MB Cover

Aquarius Engineers Pvt.Ltd

Aquarius Engineers Pvt.Ltd

Lucky International

Hess Concrete Machinery India Pvt.Ltd

Metecno India Pvt.Ltd


Fayat India

Richa Industries Ltd

Greaves Cotton Ltd

Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd

Techny Chemy

PNP Polytex Pvt.Ltd

Your feedbacks are welcome and should be sent to: The Editor, The Masterbuilder, 102/11 (New No. 46/11), Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai, India. Phone: +91 44 28555248 Telefax: +91 44 28586703
Editor-in-Chief K.P Pradeep . editor@masterbuilder.co.in Vice-Chairman K G K Moorthy kgk@masterbuilder.co.in Director Editorial, Construction Chemicals Dr. Y P Kapoor Editor-in-Charge Ravi Damodaran Sub-Editor Nigel Narayan Head - Content Development CE, Infrastructure & Environment Sadagopan Seshadri Contributors Bhavani Balakrishna, Saadat Ali, Sanjay Staff Correspondent M.K. Prabhakar Vice President Marketing H. Usha Devi Head-New Media Initiative Pradeep Nair Credit Controller G.B. Muralidharan Finance R. Prema Manager Digital Production K. Sravanthi Kiran Manager Digital Media Lakshmi Creative Head S. Nithiyanandam Production Manager Caroline D'sylva Digital Production Assistant R. Anand Subscription & Circulation Team R. Mariya Selvi, Sateesh Kuniyil, S. Sasi Corporate Office MB Publishers Pvt. Limited 102/11 (New No. 46/11), Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Ph: 044-28555248 Telefax: 28586703. Subscription & Circulation subscription@masterbuilder.in Website www.masterbuilder.co.in Karnataka No.40, 2nd Floor, 7th "C" Cross, Ashwini Layout, Koramangala, Bangalore - 560047. Phone: 080 - 25701079 / 25705888 Mobile: 09343833191 Owned and Published by K.P Pradeep . 102/11 (New No. 46/11), Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Printed By Ashok Natarajan Times Printers & Publishers, New No. 57 (29), Dr. Besant Road, Ice House, Chennai - 600 014. Disclaimer
All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or part without prior written permission prohibited. The views expressed in this magazine are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the management.

Codes: 'The Unsung Hero'
o amount of words can console the grief of those, shattered by the quake and the consequential tsunami, which hit the east coast of Honshu, Japan recently. Amidst live footage and by the minute reports on Japan's battle to control its nuclear radiation, most tracking the story failed to acknowledge the pivotal role played by building codes in neutralizing what possibly could have ended up being right at the top of David B. Hall's list of world's greatest disasters. It's worth mentioning that the quake, which hit Japan on 11th March (4th most destructive ever to have been recorded in human history) has been responsible for relatively a lower death toll when compared to the quake that hit Haiti last year. Reports made available by US geological survey led many to believe that the event was cataclysmic enough to cause profound damage to buildings vis-à-vis large scale human casualties. However, it was payback time for Japan's high engineering standard and stringent building codes, which came to the rescue of millions, hold up in structures close to the epicenter. What made the difference was the commitment of the Japanese policy makers to enforce earthquake-resistant building technology unlike Haiti, which lacked a government capable of compliance to implement strict construction standards. Builders and government regulators world over should learn from Japan and ensure global standards of construction is applied to protect their citizens. After all it's no rocket science to realize that good engineering practice pays. Look how well it did for Japan. Back home Pranab Mukerjee's 2011-12 budget presented earlier this month caused no such tremors. Development of Infrastructure remains the key focal area of the UPA government, with budgeted spending in infrastructure estimated at Rs 2, 14,000 Cr an increase of over 23% from Rs 1, 73,000 Cr during 2010-11, providing 48.5% of the plan allocation. The budget has also proposed to provide the much needed foreign investment in Indian infrastructure by mountaineering their venturing limit to USD 40bn from USD 20bn earlier. The total disbursement target for India Infrastructure Finance Company Limited (IIFCL) has been hiked to Rs 25000 Cr from Rs 20000 Cr. The budget widens the classification of infrastructure by including cold storage facilities and capital investment in fertilizers as sub sections of infrastructure. With higher allocation into infrastructure coupled with the move to provide long term resources through infrastructure debt fund, tax free bonds worth Rs 30000 Cr and permitting a deduction of Rs 20000 in Tax liability (by investing in long term infrastructure bond) there is no doubt that this budget will act as an extremely positive move for the Industry.


K.P Pradeep, Editor-in-Chief

FORM IV: The Masterbuilder Place of publication: Chennai, Periodicity of Publication: Monthly, Printers Name: Ashok Natarajan, Nationality: Indian, Address : Times Printers & Publishers, No.57 (29), Dr. Besant Road, Ice House, Chennai - 600 014 Publisher's Name: K P Pradeep, Nationality : Indian, Address : MB Publishers Pvt. Ltd, No.102/11, Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Editor's Name: K P Pradeep, Nationality: Indian, Address: MB Publishers Pvt. Ltd, No.102/11, Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Names and addresses of individuals who own the newspaper and partners or shareholders holding more than one percent of the total capital: K P Pradeep, No.102/11, Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Nigel Narayan, No.102/11, Tripti Apartments, Marshalls Road, Egmore, Chennai - 600 008. Declaration I, K P Pradeep, hereby declare that the particulars given above are true to the best of my knowledge and belief. Date: 25/March/2011 Sd/-

K P Pradeep

H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd

Eventful Month
March has been yet another eventful month for team MB. We quite literally had our hands full with key industry events that had been lined up in quick succession. With the country in the midst of its largest ever infrastructure development spree our editorial team as ever was at the forefront, reporting the proceedings. Henry Ford had once famously said, “Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is success”. There could be no better example of what teamwork can achieve than team MB. Reaching milestones through teamwork has been the primary reason for our success, over the years. The recognition of our ability to accomplish as a team came to limelight with the announcement of the CIDC 'Vishwakarma' Awards that were presented in a glittering function held at New Delhi on March 7th, 2011. While Editor-in-Chief K.P Pradeep bagged the “Best Journalist” award, Sub-Editor . Nigel Narayan accepted the “Best News Magazine” award on behalf of the entire team. As part of our ever growing presence as official media partner for major industry related events, I had the opportunity this month to attend the 2nd FICCI International Conference on Construction Chemicals “Construction Chemicals Conclave 2011” held in Hotel Le Meridian, Bengaluru from February 17-18, 2011. The virtual 'who's who' of the construction chemicals industry was present during the occasion. A series of paper presentations by industry experts covered an entire gamut of topics related to the construction chemicals industry. This is one particular industry vertical, which is all set to boom in the coming few years, with rising emphasis on sustainable building strategies. Talking about construction chemicals I'm delighted to announce that Dr.Y.P Kapoor, (a doyen in the domain he serves) will be joining me on the . board of MB as Editorial Director, Construction Chemicals with effect from 1st April 2011.Dr. Kapoor, an experienced Admixture Specialist and Concrete Technologist has been earlier associated with the Fosroc International, Kuwait British Ready-mix Company, Ready-mix Beton, Qatar besides being part of several landmark projects in the UAE. It is indeed an honour and privilege for the entire team at MB, to have someone of Dr. Kapoor's stature joining us. MB has been playing an increasingly prominent role in several industryacademic platforms such as the BAI, ICI, ACCE, IEI, INSTRUCT etc. One such very important forum, where MB is playing a crucial role is the Structural Engineers World Congress (SEWC). It is a matter of pride for us to announce that our Editor-in-Chief a key member in the Governing Council of SEWC has been chosen as the Editor of the prestigious 'International Journal of SEWC'. As the official media partner and an integral part of the forthcoming SEWC 2011 conference to be held in Como-Cernobbio, Italy our award winning editorial team shall report on the deliberations. Before concluding, I also would like to thank all those in the academy and the industry for responding to our call to be part of the immensely successful XXIV All India Builder's Convention that concluded recently at Chennai. The technical session of the event headed by our Editor-in-Chief saw quiet a few intresting presentations, which broadened the vision and enhanced the capabilities of the delegates.

K.G.K.Moorthy | Vice-Chairman

16 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd


Editor's Comment.......................14
PEB: An Industry Analysis
M.K. Prabhakar

News & Events............................24

Pre-Engineered Building: Cost-Effective and Sustainable Construction Technique Set to Rule the Roost

108 116 120 124 128
M.K. Prabhakar


46 54 64 78 82 92

PEB: An Industry Analysis
M.K. Prabhakar

Pre-Engineered Building: Cost-Effective and Sustainable Construction Technique Set to Rule the Roost

Roofing: Material Focus

Zinc Roofing: Sustainable Roofing Option Comes Back into Limelight

Portable Architecture
Bhavani Balakrishna


Portable Modular Buildings!

G.V.Engineering & Co: Offering Top of the line PEB Solutions
Raja Gana Nathar B.E.,M.K.S.E, Managing Director, G.V.Engineering & Co

Modular Building and LEED®
Special Correspondent

Modular Building and the USGBC's LEED™

Industry Analysis

Construction Chemicals: Building Blocks of Quality
Sadagopan Seshadri, Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

Corrosion Control
Galvanic Corrosion
R.K. Luther, Managing Director, M/s Atul Fastners Ltd.

Reflective Signage

Technology - A Key to Safer Roads

Industry Analysis
M.K. Prabhakar

Seismic Performance

Roofing Industry: Diverse Product Range Drives Demand

Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames
Shah B. A. Associate Professor, Applied Mechanics Department, The M. S. University of Baroda Patodi S. C. Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Parul Institute of Engg. & Tech., Limda, Baroda

Standing Seam Roof
Metal Standing Seam Roof Systems: Going from Strength to Strength
Sadagopan Seshadri, Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

140 146

Asphalt Recycling
John D'Angelo Ph.D. P.E.,

Fractionation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement the way to Achieve Higher Percentages of Use


Cool Roof Coatings
Achal Narayanan

Versatile Coatings for Today's Roof Systems

3rd CIDC Vishwakarma Award 2011: A Recognition of Notable achievements and Standards of Excellence

Construction Awards

108 54
18 The Masterbuilder - March 2011



JK Cements Ltd


148 Thermal Insulation Offering the Complete Range of Thermatek Thermal Barriers
Cool- Roof Products

191 194 198 201 203 204 206 210 214 216 219 222

Ammann Group: The Road Construction Equipment Specialist has Big Plans for India M&IG (A producer of Russian industrial machines CHETRA) Announces Plans for Production Unit at the bC India 2011 Show DMI Engineering & Manufacturing Co Ltd: Superior Technology and Service Enable DMI to Stay Ahead Greaves Cotton Launches Premium Range of Construction Equipment at bC India 2011 Show Manitowoc Emphasizes Commitment to Indian Market at bC India 2011 Show KAMAZ Vectra Showcases Russian Trucks of European Quality for India PALFINGER Launches Stiff Boom Crane at bC India 2011 Show Putzmeister - Showcasing a Wide Range of Products for the Indian Market REL-CED forays into Foundation Equipment - Launches “CF” Series Piling Rigs at bC India Show SCHWING Stetter India Unveils Two New Concrete Pumps at bC India Show

168 172 174 175 177 180 182 188

Rock Foundation: Case Study

Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study

R.B.Shivali1, Senior Research Officer K.S.Jamwal2, Ex. DDG, GSI A.N.N.Prasad3, Project Director Amar Kumar4, General Manager (P) R.K.Gupta5, C.M.D. 1 - CSMRS, New Delhi and deputation to WAPCOS Ltd. at Salma Dam Project in Afghanistan 2 - Geological Survey of India and, 3-5 - WAPCOS Ltd. at Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan

Steel: Roving Seminar Student Interaction

TRMA Launches Crusade for 'Proper Steel Reinforcement'

Stimulus 2011 A Truly Invigorating Experience for Civil Engineering Students


Concrete Roads & White Toppings: Hold Immense Possibilities for India

Communication Feature Interaction

To Make Good Things Even Better

Lucky International Tensile Fabric Roofing Specialist Raises the Bar Higher

Site Report

Site Report - MARINI MAC 200 - State of-the-art Efficiency Delivered

BC 2011: Post Event Report

bC India 2011 gets a Thumbs-up from CE Industry Ajax Fiori: One on-one with Mr.K.Vijay, Managing Director, Ajax Fiori at the bC India 2011 Show

TIL - The Growth Story Continues Volvo Drives Home the Fuel Efficiency Message at bC India 2011 Show

201 182
20 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

The Masterbuilder / equip Supplement, Volume 13, No.2, 2011
CORRIGENDUM Page 5 Under the Section 'Overview'' the profile of M/s Aquarius Engineers Pvt.Ltd should read: Aquarius Engineers is a leading manufacturer and exporter of concrete equipments. The company represents Gomaco, USA in India for its complete range of slip form pavers curbing machines. Equipments manufactured by Aquarius are designed and built to maximize workers' safety at all times, whatever the situation. Aquarius also renders turnkey solutions from concept to commissioning of Concrete Batching Plants.


Advertisers Index______________________
ACC Ltd Action Construction Equipment Ltd Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd Aquarius Engineers Pvt.Ltd Asons Enterprise Atul Fasteners Ltd Bomanite India Bridge Seminar 7 95, 97, 99 25,31 Gatefold 153 57 Maco Coporation India Pvt.Ltd Mangalore Chemical Fertilisers Metecno India Pvt.Ltd MM Castings (P) Ltd Nicomac Doors Pvt. Ltd Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd JSW Serverfield Structures Ltd Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd Liugong India Pvt.Ltd Lucky International Back inner Sleek Boards India Ltd Sohan Lal Gupta Soilmec Foundation Equipment P.Ltd Speedcrafts Ltd STA Concrete Flooring Solutions STP Ltd Structural Engineers World Congress (SEWC) 69 139 23 161

33 89 Front inner (1)

185 61 119

SSA Techno Construction Pvt. Ltd. 215 81, 127 125 208,209

105 199

Front inner (2)

Cemseal System & Sales (Webac) 179 Cerachem Pvt.Ltd Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Cipy Polyurethanes Pvt.Ltd Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt.Ltd 133 35 67 179 Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd Pioneer India PNP Polytex Pvt.Ltd Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt.Ltd Ramtec Razon Engineering Company P.Ltd Realm Intermediates (P) Ltd Reliance Industries Ltd Relyon Facility Services Revathi Equipment Ltd Richa Industries Ltd Rockwool (India) Ltd Roof India Exhibition Schwing Stetter (India) Pvt.Ltd

189 79, 115,131 Tac System Formwork Sdn Bhd Technokolla Techny Chemy Texsa India Ltd The Masterbuilder Corporate Ad The Masterbuilder Subscription Form The Supreme Industries Ltd Thermatek Thermoshield India (P) Ltd Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt.Ltd Transweigh (India) Limited Truevents, Singapore Unisteel Engineering Works Universal Construction Machinery

111 71 12 45 193 213 39 53 189 175 27 217

75 195 13 37

Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equip.Pvt.Ltd 167 Cosmos Sales Corporation Dow Corning India Pvt.Ltd 145


Ermotec International Pvt.Ltd 195,225 Esquire -CMAC Pvt.Ltd Fayat India Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd Greaves Cotton Ltd GV Engineering & Co., 159, 165

195 101 51,185 171 215 91 9 49 221


135 86,87,107

11 10 117

Venus Equipments And Tools Pvt. Ltd. Viki Industries (P) Ltd Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd Zamil Steel Buildings India.Pvt.Ltd 155 143

H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd 15 Hess Concrete Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Front cover (2)

29 Seven Hills Safety Equipments and Systems (P) Limited 215 Sika India Pvt.Ltd Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd SKG Equipments Pvt. Ltd. 59 63 225


Jindal Aluminium JK Cements Ltd JK Works Bharuch (Guj) 123 19 149

Back Cover

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 21


Advertisers Index / Classification_________
Aluminium Jindal Aluminium Cement Manufacturers ACC Ltd JK Cements Ltd 123 7 19 Excavator Attachments Ermotec International Pvt.Ltd Exhibition Roof India Exhibition Facility Services Relyon Facility Services Fire and safety Equipments Seven Hills Safety Equipments and Systems (P) Limited Flooring Bomanite India Cipy Polyurethanes Pvt.Ltd Reliance Industries Ltd STA Concrete Flooring Solutions Formwork Tac System Formwork Sdn Bhd Foundation Equipment Soilmec Foundation Equipment P.Ltd Green Building Materials Ramtec Thermatek Thermoshield India (P) Ltd Green Building System Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd 195,225 221 215 Lucky International Metecno India Pvt.Ltd Pioneer India PNP Polytex Pvt.Ltd Realm Intermediates (P) Ltd Richa Industries Ltd Sika India Pvt.Ltd Texsa India Ltd Thermatek Thermoshield India (P) Ltd Zamil Steel Buildings India.Pvt.Ltd Roofing fastners Asons Enterprise Atul Fasteners Ltd Realm Intermediates (P) Ltd Sohan Lal Gupta Rubber MDF Sleek Boards India Ltd Scaffolding Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equipment Pvt.Ltd Seminar Bridge Seminar Steel Structures JSW Serverfield Structures Ltd Tensile Membrane Lucky International Thermal insulation Rockwool (India) Ltd TMT Viki Industries (P) Ltd TMT-Technology Suppliers H & K Rolling Mill Engineers Pvt.Ltd Turbine ventilators PNP Polytex Pvt.Ltd Waterproofing Cemseal System & Sales (Webac) Cerachem Pvt.Ltd Dow Corning India Pvt.Ltd Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd Sika India Pvt.Ltd Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd SSA Techno Construction Pvt. Ltd. STP Ltd The Supreme Industries Ltd Technokolla Techny Chemy Front Inner (1) Front Inner (2) 195 13 51,185 9 59 45 53 189 Back Cover 153 57 51,185 139 69

Concrete Block Making Machinery Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt.Ltd 179 Hess Concrete Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Front Cover (2) Concrete Pipes Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd Concrete Pump Manufacturers Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt.Ltd Schwing Stetter (India) Pvt.Ltd Construction chemicals Cemseal System & Sales (Webac) Cerachem Pvt.Ltd Mangalore Chemical Fertilisers Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd Technokolla Construction Equipment & Machinery Action Construction Equipment Ltd Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd Aquarius Engineers Pvt.Ltd Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd Cosmos Sales Corporation Fayat India Greaves Cotton Ltd Liugong India Pvt.Ltd Revathi Equipment Ltd Schwing Stetter (India) Pvt.Ltd SKG Equipments Pvt. Ltd. Speedcrafts Ltd Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt.Ltd Transweigh (India) Limited Unisteel Engineering Works Universal Construction Machinery & Equipment Ltd Venus Equipments And Tools Pvt. Ltd. Wirtgen India Pvt.Ltd Doors-Automatic Gandhi Automations Pvt.Ltd Nicomac Doors Pvt. Ltd Dozers Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd 25,31 37 29

215 105 67 171 81, 127 111 23 195 53 189 75

179 133 61 79, 115,131 71

167 199 Back Inner Front Inner (1) 49 143 15 13 179 133 43 79, 115,131 59 63 215 125 39 71 12

95, 97, 99 25,31 Gatefold 35 145 8 10 89 91 29 225 161 175 27 135 86,87,107 155 17 11 189 35

Material Handling Equipments Esquire -CMAC Pvt.Ltd 159, 165 JK Works Bharuch (Guj) 149 Maco Coporation India Pvt.Ltd 185 OEM Suppliers MM Castings (P) Ltd Particle Board Sleek Boards India Ltd 119 69

PEB GV Engineering & Co., 117 Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd 75 Pioneer India 195 Richa Industries Ltd 9 Zamil Steel Buildings India.Pvt.Ltd Back Cover Repair & Rehabilation Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd Razon Engineering Company P.Ltd Roofing GV Engineering & Co., Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd 79, 115,131 101 117 33

Events Structural Engineers World Congress (SEWC) 208,209 Truevents, Singapore 217

22 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Soilmec Foundation Equipment P.Ltd

News & Events

Stanley Hydraulic Tools, which is a leading name in the demolition industry, has announced the launch of two new attachments a 1,995 kg LaBountay MDP20R demolition processor that is designed for use on 18 to 25 tonne carriers and the MB05 three-in-one breaker that is designed for use on skid steer loaders and mini excavators. The new pulveriser features the use of LaBounty's swift-lock process and the tool designed for tough working conditions. According to the company the pulveriser offers one of the highest power-to-weights ratios in its class, which in turn results in safety and greater stability of the carrier. The cab consists of a standard joystick pilog control system. Tow hitch and rear bumper are standards in the machine.

