menesio pabaigos? He won't have fixed the car until this evening. Jis nebus pataislts automobilio iki sio vakaro.

tomorrow tonight next (week, month etc) in two (three, etc) days soon etc

• veiksm1i, kuris bus uzbaigtas iki tam tikro momento ateityje

by by the time before untilftill

• besitl<sianti biisim'l veiksm1i, kuris bus prasidejl<s pries tam tikr'l ateities momentil ir tl<sisiki to momento

By six he will have been working for two hours. Sestq bus dvi valandos, kai jis jau dirba.

by by the time before untilftill

Laikq derinimas.

Future-in-the-Past

laikai

Butinybe derinti laikus damiausiai iskyla netiesiogineje kalboje. Laila.J. erinimo pagrindines taisykles tokios: d 1lei pagrindiniame sakinyje veiksmaZodis pavartotas vienu is buttUqlaiktJ., salutiniame sakinyje veiksmaZodis taip pat turi buti pavartotas biituoju laiku. Tom said he was going to stay at home. Tomas pasake, kad jis pasiliks namuose. 2 lei salutinio sakinio veiksmas ivyko anksCiau negu pagrindinio sakinio biitasis veiksmas,jis reiskiamas Past Perfect laiku. Palygillkite: She said she was ill. Ji pasake, kad serga. She said she had been ill. Ji pasake, kad sirgo. 3 lei pagrindiniame sakinyje veiksmaZodis pavartotas biituoju laiku, salutiniame sakinyje busimojo veiksmo negalima reiksti Future laikais,ji reikia reiksti praeities biisimaisiais (Future-in-the-Past) laikais, kurie sudaromi pagalbinius shall / will pakeiCiant should! would. Palyginkite: She hopes she will be in lime ii likisi, kad bus laiku. She hoped she wOllld be in time. Ji tikejosi, kad bus laikll.

I My room has always been a refuge to me. 2 One may face various problems while staying in a foreign country. 3 Mothers should not go to work until their children start school. 4 There are many reasons why people leave their country. 5 The media can help with learning English.

6 Smoking is an expensive habit. 7 There are a lot of advantages of having a mobile phone. 8 Sport is very important in everyone's life. 9 Having lots of money doesn't make one happy. 10 There are many reasons why I am studying English.

Informal I You are on a working holiday in Ireland. Write a letter to your friend giving details and impressions. 2 You had arranged to meet a friend in town but it was quite impossible for you to be there. Explain why you were not able to meet him / her, apologise for the inconvenience you have caused and suggest another meeting. 3 A friend who lives abroad will shortly be visiting your country and has asked you to make arrangements for his / her stay. Write a letter informing him / her of what you have done. 4 You have received a present of some money from a relative. Write a letter thanking him or her for the present and saying what you intend to do with it. 5 Your first letter to a pen-friend in America. 6 A letter congratulating a friend of yours who has just finished school. 7 While travelling abroad last summer you exchanged addresses with a person whom you had only known a short time. Write a letter giving news of yourself. 8 A friend has asked you to recommend a good car-route to a well-known resort. Write a letter giving her / him advice and suggesting the places she / he should see on the way. 9 You should have written a letter to a relation long ago to thank him / her for apresent but you forgot. Write a letter of thanks in which you apologise for the delay in answering. Formal I You have just returned from a holiday which was not at all what you expected. Write a letter of complaint to the travel agent who arranged it for you. 2 A computer you ordered has arrived but has been damaged in transit. Write a letter to the firm concerned pointing this out and asking what action they propose to take. 3 Write to an English publishing firm asking for a catalogue of their latest publications. 4 You booked a room at a hotel abroad but now find that you will be unable to travel. Write a letter cancelling your confirmation. 5 An organisation abroad has offered scholarships for those wishing to study languages at a university. Write a letter stating your qualifications and requesting that an application form be sent to you. 6 A foreigner has written to you inquiring about a flat you wish to let. Write an answer to this inquiry. 7 While in England you paid a visit to an English school. Write a letter of thanks to the Headteacher for all he did to make your visit interesting. 8 You have seen an advertisement in a newspaper inviting young people to work as camping leaders with children of all ages. Write your letter of application.

Expressing

opinion 5 Are you in favour of or against exams being abolished? 6 Is a school uniform necessary? 7 Is school the best preparation for your working life? 8 Should smoking be banned in all public places?

I Will life be better in the future? 2 Lithuanian and Maths are more important subjects than Art and Music. 3 Friends or family, which is more important? 4 Should parents limit the amount of television their children watch? Providing solutions I What can we do to make Lithuania an attractive country for tourists? 2 The ways to maintain health and fitness. 3 What could be done to stop the growth of crime? 4 The ways to make your school more attractive for the students. For and against I Positive and negative aspects of travelling by bicycle. 2 Good and bad points of being rich and famous. 3 The advantages and disadvantages of the increasing use of technology. 4 The advantages and disadvantages of owning a mobile phone.

5 The ways of protecting the environment in your area. 6 The ways to improve the learning of foreign languages. 7 How should endangered species be protected? 8 What might be done to reduce smoking among young people?

5 The advantages and disadvantages of owning a car. 6 The pros and cons of watching TV. 7 The advantages and disadvantages of living in a block of flats. 8 What are the benefits and drawbacks of vegetarianism?

I The usefulness of computers. 2 The role of marriage in today's society. 3 Too much money is spent on sport when it could be used to help the poor. 4 The generation gap is inevitable.

5 Genetic engineering causes a number of worrying problems. 6 The costs offast-developing technology. 7 Money causes a lot of problems. 8 What can we do to reduce global litter?

