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pressure drop example

# pressure drop example

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03/06/2014

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# ME417 ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN

SESSION 3 : BASIC PIPE SIZING

LAST SESSION
1. 2. 3. 4. PIPES VALVES ACCESSORIES PUMPS

1

WATER PIPE SIZING 3. PRESSURE DROP 2. PRESSURE DROP BERNOULLI EQUATION p1 V12 p2 V2 2 + +z = + + z + LOSS ρ g 2g 1 ρ g 2g 2 TOTAL PRESSURE = VELOCITY PRESSURE + STATIC PRESSURE ENERGY GRADE LINE = VELOCITY PRESSURE + STATIC PRESSURE + ELV HYRRAULIC GRADE LINE = STATIC PRESSURE + ELEVATION 2 . PUMP SELECTION 1.CONTENT 1.

ROUGHNESS) Q 3 .LOSS MAJOR LOSS: PRESSURE DROP IN PIPE MINOR LOSS: PRESSURE DROP IN FITTINGS AND VALVES PRESSURE DROP IN PIPE PRESSURE DROP IN PIPE IS A FUNCTION OF FLUID PROPERTIES (DENSITY AND VISCOSITY) FLOW VELOCITY AND PIPE INTERNAL DIAMETER FLOWRATE ΔP ΔP = C1Q 2 ΔP = C2Q 2 ΔP = C3Q 2 C = f (DIAMETER.

63 ⎟ ⎝ CD ⎠ 1.m./s D in meter C = roughness coefficient (100-140) NOT ACCURATE BUT IN CLOSED FORM = EASY TO USE.HAZEN-WILLIAMS EQUATION ⎛ 151Q ⎞ hf = ⎜ 2. ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT. C ROUGH SMOOTH GENERAL VALUE 100-140 PLASTIC 120-150 (130) COPPER 120-150 (130) STEEL 100-150 (100) 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 4 .85 hf in meter per 1000 meters Q in cu.

e Drawn tube Commercial steel pipe Cast iron Concrete 0.26 mm 0. MOST ACCURATE.0015 mm 0.9 ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ 3.7 Re ⎠ ⎦ ⎣ 2 h = HEAD LOSS.74 ⎞ ⎤ log10 ⎜ + 0.3 – 3 mm ROUGHNESS INCREASES WITH TIME 5 .046 mm 0.25 ⎡ ⎛ ε / D 5.DARCY-WEISBACH EQUATION L v2 h= f D 2g f = 0. ROUGHNESS. IN METER.

PIPE PRESSURE DROP CHART Water-filled flow in schedule 40 steel pipes. PRESSURE DROP IN FITTINGS v2 h=K 2g PRACTICALLY 25%-50% IS ADDED TO THE TOTAL PIPE LENGTH TO ACCOUNT FOR LOSS IN FITTINGS AND VALVES 6 .046 mm. e=0.

ESTIMATE THE EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF THE LONGEST RUN (PHYSICAL LENGTH PLUS 25-50%). FINE-TUNE WITH DETAILED CALCULATION FOR CRITICAL APPLICATION.G. CONSIDER VELOCITY 1.G. 7 .G. ΔP Q IN CU. = SPECIFIC GRAVITY Kv = 0.M.86 x Cv 2. = SPECIFIC GRAVITY Kv = Q S . ΔP Q IN GPM ΔP IN PSI S.PRESSURE DROP IN VALVE Cv = Q S .2 . CONSIDER PUMP SELECTION DURING PIPE SIZING.G. IF APPLICABLE./HR ΔP IN BAR S.4 m/s FOR GENERAL WATER. WATER PIPE SIZING DETERMINE THE REQUIRED FLOW RATE AND THE ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP.2. SUPPLY START WITH EQUAL FRICTION APPROACH.

00 30m. PUMP HEAD IS 30 m. COMPUTE ALLOWABLE P-drop P-drop [m/100m] = ALLOWABLE PRESSURE DROP [m] * 100 EQUIVALENT LENGTH [m] 2.00 1.5BARS 8.00 6. 8 .50 20GPM EACH 0. 12. AT 100% USAGE. 10m. 30m. SIZE THE PIPE ACCORDING TO THE TABLE. CONSULT FRICTION LOSS CHART OR TABLE AND CREATE A REFERENCE PIPE SIZING TABLE. COMPUTE FLOW IN EACH SECTION AND APPLY APPROPRIATE USE FACTOR. 3. 1.W. EXAMPLE SIZE THE COLD WATER PIPING SYSTEM FOR 100% USAGE. 4.EQUAL FRICTION METHOD 1.G.5 BARS IS REQUIRED AT THE OUTLETS.