Link -Belt to debut New Crane Operating System at ConExpo 2011
The ConExpo event in Las Vegas to be held shortly will see Link-Belt introduce a new crane operating system called 'Link-Belt Pulse'. The

A Monstrous Demolition Machine
A new monster demolition excavator has been jointly developed by Kocurek Excavators Limited and Heavy Decom International. Recent times have seen several innovations in the field of earthmoving equipment, and this is one more example in pushing the envelope, as far as modifications go in this heavy earthmoving equipment.


system comes with self-diagnostic capabilities and helps in continuous monitoring of multiple crane functions. The company will be providing comprehensive customer support for the newly designed system that has been completely designed in-house according to the company. According to the company, the system has been designed based on extensive customer input. The system has been designed to make the operator's job easy. The user-friendly interface enables easy operations which in turn help in increasing productivity of the crane.

The company has been in the forefront when it comes to introduction of new technology products in the demolition equipment domain.

Tough Mustang 3300V Skid Steer Loader Creates Ripples in the Market
The Mustang 3300 V skid steer loader has been creating news right from the day it was launched in the market. Featuring a vertical boom, the skid steer loader model offers 131 inches of lift height. The machine is powered by a 84 horsepower Yanmar Tier III turbo engine, which is claimed to be the strongest that is available in its class. The loader also features ergonomic cab design, which enables increased productivity of the machine.

The machine has been developed specifically for high reach demolition, a field which is dictating the trends, as far as demolition attachments and equipment are concerned. The unit is built on a Hitachi EX1200 excavator. The excavator model is considered one of the best for heavy duty nature of work in construction and demolition sites. The new machine is said to have a maximum reach of 38 metres. One of the specialties of the machine is its ability to handle a variety of excavator attachments with relative ease for an equipment of its size.

New Pulverisers and Breakers from Stanley

Leica Geo Systems PowerDigger- A2 Dimensional Guidance System for Excavators
A host of new software packages, expected to ease the job of excavator

24 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd

News & Events

US Construction Equipment Industry Exports Rise
After a couple of years of dull performance the US made construction equipment export figures have been pegged at US $ 16.4 billion , which is a rise of 28 percent over the previous 2009 figure. The figures have been recently released by the Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM). While the exports to Asia grew at + 10 percent, a growth of +23 percent was registered in Europe. The figures for neighbouring South American continent were an encouraging +31 percent up from the previous year's figure. With the Obama administration announcing a stimulus package for infrastructure development, domestic sales is also expected to receive a boost in 2011.

operators are flowing into the marke. One of the latest to hit the market is the PowerDigger 2D guidance system which can eliminate overexcavation and features automatic elevation and dual slope control.


The device comes with PowerSnap, which allow the operator to swap control panels between grade-and-slope and 3D machine controls. The device is expected to reduce wastage during major excavation projects. The system also helps in grade checking and reduces rework, which are sometimes the major reasons behind project costs overshooting estimated budgets.

Equipment Sales in Italy down to 'Critical' Stage
If reports of UNACEA, which is the Italian construction equipment association, are to be believed then the sales figures have touched “critical” levels. The figures fell 8.9 percent in 2010. Incidentally, this was the third consecutive year that the figures have been touching rock bottom, for the beleaguered economy. According to industry sources, the sales of almost every type of construction equipment, including, truck mixers, road machinery, concrete batching plant and earthmoving equipment have fallen down in recent times, in the aftermath of the global economic slowdown. Symbolic of the fall has been the drastic fall in the sales of mini excavators, which constituted the largest selling earthmoving equipment in the country. Several manufacturers in the country are now looking towards other markets including India and China for selling construction equipment.

Mobile Plant with Twin Shaft Mixer Unveiled

26 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Transweigh (India) Limited

News & Events


Another Project in Orissa Runs into Trouble with Environment Ministry

land acquisition and environment clearance.

New Power Projects in Karnataka
Karnataka is one state that has been taking several steps to improve the power situation for rapid industrialization. The state has recently signed three power purchase agreements (PPAs) for not less than 1008 MW . The deals including a waste to energy project, which the state is getting ready for these days. NTPC would be setting up a 4,000 MW mega coal-based thermal power plant in Pudimadakka in neighbouring Andhra Pradesh, where Karnataka's share would be 600 MW . The state would get a share of 400 MW in the coal-based power project that would be set up by NLC at Sirkali in Tamil Nadu. The state would also have a waste to energy power project at Manduru village, on the outskirts of Bengaluru. “If this plant is successful, the government would actively encourage setting up more such plants which would effectively handle and dispose municipal solid waste in an environment-friendly and sustainable manner,” the state's Chief Minister Mr. Yeddyurappa said on the project.

MoEF clamps down on East Coast Energy
Yet another power project seems to have run into trouble for environmental reasons. The Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) has directed the East Coast Energy to stop the construction of its proposed 2,640 thermal power project in Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, which is being opposed by local farmers. The ministry has directed the company in its letter saying “the ongoing construction work related to


After Posco and a few other projects, it is now the turn of a ` 17, 000 Cr ultra-mega power project to run into trouble with the Environment Ministry. It has been reported that the project may not see the light of the day as the Power Ministry has not agreed to conditions that were imposed by the Environment Ministry. The former has reportedly not agreed to conditions that were imposed by the former for granting clearance for a coalmine that is attached along with the project. The Environment Ministry has granted approval to the project provided Orissa Power Generation Corporation and NTPC give up their respective Majorharpur and Dulaga coal blocks which are located in the vicinity of the project site. The project is the latest to have got stalled due to issues related to environment clearance. The state has the dubious distinction of having a high number of projects which have been delayed due to issues related to

this project be suspended forwith.” The directive follows the incident of police firing at protestors at Kakrapalli village, which is located in the vicinity of the project site. East Coast Energy though on its website maintained that the “ entire project land possession and all statutory approvals have been obtained.”The project had been approved by the ministry on April 9, 2009, subsequently though, the ministry had received a spate of complaints on the project, following which it was decided that the matter be looked into by the Expert Appraisal Committee (EAC).

28 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Schwing Stetter (India) Pvt.Ltd

News & Events


Rail PPP Chugs Along Ever So Slowly

Will it be Smooth Sailing for the Pune Metro Project?
Now that the Maharashtra State Government has approved the Pune metro rail project, it needs to be seen whether it would be smooth sailing for the project or would it be facing the hurdles that such projects have been facing elsewhere. The proposal for the project is expected to be forwarded to the Central Government for final approval in another fortnight's time. According to NCP leader Nilesh Nika, “The chief minister said the

state government fully supports the project. The government will make a provision for the project in the budget to be presented in March."


While the government is always talking about utilizing private participation to improve the country's crumbling transport infrastructure, not much headway seems to have been actually made in reality. The projected private investment of `211, 600 Cr in transport infrastructure has already been lowered by 60 percent to `86, 700 Cr in the current plan period, in which just over a year remains. It does not come as a surprise that the Indian Railways, which has been opposing privatization for years now, has been the worst sufferer. The private investment for Railways has been slashed by as much as 83 percent to ` 8316 Cr from the earlier ` 50, 354 Cr by the Planning Commission for this Plan Period. The news comes at a time when several projects in the country are languishing due to lack of funding and the Prime Minister himself has suggested that the country may soon see a fresh wave of investment through the PPP route.

Congress leader Aba Bagul said the metro project will cost ` 2,281 crore. While the state would contribute 40 percent, the Pune Municipal Corporation would contribute 10 percent, while the remaining amount would come from private players.

Country's Longest Rail Bridge in Kerala

The longest rail bridge in the country has been constructed in Kerala, where it will connect Idapalli to Vallarpadam in Kochi. The bridge is 4.6 km long and offers key connectivity to the International Container Transshipment Terminal (ICTT) in Kochi. The bridge has been built at a cost of ` 200 crore by the Rail Vikas Nigam Ltd, in a record time of 28 months. Sustainable

construction technology in the form of minimal use of cement has been incorporating as part of the building strategy of the bridge. Another highlight of the project has been the smooth manner in which the land acquisition, often a contentious issue in India, and particularly in Kerala, has been handled. Some innovative ideas were issued for the process and the bridge constructed in record time.

30 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Apollo Infratech Pvt.Ltd

News & Events

mentation of world-class facilities at airports.

Dabolin Airport Expansion Project Runs into Controversies
section of the government wanting to expand the Mopa airport instead. "The way things are proceeding, it is being sabotaged from inside," Godinho alleged, adding that people should be taken into confidence in the matter. The Deputy Speaker has further said that there is a possibility that two airports might be needed by the state in the near future. He was not happy with the progression of work though and also alleged that the “naval authorities are creating hurdles in transferring land.” With the state being one of the most important tourist destinations in the country, there has been increasing demand for airport expansion in recent times. civil aviation sector. He highlighted the efforts of the government in improving the infrastructure to cope up with the projected growth in air transport. "I am told that projected growth of India's aviation sector has a potential to absorb investment of over $ 120 billion with the attendant job creation for lakhs of people, directly and indirectly," he said. He also said that that government was on a mission mode when it came to imple-

Last Hurdle for Navi Mumbai Airport Project Cleared
Perhaps the last remaining hurdle for the Navi Mumbai airport project has been cleared with the forest department giving it the go ahead. The Deputy Conservator of Forests of the Alibaug division Mr. Anwar Ahmed has been quoted in the media saying “I am satisfied with their last replies and have cleared the file at my end and will send the file to office of the Chief Conservator of Forests. Getting formal permissions won't be problematic now.” The mangroves that surround the airport project site was the main issue that had to be addressed by the forest department after the project had got the other necessary clearances from the Centre . The issue of forest clearance had also cropped up due the distance between the Karnala Bird Sanctuary and the airport. These issues along with the delays in getting clearance from the environment ministry had delayed the project earlier. With the latest maps showing the distance between the project site and the bird sanctuary at about 10 km, the last remaining hurdle for the project has been cleared. The airport project is considered crucial for the metropolis with the existing airport not being able to handle the increasing traffic. The project earlier was cleared by the environment ministry after a long gap, which also saw a period of difference of opinion with the civil aviation ministry.


Several hurdles seem to have suddenly sprouted for the Dabolin Airport expansion project in Goa. Recently the Deputy Speaker of the state Mr. Mauvin Godinho alleged that there was a move from “within” to sabotage the project. There has been lot of controversy generated by the move to expand the capacity of the Dabolin airport, with a

Aviation Sector set for Unprecedented Growth says PM
The boom in air transport has been described as being “unprecedented” by the Prime Minister Dr.Manmohan Singh. The Prime Minister had recently after the inauguration ofthe `289 Cr new Internat i o n a l Te r m i n a l a t t h e Thiruvananthapuram International Airport said that the sector was projected to absorb investment to the tune of over US $ 120 billion in the next few years. The Prime Minister pointed out how the Centre had been taking a slew of measures to cope with the huge growth that is projected for the
32 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Lipi Polymers Pvt.Ltd

News & Events


Financial Institution for Funding Port Projects Planned
The Union Shipping Ministry is said to be seriously considering a plan to set up a financial institution specifically for funding port projects. Massive capacity addition is being planned for the port sector. The long gestation period of maritime port projects means that banks have always been averse to funding them for a long time now. The repayment schedule had been the bone of contention with banks who felt that it was too long for their comfort. The Shipping Ministry is therefore considering setting up a specific financial institution especially for the purpose, which would not result in the asset-liability mismatch. The proposed financial institution is likely to be set up on similar grounds as the India Infrastructure Finance Company, which has been

handling capacity of the country's ports top the one billion tonne mark. The Union Shipping Minister Mr. G.K Vasan observed during the inauguration ceremony held recently that “Today is a golden day in the annals of Indian maritime history. We are

targeting the Indian port capacity to 3.2 billion tonnes by the year 2020.” While the capacity addition target is laudable, the country still needs to do some catching up to do with its neighbour China, which has a capacity of around 8 billion tonnes. The minister added that with the three projects car terminal, iron ore terminal and common user terminal, the country's port capacity has reached a capacity of 1.11 billion tonnes a year. The ministry has also been aggressively promoting PPP ventures for augmenting port capacity in the country. According to the minister in the last 18 months, 22 new PPP projects to the tune of ` 6, 172 crore have been awarded.


Kochi's Transshipment Hub Draws Praise from All Quarters
Kochi's transshipment hub, which is a first of its kind facility in India, has been drawing praise from all quarters. The facility will allow large ships and vessels to berth, refuel, offload, and upload cargo, before embarking on their respective journey paths from the port. The opening of the hub is expected to further strengthen Kochi's position as one of the most important maritime destinations in Asia. The new facility is also expected to improve traffic significantly, especially for cargo containers that are moving from East Asia to Europe. The new facility is expected to give stiff competition to the neighrbouring transshipment hub at Colombo. According to the Secretary, Ministry of Shipping Mr. K Mohandas, “ This will save cost and time substantially in transportation of containers related to export and import, as the entire business India had to conduct at Colombo hub, would now take place here.” The facility is being touted as yet another winner from the implementation of PPP ventures. The hub, once it gets operation will be able to handle 1 million TEU container ships per year in its first phase.

set up earlier in the past. The government is also looking at the option of setting up a debt fund for financing major infrastructure projects , with a size of around ` 50,000 Cr.

Addition of Three Ports lifts Cargo Handling Capacity to 1 Billion Tn
The recent inauguration of three ports at Ennore Port Ltd has helped in increasing the aggregate cargo

34 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Chetra Machinery India Pvt.Ltd

News & Events


Arunachal Pradesh Plans Development of Road Infrastructure

2 New Flyovers for Navi Mumbai
Navi Mumbai will soon have two new flyovers. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is actually planning four flyovers in Thane and Navi Mumbai.The tenders for the first two flyovers valued at ` 90 Cr were issued recently. The flyovers would be built on the Mahape Road. The construction of the flyover is expected to be completed within a time period of two years. The authority is reportedly on the verge of finalizing the technical details of the flyovers in consultation


The northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh is getting ready for the development of road infrastructure in four districts West Kameng, East Siang, West Siang, and Changland. The Ministry for Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) has sanctioned funds to the tune of ` 69.92 Cr for the purpose. The money for the project has been sanctioned from the Non Lapsable Central Pool of Resources (NLCPR). With the latest initiatives the total amount that has been sanctioned by the ministry for projects in the state now amount to ` 196.7 Cr in the current financial year, according to an official press release. The release also quoted the DoNER Minister B.K. Handique as saying “We have also requested the Arunachal Pradesh government to expedite these projects in the greater interest of connecting the state with the rest of the country. During this financial year alone, about 80 per cent of NLCPR sanctions for Arunachal Pradesh have gone towards development of roads and bridges.” There have been a series of transport infrastructure development initiatives that have been announced for the northeastern states in recent times.

be widened and improved as part of the project. This move is expected to strengthen the road network in the apple belt. Himachal Pradesh is the largest producer of apples in the country. Apart from benefitting the apple growers in the region, the road projects are also expected to boost tourism in the area.

Chidambaram says Half of India's Road Budget Wasted
The Union Home Minister Mr. P Chidambaram has said that half of the budget meant to build good roads never reaches its target. He said that the whole issue was the country's “biggest swindle”. with consultants. The flyovers, once completed, will go a long way in reducing the traffic problems in the increasingly busy Mahape Road. Mr. Chidambaram gave his views during an interview to a leading television channel while on a visit to attend the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. He said that infrastructure development money was more vulnerable to corruption. "Laying roads: this is the biggest swindle in the country. No more than 50 percent of the contracted amount is actually spent on the roads, “he is reported to have told the television channel. The country had embarked on an ambitious road development project, which had to be subsequently scaled down due to various issues.

Two New Road Projects in Himachal Pradesh
Two new road projects, specifically for the smooth transportation of apples have been sanctioned in the state of Himachal Pradesh. The new road projects would entail an investment outlay of ` 16 crore. The Gumma-Baggi and Mashobra-Bhekalti stretches would

36 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Putzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt.Ltd

News & Events


Over 52% infra projects running behind schedule says Economic Survey
According to the prebudget Economic Survey, over 52 percent of the ongoing infrastructure projects in the country are running behind schedule. "As on October, 2010, out of the 559 projects, 14 are ahead of schedule, 117 are on schedule, and 293 are delayed," the Survey said quoting the Department of projects have been delayed for up to 36 Programme Implementa- months. In the case of power projects it is 20 tion (DPI) data. projects up to 18 months over the targeted time schedule of completion. The department monitors the progress of projects costing ` 150 Cr and above on a monthly basis. According to the survey in the road transport and highways sector alone, 51 In the oil sector the story has been no different with a total of 16 projects having been reported for overrun up to 16 months. The survey also added that “several nonfinancing" constraints needed to be addressed in order to avoid the issue. attract foreign financing in infrastructure.” This is a measure that was on expected lines. Mr. Mukherjee said that tax-free bonds worth ` 5, 000 Cr each will be issued by the port sector and Hudco, respectively. He also said that the National Highways Authority of India Ltd (NHAI) and Indian Railways Finance Corporation (IRFC) will also issue tax-free bonds of ` 10,000 Cr each. Foreign portfolio investment would be now permitted in SEBIregistered mutual funds as per the new budget proposals. The Finance Minister has also hiked the FII investment limit by an additional US $20 billion for investment in infrarelated sectors.


Slew of Measures in Union Budget 2011-12 to Spur Infrastructure Investment
Realizing the importance of infrastructure development in sustaining the economic growth rate, the Finance Minister Mr. Pranab Mukherjee has announced a slew of measures to boost investment in the all-important infrastructure sector. The measures include extending of income-tax exemption on tax saving infrastructure bonds up to a maximum of ` 20,000 Cr for one more year and issuance of tax-free bonds worth ` 30,000 Cr. The Finance Minister while presenting the Union Budget for

The Indian Infrastructure Finance Company Ltd (IIFCL) will disburse loans worth around ` 20,000 Cr by the end of this fiscal for various projects in the infrastruc2011-12 said that the government ture sector. The minister also added was planning to spend ` 2.14 lakh Cr that cold storage chains would be as budgetary support for the infra- given infrastructure status. structure sector in 2011-12. Industry Analysts

Happy with Infra Focus in Budget
An increasing focus on infrastructure development has been the highlight of the progress that the country has made in recent times. The government is increasingly realizing that infrastructural development is the key to sustaining the pace of economic growth. The Finance Minister also said that the government was planning to set up an infra debt fund to promote foreign investment in the infrastructure sector. “We will introduce special infrastructure debt funds to Industry experts in the past have blamed the rickety infrastructure in the country for not being able to achieve double digit economic growth, an area where they cite the example of neighbouring China,

38 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

The Supreme Industries

News & Events

major water treatment project, which would be set up in Kharagpur, in Munger district in the state. The project would be awarded on a turnkey basis by the Public Health Engineering Department of the Bihar state government. According to press reports the project has been bagged by Punj Lloyd, the infrastructure and construction major. The project once completed will enable the supply of 6,224 million litres of drinking water per day (MLD) in the village of Khaira, which has been badly affected by fluoride contamination in water. The scope of work of the project includes engineering, procurement, construction, installation and commissioning of a centralized water treatment plant. would have to come from the private sector. "There is urgent need to streamline land acquisition and environment clearance for infrastructure projects. A national forest land bank, with clear paperwork and titles, could significantly reduce the approval time for forest clearances," the survey went on to add about the potential problems that afflict the infrastructure sector.

which is said to be at least a decade ahead when it comes to infrastructure in the country.