TYPE OF COMPOSITION
ADVANTAGES / DISADVANTAGES (FOR AND AGAINST)

INTRODUCTION

MAIN BODY

CONCLUSION

Paragraph 1 state topic

1-+

Paragraph 2 advantages / arguments for & justification

-+

Paragraph 3 disadvantages / arguments against & justification

-+

Final paragraph restate the topic giving balanced consideration / opinion

EXPRESSING OPINION

Paragraph 1 state topic & your opinion clearly

f--+

Paragraph 2 viewpoint I & reason

r---

Paragraph 3* viewpoint 2 & reason

1-+

Final paragraph restate opinion using different words

*when writing composition expressing opinion, you may include the opposite point of view (other people's opinion) in a separate paragraph before the conclusion (final paragraph)

PROVIDING SOLUTIONS

Paragraph 1 state the problem

1-+

Paragraph 2 suggestion 1 & reason / justification

1--+

Paragraph 3* suggestion 2 & reason / justification

1-+

Final paragraph summaIise opinion or give best suggestion & reason

*the number of paragraphs in the main body depends on the number of suggestions you want to make

DISCURSIVE COMPOSITION

Paragraph 1 state topic

1-+

Paragraph 2 one point of view (eg political) (personal opinion & opposite opinion)

1-+

Paragraph 3* another point of view (eg economic) (personal opinion & opposite opinion)

~

Final paragraph give your own opinion on the subject based on the points already mentioned

* the number of paragraphs in the main body depends on the number of viewpoints you want to state and discuss. Some of the following aspects should be included: psychological, social, educational, political, moral, historical, economic, religious, scientific, artistic, geographical, personal

Type of letter Z 0 ....

Greetings

Opening phrases

Middle paragraphs

Closing phrases

Endings

:E
~ 0 ~ ~ 0 ~
Z ....

~

e,;,
~ ~

Z ....

rJJ

I am writing to you in connection with ... I am writing with regard to / in regard to / with reference to ... I am writing to ask if you could inform me about ... Dear Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms / Dr I was interested in your advertisement in ... Brown, I would appreciate some further information about ... Referring to your advertisement published in ... Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Sirs, To whom it may concern, I am writing to give you information about ... I am writing in reply to your letter concerning / dated ... To whom it may In reply to your letter concern, concerning ... Dear Mr / Mrs / With reference to your letter of ... Miss / Ms / Dr Brown, Dear Sir or I am writing with regard to / in connection with your advertisement in ... I am writing to apply for the position of (job) advertised in (where) on (date) I am interested in applying for the job of ...

To begin with, I would like to know ... In addition, I would be grateful if you could inform me ... Furthermore, I would be grateful if you could also inform me about ... Finally, I would be interested in knowing ...

I would be grateful if you would / could reply as soon as possible. Thanking you for your time and assistance. I would like to thank you in advance. I look forward to your reply at your earliest convenience. I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully, (jei kreipinys Dear Sir / Madam,)

Yours sincerely, (jei kreipinys Dear Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms / Dr Brown,)

e,;,

Madam, Z 0 •..• Dear Sirs,

~~

~:E

~

As for ... Concerning ... Regarding ... As far as ... is / are concerned ...

00

Z ....

~

I hope this information will be of some help to you ... I would be happy to supply you with any further information ... If you need further information, do not hesitate to contact me.

Yours faithfully, (jei kreipinys Dear Sir / Madam.) Yours sincerely, (jei kreipinys Dear Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms / Dr Brown,) Yours faithfully, (jei kreipinys Dear Sir / Madam.)

Z 0 ....
U

~

0

~ ~ ~ ~ ~

....

Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Sirs, To whom it may concern, Dear Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms / Dr Brown,

~ ~

r.l
Eo-< Eo-<

r.l

I have studied / been working for ... I am presently working for ... I am familiar with / experienced in / fluent in ... As you can see from my curriculum vitae, ... I believe I am suitable for the position of ... I consider myself well-qualified for the position of ...

I look forward to hearing from you.! I look forward to your favourable reply. I hope my application will be taken into consideration. If you feel that my qualifications meet your requirements, note that I am available for an interview at your convenience. I enclose / have attached a copy of my curriculum vitae outlining my qualifications and experience. I believe I am entitled to a partial/full refund / immediate action / a replacement. I would be grateful if you would deal with this matter as soon as possible. I feel sure / am confident that this matter will receive your prompt attention. I am afraid that if this matter is not dealt with immediately, I will ... r hope to hear from you as soon as possible. I look forward to hearing from you. Thanking you in advance.

Yours sincerely, (jei kreipinys Dear Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms / Dr Brown,)

Eo-<

~ ~ ~

Z ....

0 0
Eo-< Eo-<

:E

U

~ ~

r.l

~

r.l

The problem is ... I must mention / point out ... To make matters worse ... As if that was not bad enough .,. I am writing to you regarding / I was shocked / surprised ... in connection with ... I feel it To my amazement / Dear Mr / Mrs / is absolutely unacceptable ... Miss / Ms / Dr surprise ... / I am dissatisfied with ... Brown, Your advertisement / brochure was misleading ... I regret that I am obliged to In your advertisement / complain about ... brochure you state Unfortunately, it was nothing otherwise. like what I expected. You failed to mention that ... You led me to believe that ... Dear Sir or Madam, Dear Sirs, To whom it may concern,

I am writing to complain about / make a complaint about ... It was completely different from ...

Yours faithfully, (jei kreipinys Dear Sir / Madam,)

Yours sincerely, (jei kreipinys Dear Mr / Mrs / Miss / Ms / Dr Brown,)

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