G. e=0.50 9 METRES 20GPM EACH 10m.W.00 1.00 P-drop = 6/135*100 = 4.W.WG.4 m/100m PIPE FRICTION CHART Water-filled flow in SMOOTH pipes.STEP 1: ALLOWABLE P-drop PRESSURE REQUIRED = 15 + 9 = 24 m. ALLOWABLE P-drop = 30-24 = 6 m. 30m.5 * 90 m = 135 m.G. 0.5BARS 8.046 mm. LENGTH = 1. 30m.00 6. PUMP HEAD = 30 m. 12. 9 . LONGEST RUN = 90 m EQ.

64 0.85 2.20 STEP 3: FLOW SUMMATION 40 60 20 60 40 20 20 20 120 20 20 10 .STEP 2.91 1.43 1.20 1.60 1. REFERENCE PIPE SIZING TABLE NPS 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 MAX GPM 2 4 8 16 25 49 80 140 285 V (m/s) 0.08 1.73 0.

15m. 33m.STEP 4: PIPE SIZING NPS 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 2 2-1/2 3 4 MAX GPM 2 4 8 16 25 49 80 140 285 ∅2” ∅1-1/2” (TYP. ∅2-1/2” ∅2” ∅1-1/2” (TYP. (2) 60 GPM. 11 .) (1) 120 GPM. ∅3” *ONLY REQUIRED IF PRESSURE IS CRITICAL.) ∅2-1/2” ∅2” 40 60 20 60 40 ∅3” 20 120 20 20 STEP 5*: FINE TUNING (3) 40 GPM. ∅2” (4) 20 GPM. 12m. 30m.

W.G.ESTIMATION OF PRESSURE DROP ALLOWABLE P-drop = 6 m. NORMALLY THE METHOD PROVIDES SOME MARGIN OF SAFETY. STATIC PRESSURE REGAIN ISSUE 1 v1 2 v2 3 v3 4 ENERGY GRADE LINE P1 P2C P2A P2B PRESSURE REGAINED HYDRAULIC GRADE LINE Patm NOT SIGNIFICANT IN LOW VELOCITY LIQUID FLOW 12 .

PUMP SELECTION PUMP CHARACTERISTIC HEAD.M. Q 13 . P L = P ⋅Q CU./S Pa WATT FLOW.3.

AFFINITY LAWS FLOWRATE Q1 N1 = Q2 N 2 H1 ⎛ N1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ H 2 ⎝ N2 ⎠ L1 ⎛ N1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ L2 ⎝ N 2 ⎠ 3 2 Q1 ⎛ D1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ Q2 ⎝ D2 ⎠ 3 HEAD H1 ⎛ D1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ H 2 ⎝ D2 ⎠ L1 ⎛ D1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ L2 ⎝ D2 ⎠ 5 2 POWER MOTOR 14 .

P 30m 15m TO DROP AT OUTLET VALVES P-DROP IN PIPING SYSTEM 9m ELEVATION 120GPM FLOW. Q 15 .BASIC EQUATIONS FROM ATLAS-COPCO COMPRESSED AIR MANUAL OPERATING POINT HEAD.

PERFORMANCE RANGE PERFORMANCE CURVE 16 .

20m. 5GPM@1 BAR IS REQUIRED AT EACH OUTLET VALVE. 50m. 17 .NEXT SESSION • DESIGN OF COLD WATER SYSTEM HOMEWORK 3 + EL OF RO . 20m. DESIGN THE PIPING SYSTEM AND SELECT PUMP. THE USE FACTOR IS APPROXIMATELY 80%. WATER IS USED INTENSIVELY FOR CLEANNING.50 10 30m. 50 +6 EL FL EL -0.50 +1 EL FL IN A FOOD FACTORY. 2 ND .50 UNDERGROUND WATER TANK 1 ST .

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