Jairam Ramesh Softens Stand at GOM Meeting


Several contentious issues seem to be slowing down the pace of infrastructure development in the country. Land acquisition and environmental clearance issues are said to reason for the delay for several projects. Similarly frivolous litigation in terms of public interest litigations is another major headache for policy makers in India. Industry experts though are hopeful that the budget would have the necessary stimulus package in it to give the much needed boost to the infrastructure sector this time around.

Infra Needs ` 41 lakh Cr Investment says Economic Survey

Major Water Treatment Project in Bihar
Bihar is increasingly finding itself in the news for all the good reasons. The state is now getting ready for a

The country's infrastructure development would need ` 41 lakh Cr investments in the 12th Plan period said the Economic Survey, quoting preliminary assessment that was made towards the purpose by the Planning Commission. "The Planning Commission has carried out a preliminary assessment of the investment in infrastructure during the 12th Plan. The projected investment requirement would be of the order of ` 40,999,240 Cr (about USD 1,025 billion)," the Survey said. The survey also went on to add that at least 50 percent of the investment

The Union Minister for Environment and Forest Mr. Jairam Ramesh has said that he will be “positive” towards infrastructure development projects, softening his stance during a meeting of the Group of Ministers (GoM).He has also assured the team that he will soon lift the moratorium on 25 areas, a step that will help in revival of projects that have been stalled due to green concerns. "I have assured them that from our Ministry's side, we will adopt a positive attitude," Ramesh told reporters after the meeting, which was headed by the Union Finance Minister, Mr. Pranab Mukherjee. The Minister's changing stance had been evident in recent times when he head relaxed environment norms for mega projects like Lavasa and Posco. He also said that he did not intend to “stop the projects”, while maintain that decline in forest cover is something “which needs to be checked.”

42 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Dow Corning India Pvt.Ltd

News & Events

recent past have resorted to offering teaser home loans to garner a larger share of the market. According to reports, NHB is likely to listen to the arguments of housing financing companies and then take a decision on the same. With the realty market, especially the growth rate of residential projects not picking up pace, developers around the country had also been putting pressure on banks to come out with attractive housing finance schemes for buyers. would get a floor space index of 3 for redevelopment. Interestingly the decision was actually taken by the preceding Chief Minister Mr. Ashok Chavan and the present incumbent had put it on hold till now. The ratio of the built-up area to the total area of the plot is the FSI of a building. Till this decision was taken the FSI for old buildings in the city was 2.5. With the hike in the FSI to 3, developers are expecting a frenzied activity in the realty sector in the city.

Low-Cost Housing Loans of `15 lakh to get 1 % Interest Sop


In an effort to unlock the potential of low-cost housing in the country, the government in the Union Budget 2011-12 has announced that housing loans of ` 15 lakhs would be eligible for a 1 percent interest subsidy. The move is expected to give a boost to the sector. The Union Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee in his Budget speech said that he is liberalizing the existing scheme of one percent interest subvention on housing loans up to ` 15 lakhs, where the cost of the house does not exceed ` 25 lakh. "To further stimulate the growth in housing sector, I am liberalizing the existing scheme of interest subvention on 1 per cent on housing loans by extending housing loan up to ` 15 lakh where the cost of the house does not exceed ` 25 lakh, from the present limit of ` 10 lakh and 20 lakh respectively," Mr. Mukherjee said during his speech.

An Exclusive Housing Project for Senior Citizens

Buyers too on their part have been anticipating favorable market conditions for almost a year now. They are expected to have some relief after the budget session, which according to top industry experts is expected to bring some cheer to the realty sector.

Redevelopment FSI Hiked in Mumbai

An ` 125 crore housing project has been launched by M R and Associates and Promoters India Ltd, exclusively for senior citizens. The project will consist of 120 apartments. The company according to its C h a i r m a n Mr.D.MurugaRamanathan would be targeting NRIs, for whom their relatives or aged parents can be taken care off in a secure and comfortable atmosphere. The apartment units in the project would be priced between ` 50 lakh and ` 75 lakh. The villas however would cost upwards of ` 1 crore. The housing units will come with all modern amenities including, lush greenery, garden, complete with medicinal plants. The project is expected to be completed in two years, Mr. Ramanathan added.

Relaxed Norms for Teaser Home Loans Likely
The National Housing Bank (NHB) which is also a regulatory body is likely to revise its earlier direction on higher provisioning of teaser loans. Several banks in the

The FSI for the redevelopment of old and dilapidated buildings in Mumbai has been hiked. The Chief Minister of Maharashtra Mr. Prithviraj Chavan cleared the decision recently. According to the decision, old buildings developed before 1969

44 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Texsa India Ltd


Pre-Engineered Building
Cost-Effective and Sustainable Construction Technique Set to Rule the Roost
M.K. Prabhakar, Staff Correspondent he Pre-Engineered Building (PEB) technology, although widely used in other parts of the world, is a relatively new concept in India. PEB systems made an entry into the Indian construction arena in the 1990s and since then there has been no looking back for this particular industry. The technology has been making rapid inroads becoming part and parcel of construction projects around the country. The reputation of PEB-based construction as a quicker, efficient, cost effective and sustainable method of construction has meant that it has become a preferred technique in today's world of demanding deadlines. The PEB industry is estimated to be growing at a compound rate of 25 to 35 percent, in the recent past. “The Preengineered Buildings market in India


can be valued at approx: Rs. 2500 Crores”says Mr. Sureet Chatterjee, Chief Marketing & Business Development, Tata BlueScope Steel, a leading player in the PEB domain. The rise in demand for steel in the construction industry is being directly attributed to the increase in the popularity of PEB systems. It is still early days though, with PEB accounting for an estimated 0.5 Mn ton of the total steel that is consumed by the construction industry. To put things into perspective one, just needs to compare the per capita steel consumption of India with that of China. While the figure hovers around the 40 kg mark for India, it is over 270 kg in the case of the latter. With increasing awareness about PEB, the scenario is set for a gradual but definite change.

Exponential Growth The acceptance of PEB systems by the Indian construction industry has meant that a host of manufacturers are now vying for the market share. The intense competition in the market has also been responsible for product innovations. Several big players such as Tata BlueScope, Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd, Loya Constructions Pvt Ltd , Interarch, Metaltech Constructions Pvt Ltd , Era Buildsys, Zamil Steel and United Steel & Structurals (P) Ltd , to mention only a few have been catering to the increasing demand for PEB systems around the country. That clients are accepting the new technology is aptly summed up by Mr.R.Elangovan, CEO, Metaltech Constructions Pvt Ltd, when he explained, “The market for metal buildings in the country is grow-

46 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

PEB: An Industry Analysis

door fuel stations with canopies, metro rail, high-rise industrial building projects and railway projects.” The versatility of applications is in fact the reason behind increased use of PEB technique in infrastructure projects. Giving additional insights into the versatility of the applications Mr.P.V.Rao, Executive Director of Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd, said “These Pre-Engineered buildings can help the end users whose requirement is to have buildings with large spans, higher bay spacing, factory made quality, over head cranes, multistoried construction, architectural versatility, speed of construction etc.” With widespread research and development going on, there are some major breakthroughs expected, which could further widen the application of PEB systems. Lower Life Cycle Cost The fact that PEB technology enables lower life cycle cost vis-à-vis conventional steel buildings is another factor that is driving up the volume of sales. The foundation for one is easy to

“The Pre-engineered Buildings market in India can be valued at approx: Rs. 2500 crores”
Chief Marketing & Business Development, Tata BlueScope Steel

Sureet Chatterjee

construct, being light weight and consisting of standard sections and connections. This saves erection cost and time. Erection is typically 20 percent higher in the case of conventional steel buildings. Moreover, basic designs can be used over and over again in the case of PEBs, leading to additional cost savings. Contrary to popular perception, outstanding architectural design can be achieved using PEBs. Additionally, PEB

ing at a healthy rate of more than 15 percent. With the numerous advantages that PEB systems offer over conventional construction, builders in India too would gradually begin to accept and promote them in the near future. The growth is already there for everyone to see.” Several sectors are driving the growth for PEB systems in the country. Going into the details of applications Mr. Anil Kumar Sharma, Senior Vice President (Sales & Marketing), Era Buildsys, remarked, “ PEB systems are not confined to industrial and warehousing but have gained diverse applications such as in , industrial power generation buildings, aviation hangars, industrial sheds, steel buildings and cement boiler support plant structures, cold storage facilities, stadiums, out

Erection of Industrial Pre-Engineered Building

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 47

PEB: An Industry Analysis
Pre-Engineered Building: Cost-Effective and Sustainable Construction Technique Set to Rule the Roost

erection and installation of PEB systems. Use of industry-specific software is another major reason for the growth in PEB structures. The use of specialized software enables correction and modifications before the erection and installation process, which is not a possibility with conventional construction methods. Interarch, another leading player in the PEB domain, for example, uses MBS for design of Primary and Second-

Pre-Engineered Stadia

systems can be designed keeping in mind future expansion plans. Since a single supplier can coordinate all facets including, design, erection, and installation, superior after sales service is another aspect that is virtually assured with PEB technology. Complete Package Manufacturers are now focusing on offering the entire gamut of services from sales right to erection and installation. Observed Mr.Sureet Chatterjee,

Chief Marketing & Business Development, Tata BlueScope, “Tata BlueScope Building Solutions division offers the BUTLER™ Building System and ECOBUILD™ Building System, which are complete PEB solutions. The company provides complete solutions for PEB needs, right from design to erection.” Companies are increasingly focusing their marketing strategy on offering a complete package, which takes care of the client's requirement, right from selection of the right solution to the final

“The market for metal buildings in the country is growing at a healthy rate of more than 15 percent. With the numerous advantages that PEB systems offer over conventional construction, builders in India too would gradually begin to accept and promote them in the near future. The growth is already there for everyone to see.”

CEO, Metaltech Constructions Pvt Ltd


Screen Shot of Pre-Engineered Building Design in progres

ary systems. The software has been tailored to accommodate the company's standard inventory.STAAD Pro is also used by the company for special frame designs. These tools helps us in very fast preparation of elaborate and selfexplanatory design calculations and are very convenient for checking and approvals by the consultants and third party institutions. Changes and revisions can be accommodated and attended quickly as per the end user requirements. Detailing and shop draw-

48 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Rockwool (India) Ltd

PEB: An Industry Analysis
Pre-Engineered Building: Cost-Effective and Sustainable Construction Technique Set to Rule the Roost

ductivity.” Intense competition has meant that companies are now focusing their research and development activities towards offering PEB solutions that offer a quicker return on investment. The 'Green' Factor Rising emphasis on sustainable building strategies has been another reason for the increasing presence of

Versatile applications: A PEB structure for housing a speed boat garage

ings are prepared using full scale Autocad drawings , to ensure error free releases and all the Part Marks, Bill of Material and Shippers are monitored using in-house techniques and the interfacing with the latest ERP software SAP. This helps in detailed explanation to the end users, about all the items related to their projects and also for invoicing and bill certification purposes. Giving details about the usage of

specific innovations in their product range Mr.Anil Kumar Sharma, Senior Vice President (Sales & Marketing), Era Buildsys said, “Usage of latest software technology with forward integration for direct loading to production lines with state of art fully automatic and semi automatic cutting, welding, straightening, shot blasting and painting line is our strength. This reduces fabrication errors and ensures delivery of quality product with high levels of pro-

“PEB systems are not confined to industrial and warehousing but have gained diverse applications such as in, industrial power generation buildings, aviation hangars, industrial sheds, steel buildings and cement boiler support plant structures, cold storage facilities, stadiums, outdoor fuel stations with canopies, metro rail, high-rise industrial building projects and railway projects.”
Senior Vice President (Sales & Marketing), Era Buildsys,

Anil Kumar Sharma

The durability factor makes PEB systems ideally suited for harsh factory environs

pre-engineered buildings across the country. Spelling the reasons for their range of PEB systems being sustainable options, Mr.Sunil S.Loya, Managing Director, Loya Constructions Pvt Ltd said, “Basic ground line of PEB is 'Optimization'. And optimization is the possible minimum utilization of the materials with support of highest degree of engineering skills. Subsequently PEB saves a lot of material. Compared to conventional structures; bay spacings are wider due to which less concrete

50 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Realm Intermediates (P) Ltd

PEB: An Industry Analysis
Pre-Engineered Building: Cost-Effective and Sustainable Construction Technique Set to Rule the Roost

in the form of Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd's state of the art manufacturing facility at Sadashivpet, about 50 kms from Hyderabad on the Mumbai National Highway, which according to Mr.P.V.Rao, the company's Executive Director is housed in 23,000 sq m and is “the first factory in India to get Gold rating from the Indian Green Buildings Council.” Challenges While the industry has been showing a buoyant growth pattern over the past five years, there are several challenges that still remain. The ever-

Factory-built components ensure minimal damage to immediate environment during PEB construction process

foundations are required. It reduces unnecessary concreting and ultimately even water. PEBs can be easily relocated using same sections with any addition or deletion. Also it can be recycled.” He went on to add that construc-

tion activity takes around 50 percent less time than with conventional systems. Additionally, it reduces pollution while construction takes place. The ventilating systems used in PEB are turbo ventilating systems which are natural wind driven. The company also makes provisions for transparent skylight, which promotes energy conservations. Sharing a similar point of view, Mr.Elangovan of Metaltech Constructions quipped, “Pre-engineered buildings do contribute to the development of sustainable habitat since there is avoidance of materials such as sand, mud, cement, granite, wood, etc.” All these factors directly contribute to development of sustainable habitat, reduction of global warming and protection of the immediate environment, making PEB construction technique among the preferred choice in today's scenario. Not only is the end-product, even the manufacturing process getting greener. The best example is available

“Basic ground line of PEB is 'Optimization'. And optimization is the possible minimum utilization of the materials with support of highest degree of engineering skills. Subsequently PEB saves a lot of material. Compared to conventional structures; bay spacings are wider due to which less concrete foundations are required. It reduces unnecessary concreting and ultimately even water. PEBs can be easily relocated using same sections with any addition or deletion. Also it can be recycled.”
Managing Director, Loya Constructions Pvt Ltd

Sunil S.Loya

“These Pre-Engineered buildings can help the end users whose requirement is to have buildings with large spans, higher bay spacing, factory made quality, over head cranes, multi-storied construction, architectural versatility, speed of construction etc.”
Executive Director of Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd


increasing steel prices and its notorious volatility are among them. With increasing number of PEB projects, economies of scale are expected to tilt the balance in favour of manufacturers. The continued impetus being provided to infrastructure development projects augers well for the PEB industry. The unbeatable combination of improved construction speed, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability makes PEB based construction technique the one to watch out for in the next decade.

52 The Masterbuilder - March 2011



Bhavani Balakrishna

Creative and practical architecture play significant roles in bringing portable and modular architecture more into the mainstream. However, to ensure success, stakeholders like architects and developers need to educate consumers that portable, modular construction can score high on aesthetics and performance while being an eco-friendly and energy efficient alternative to in-situ construction.

54 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Portable Architecture
Portable Modular Buildings!

ith the limited availability of spacious and centrally located sites, rising material, land and transportation costs, architects and developers are exploring alternative methods of construction such as portable and modular buildings. While portable and modular buildings enjoy extreme popularity in places like Japan and other parts of South East Asia and Scandinavia, the general public still perceives modular buildings as transient, cheap and plainlooking and those that are built as short-term solutions during exigencies like earthquakes and other natural disasters. However, portable and modular buildings are just an alternate method of construction which can resemble and match conventional, permanent stick building in all aspects like architecture, mechanical or electrical design features. They have to comply with building codes and are actually are subject to a rather strict design and engineering review. With significant advances in technology, construction materials and practices, it is time that people and other stakeholders review their perceptions modular and portable architecture. Since these modular buildings are 85%-90% built in factory quality controlled environments, they provide greater overall structural integrity as against conventional stick buildings that can be plagued by delays due to weather. Also, waste is minimal. Construction Method Portable, modular buildings involve manufacture of modules or threedimensional units that are typically constructed off-site in a factory controlled environment and then transported and assembled on site on a previously con


structed foundation or set of piers. The frames are normally made of steel, timber or concrete. Most modular constructions come with external and internal finishes along with electrics and plumbing while some provide just the framework. An integral part of modular buildings is light steel framing (LSF) that is used as the modules' internal framework to which a variety of cladding and finishes akin to conventional buildings may be attached. LSF ensures that site.

framework is strong and robust to protect the internal finishes from getting damaged during transportation and assembly on-site. With steel frames, modular buildings typically have a lifespan of 60 years. In most volumetric and panelized steel modular constructions, units, the stud and track method of connection is used for constructing wall and roof frames. This involves utilizing selfdrill/tap fasteners, bolts and rivets to join cold rolled galvanized 'C' steel

Steel Frame Modular Building

Internal finishing of portable modular building

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 55

Portable Architecture
Portable Modular Buildings!

Wall and roof frame in modular building

Roof of Modular Building

filed sections. All floor and ceiling joists are provisioned with holes or service highways to allow running of cables and pipework. Brackets, self-drill/tap fasteners and rails are used to connect the drylining, insulation boards and façade panels. Most often, modular buildings are placed upon three different types of foundations. Temporary pre-cast Blocks or "padon-grade"

Permanent poured-in-place grade beams in conjunction with pre-cast block Permanent poured-in-place stem wall in conjunction with isolated piers or grade beams Pre-cast blocks, made from a combination of Portland cement, graded aggregate (mainly fines) and water are used as foundations for a majority of modular building installations. Size specifications of the blocks are similar

to that of lumber. The most common dimension used is an 8"x8"x16" hollow core. Pre-cast blocks involve minimal site preparation. The blocks are placed upon a solid base pad resting on undisturbed soil (with organics removed). Pre-cast piers are single stacked or double stacked (“Crib-Stack") wherein each course of block is crisscrossed in the stack for lateral stability. The pyramid-shaped steel piers are considered to be one of the strongest, efficient, and easy-to-install foundation systems for portable and modular structures. Typical spacing of piers is 8' on-center. The I-Beams in the building's frame rest on mounting brackets on top of the piers. Heights are adjustable due to screw-type mounting brackets. The piers are mounted on concrete or pressure-treated wood pads for even and smooth distribution of the building's load to the ground. Some portable and modular constructions use the block-and-level temporary foundation system which involves stacking concrete blocks from ground-level up to the I-beams in the chassis frame. Here, the building is jacked-up off of the ground (like a car jack) and 4 and 8 inch high concrete blocks are stacked to a point just short

Pre-Cast Blocks for Modular Building Foundation

56 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Atul Fasteners Ltd

Portable Architecture
Portable Modular Buildings!

Modular Building Foundation

of the finish elevation. The stack is then capped with a wood cap and wood shims for final leveling. The person setting-up the unit places a carpenter's level just inside one of the building's exterior doors. He checks the bubble to see if the building is level and adds or subtracts shims around the building, until the bubble indicates that the building is level. This process is called "blocking-and-leveling". Poured-in-place grade beams and stem-wall foundations are mostly used for permanent installation. Portable Modular Construction Classics One of the note-worthy examples of portable and modular architecture is the HSBC Building in Queen's Road in Hong Kong, China. Built in 1985, this 44-storeys, high rise building, it took 6 years from concept to completion. Five steel modules were prefabricated in the UK were shipped to Hong Kong. In total, 30,000 tonnes of steel and 4,500 tonnes of aluminum were used. On site was former old Hong Kong & Shanghai Bank-Hong Kong building. The building was innovative because it lacked any internal supporting structure, thanks to eight groups of four aluminum-clad steel columns which ascend from the foundations up through the core structure, and the five levels of triangular suspension trusses which are locked into these masts which allows the building to profit from natural sunlighting all over its levels. The build-

ing has a floor area of 99,000 m² and has 10-story atrium, 52m tall, over the public plaza. Construction costs are estimated to be over USD 670 million. Architects were Sir Norman Foster and Partners and construction included Alan G. Davenport Wind Engineering Group BLWTL, Claude R. Engle, Lighting Consultant, Cleveland Bridge Ltd., Cupples International Inc., J Roger Preston Ltd, Laservision Australia, Levett & Bailey Chart. Quantity Surveyors Ltd, Martin Professional A/S, Otis Elevator Co., Ove Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd., Pell Frischmann. Another notable, portable modular

architecture is the Italian Pavilion in the Expo Shanghai in 2010. Seen from above, the pavilion resembles the start of the Chinese game pick-up-sticks, also known in Italy as the Shanghai Game, where a number of sticks are thrown in a random pile. The different sections of the building making up a geometrical variety is said to symbolize a complexity of regional cultures that define the Italian identity. The pavilion has a floor area of 3.600 square metres and its height is 18 metres. Internally, the pavilion consists of asymmetrical sections of varying dimensions, connected by a steel bridge structure

HSBC's Portable Modular Building in Queens Road, Hongkong

Aluminium Clad Steel Columns Ascending from the foundation

58 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Sika India Pvt.Ltd

Portable Architecture
Portable Modular Buildings!

for about five to ten years until the permanent school is built. Called Het 4e Gymnasium, the modular building has a square plan constructed around an internal courtyard and features a wooden façade, interrupted by coloured aluminum panels. The 4000 square meter building includes a media centre, an auditory and a large auditorium. The courtyard is the heart of the school and the hallways around the court are used to go from one classroom to another. The facade has two effects that intensify the character of the building.
Italian Pavilion at Shanghai Expo, 2010

where the connecting galleries are visible. It is said that the pavilion can be dismantled and reconstructed, on a smaller scale, in any other part of the city. The building is covered on three sides by a film of water reflecting the structure and highlighting the natural shinny effects. The brilliance of the structure is reproduced inside both via slits which evoke the narrow alleys between the city buildings, and the use of transparent cement, a new, recently created multifaceted material. Because of its particular and diverse component on the different sides of the building, this material generates a twofold architectural effect, from the outside a nocturnal effect of the liveliness inside, and from the inside, the outside daylight atmosphere. The surface of the pavilion will appear transparent with the sides made up of self-cleaning glass. Photovoltaic elements are integrated in the glass covering to ensure protection from radiation, while the lighttechnologies of the building not only highlight the spaces, but also makes the structure energy efficient. Archi-

tects involved in the construction of the Pavilion include the firm Iodice of Aversa, the architects Teresa Crescenzi, Antonello De Bonis, Cosimo Dominelli, Francesco Iodice, Giuseppe Iodici and Marcello Silvestre and Architect Imbrighi. Dutch practice HVDN architecten have built this wood and aluminumclad building to temporarily house a school in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

The plinth is made of flat, coloured aluminum panels and continuously follows through into the facade of the courtyard; the plinth as a foretoken of the colour explosion in the court. The wooden facade has been developed more spatially and in depth and gives the building plasticity. By choosing a relative deep outside facade, it was possible to bring on relief. Under the frame, the facade withdraws 20 cm through which the image of two piled up arcades is created. Also the seams between the modules are hidden; the

An Illuminated view of Italian Pavilion at Shanghai Expo, 2010

60 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Mangalore Chemical Fertilisers

Portable Architecture
Portable Modular Buildings!

Wooden Facade of Het 4e Gumnasium

wooden front parts are built from narrow planks, which are placed vertically and on small distance from each other. Through the number of artificial seams that arises, the real seams become invisible. At the plinth and the facade of

the courtyard, the seams are hidden behind the rhythmic placed coloured aluminum boards of different widths. The school has both on technically and aesthetic area qualities and a level of finishing which is similar to permanent

traditional construction. At the same time the building is very flexible in several aspects. It is movable and can be used where is necessary the coming years. Industry Outlook Creative and practical architecture like the above examples play significant roles in bringing portable and modular architecture more into the mainstream. However, to ensure success, stakeholders like architects and developers need to educate consumers that portable, modular construction can score high on aesthetics and performance while being an eco-friendly and energy efficient alternative to in-situ construction. The flexibility of transportable, modular construction have made them popular within the education, retail and healthcare industry but in general , both commercial and non-commercial sectors can look at modular constructions as versatile, high-quality and economical long-term building alternatives that can be relocated and reconstructed anytime, anywhere.

Het 4e Gymnasium, Amsterdam, Netherlands

62 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Silicone Concepts Int'l.Pvt.Ltd


Modular Building
and the USGBC's LEED™
Special Correspondent

64 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Modular Building and LEED®

same titles. As mentioned the Regional Priority category has been added. The Credits and attendant points in LEED 2009 are now: Sustainable Sites (SS) (1) Prerequisite and (26) possible points Water Efficiency (WE) (1) Prerequisite and (10) possible points Energy and Atmosphere (EA) (3) Prerequisites and (35) possible points Materials and Resources (MR) (1) Prerequisite and (14) possible points Indoor Environmental Quality (EQ) (3) Prerequisites and (15) possible points Innovation & Design (ID) (0) Prerequisites and (6) possible points Regional Priority (4) Possible points This results in an arithmetic tally of 110 possible points. However the nature of LEED in practice holds that achieving all 110 points is not possible; they are available but subject to the influence of project context, design and construction choices and design and construction process variables. Project context is simply a matter of where the project is located. The many benefits of modular building do not enable the finish project to escape the influence of site selection. However, the economies associated with manufacturing in a closed environment with stringent material use and quality control capabilities makes modular building an ideal choice for manufacturing energy, material and resource efficient structures.

In LEED 2009 the threshold levels for LEED certification are: Certified 40 - 49 Points Silver Gold 50 - 59 Points 60 -79 Points

Platinum 80 or more Points The goal of most stakeholders using LEED as a building rating tool is to achieve the highest LEED certification rating possible. Certification is the process by which a project team fulfills the prerequisites and earns sufficient credit points to reach one of four certification levels: Certified, Silver, Gold or Platinum. This process is explained in complete detail in the Reference Guides issued for each of the LEED rating systems as well as on line at www.usgbc.org. In the LEED certification system prerequisites are activities or processes that must be done but for which no points are awarded. Credits are pursued as a matter of choice for which points are awarded if the requirements of the credits are achieved. In LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations Version 2009 there are nine Prerequisites, one hundred Base Points, six Innovation in Design Points and four Regional Priority Points. In LEED 2009 there are nine prerequisites and seventy-nine possible points. The other LEED building rating systems vary but most carry a similar category / credit / point structure. The reader is referred to www.usgbc.org for a more complete description of each. A LEED Accredited Professional is anyone who passes any of the current exams administered by the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI), an organization allied with the USGBC to provide professional development and LEED accreditation testing. After

ous rating systems to a 100 point system. 2. Give greater emphasis to those credits that stress energy conservation, renewable energy systems and the US Green Building Council's drive toward carbon neutral buildings. 3. Introduce a new Credit Category that rewards LEED project teams for successfully achieving credits dealing with regional priorities. In Version 3 (V3) these are referred to as Regional Priority credits or “RPs”. LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations Version 3.0, 2009 is based on Credit Categories with the

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 65

Modular Building and LEED®
Modular Building and the USGBC's LEED™

assemblies do not, in themselves, receive LEED certification. Modular Building and the LEED Building Rating System In order to better understand what affects a modular building's potential for LEED certification and the way LEED certification scores are compiled it is necessary to consider the following observations and conditions that inform the LEED certification process LEED prerequisites and credit opportunities fall into three broad areas of concern: 1. Context and Community Connectivity - These issues are largely a function of where the project is located. They are not specific to modular building practice, processes or products. 2. Architectural, Engineering and Construction Choices - These are the decisions that comprise how a project is designed and constructed such as material selection, construction techniques, building systems selection, installation and controls, building envelope, mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems and space conditioning are in this category. Material handling, optimal construction conditions and

Modular Floor Plan

March 31, 2009, individuals wishing to take the LEED AP exam will have to register for the LEED Version 3 exam. A LEED AP Plus exam will be available for individuals who anticipate participating in the LEED certification process in a more involved and technical capacity. For the purpose of clarity, buildings undergo a certification process. Individuals who pass a LEED accreditation exam become LEED Accredited at the level of the exam they take and are entitled to use the credential LEED Accredited Professional Associate or LEED Accredited Professional, LEED AP. For the purpose of this study modular building is considered to be one of the following: Prefabricated building components, parts, pieces and sub assemblies assembled under controlled conditions and shipped to become part of a larger, primary building project Whole building units prefabricated under controlled conditions and delivered to the construction site in

whole or in part to the construction site to complete a finished unit. Modular building applied to prefabricated components can be used in any building type LEED is used to certify. It is important to note that if prefabricated modular components are used in the context of a larger building they must meet the LEED criteria that apply to them but also are subject to the LEED rating system as it relates to the finished building type under consideration. The individual components or sub-

Four Certification Levels





66 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Cipy Polyurethanes Pvt.Ltd

Modular Building and LEED®
Modular Building and the USGBC's LEED™

SS Credit 7.2: Heat Island Effect Roof is the only Credit in this category that is a matter of design and construction of a modular unit. The Prerequisites and all other credits in this category are a function of context and community connectivity. In order to achieve SS credit 7.2 modular constructions must meet the requirements for solar reflective index or SRI in the roofing material(s) used over 75% of the roof area. These are SRI of 29 for roof areas of more than 2 in 12 and SRI of 78 for roof areas in excess of 2 in 12 . Modular construction may also have unique attributes regarding SS Credit 6.1 Site Development - Protect and Restore Habitat. Option One in this credit rewards construction techniques that limit site disturbance and keep disturbed areas to within the areas immediately adjacent to the building footprint. Because modular components and complete units are fabricated off site and delivered by a variety of over the road transport, it is possible to achieve tighter site control and less disturbed area in the project perimeter. SS Credit 9 Site Master Plan and SS Credit 10 Joint use of Facilities are specific to LEED for schools and are not reli-

Award winning modular building

environmental control during construction all can contribute to attaining LEED credits and attendant points. Much of this report is focused on this area. 3. Construction Administration and Processes - These include activities like commissioning, construction waste management, and maintaining superior interior air quality during construction and before occupancy and measurement and verification. These again are not specific to modular construction but pre-

requisites for all construction projects. Instead they are prerequisites and credit opportunities that are common to all construction and the project as a whole. Sustainable Sites and Modular Building The Sustainable Sites Category in LEED 009 has one Prerequisite and twenty six possible points. The additional weight given to credits and points in this category are in SS Credits 2 through 4.4, none of which have a direct bearing on modular building.

MBI 2009 Awards of Distinction: Green Building Winners

Waldorf School, Charlottesville, VA

Jim Russell Racing Drivers School, Sonoma, CA

68 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Sleek Boards India Ltd

Modular Building and LEED®
Modular Building and the USGBC's LEED™

ant on either conventional or modular construction for credit compliance. How are modular structures more beneficial? Modular construction techniques have been shown to be inherently advantageous in 7 major areas: 1. Less materials waste due to prefabrication and minimal on-site work 2. Less material exposure to inclement weather due to construction in a controlled factory environment 3. Less site disturbance due to majority of construction being executed offsite 4. Safer construction 5. Flexibility for assembly, disassembly, relocation and refurbishment 6. Adaptability since modular buildings are designed to quickly add or remove one or more “modules” minimizing disruptions to adjacent buildings and surroundings 7. Built to code with shorter build times Water Efficiency and Modular Building LEED rewards project stakeholders

for reducing dependence on municipally supplied potable water for irrigation, the transportation of waste using potable water and overall water conservation through practices like rainwater harvesting and intelligent landscaping and plan selection. In the new version, project teams must achieve a minimum 20% reduction in water use below that allowed in the Energy Policy Act of 199 in order to meet WE Prerequisite 1 Water Use Reduction 20%. In addition, LEED 2009 awards two points to each credit in the Water Efficiency category. WE Credits 1.1 and 1.2 associated with reducing potable water demand for irrigation are a matter of resource efficient landscaping and site water management in any project. WE Credit 2 Innovative Waste Water Technology rewards project stakeholders for utilizing fixtures that out perform the allowable water quantities listed in the Energy Conservation Act of 1992. WE Credit 3.1 and WE 3.2 Water Use Reduction recognize the potential for conserving water in any way possible with the exclusion of potable water used for irrigation which is accounted

for in WE Credits 1.1 and 1.2. WE Credit 3.3 Process Use Water Reduction is specific to LEED for Schools. It is intended to reward any effort to aggregate a number of water conservation opportunities commonly found in schools. Modular construction that anticipates inclusion in projects with rain water harvesting is best if it has anticipated the detailing, structural loads and system interfaces that are part of the building and site engineering necessary to be part of the overall systems integration. Energy and Atmosphere and Modular Building Current literature supports the fact that energy conservation and the attendant reduction in building operating costs are two of the major drivers in the high performance green building movement. All of the LEED's Energy and Atmosphere Prerequisite and Credit opportunities can be applied directly to modular construction projects. Modular construction that uses structural insulated panels or SIPS can produce relatively high R-values and low infiltration rates if fabricated and constructed with good quality control. Steel and aluminum stud frame construction can also produce energy efficient units if care is taken to insure proper installation techniques and air sealing. The following discourse summarizes the relationship of modular building and the LEED Energy and Atmosphere Prerequisites and Credits. EA Prerequisite 1 - Fundamental Commissioning of the Building Energy Systems

Water efficient modular building

LEED requires fundamental com-

70 The Masterbuilder - March 2011


Modular Building and LEED®
Modular Building and the USGBC's LEED™

building power distribution systems) Section 9: Lighting (including exit signs, building exterior. Grounds and parking garages) Section 10: Other Equipment (including all permanently wired electric motors) In this case, the modular buildings in question are assumed to be permanently installed on foundations not meant to facilitate removal or frequent relocation. EA Prerequisite 3 - Fundamental Refrigerant Management
Solar photovoltaic panels on modular building

missioning of the HVAC and controls, lighting and controls, domestic hot water systems and renewable energy systems if they are included. Commissioning differs from traditional testing and balancing or the startup primary space conditioning equipment by manufacturer suppliers or subcontractors in that commissioning must insure that all systems are working collectively as intended. In the case of modular building commissioning is assumed to be applied to a finished project. If a modular building is fully assembled prior to delivery and the systems that must be commissioned are installed and operational most fundamental commissioning activities can take place in the factory. However, the modular building is subject to additional commissioning activities if connecting to the civil infrastructure, site mounted renewable energy systems, site water supply pressure testing, etc. These activities can only happen in the field and are required for a complete commissioning report. LEED also requires designating an individual with commissioning author-

ity experience as expected by the rating system to lead, review and oversee the completion of the commissioning process activities. EA Prerequisite 2 Minimum Energy Performance In LEED 2009, all LEED projects are subject to exceeding the minimum energy performance criteria set forth in Sections 5.4, 6.4, 7.4, 8.4, 9.4, and 10.4 of ASHRAE / IESNA 90.1 2007 without amendments as well as the prescriptive requirements of Sections 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 9.5 without amendments by 10% for new construction and 5% for major renovations. The reader is referred to ASHRAE / IESNA 90.1 2007 for a complete description of the requirements. Generally the building categories are: Section 5: Building envelope Section 6: Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning (including parking garage ventilation, freeze protection, exhaust air recovery and condenser heat recovery) Section 7: Service water heating Section 8: Power (including all

This prerequisite prohibits the use of CFC based refrigerants in new building HVAC&R systems. If central plants that modular buildings are serviced by use these products, the project must obtain an inspection of the central plant as well as a commitment to phase out the equipment using CFCs in the central plant over time. Each is weighed on its merits. EA Credit 1 - Optimum Energy Performance This credit is based on meeting all the requirements of EA Prerequisite Minimum Energy Performance which mandates exceeding ASHRAE 90.1 007 min imu m en ergy p erfo rman ce requirements by 10% for new construction. In Version 3, 2009, LEED provides an opportunity to obtain up to twenty one points for new construction by computer modeling the proposed design against a base case building using Appendix G of ASHRAE / IESNA 90.1 2007. Once the base case is created and an annual operating budget is established the design team is tasked with creating a design case building that reduces the annual operating budget by at least 12% below that required

72 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Modular Building and LEED®
Modular Building and the USGBC's LEED™

but their benefits are considered in EA Credit 1 Optimum Energy Performance) Geothermal electrical systems Low impact hydroelectric power systems Wave and tidal systems The contribution of these systems to the reduction of the annual energy costs are reflected in the energy modeling or prescriptive approaches to energy cost calculations found in EA Credit 1. EA Credit 2 Renewable Energy points are rewarded for displacing conventional fuels and the attendant reduction in yearly energy costs on a graduated scale. The percentage listed in the title of the credits refers to the reduction in dollars below the yearly energy cost in dollars for the base building modeled in Appendix G or through some other prescriptive method. They are: 1% Renewable Energy 1 Point 5% Renewable Energy 3 Points 9% Renewable Energy 5 Points for the base case building before points can be scored. Projects whose yearly operating budget for energy is 12% below the Base Building modeling as established by Appendix G of ASHRAE 90.1 007 can score the minimum two points. Projects with yearly energy operating budgets forty eight percent or more below the Base Building estimate are eligible for nineteen points. It is important to note that the modular building in question must be modeled in the context of the site and the final design. The LEED Reference Guide contains an extensive discussion of what evaluation procedures are most appropriate and what is acceptable as building envelope, building systems, site and occupancy variables. EA Credit 2 - On-Site Renewable Energy Systems Once the yearly operating budget of the design case building has been determined using the procedures contained in EA Credit 1 the project team can address meeting the annual energy demands of the project with renewable energy sources and building systems. LEED considers the following systems eligible for consideration in this credit: Photovoltaic systems Solar thermal Systems Bio-fuel based electrical systems Geothermal heating systems (Geothermal heat pumps are excluded 13% Renewable Energy 7 Points EA Credit 3 - Enhanced Commissioning LEED 2009 awards two points for EA Credit 3. Enhanced commissioning is related to the basic commissioning required for all LEED projects in EA Perquisite 1. EA Credit 4 - Enhanced Refrigerant Management LEED 2009 awards two points for EA Credit 4. LEED rewards project teams that make responsible choices regarding the selection, installation and maintenance of refrigerants. R410A or Puron is preferable to R12 or R22. A LEED point is rewarded for selecting a refrigerant that is efficient while mini-

Geothermal Energy System

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 73

Modular Building and LEED®
Modular Building and the USGBC's LEED™

supplier and the HVAC and / or the mechanical, electrical and plumbing engineers. The intention is to acquire sufficient building systems data to verify the building is performing as anticipated. The work associated with obtaining this credit can be relatively simple if the structures are modest in scale and the systems are limited and straight forward. Many modular building applications be they classrooms or small office are in this category. EA Credit 6 - Green Power LEED 2009 awards two points for EA Credit 6. Green Power refers to electrical energy generated off site using criteria established by the Center for Resource Solutions (CRS) Green-e products certification requirements. Projects are rewarded one LEED point for contracting for at least 35% of the project's electrical requirements for two years. A second point is available if the contract doubles to 70% for the same two year period.
To be continued

Green award winning modular building - Xstrata

mizes global warming and still meets equipment performance and warranty requirements. EA Credit 5 - Measurement and Verification LEED 2009 awards three points for EA Credit 5. Measurement and Verification is a process by which the operation

and associated energy performance of a completed project is monitored for at least one year using the processes and practices set forth in the International Performance and Measurement & Verification Protocol (IPMVP) Volume III. Obtaining this point may require coordination between the modular building

O-14 Nears Completion in Dubai
The striking beautiful latticed building O-14 tower in Dubai is finally nearing completion. Designed by Jesse Resiser and Nanoko Umemoto of RUR Architecture, the building features an eye-catching façade that limits solar heat gain in addition to a sophisticated passive cooling system that reduces energy use. Resembling a sculpture more than a building, the commercial tower has a central core for office space. The decorative façade has over 1,000 circular cut outs and functions as an exoskeleton. This outside structure supports the core, and thus allows for remarkably open interior spaces. Imagine a virtually column-free office space, able to be split and subdivided in any way tenants wish.The one meter of space between the exoskeleton and the core also acts a hot air chute. Although metropolitan, Dubai is essentially a desert city. The exoskeleton not only shields the core from the sun, but its shape forces hot air up and out, which saves money and energy on cooling the core. The circular holes are carefully positioned to provide views while limiting sun exposure. The 21 open floors will house offices while the ground level will have an exclusive luxury shopping center, in true Dubai fashion, and an entrance to the waterfront esplanade.

74 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd

Corrosion Control

Galvanic Corrosion

R.K. Luther Managing Director M/s Atul Fastners Ltd. ery frequently I am asked by my leading PEB customers to explain the Galvanic Corrosion effect of using stainless steel grade 304 self drilling and tapping screws on galvolume colour coated roofing sheets. In this article I have tried to give some facts about this aspect for guidance in the use of stainless steel SDTS on Galvalume colour coated roofing sheets. Corrosion is an electro chemical process involving the flow of electric current from cathode (-ve) to the anode (+ve). At the point where electro potential energy exist the cathode (-ve) residue (red rust) is formed. Galvanic Corrosion also arises from the contact of dissimilar metals in presence of electrolyte (an electrolyte is an electrically conductive liquid or moisture on the surface of steel). In fact three conditions are required for Galvanic Corrosion to proceed, the two metals must be widely separated on the galvanic series (see figure in next page), they must be in electrical contact and their surface must be


bridged by an electrically conducting fluid (which is electrolyte). Removal of any if these three conditions will prevent corrosion. The Galvanic Table lists metals in the order of their relative activity in sea water environment. The list begins with the more active (anodic) metal and proceeds down to the least active (cathodic) metal of the galvanic series. The obvious means of prevention is therefore to avoid mixed metal fabrications. Frequently this is not practical, but prevention can also be by removing the electrical contact - this can be achieved by the use of plastic or rubber washers or sleeves, or by ensuring the absence of the electrolyte such as by improvement to draining or by the use of protective hoods. This effect is also dependent upon the relative areas of the dissimilar metals. If the area of the less noble material is large compared to that of the more noble (cathodic) the corrosive effect is greatly reduced, and may in fact become negligible. Conversely a large area of noble metal in contact with a small area of less noble will accelerate the galvanic corrosion

rate. For example it is common practice to fasten aluminium sheets with stainless steel screws, but aluminium screws in a large area of stainless steel are likely to rapidly corrode. Galvanic series relationships are useful as a guide for selecting metals to be joined, will help the selection of metals having minimal tendency to interact galvanically, or will indicate the need or degree of protection to be applied to lessen the expected potential interactions. Generally, the closer one metal is to another in the series, the more compatible they will be, i.e., the galvanic effects will be minimal. Conversely, the farther one metal is from another, the greater the corrosion will be. Notice that graphite is at the bottom of the table. Think of the corrosion potential if you put a big hunk of graphite on a small piece of magnesium. In a galvanic couple, the metal higher in the series (or the smaller the number given ) represents the anode, and will corrode preferentially in the

78 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd

Corrosion Control
Galvanic Corrosion

Precautions for Joining Where it becomes necessary that relatively incompatible metals must be assembled, the following precautions and joining methods are provided for alleviation of galvanic corrosion. For Electrical Connection - Select materials which are indicated to be more compatible in accordance with the galvanic series. Design metal couples so that the area of the cathode is smaller (appreciably) than the area of the anodic metal. For example, bolts or screws of stainless steel for fastening aluminum sheet, but not reverse. Interpose a compatible metallic gasket or washer between the dissimilar metals prior to fastening. Other Approaches Seal all faying edges to preclude the entrance of liquids. Apply corrosion-inhibiting pastes or compounds under heads of screws or bolts inserted into dissimilar metal surfaces whether or not the fasteners had been previously plated or otherwise treated. In some instances, it may be feasible to apply an organic coating to the faying surfaces prior to assembly. This would be applicable to joints which are not required to be electrically conductive. Where practicable or where it will not interfere with the proposed use of the assembly, the external joint should be coated externally with an effective paint system. Further quires on this subject the author can be contacted on mobile no. 09814929297 and email id atulfasteners@airtelmail.in

environment. For self-drilling screws, when it is recessed head, like phillips head, the material used is S/S-302HQ or S/S-305, And, for Hex Washer Head, the material used is S/S-304. When the total thickness of fastening material only runs from 0.5mm to 1.0mm, then SelfDrilling Screws made of Stainless Steel 302HQ or 305, or 304 is good enough. Types of Protection Metals widely separated in the galvanic series must be protected if they

are to be joined. Appropriate measures should be taken to avoid contact. This can be accomplished by several methods: 1. Sacrificial - By applying to the cathodic member a sacrificial coating having a potential similar to or near that of the anodic member. 2. Sealing - By sealing to insure that faying surfaces are water-tight. 3. Resistance - By painting or coating all surfaces to increase the resistance of the electrical circuit.

80 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

STA Concrete Flooring Solutions


ROOFING INDUSTRY Diverse Product Range Drives Demand
M.K. Prabhakar f there is one particular sector which has undergone a dramatic shift in trends in the Indian construction scene, then it must be that of the roofing and cladding industry. An increasingly aware consumer and rising emphasis on sustainable building strategies have been dictating the trends in this most dynamic of all industries. The advent of fiberglass, asphalt and more importantly, metal roofing options has meant that the roofing industry is no longer restricted to conventional RCC roofs or the use of potentially harmful


asbestos sheets, as was the norm till a decade ago. Along the way in the growth story of the Indian roofing industry several myths have been busted. For one, manufacturers today vouch for the fact that the typical Indian customer is not driven only by the price factor but wants value addition. No longer are newer systems and innovative products shunned by certain segments of the market. Fiberglass and metal roofing are now being increasingly used in residential projects as well.

Hurdles to Green Roofs Roofing typically accounts for 25-30 percent of the total building construction cost. While roofs have always been crucial for building aesthetics, what has happened in recent times with the rising emphasis on sustainable building strategies is the experimentation with a variety of materials and technologies. Eco-friendly roofing materials, which are durable along with offering excellent aesthetics is the norm today. An estimated 15 percent of the heat in a

82 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Industry Analysis

frontrunner, with roofs being made up of locally available materials, such as wood, stone, bamboo, grass, and mud. The tradition of making thatched roofs using palm leaves dates back thousands of years.” Even today there are villages around the country, with roofs being made from materials including cow dung and mud phuska. However, green roofs not much more complicated than just creating a potted plant garden on a roof. The material and labour cost involved for initial installation, plus the fact that the number of green roof contractors in the country is limited, are factors that need to be taken into account. With the gradual rise in demand though, upfront costs are expected to decrease in the next decade leading to the increase in green roofs. Roofing and Cladding in Single Element Tensile fabric roofing is another popular concept that is gradually finding an increasing number of takers in the country. The semi-translucent nature of fab-

“India can be said to be the frontrunner, with roofs being made up of locally available materials, such as wood, stone, bamboo, grass, and mud. The tradition of making thatched roofs using palm leaves dates back thousands of years”

Rajpal U.Navalkar CEO, and Executive Director of Thermoshield India ric structures is what makes them a favourite with engineers and architects looking for roofing systems to cover large areas, such as sports stadia or terminals. Tension membrane structures are usually reinforced using either PVT/Polyester based coatings or PTFE based coatings.

building is known to come through the roof. With awareness levels increasing about green buildings, there has been a corresponding rise in the level of interest on green roofs too in India. The concept of green roofs surprisingly has been in existence in India for several centuries. Going into this interesting fact Mr.Rajpal U.Navalkar, CEO and Executive Director of Thermoshield India had during an interaction with the Masterbuilder said

Limited number of specialized green roof contractors has been hindering the growth of the concept in India

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 83

Industry Analysis
Roofing Industry: Diverse Product Range Drives Demand

The Hajj Terminal, King Abdul Aziz International Airport, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia- Iconic structure is the best example for tensile fabric roofing

Perhaps the biggest advantage with tensile roofing is that it enables roofing and cladding in one single structural element. Typically the seam and curve of the fabric structure that reflects the tension is aesthetically pleasing, while also being important for the structural integrity. Due to the integrity of the roofing and cladding system, the structures are also easy to clean and main-

tain, when compared to say, glaze glass roofing. The roof being factory welded is also easy to install, apart from being weather-proof, which means that they don't contain expansion joints. One of the best examples of the remarkable span capabilities of tensile roofing can be found in the Hajj Terminal of King Abdul Aziz International Airport, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, which is

often cited as one of the marvels of modern architecture. After the initial teething troubles, the concept of tensile roofing is gradually catching up in the country. Dwelling on the point Mr.Ravi Mehta, Director, Sujan Impex, a leading name in the field, said, “Initially we used to face a lot of skepticism from architects who were not aware of this new concept. However, slowly as the architects in India got more exposed to international trends, the concept has gained wide acceptance.” The company offers the Fluotop T2 range of fabrics which are widely used for roofing applications including, atriums, terrace coverings, entrance roofs, cafeterias, stadia roofs, etc. Going into the details of varied application of tensile roofing, Mr.Punit Jhaveri, who heads Lucky International observed during an interaction with the Masterbuilder, “ PVC coated fabrics for architecture is a very broad segment that includes applications in small and medium membrane roofing projects such as for shopping malls, toll

“Initially we used to face a lot of skepticism from architects who were not aware of this new concept. However, slowly as the architects in India got more exposed to international trends, the concept has gained wide acceptance”

Director, Sujan Impex

Ravi Mehta

Metal roofing is ideally suited for industrial applications

84 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Industry Analysis
Roofing Industry: Diverse Product Range Drives Demand

few. With their unbeatable combination of being light-weight, fireproof, energy efficient and durable, they allow for implementation of sustainable building strategies in a costeffective manner. The rising popularity of metal roofing has meant that there are a number of leading players who cater to this burgeoning market now in the country. Many of the manufacturers who are active with pre-engineered building (PEB) products and solutions are also concentrating on the roofing and cladding industry. Some of the leading names in the fray include Tata BlueScope Steel, Everest Industries, Pennar Engineered Building Systems Limited, Interarch, Metaltech Constructions, Loya Constructions Pvt Ltd, Lloyd Insulations, Multicolor Steel etc, who are catering to the rising demand for metal roofing and cladding systems. Typically coated galvalume sheets, because of their excellent corrosion resistance are the most preferred when it comes to metal roofing and walling. The coated steel sheets offer a unique combination of the strength of steel with the corrosion protection of zinc or zinc/aluminium alloy coatings. Moreover, these sheets are also more malleable and can be roll-formed, pressed,
“LCPL provides trapezoidal profile sheets using latest technology which has long term durability, spectrum of colours, special metallic coating, and aesthetic beauty, to enhance the appearance, life, and value of the building. The profile sheets are supplied in customized sizes with Pre and Post sales services by qualified Designers and Engineers”
Managing Director, Loya Constructions Pvt Ltd (LPCL)

No longer dull & drab: Metal roof sheets are today available in a wide range of colours

gates, entrances, compounds, parks, school yards, restaurants, swimming pools, etc and for large scale projects such as stadiums, exhibition halls and warehouse structures.”

Presently manufacturers are exploring the possibility of photovoltaic (PV) integration with fabrics, which will further increase the green quotient of tensile roofing. The availability of lighter and more efficient solar cells is enabling further breakthroughs in this exciting field. With the incorporation of nanotechnology and the use of organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), the technology is expected to evolve rapidly in the next few years. Surging Metal Roofing Industry While cost considerations and nonavailability of specialized manpower may be the hindrances to the growth of the green roofs segment, there is an excellent alternative available in the form of metal roofs. In fact, the metal roofing industry has been growing at a healthy rate of 20-30 percent, annually and has become the preferred favourite of engineers and architects, both for a wide variety of applications, whether it is aviation hangars, stadiums, warehouses, educational institutions or even hospitals , etc to mention only a

“PVC coated fabrics for architecture is a very broad segment that includes applications in small and medium membrane roofing projects such as for shopping malls, toll gates, entrances, compounds, parks, school yards, restaurants, swimming pools, etc and for large scale projects such as stadiums, exhibition halls and warehouse structures ”

Punit Jhaveri
Lucky International

Sunil S.Loya,

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 85

Universal Construction Machinery

Universal Construction Machinery

Industry Analysis
Roofing Industry: Diverse Product Range Drives Demand

The flexible nature of metal roofing enables their use in complex structures without slowing down the pace of construction

with a host of features. Going into the details Mr.Sureet Chatterjee, Chief Marketing & Business Development, Tata BlueScope Steel, observed “ All profiles of LYSAGHT® range are specially designed and tested profiles and are manufactured from hi- strength ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel.” According to Mr.Chatterjee the range is different from others because the steel is high strength ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel, far superior to mild steel. The metallic coating of zinc/aluminium alloy lasts 4 times more than galvanized steel of 275 GSM. The paint system of COLORBOND® steel is Super Durable Polyester paint system which uses inorganic pigments and an especially designed formulation of paint system to suit environmental condition. It has better resistance to colour fading and chalking. The ability to enable even complex structures with wider spans is another reason why metal roofing is finding an increasing number of takers nowadays.

punched, or joined into innumerable combinations of decorative building products. Galvalume sheets today are also available in a wide range of colours, which additionally makes them an attractive proposition from the aesthetics point of view too.

Explaining the advantages of metal roofing sheets, Mr.Sunil S.Loya, Managing Director, Loya Constructions Pvt Ltd (LPCL), a leading name in the roofing and cladding industry, said, “LCPL provides trapezoidal profile sheets using latest technology which has long term durability, spectrum of colours, special metallic coating, and aesthetic beauty, to enhance the appearance, life, and value of the building. The profile sheets are supplied in customized sizes with Pre and Post sales services by qualified Designers and Engineers.” The company also offers a wide range of accessories like gutter, flashings, ridges, louvers, downpipe etc. Product innovation is the name of the game and intense competition has meant that manufacturers are always on the verge of the next breakthrough. Tata BlueScope Steel for example, offers the LYSAGHT range of roofing and wall cladding systems, which come

“All profiles of LYSAGHT® range are specially designed and tested profiles and are manufactured from hi- strength ZINCALUME® steel and COLORBOND® steel ”
Chief Marketing & Business Development, Tata BlueScope Steel

”Our engineering team is extremely talented and we are currently executing a project for Ultratech Cements in Rajasthan in which the clear span is 99 meters without any columns in between. No PEB company in India has ever executed any project with this big clear span “
Executive Director of Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd

Sureet Chatterjee


88 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Liugong India Pvt.Ltd

Industry Analysis
Roofing Industry: Diverse Product Range Drives Demand

Citing one such example in a PEB project, Mr. P.V.Rao, Executive Director, Pennar Engineered Building Systems Ltd, pointed out,” Our engineering team is extremely talented and we are currently executing a project for Ultratech Cements in Rajasthan in which the clear span is 99 meters without any columns in between. No PEB company in India has ever executed any project with this big clear span. The light transmitting sky light panels we use are imported (Ampelite) and they have UV protection coating on both sides and the manufacturer gives a 10 year warranty for light transmission. We have technical collaboration with a leading US company called NCI and we offer 100% leak proof Double Lock sheeting with 10 year leak proof warranty. We do site roll forming using mobile roll forming machine so that end laps are avoided. “The slew of advantages on offer has meant that there has been no looking back for the surging metal roofing and cladding industry in the country. Exciting Future According to industry estimates globally the market for roofing will be growing 3.1 percent, year on year through 2014, with the major demand coming from the two fastest growing economies in the world, India and neighbouring China. These are the two countries where all the action is taking place and it is not surprising that almost every major global player in the field of roofing has a presence in the region. Factors such as continued thrust on infrastructure development, the burgeoning real estate market, especially statepromoted affordable housing projects and growing acceptance of alternate roofing and cladding systems, are expected to drive the demand in the next decade.

Bamboo eco housing entry by Indian architects wins

Green Award

Tropical cyclones wreak havoc on poorly constructed homes. Winds tear roofs and walls apart and flood waters inundate homes, causing residents to flee to higher ground. An overall better solution is needed for low-income housing in disaster-prone zones. One possible idea is to build a solid, disaster-proof core to hold the home's key elements, and is designed to survive through the strongest of storms. Surrounding that core is a series of bamboo living units that will take the brunt of the storm, but afterwards will be inexpensive to rebuild. These unique bamboo houses are part of a much larger disaster resistant community concept for the Philippines designed by a group of Indian architects Komal Gupta, Vasanth Packirisamy, Vikas Sharma, Sakshi Kumar and Siripurapu Monish Kumar. Their entry for the Design against the Elements Competition is a master planned eco community with cluster housing units, two community centers, prayer and meditation space, a library, and lots of open green space. Bioswales, rainwater collection, grey water recycling, plantations, commercial space are also incorporated to make this a mixed-use, sustainable community. The housing concept is a three-story apartment building built on stilts with an earthquake, wind and water resistant core. This core holds all the necessary elements, like water lines, power, staircases and each apartment's kitchen and bathroom. Radiating out from the core are three living pods per floor, inexpensively constructed completely out of bamboo. Each family also has access to the roof and an escape hatch for the most dire of storms. Stilts help the house withstand flooding from storms or monsoons, and should the bamboo living pods get torn off they can easily be reconstructed when the family has time and can afford it. Spurred on by the devastation caused by the tropical storm Ondoy (Ketsana) in the Phillipines in 2009 MyShelter Foundation launched an entire design competition to create disaster proof housing. The winning entry from the competition will actually be built as a prototype disaster-resistant and liveable eco-village in Quezon City. The bamboo eco housing and community centre complex was awarded the Green Award and a cash prize of $3,500.

90 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Revathi Equipment Ltd

Standing Seam Roof

SEAM ROOF SYSTEMS Going from Strength to Strength
Sadagopan Seshadri,
Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment

oofing forms a critical component of the building envelope protecting it from external elements, while playing an important role in climate control, hazard mitigation, and defining the aesthetic character of a building. For all these reasons, it becomes essential to keep pace with the latest trends and technologies in roofing. Standing seam roof or SSRs Standing seam roof is a popular kind of metal roofing system used since the earlier periods when metal roofs were hand made from metals like copper or tin. A standing seam roof is constructed from many interlocking panels that run vertically from the ridge to the eave of the roof. The interlocking seams where the two panels join together are raised above the roof's flat surface for easy water run-off. Standing seam roofing is suitable for either spanning across purlins on typical spacing, or laid directly over rigid insulation and/or solid decking. Many combinations of panel widths, seam profiles, and rib heights provide extensive design flexibility, and standing seam roofing comes in a variety of styles and sizes to achieve an array of visual effects.


Standing Seam Benefits Seamless system No external through fixings Low pitch Applications Minimal maintenance Range of finishes Metal SSRs provide a secure weather tight solution that is designed to last. With minimal maintenance and maximum protection from the elements, standing seam roof systems are widely used on public buildings from education to prisons, hospitals and data centres. Standing Seam systems are available in a range of external finishes, meet and exceed Part L regulations and provide a very secure reliable roofing solution. A standing seam metal roof boasts many qualities that account for its popularity Firstly, a standing seam roof requires next to no maintenance, and will not crack, shrink, erode, or perforate. Secondly, SSR provides extreme weather protection, and is the most stable form of roofing during hurricanes. It is about 50-100% recyclable, and is fire resistant. SSRs reflect the sun rays, thus reducing cooling costs. Being lightweight it needs no additional framing,

translating into extra roof space. And finally, a standing seam metal roof is fairly quiet SSRs installation is quick using snaplock standing seam roofing kits, making it cost effective. SSRs: The Metal choice The dramatic rise in the popularity of metal roofs arises from benefits it provides to end users. Therefore there has been a growing variety of metal roof materials. Sheet materials like stainless steel, copper, zinc, aluminum and lead are inherently durable, the oxidization of the base material forms a protective patina. Modern steel roof sheeting is coated with an alloy of zinc and aluminum to give it some of the durability of each of those materials at a lower cost and higher strength than either. Roofing is available as tradi-

Snap-lock standing seam roof kit

92 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Standing Seam Roof
Metal Standing Seam Roof Systems: Going from Strength to Strength

tional seam and batten, tiles, shingles, and shakes. They come in a variety of styles and colours. Metal roofs with solid sheathing control noise from rain, hail, and bad weather just as well as any other roofing material. They have made their place in the mass consumption market like industrial, commercial and residential. Composition & Characteristics The basic material is cold rolled steel sheets in appropriate thickness to specific duty. Steel is available with various yield strength from 240 MPa to 550 Mpa for roofing and cladding applications. Building applications steel sheets are corrosion protected with metallurgical coating of 180 gsm to 275 gsm galvanizing. 'Zincalume' / 'Galvalume' sheets have metallurgical protection of 55 per cent hot dipped coated aluminum, 43.5 per cent zinc and 1.5 per cent silicon. The coating density is either 150 gsm or 200 gsm. The zincaluminum alloy coating provides excellent corrosion resistance coupled with sacrificial protection provided by the zinc in the alloy. Organic coatings provide an aesthetic finish to galvanized/ zincalume; coating choice depends on the point of end use environmental conditions. Different types of profiles are available from using continuous roll forming technique. Expansion and contraction inherent to metal roofs are coped up by attaching the SSR to the building's structure with a special clip-and-tab assembly. As tab can move within the clip, entire roof can expand and contract freely so that cracks, blisters and splits will not appear on the built-up roofs. Sealing SSR panels by an electric remote controlled electric roll-forming machine is


Electric Seam Machine

Double-lock Seaming

an effective way to ensure perfect weather tightness to roof. With this machine the edges of connecting panels can be bent together to form a watertight seal. This roof system is most reliable for large span buildings The Ultimate Benefits Benefits of Metal Roofs in specific can further be put as:

Engineered for strength from 100% metal Air and water tight Special coatings resist dirt and environmental aging less than 1/3 the weight of asphalt sheeting won't rot, crack, split, break or burn Environmentally correct - made

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 93

Standing Seam Roof
Metal Standing Seam Roof Systems: Going from Strength to Strength

Recyclable seam roof system

Special coatings on seam roofs

from recycled material and are 100% recyclable Energy efficient many styles, colors and finishes to choose from increase building's value reduces the rate of corrosion And the flip Side The main deterrent to choosing metal roofing is the price per square for metal roof, which is at par with premium roofing materials, i.e. not cheap in terms of first cost. Metal roofing costs more than asphalt, but it typically lasts 2 to 3 times longer than asphalt. Prudence Pays Metal roofs are not seasonal, and should be looked at on basis of “fit & forget” solutions that save owners maintenance costs. With conventional roofing like asphalt, the fact of falling shingle or water dripping resulting in recurring maintenance & replacement costs cannot be wished away. These costs keep increasing as asphalt being a petroleum product, continues to get costlier like gasoline. Roofing experts tie the nationwide and regional increases to rising oil prices, as most roofing materi-

als are made of petroleum products. Always remember: Roofing materials made from Stainless Steel, Zinc or Copper rarely require maintenance over their lifetime commonly lasting over a century. Any required maintenance is usually due to design or installation mistakes. Metals are here to stay for all the right reasons, now that cost too is expected to be on their side! Importance of Energy Benefits One of the greatest benefits of metal roofing is its astounding energy efficiency. The source of metal roofing energy efficiency lies in its finish an unpainted metal roof will reflect majority of the solar radiation that is absorbed by a roof and attic in a regular asphalt roof. Painted and granular coated metal roofing system both

reflect solar energy and re-emit absorbed radiation such that it can also cool your home. In warm climates, a highly reflective and emissive metal roof is capable of re-emitting up to 90 percent of absorbed solar radiation, and in doing so, greatly reducing energy consumption. It has been calculated that the installation of a reflective metal roof can save approximately 40 percent of cooling costs throughout summer. Metal SSR systems: Indian context The most typical roof system in India is the Hydrostatic i.e. Water Barrier System designed to resist the passage of water at joints, laps and junctures under hydrostatic pressure. In addition, the roof system needs the strength and capability of spanning structural members such as circular/ square/rectangular hollow sections,

Traditional Roofing Materials absorb the sun's rays.

Metal Roofing reflects the sun's rays away from the roof.


The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Action Construction Equipment Ltd

Standing Seam Roof
Metal Standing Seam Roof Systems: Going from Strength to Strength

channels, angles etc. acting as purlins without support of any solid roof deck. In achieving this, the roof covering also needs to act as a Hydrokinetic System i.e. Water Shedding System in view of the heavy rainfall that is encountered in large parts of the country, particularly the N-E, E, S-E, S and S-W. The Central and Northern regions being lower rainfall zones, do adopt slope roofs of 1:6 or less, but, in general, slopes of 1:4 to 1:2.5 are recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards with slopes in snowfall areas as steep as 1:2, for smaller spans. The Players The opening up of the economy led to increased investment in sectors including infrastructure, manufacturing, warehousing facilities, residential and commercial buildings. Tata BlueScope, PEBS Pennar, Kirby, SML, Everest, Supertech and many others have hopped into the PEB bandwagon with off-shore affiliations or indigenous improvised designs of which SSR systems form an essential part of building envelope. B i g p l aye rs l i ke A u st ra l i a n BlueScope Steel Limited forged equal partnership with Tata Steel, setting up Tata BlueScope Steel with two business divisions. Its products are metallic coatings that include Galvalume® coating technology and pre-painted steel; preengineered buildings (PEB) led by Butler and steel components like roof systems; wall panels and others for commercial construction. Their manufacturing facilities are in Pune, Chennai and Bhiwadi. Different companies have devised their own systems and offer unique advantages or qualities to this basic combination of elements. Tata Bluescope Steel's Lysaght®system offers the KLIP-LOKTM mechanism that

The Pittsburgh double-lock standing seam produces exceptional weather tightness

is particularly suitable for situations where long lengths need to be roofed and clad. The system combines fluted pans with a lock-action rib design and has concealed fastening. This means the roof sheeting does not need to be pierced and the ribs make the profile stronger. Butler has billions of square feet of constructed or retrofitted facilities. Its MR-24® roof system is particularly suited for wide buildings subjected to roof movement induced by temperature change. A unique fastening method, incorporated into the steel panels seams allows MR-24 to accept expansion and contraction freely without compromising the structural integrity. MR-24 system accounts for most roofs in the US and is on 40 percent of projects in India with Butler buildings. MBCI an operating division of NCI Group based in Houston (Texas) is another major player manufacturing quality metal products with a large product selection , full engineering and design capabilities. MBCI offers more than 90 different metal roof and wall panel profiles, along with secondary structurals, trim and related accessory items. MBCI's offers six most durable and weather tight standing seam metal roof systems roof systems with 4 types in

vertical leg structural standing seam metal roof systems and 2 types trapezoidal structural standing seam metal roof systems. Vertical Leg Structural Standing Seam Metal Roof Systems are LokSeam®, BattenLok® HS, SuperLok® and Curved BattenLok® with several UL uplift ratings, assuring the reliability of performance and also providing flexibility to meet design challenges. Each of these four SSRs is designed to be installed over open framing. LokSeam® must be installed on roof slopes of 3:12 or greater, BattenLok® HS and SuperLok® on roof slopes of ½:12 or greater while Curved BattenLok® can be installed on Radii down to 20'. Trapezoidal Structural Standing Seam Metal Roof Systems are the snaptogether system, Ultra-Dek®, and fieldseamed system, Double-Lok®. The standing seams are three inches above the lowest part of the panel, well above the water level as it flows off the roof. The rake/gable at both ends of each roof system finish with a 3-inch high standing seam, avoiding the necessity of finishing in the low, flat part of the panel where the greatest possibilities for leaks occur in many other systems.


The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Action Construction Equipment Ltd

Standing Seam Roof
Metal Standing Seam Roof Systems: Going from Strength to Strength

Ultra-Dek® and Double-Lok® panels can be installed before or after the exterior walls are in place. All trim is attached after the roof is installed. With a recommended minimum slope of ¼:12, these standing seam metal roof systems can be used on all types of construction, including metal, masonry or wood, for either new construction or retrofit. All of MBCI's standing seam metal roof systems are concealed fastened systems. A choice of concealed fastened clips hold the panels firmly in place with the ability to accommodate thermal movement. The sliding clip in the Ultra-Dek® and Double-Lok® allows for thermal movement. A 4-inch sliding clip in the Double-Lok®, can eliminate roof steps on a double slope building up to 900 feet wide or a single slop building up to 450 feet wide!! Uplift Ratings Each SSMR system carries the Underwriters Laboratories Fire Resistance and Wind Uplift (UL 90) ratings covering a wide range of roof designs. Double-Lok® and SuperLok® meet ratings per FM Global Corporation Standard 4471. The BattenLok® HS, SuperLok®, Curved BattenLok® and Double-Lok® conform to requirements in CEGS 07416 / ASTM E 1592 Standing Seam Metal Roof System guide specification. Weathertight Roof Systems Special clips are available allowing for thermal roof expansion and contraction during extreme temperature changes. All trim is both weathertight and aesthetically pleasing, giving the roof a nice finished appearance. Factory-applied sealant in the panel sidelap ensures a tight, secure weathertight lap whether it is a snap-

together or field-seamed system. PEBS Pennar brings international standards to the Indian market with its technical know-how agreement ® with the NCI Group Inc., USA, to offer the Double-Lok leakproof Standing Seam Roofing System, Double-Lok® The Double-Lok® roof panel is a mechanically field-seamed, trapezoidal leg standing seam roof system. Double-Lok® panels are available in 12inch, 18-inch and 24-inch widths. Double-Lok® requires a minimum slope of ¼:12. Double-Lok® panels are ideal for industrial, commercial and architectural applications. PEBS Pennar offers this product in India. 50% complaints in steel buildings relate to roofing components and water infiltration problems PEBS Pennar uses the Double-Lok® System world-class standing seam technology by MBCI ( NCI Group Inc., USA) & its weather tightness advantages makes it the favored choice for India. PEB PENNAR MBCI advantage Bead Mastic for roofing side and end laps. Bead mastic, when

installed properly, provides the best guarantee against roof leaks. Not all PEB manufacturers in this region use this technique Roll-formed aesthetic Downspouts with longitudinal full length corrugations in one piece upto 12 M length reduce number of field joints Supply of valley gutters of 1.5mm thickness upto lengths of 6 M, reduce number of joints. The epoxy primer on the exposed valley gutter face imparts long-term corrosionfree surface. Similarly, Kirby's Standing Seam Roofing System (KSS-600) is tested and approved by FM Global, USA and has double lock standing seam ends which provides 100% leak proof buildings with faster installation. Conclusion Not only can low slope metal roofing contribute to the bottom line, it can also contribute to LEED credits, which are awarded to buildings that use high recycled content and other “green” construction materials. A typical low slope metal roof has at least 25% recycled content, and at the end of its long useful life is 100% recyclable.
Double-Lok® Product Information
Coverage Width 12”, 18”, 24” Minimum Slope ¼:12 Panel Attachment Concealed Fastening System; Low, High, Fix and Sliding and a 2” stand off clip Finishes Smooth (standard); Embossed (optional) Coatings Galvalume Plus®, Signature® 200, Signature® 300, Signature® 300 Metallic

Panel Profiles


The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Action Construction Equipment Ltd

Standing Seam Roof
Metal Standing Seam Roof Systems: Going from Strength to Strength

In the area of roofing, to receive LEED Sustainable Sites Credit 7.2, at least 75% of the surface of a roof must use materials having a Solar Reflective Index (SRI) of at least 78,met by vegetated roof on 50% of the roof area, or installing a high albedo and vegetated roof combination, meeting the formula: (Area of SRI Roof/0.75)+(Area of vegetated roof/0.5) = Total Roof Area.
Factory Office Complex

Typically, low slope metal roof systems being among the lightest roofing products place fewer demands on a building's structural support system, an important consideration in earthquake-prone areas. Because of their interlocking or active fastening systems, metal roof panels are designed to meet the requirements of ASTM E1592, UL 580, UL1897 and other severe wind and uplift tests. While the idea of protecting a building with metal originated centuries ago, the concept is still valid today. Whether the goal is many years of lowcost, low maintenance, problem-free performance, or an environmentally responsible approach to roofing, low slope metal roofs make a lot of sense. Author's Bio
The author leads our Delhi bureau. An Engineer and qualified ADR professional (NALSAR alumnus), Sadagopan Seshadri has been a senior Contract Management Professional in large national & International Companies. His domain experience is in Building Products, Cement plants and Mega Power project execution. He is expert visiting faculty for Contract Management at the SSAA, IP University, New Delhi. Being passionate about Environment he has now turned to Landscape Projects design teamed with likeminded architects & engineers for sustainable landscapes development He is vocal with his views on these areas through his writings.




Aircraft hangar

Cold storage


He can be reached at design2xcel@gmail.com

100 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Razon Engineering Company P.Ltd


Versatile Coatings for
Achal Narayanan eflective roof coatings remain the fastest-growing product segment in the fluid-applied roofing market. 'Cool roof' coatings can lower energy consumption (a key goal of building owners and facility managers) as well as meet stringent cool roof performance requirements in the building codes. While it is true that the high solar reflectivity and emissivity of white elastomeric coatings can cut down on air-conditioning costs, these products do a lot more than just save energy. The elastomeric coatings can restore and protect most waterproofing systems and prolong the life of almost any

Today's Roof Systems
low-sloping roof, including metal ones. (Elastomers are materials, usually synthetic, having elastic properties i.e., capable of recovery from severe deformation. Examples include natural rubber and polyisoprene.) Coatings these days play a useful role in the maintenance of all types of roofing substrates. They can be used to extend the service life of an existing system in nearly any environment, and in warmer climates they can offer significant energy savings. The building industry around the world is experiencing a greater sensitivity to environmental concerns, like energy shortages and energy savings. These are influencing demands for field-applied roof coatings that deliver cool roofs for energy savings as well as sustainability. Most recently, the trend towards cool roofing has favored the selection of highly reflective and emissive coatings for use over metal architects, engineers and owners have become aware of their value in reducing airconditioning requirements while providing a highly effective defense against the elements. Lasting benefits Building owners and facility managers now realise the lasting benefits of


102 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Cool Roof Coatings

aging rays. This enables the coating to handle the continual thermal stresses over the lifetime of the roof. Its adhesion characteristics enable the coating to remain attached to the roof in wet or extremely windy conditions. Such a coating employs technology that helps maintain energy-saving reflectance qualities, as well as a bright, clean appearance. Finding ways to increase the service life of roofs makes sense to owners and reduces the waste generated by roof tear-offs. Statistics compiled by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency show that waste generated from roof tearoffs accounts for 15 to 20 per cent of total landfill waste. By coating and maintaining roofs, one can dramatically increase the years of service they can provide. For most roof systems, coatings renew the integrity of the surface of the roof by filling in cracks and replacing weathered and worn areas. Roof coatings reinforced with membranes such as polyester or fiberglass can seal elastomeric roof coatings. These durable liquid coatings prolong the life of the existing roof. In fact, elastomeric roof coatings have been used since the early 1980s over multiple roof types, including built-up roofing , modified bitumen, metal, cement and wood. Many white-coated roofs exist today with excellent adhesion and high solar reflectance more than 20 years after their initial application. An elastomeric roof coating creates a uniform, seamless surface that remains flexible even at low temperatures. It expands and contracts with changing weather conditions, protecting a roof's surface from the sun's

and waterproof a roof; they can also improve reflectivity and emissivity while reducing thermal shock. Coatings can extend the life of low-slope and flat commercial roof types for many years while reducing energy consumption, thus saving the owner more money. With high-energy costs here to stay and building energy efficiency standards tightening, qualified reflective roof coatings will remain as one of the most effective and most economical ways to meet or exceed these emerging standards. UV Light Barrier Elastomeric roof coating can extend a roof's life by creating a UV light barrier, which prevents substrate degradation; providing low-temperature flexibility; developing a high degree of adhesion; and reducing daytime roof temperatures. And the choice of highquality coatings, as designated by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) performance standards, can assure long-term performance and protection of the roofing substrate. Elastomeric roof coatings are help it

Metal Roofs with Reflective Coating

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 103

Cool Roof Coatings
Versatile Coatings for Today's Roof Systems

ing to drive a better energy initiative across the United States and around the world. When the U.S. specialty materials company Rohm and Haas (founded a century ago in Philadelphia) set out to apply elastomeric coatings technology to roofing, it could have restricted its focus to meet only the immediate need for durability. Instead, it raised its sights and raised the roof to a new standard of performance, durability, functionality and eco-friendliness. Elastomeric coatings, now recognised as key components of the building industry, enhance structural integrity, reduce maintenance, increase longevity, improve energy efficiency, and provide significant, immediate and longer-term environmental benefits. The use of solar-reflective (cool) urban surfaces is a comparatively inexpensive measure that can reduce summertime temperatures. A reflective roof is typically light in colour and absorbs less sunlight than does a conventional dark-coloured roof. Thus, reflective roofs reduce air-conditioner use and increase occupant comfort lev-

Roof with protective coating

els. Cool roof technologies include coatings, membranes, tiles and shingles. Light-coloured building surfaces are a time-honoured technique of staying cool in the Mediterranean, the Caribbean and other sun-drenched regions. Roofing materials with a high solar reflectance (called albedo) can reflect up to 85 per cent of incident solar radiation, compared to normal surfaces which may reflect only 20 per cent. For commercial applications, flat and poorly insulated roofs are the best

candidates for high-albedo materials. Of special interest to India are the findings of a case study undertaken a few years ago at the Satyam Technology Centre (STC) in Hyderabad. In a demonstration sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development in 2006, the installation of a white roof coating reduced the average summertime daily maximum roof-surface temperature of a two-storey office building at the STC's training centre from 52 deg. C to 32 deg. C. The total airconditioning energy use was thereby reduced by 30 kWh/day (5 per cent on hot days and 8 per cent on average days). Significant cost-effective a/c electricity and peak load savings and increased comfort levels can be realised by installing such cool roofs on industrial and commercial buildings like malls, hospitals, offices, hotels, etc. and residential premises in India. A number of companies in India are now engaged in the manufacture and supply of roof coatings and other related products. Some of them also export these products.

Roof Tear Off

104 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Bomanite India

Cool Roof Coatings
Versatile Coatings for Today's Roof Systems

In the United States, the Roof Coatings Manufacturers Association (RCMA) is the national trade association representing the manufacturers of cold-applied coatings and cements used for roofing and waterproofing, as well as the suppliers of products, equipment, and services to and for the industry. Founded in 1983, RCMA is dedicated to advancing product technology and to ensure an ongoing supply of quality energy-efficient materials to meet the needs of contractors and consumers. Currently, the Association has more than 70 companies as members. Not just white RCMA is working to set the record straight about energy-efficient coatings. Its membership represents manufacturers and raw material suppliers of energy-efficient coatings that can be considered part of a cool roofing solution. The Association believes that 'cool roofing' is not just white. There is a full complement of colours, including aluminum (silver/grey in colour) in a bituminous asphalt base and various white coatings that have been tinted

with pigments that can be classified as energy-efficient coatings. According to RCMA, many of the newer high-reflectivity aluminum and coloured roof coatings can perform just as well as, or better than, white coatings. Tom Meyer of RCMA's Solar Reflective Coatings Council, said: “In the past few years, technological advances have rapidly moved the roof coating industry beyond white to include a multitude of high-performing coloured coatings and silver aluminum bituminous coatings.” While reflective roof coatings can reduce energy consumption or increase roof life for buildings with lowsloped or flat roofs, Meyer said optimal energy efficiency and sustainability required looking at more than just a whiteness factor. “Selecting the appropriate roofing system requires a thorough consideration of climate, a building's location, installation specifics, aesthetics, insulation and other factors. There is no single answer. White may be the solution for one building, with aluminum or coloured coating the best for another,” he added. White roofs were in the headlines

“In the past few years, technological advances have rapidly moved the roof coating industry beyond white to include a multitude of highperforming coloured coatings and silver aluminum bituminous coatings.”

RCMA Council Member

Tom Meyer

sometime ago when the U.S. Energy Secretary, Dr. Steven Chu, suggested painting the roofs of all buildings white to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and save energy used for cooling. Dr. Chu's statement was criticised in many quarters for ignoring energy and other offsetting factors and costs in nontemperate climes. “The benefits of reflective roof coatings are very real, but there needs to be a reasoned approach and an understanding that there are many coating types available to meet the nation's various building energy and sustainability objectives,” said James Baker, RCMA's director of industry affairs. “We're urging regulators and green building advocates to be cautious and not increase reflectivity requirements faster than the technology will allow,” he added. Cool roofs have nevertheless been widely adopted in the United States. All but a handful of the country's 50 states have established regulations and /or incentives to encourage roofing of this type.

Aluminum Roof Sheets

106 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Universal Construction Machinery


Sustainable Roofing Option Comes Back into Limelight
M.K. Prabhakar he increasing emphasis on sustainable building strategies has meant that engineers today are looking at both new materials and quite a few other materials that have been for long considered 'nontraditional' in order to meet green building standards. There are some materials, that are considered 'non traditional' in some parts of the world,


while being almost a standard in certain other parts of the globe. Zinc is one such material. A cursory glance over the Parisian skyline would convince anyone of this paradox. Paris, under the reign of Napolean III in the mid-1800s was transformed into a city of almost exclusively zinc roofs. Two hundred years later, some of the original roofs still crown historic buildings in the city.

Although Zinc made its appearance in the United States around 1816, it could not make as dramatic an impact, as it had done elsewhere in Europe. However, things are now gradually changing. Zinc roofing is being seriously looked into as an alternative in most parts of the world, including India. Zinc roofing strips are fast becoming an architect's favorite,

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Roofing: Material Focus

cell production. Engineers in the 1800s had discovered that zinc had certain attractive benefits. For one, zinc sheeting is highly malleable; it's durable and almost completely recyclable. Patina The substance that gives zinc roofing strips the distinct hue is known as 'patina'. It is actually a layer of zinc hydroxycarbonate that forms on the surface of the material when it is exposed, in the presence of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water. The patina's structure consists of a compact protective layer, which strongly adheres to the zinc beneath it. The patina protects zinc from atmospheric corrosion and also does not dissolve easily in rainwater. Patinated metals are generally considered naturally healing and long lasting. There are instances in Europe when zinc roofing strips are installed with the patina already created, which is said to enhance the longevity of the roof, along with preventing accelerated corrosion.

As 'Green' as they Come In today's age of sustainable building strategies and green rating systems, zinc roofing's potential can no longer be underestimated. Today the use of rolled zinc can contribute to obtaining LEED certification under the Materials and Resources category. The fact that rolled zinc is 100 percent recyclable also adds to the attraction of zinc roofing as a preferred choice. Architectural grade zinc sheeting is a mix of titanium, copper, and zinc. This combination helps in maximizing the tensile strength of the roof, apart from helping in improving malleability. The combination also helps in improving the innate resilience of this wonder metal. There are scores of buildings around Europe, where zinc roofing has lasted for well beyond 100 years, compared to the 25 odd years for those with asphalt shingles. The patina forming characteristic of zinc, which gives it the self-healing property contributes to the durability and longevity of the roofing strips.

because of their versatility, aesthetics, and application. A Natural Zinc is the 27th most common naturally occurring element in the world. It is found in galvanized steel, batteries, and brass. Even the human body is depending on zinc for certain biological functions such as fertility, vision, and

Zinc roofing dominates the Parisian skyline

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Roofing: Material Focus
Zinc Roofing: Sustainable Roofing Option Comes Back into Limelight

As a building material, zinc offers several advantages, starting right from the stage when it is mined from deep beneath the earth's crust. For one the amount of energy that is used to produce zinc from its ore is the lowest among all non-ferrous metals. The energy consumption reduces drastically in the case of zinc that is produced from recycled material, making it one of the most 'natural' of building materials. The primary energy that is required to manufacture zinc roofing sheets is again, substantially lower than most other alternatives. This is because of the fact that zinc has a relatively low melting point of approximately 785 F, which in turn means that a relatively lower amount of fuel is required to extract, smelt, alloy, roll, and fabricate the metal. The primary energy content of the metal is in fact lesser than that of stainless steel, copper, and aluminum. In fact, two times the energy is required for the other comparative materials. Moreover, the concentration of zinc ore is higher as compared to other ores in their respective ores.

Architectural grade zinc has high tensile strength, remarkably malleable and corrosion resistant

Yet another factor that makes zinc roofing an attractive proposition is the fact that the metal is 100 percent recyclable. It is estimated that around 95 percent of the initial energy content is conserved in the case of recycled zinc. Moreover, it also makes economic sense since the metal is almost always in demand and an estimated 90 percent of the zinc that is put up in the recyclable material market is sold out. Conversely, annually an estimated 9 million metric tons of asphalt shingles are

reported to end up in landfills. The toxic chemicals present in the shingles then leach into the soil, creating havoc with the environment, particularly groundwater sources. Corrosion Factor Another remarkable property of zinc lies in the fact that it is highly corrosion resistant, whether it is in a marine environment or inland. The metal combines with salt in the marine environment to form zinc oxychloride (Zn2 O C12). The substances then wash of the surface easily forming the characteristic blue-gray patina. The corrosion rates of zinc vary between 0.5µm and 1.0µm per year. Generally, the corrosion rates are found to be higher in highly industrialized areas where sulfur dioxide concentration in the atmosphere is high. There could be corrosion issues forming from the underside of roofing sheets, if moisture is allowed to condense beneath them. It is usually recommended for this reason to allow for a drainage layer directly below the zinc roofing for allowing moisture not to get trapped and escape freely. Some manu-

Zinc roofing allows for easy installation of secondary components like light inlets on the roof structure

110 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Tac System Formwork Sdn Bhd

Roofing: Material Focus
Zinc Roofing: Sustainable Roofing Option Comes Back into Limelight

A row of zinc roofs with the typical zinc ‘Patina’ on them

facturers also recommend venting the zinc roof strips with panels, along with a layer of protective coating on the underside of the sheets. Zinc Roof Installation Although a relatively simple process, zinc roof installation is best done by the manufacturer's authorized per-

sonnel. Some of the key factors that need to be taken into consideration for proper installation of zinc roof strips are physic-chemical compatibility, geometrical continuity and project structural conformity. A thorough roof inspection in order to adhere to these conditions is a must before the installation process begins.

Future Metal roofing as a concept is fast becoming a preferred option globally. In India too, no longer is metal roofing limited to warehouses and factories. With the boom in infrastructure and real estate projects, metal roofing is finding wide ranging applications. Zinc roofing strips could play a crucial role in the industry, what with the rising emphasis on eco-friendly building materials. While cost may be the inhibiting factor right now, with increase in competition, it could soon be a thing of the past. Moreover, the fact that low maintenance and durability of zinc mean that the longevity factor outweighs the initial price difference, making it one of the preferred choice, when it comes to roofing solutions. With increasing endorsement from the architectural and engineering fraternity, zinc could well become the roofing metal to watch out for in the near future.

Zinc roofing is ideally suited for complex structural shapes

114 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd


G.V.Engineering & Co
Offering Top of the line PEB Solutions
.V.Engineering & Co is a versatile engineering firm that specializes in Pre-Engineered Buildings, Multi-storey Steel Buildings, Industrial Structures, etc. The company's growth story has been driven by its firm commitment to the latest technology and advanced software, which has seen it successfully complete several major projects, globally.Ably led by Mr.Raja Gana Nathar-B.E,.M.K.S.E,. a technocrat with over two decades of experience, G.V.Engineering & Co, has been forging ahead in its journey towards attaining


m a r ket l e a d e rs h i p . S p e a k i n g exclusively to the Masterbuilder, Mr.Raja Gana Nathar gave insights into what makes the company's products and services special. Here are excerpts from the interview. What are the advantages of PreEngineered Buildings over conventional systems? Pre-engineered buildings are preferable for their advantages such as cost-effectiveness, wider spans without intermediate columns, factory controlled quality, better stability due to framed action, easy and faster construction, and better earthquake resistance, etc, among others. Moreover, the lightweight of the structures ensures better protection against earthquakes. How has Computer Aided Design helped in increasing the popularity of PEB systems? Latest software development has made it easy to analyze and ascertain any structure for their ability to perform under actual conditions, which leads to optimum design and better stability.

leading to quality and quantity manufacturing of built-up sections and other components, thereby reducing unwanted loss and saving time in the process. Are PEB systems preferable for multistoried construction? In western countries, multi-storey buildings are very popular due to their fast and easy construction. Composite constructions actually reduce self weight which leads to reduction in frame and foundation loadings. Longer spans with fewer columns allow for more space and deck profile provides safe working platform. Moreover, PEB systems have also got better earthquake resistance. How are the products and services offered by your company different from others? We provide complete design from the foundation to superstructure and undertake responsibility for safety of structures. We additionally provide stability certificate for structures to our clients. We thoroughly analyze every client's unique requirements and based on the product and process equipment involved we provide better specification for their building with s u i ta b l e ve nt i l at i o n , h a n d l i n g

Raja Gana Nathar B.E.,M.K.S.E, Managing Director, G.V.Engineering & Co

Computer aided technology resulted in hi-tech machineries

144 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

GV Engineering & Co.,

G.V.Engineering & Co: Offering Top of the line PEB Solutions

equipment and other statutory requirements. Give us a few examples of your major projects. Some of our hi-tech projects include: Utech Elsewedy Project in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia is one. Chemical storage warehouse Sabic- 72 clear span with 29 m rid height. Pipe rack and platform Fahud Station in Muscat for the Petroleum Development Corporation of Oman. BCCI commercial complex in Bahrain. We have done the conceptual design for the 23 storey steel building. What are the other services that you provide? We also provide consultancy services for PEB plant construction, textile mills, etc. We have a special project division for refinery projects and have handled many projects for P.D.O (Muscat), KNPC Kuwait, etc. Visit us at: www.gvcon.com

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 145

MM Castings (P) Ltd


Building Blocks of Quality
Sadagopan Seshadri,
Chief - Content Development, CE - Infrastructure - Environment


onstruction chemicals are one of the niche segments from the specialty chemical segment of the chemical industry. These are specialty products that are used in structures to increase their life, and also to impart additional protection from environmental hazards. Construction chemicals additionally help in minimizing the quantities of cement and water generally required during the construction. The new construction projects market is expected to increase the demand for construction chemicals. The construction market is expected to grow at


more than 30% p.a. for the next few years. There is no published data available indicating the exact growth rate of the construction market. The Indian construction chemical market is highly competitive and fragmented, with large numbers of small and specialized suppliers. Besides small distributors who import these chemicals, there are a large number of global construction chemical companies who have manufacturing operations in India. This market is likely to grow at the rate of around 10 15% p.a. in the next few years.

Most of these companies remain highly specialized thus serving their specific market segment supplying a few product types of different technology / application methods, quality and price to meet specific construction needs such as waterproofing, leakages or fireproofing. In general, the distribution of each particular product involves installation/application and most importantly a warranty on product performance. As a result, it is necessary that distributors of construction chemicals specialize in solutions to specific construction needs.

120 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Industry Analysis

tial component of the renovation and repair aspect of large-scale projects contributing to their sales in India. The construction industry has had its fair share in the overall growth of the Indian Economy. With exciting prospects ahead, there is an increased emphasis on high quality construction requiring detailed designing, good workmanship, and the selection of appropriate building materials. Building structures would require protection from natural hazards and industrial corrosives and regular maintenance to sustain for a longer duration of time. Chemicals used in construction impart these qualities to structures. Types of Construction Chemicals Construction Chemicals can broadly be categorized into five groups: Concrete and Mortar Admixtures Water Proofing Compounds Floor Hardeners Protective Coatings and Resins Adhesives and Sealants Consistent Growth Trend Global construction chemicals market is projected to cross US$34 billion by the year 2015, according to a Global research report. “Though the market continues to reel under the impact of recession, the ongoing and proposed high construction projects in develop-

ing countries of Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Eastern Europe are expected to buoy future market growth. Further, trends such as increasing urbanization and green building constructions are expected to spur the market growth momentum,” said Global Industry Analysts (GIA) in its report. The growth rate of the Indian Construction Chemical Industry is consistent. This shows that the application of construction chemical in construction works is increasing gradually. The end users are coming to know about its usage. Some key players in the CC space Rossari Biotec M.J. Construction chemicals Chembond JBA Concrete Solutions Chowgule Koster BASF Dow Chemicals Rheoplast technology Technokolla Tech-Dry Don Construction chemicals Razon Engineering Techny Chemie Nina Concrete Systems Sunanda Speciality Chemicals Dow Chemicals Rheoplast Technology

A variety of construction chemicals are used in most large-scale construction projects as also in projects involving special design and engineering so as to cater to their specific needs. These materials include concrete admixture, surface treatment, waterproofing, grout, floor topping, coating, sealer, and floor hardening. Thus, the potential demand for construction chemicals takes in its ambit the creation of infrastructure in core sectors of economy, high-rise buildings and industrial complexes. Besides, construction chemicals become an essen

Growth Rates: Construction Chemical V/S Construction Industry
CC Industry Turnover* Rate of Growth of CC Industry Construction Industry Turnover* Rate of Growth of Construction Industry 750 13% 31078 16.55%

855 14% 36015 15.88%

992 16% 42885 19%

1130 18% 48679 22%

2006-07 CAGR %
1500 20% 51200 23.70% 14.20% 18.06%

*The figures are in Rs. Crore ; CC=Construction Chemical (Source: Chemical Weekly)

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Industry Analysis
Construction Chemicals: Building Blocks of Quality

The Growth Drivers Expanding construction businesses in the largely untapped rural areas are also expected to provide a huge thrust to the construction chemicals market. Moreover, the Government's decision to allow 100 percent foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the real estate business has boosted construction activities throughout India. Although the economic downturn had bogged down the real estate business, it is already showing signs of recovery. This revival, along with foreign investors' popular perception of India as a highgrowth market, has given a shot in the arm for construction chemicals companies. Upen Patel, head-marketing, BASF Construction Chemicals (India) Pvt Ltd, based on the development in the infra segment feels. “As a developing country, India has shortage of shelter, power and transport infrastructure. As the country creates the wealth it would invest in these key sectors which would keep driving the demand for construction chemicals,” he says. Patel believes the power and transport sector would create additional demand for construction chemicals making up for continuing lack-luster performance of the downturn hit real estate sector. “Globally a construction project would consume 2-3% value worth of construction chemicals, while in India this ratio is only 0.3-0.7% at the moment. As the ratio improves we will see further growth for construction chemicals. Not less than CAGR at 15-20% for next ten years is anticipated. As per Anasuya Gupta, managing director, Cico Technologies Ltd, one of the market leaders, “One of the major growth drivers would be the ability of the play-

CFI- Streamlining the CC Industry Bodies like Construction Federation of India (CFI) strive to strengthen the sector by establishing linkages in the industry & working with the Planning Commission to secure the future of the construction chemicals sector. “In fact, viewing the growing importance of this segment, a construction chemicals division has been set up under the aegis of CFI “, said SC Mehta, secretary general, CFI. Several major construction chemicals manufacturing companies have joined hands with CFI to be an active constituent of the Construction Chemicals Division. Key objectives of this division include creating awareness about the use of right type and quality of construction chemicals to have durable structure and standardization of materials and prices. The Future Holds Promise The construction chemical industry in India is at a nascent stage as compared to the rest of the world. But with the growth in economy, growth in construction is inevitable and this should translate in higher growth in construction chemicals to meet quality & speed aspects in project deliveries. A responsible SWOT analysis is a must to keep this sunrise industry on the right track. The Indian consumer is realizing that while the cost of construction chemicals is only 2 percent of the overall construction cost, the benefits are manifold. “Effective marketing and product innovation are keys to success in the Indian market,” says the analyst of Frost & Sullivan research and adds, “It is imperative to maintain long-term relations with customers and exert influence over channel partners to stay afloat in this market.”

ers in the sector to deliver logistics and services at the doorsteps of the users”. A key growth driver of this sector in the last decade has been the acceptability of ready mix concrete (RMC). In India around 7% of the domestic cement consumption is consumed in RMC. This is expected to grow 25-30% in the near future driving up the demand for construction chemicals Large RMC players promote the value added concrete concepts thus spurring up the knowledge driven demand of specialty admixtures by end users. Incidentally, BASF has been working with many construction companies in making it possible to reduce the usage of cement and still maintain the performance of concrete and also to reduce the energy used in concrete production and placement. It is working with other organizations actively involved in the concrete industry like the Indian Concrete Institute for creating awareness on the usage and benefits of construction chemicals.

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Jindal Aluminium

Reflective Signage

T echnology
A Key to Safer Roads
Harish Banwari ransportation infrastructure is an essential ingredient for rapid growth of an economy and a vital input to economic development, trade and social integration. The physical world is still grappling with the inadequacy of quality roads and highways, creeping into the greenscape. Financing the maintenance of transport infrastructure, managing urban congestion, supply chain disruption on account of poor rural connectivity and loading of environmental cost as an integral project cost, are some of the challenges that the transport infrastructure industry is grappling with. Economists hold India's inadequacy in infrastructure as the main impediment to its growth and roads in particular have a critical role to play in the growth story. Sector-wise


estimates based on the Approach Paper to the 11th Five-Year Plan have put a figure of $48 billion towards roads and highways infrastructure alone. However, ironically India has the highest number of road accidents in the world as revealed by the World Health Organization (WHO). In India, the death toll rose to 14 per hour in 2009 as opposed to 13 the previous year. The total number of deaths every year due to road accidents has now passed the 135,000 mark, according to the latest report of National Crime Records Bureau or NCRB. And this is where the country is losing 3% of its GDP to road crashes every year. While drunken driving is one of the major causes of accidents, it is also seen that lack of proper road infrastructure espe-

cially on highways and treacherous mountain roads contributes largely to this number. The IRF (International Road Federation) has recently recognized the criticality of the situation and has proposed to seek active participation of corporate houses in building infrastructures having direct bearing on road safety. It also proposes that the government should exempt tax on these expenditures incurred by the corporate houses in a given year. The public private model has lead to the use of progressive technology and upgraded quality and designs, suited to match the needs of commuters and drivers.India implemented the PPP model in road development in a big way and achieved financial closure of more than 270 projects until Novem-

124 The Masterbuilder - March 2011


Reflective Signage
Technology - A Key to Safer Roads

ber 2009. Infrastructure shortages are proving a key constraint in sustaining and expanding India's economic growth. The government is actively promoting PPPs in key infrastructure sectors like transportation. A KPMG report titled 'Opportunities in Infrastructure and Resources in India' reveals that investments of the order of US$ 500 billion are expected to take place in the coming years. Through these partnerships, corporates are not just investing in technology that will not just improve infrastructure but also create a safe environment for commuters and motorists. One such technology is the microreplication technology that has been used extensively to create reflective signage. Microreplication is a manufacturing technology that combines the art and science of applying precise, microscopic three-dimensional patterns on various surfaces. Based on this technology, companies like 3M India have created retroreflective signage that reflects the light back to its source with minimum scattering. This allows greater visibility for motorists especially at night. The technology in its various forms has been reinvented to suit the growing needs of overcrowded cities. The Diamond Grade Prismatic Sheeting has been used extensively as conspicuity sign to highlight obstructions or hazards on the road such as roundabouts, median openings, pillars, sometimes even trees. These prismatic reflective sheeting can be directly applied on very rough, textured or corrugated surfaces too. This material finds applications in various areas like median openings, trees, concrete structures, roundabouts, flyovers etc. Raised Pavement Markers (RPMs) are also helpful on dark roads and bad road

designs. The median markers using fluorescent yellow reflective sheeting, constructed on the roads, help to delineate two-way traffic. They are also useful in dawn, dusk and foggy conditions. Improving the visibility of road signs has been shown to reduce road traffic accidents by up to 80% - a significant statistic based on the fact that signs not only show the correct route and format of the road layout ahead but also act as vital hazard warning. In fact, surveys carried out by independent consultants TMS Consultancy, on behalf of 3M UK, found that using reflective sheeting made a significant contribution to accident reduction. These findings were based on 'before and after' statistics at a number of individual test sites in the UK. The results of the survey showed a 79% reduction in the total number of accidents that occurred over the twelve test locations. Traffic safety solutions like reflective signage, raised pavement markers, median markers and conspicuity tapes have made roads safer and visible, help-

ing both motorists & pedestrians in way finding and caution them of upcoming changes in road conditions. These examples only prove that progressive technology is the buzz word for India. The country has already seen its benefit in reducingwastage and costs, while simultaneously improving the quality of products. The Government is also committed to building a world-class infrastructurefor improving the quality of life and enhancing competitiveness of theeconomy. With all these developments paving the way for growth in the country, good times have just begun! Author's Bio
The Author is Mechanical Engineer & MBA currently working with 3M India Limited as General Manager for Traffic Safety Systems Division. Harish has been associated with road and vehicle safety for the last 8 years and has played a crucial role in upgrading the safety standards in this field.

126 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

STA Concrete Flooring Solutions

Seismic Performance

Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames
Shah B. A.1 Patodi S. C.2 1Associate Professor, Applied Mechanics Department, The M. S. University of Baroda 2Professor, Civil Engineering Department, Parul Institute of Engg. & Tech., Limda, Baroda

Shah B. A.

Patodi S. C.

n the current study, G+3 to G+7 storey RC building frames are modeled and analyzed by five different lateral load analysis methods by using commercially available ETABS software. The analysis methods like linear static, nonlinear static (push over), response spectrum as per IS 1893, response spectrum as per Bhuj India (2001) earthquake and time history as per Bhuj earthquake are used to compare the response of the buildings in terms of base shear, roof displacement and storey drift. Two variations in column cross section are considered i.e. rectangular and equivalent square. It is found that the square shaped columns perform better as compared to rectangular columns under earthquake forces regardless of the method adopted for the analysis. It is also observed that the forces and displacements induced in the RC structures due to time history analysis are much higher than the code specified linear static method of analysis of structures. Kalkan and Kunnath (2004) have used analytical methods to compare with actual response of a structure under time history analysis by using data of instrumented steel buildings during the Northridge earthquake. Rofooei et al (2006) have used the time history analysis to estimate the target displacement for pushover analysis. As observed by Penelis and Kappos (2002), inelastic time history analysis albeit useful and most reliable analysis technique, it proves to be cumbersome for practicing engineers due to its lengthy and complicated data input requirements. Despite lot of work done on time history analysis as a
128 The Masterbuilder - March 2011


powerful tool for estimating the seismic response of a structure, there are hardly any papers on comparing the various methods of analysis with reference to a specific RC frame problem. This type of comparison will be very useful to a practicing structural engineer who needs an idea of the difference in forces induced in a structure under time history analysis vis-à-vis linear static analysis specified by codal provisions. In the present study, therefore, the linear dynamic response spectrum and time history analysis are adopted to evaluate the response of RC space frames. For undertaking a time history analysis the recorded data of the time history which is available online from the cosmos website is utilized here. The other type of dynamic analysis performed is the response spectrum analysis as per the 5% damped IS 1893 (2002) spectrum considered for the medium soil and building lying in zone 3. The response spectrum due to Bhuj time history is also generated for 5% damping and a scale factor of 0.102 to convert the time period versus spectral acceleration in units of g. This spectrum is utilized here to define another response spectrum case and the building is analyzed. The non linear static analysis is also carried out by using the ATC 40 (1996) and FEMA (1997) guidelines for comparison purpose. The Mathematical Models Considered Five space frames of G+3 to G+ 7 storeys are considered with an overall plan dimension of 6m x 6m having four panels of 3m x 3m. Nine columns are

Seismic Performance
Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames

considered at the panel points having a cross sectional dimension of 230mm x 450mm throughout. The column height in each storey is considered as 3m and it extends below the plinth level up to 3m. The size of the column below plinth level is considered as 280mm x 500mm. Another set of five similar models having equivalent square column cross section of 322mm x 322mm is considered for comparison. The beam size is taken as 230mm x 450mm. A rigid diaphragm is defined for each storey to account for the slab stiffness when subjected to lateral loads. The M25 grade of concrete and Fe 415 grade steel reinforcement is considered. Typical isometric and plan views of a G+7 storey frame are shown in Fig. 1. All the joints are considered to be fixed at the foundation level.

load calculated as per the Indian code IS 1893 (2002) for 5% damping with seismic zone factor z = 0.16 and medium soil with importance factor of 1 and a response reduction factor of 5. It is calculated as per the seismic parameters for the frame. The load direction being considered is global X. The loads are applied at the diaphragm centre. The mass considered for generating the lateral load is total dead load + 25% of the live load lumped at diaphragm centre. Earthquake load EQY: This load case is exactly similar to the load EQX except for the fact that it is applied in the lateral Y direction. Dynamic Load Cases Time History Analysis: In the time history analysis, a typical time history for the Bhuj Earthquake of January 26, 2001 at 08:46:42.9 I.S.T. Mag: 7.0 mb, 7.6 Ms recorded at Ahmedabad station having latitude and longitude as 23 02 N, 72 38 E component: N 78 E is used. Accelerogram band pass filtered between 0.07 Hz and 27.0 Hz having an initial velocity of 0.1411E-02 m/s, initial displacement = 3.970 mm and peak acceleration = -1.0382 m/s/s at 46.940 sec is utilized. A total record of 133.53 sec is used having 26706 acceleration data points (in m/s/s) at 0.005 sec. The plot of acceleration versus time used for the time history is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 1 Typical Isometric and Plan Views of the G+7 Frame

Static Load Cases Following are the four static load cases considered for the models: Dead load: This load consists of a uniformly distributed area load of 2 kN/sqm on terrace and 1.5 kN/sqm on all floors along with a uniformly distributed line load of 6 kN/m at terrace level and 13 kN/m on all peripheral beams at typical floor level to account for 230mm thick brick walls. Self weight is automatically calculated by the program for all beams and columns. Live load: An area load of 3 kN/sqm on all floors is considered except for the terrace floor where the load considered is 1.5 kN/sqm. Earthquake load EQX: This load case is a static

Fig. 2 Time versus Acceleration Record for Bhuj Earthquake

This file is used as the input for time history function. As the file is having values of acceleration in m/sec2, the time history load case is defined as acceleration in the X direction with a scale factor of
The Masterbuilder - March 2011 129

Seismic Performance
Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames

1. After the analysis, the response spectrum curve of the ground level node is extracted for time period versus pseudo spectral acceleration as ordinate in the arithmatic scale for 5% damping and X direction is extracted from the time history traces display in the form of a text file. The response spectrum extracted for the central node at the base for each of the models is presented in Fig. 3. The values of this response spectrum are input as a response spectrum function for the response spectrum dynamic analysis in ETABS software. The output of the results is obtained at a time step of 0.04 sec giving 25 output steps per sec.

spectrum generated from the time history analysis under Bhuj earthquake for each model which is read from a text file containing the values as shown in Fig. 3. Next, the response spectrum load cases are defined wherein again two separate cases are specified for IS 1893 specified spectrum and the response spectrum function defined for Bhuj earthquake. For both the response spectrum cases, the structural and functional damping considered is 5% which gets modified in the analysis as per the structural properties. The Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method is used for modal combinations and the Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) method is used for directional combination. Input response spectrum is defined in the U1 (corresponding to X) direction with a scale factor of 9.81 to convert the acceleration in m/sec2 units from units of g. The results of the analysis are obtained by running the analyze command of the ETABS software. The Results of Analysis For the lateral load analysis, the important values like base shear, roof displacement and storey drift are noted from the analysis results. Five different methods are applied for evaluating these parameters for the ten RC space frame models under lateral loads. The methods employed are: i) The linear static method (EQX), ii) The non linear static method (Push Over), iii) The linear dynamic response spectrum method (as per IS 1893 response spectrum), iv) The response spectrum method for Bhuj earthquake response spectrum and v) The linear dynamic time history analysis as per Bhuj earthquake strong motion
Time History Bhuj Min -987 -1493 -0.102 -0.155 Max 1010 1461 0.102 0.157 0.0060 0.0125 1893 Bhuj 531 455 0.068 0.079 0.0034 0.0044

Fig. 3 Response Spectra for Models for Bhuj Earthquake

Response Spectrum Analysis: First a response spectrum function is defined to carry out the linear dynamic analysis. For the current mathematical models, following two response spectrum functions are defined: i) IS 1893 specified response spectrum for zone factor z = 0.16 having medium soil and 5% damping defined by using the built in function of the ETABS software and ii) Response
Parameter Analysis Type Column Base Shear kN Roof Displ. in m Max. Drift in m Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect 147 147 0.023 0.034 0.0011 0.0016 827 708 0.169 0.192 Linear Static

Non Linear Static (Push Over) Response Spectrum 822 695 0.101 0.123 0.0052 0.0068

0.0102 0.0198

Table 1 Comparison of Seismic Performance of a G+7 Frame

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Nina Concrete Systems Pvt.Ltd

Seismic Performance
Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames

data. The results of analysis are reported for G+7 storey frame in Table 1. The results noted down for the time history analysis are time dependent and the maximum results may occur at different times. However, they are presented here for comparison. The graphical comparison of base shear variation in the G+7 storey RC space frame is presented in Fig. 4. A similar comparison for roof displacement is

shown in Fig. 5 whereas Fig. 6 shows the variation in maximum storey drift. The base shear and the roof displacement evaluated under lateral loads by five different methods for all the ten models are presented in Table 2. Also, the variation in base shear for all the models is graphically represented in Fig. 7 and that for roof displacement is depicted in Fig. 8.

Fig. 4 Base Shear Comparison for a G+7 Storey RC Frame Model Parameter Base Shear in kN G+7 Roof Displ. in m Base Shear in kN G+6 Roof Displ. in m Base Shear in kN G+5 Roof Displ. in m Base Shear in kN G+4 Roof Displ. in m Base Shear in kN G+3 Roof Displ. in m

Fig. 5 Roof Displacement Comparison for a G+7 Storey Frame Response Spectrum 1893 822 695 0.101 0.123 826 691 0.087 0.107 834 687 0.077 0.091 842 687 0.061 0.077 868 688 0.052 0.063 Bhuj 531 455 0.068 0.079 825 381 0.091 0.058 712 606 0.068 0.084 816 590 0.062 0.068 521 655 0.031 0.061 Time History Bhuj Min -ve 987 1493 0.102 0.155 1755 894 0.187 0.089 1595 1277 0.127 0.140 2192 1350 0.164 0.149 1525 1957 0.076 0.149 Max 1010 1461 0.102 0.157 1791 905 0.185 0.087 1596 1265 0.145 0.137 2182 1362 0.160 0.166 1493 1938 0.077 0.149

Column Shape Linear Static Non Linear Static (Push Over) Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect Square Rect 147 147 0.023 0.034 85 69 0.011 0.014 84 68 0.010 0.012 82 67 0.008 0.009 79 64 0.006 0.007 827 708 0.169 0.192 818 685 0.145 0.161 812 664 0.123 0.145 799 643 0.102 0.124 780 616 0.082 0.103

Table 2 Comparison of Base Shear and Roof Displacement for Various Frame Models

132 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Cerachem Pvt.Ltd

Seismic Performance
Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames

Fig. 6 Storey Drift Comparison for a G+7 Storey Frame Fig. 8 Roof Displacement Variation Graphs for the Frame Models under consideration

which are also plotted in Fig. 9 for all the methods on a single plot for comparison. It may be noted here that the values of storey drift for non linear static (push over) case are the drift values at performance point when the space frame is pushed in the X direction. For rectangular columns, the X direction is the weak direction for lateral load resistance.

Fig. 7 Base Shear Variation Graphs for the Frame Models under consideration

The variation in storey drift over the height of the structure is also important as it gives an insight into the seismic performance of a structure. The storey drifts for all the five cases of lateral load in the global X direction for G+7 storey space frames with square and rectangular columns are presented in Table 3
Storey 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 EQX Square 0.0005 0.0007 0.0009 0.0010 0.0011 0.0011 0.0011 0.0010 0.0005 Rect 0.0006 0.0010 0.0013 0.0015 0.0016 0.0016 0.0016 0.0015 0.0008 Push Over Square 0.0027 0.0043 0.0056 0.0066 0.0071 0.0075 0.0078 0.0102 0.0020 Rect 0.0040 0.0066 0.0089 0.0104 0.0115 0.0122 0.0130 0.0198 0.0040 RS 1893 Spectrum Square 0.0020 0.0030 0.0037 0.0043 0.0046 0.0049 0.0052 0.0052 0.0028 Rect 0.0022 0.0036 0.0046 0.0052 0.0057 0.0061 0.0065 0.0068 0.0035

Fig. 9 Storey Drift Plots for G+7 Storey Frame in X Direction RS Bhuj Spectrum Square 0.0012 0.0019 0.0023 0.0027 0.0031 0.0033 0.0034 0.0034 0.0018 Rect 0.0015 0.0024 0.0030 0.0034 0.0037 0.0039 0.0042 0.0044 0.0023 Time History Bhuj Square 0.0028 0.0039 0.0042 0.0046 0.0055 0.0058 0.0055 0.0060 0.0035 Rect 0.0052 0.0080 0.0088 0.0086 0.0089 0.0088 0.0099 0.0125 0.0072

Table 3 Storey Drift Values for G+7 Storey RC Frame by Various Methods

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Unisteel Engineering Works

Seismic Performance
Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames

The plot of storey drift for the G+6 to G+3 space frame models by all the methods are presented in Figs. 10 to 13.

Fig. 13 Storey Drift Plots for G+3 Storey Frame in X Direction

Fig. 10 Storey Drift Plots for G+6 Storey Frame in X Direction

specific time history gives a value of base shear less than that obtained by the code specified generalized response spectrum. The base shear noted by push over analysis at performance point is almost same as that observed for response spectrum as per the codal provisions. However, comparing the forces in frames with square and rectangular columns reveals that the force is higher in square column but at a lower roof displacement. Table 1 also shows that the roof displacement under time history load for square columns is 4.43 times that obtained by linear static method and the same ratio for rectangular columns is 4.61. This indicates that square columns show a less roof displacement as compared to rectangular columns. Even if one compares the roof displacement of each method, the displacements for frame with square columns are less in comparison to that with rectangular columns. The roof displacement is observed to be maximum in case of push over analysis which is expected because of the formation of plastic hinges. The storey drift is also higher in case of push over analysis because of the plastic hinges. This fact is clearly indicated in Fig. 6. From Fig. 4 it can be seen that the base shear is highest in case of Time History case followed by that due to push over analysis which is almost same as response spectrum as per IS 1893. The response spectrum developed for specific time history gives a force which is less than that due to

Fig. 11 Storey Drift Plots for G+5 Storey Frame in X Direction

Fig. 12 Storey Drift Plots for G+4 Storey Frame in X Direction

Observations and Discussions Table 1 indicates that the linear static method which is followed to estimate the lateral loads as per the codal provisions is very much on the lower side. The base shear as per time history is 10.15 times that as per linear static method and it is almost 5.6 times in case of response spectrum method. The response spectrum developed for a
136 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Seismic Performance
Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames

code specified spectrum. In general, the base shear due to linear static analysis is 3.6 times smaller than that due to dynamic load due to Bhuj response spectrum for square columns and it is 3.1 times smaller for rectangular columns. Table 2 and Fig. 7 indicates that the base shear obtained by push over analysis and code specified response spectrum are almost same for a specific column shape. For a particular model say G+6 storey frame, square columns are subjected to higher shear force as compared to rectangular columns. The base shear value decreases as the number of storey decrease from G+7 to G+3. For Bhuj time history load case, the base shear variation between square and rectangular columns for different storey structures are quite random. A similar trend is observed for Bhuj earthquake response spectrum analysis, however, the base shear because of Bhuj response spectrum analysis is less as compared to base shear for code specified response spectrum analysis. In general, the base shear response of the structures for G+3 to G+7 frames is quite consistent for code specified response spectrum analysis and push over analysis. The base shear response of the same set of structures is quite random for a specific time history data. It can also be observed from Table 2 and Fig. 8 that the roof displacement which is another important response parameter for seismic evaluation is also quite random for time history load due to Bhuj earthquake. The roof displacement for a particular model with square shaped columns is found less than that with rectangular shaped columns. It is also seen that the roof displacement in models analyzed with code specified response spectrum and that due to push over analysis show almost a linear trend for G+3 storey to G+7 storey structure for both square and rectangular shaped columns. The storey drift variation which is presented in Table 3 and plotted in Fig. 9 shows the values for all the analysis methods for both the models in a

single graph for G+7 frame. It shows that the highest drift occurs at the first storey slab level for all the methods of lateral load analysis. As per drift criteria, the methods can be classified in the increasing degree of severity as linear static, linear dynamic Bhuj response spectrum, linear dynamic IS 1893 response spectrum, linear dynamic time history for Bhuj and non linear static push over analysis. Frames with square columns particularly performed well as compared to those with rectangular columns when the maximum storey drift criterion is considered. It is clear from Fig. 9 that the maximum drift under all cases for square columns is 1.94 times less compared to the maximum drift in frames with rectangular columns for G+7 frame. Also, the maximum drift for frame with square columns under time history dynamic analysis is less than that due to IS 1893 response spectrum analysis for rectangular columns. Figures 10 to 13 show that the storeys drift due to push over analysis for frames with rectangular columns is particularly very large at the first storey level for G+3 to G+7 frames. For all the models, the storey drift due to time history analysis under Bhuj earthquake for rectangular columns is quite random as compared to models with square columns. The storey drift for rectangular columns for G+6 frame under time history analysis is less which is an exception to the trend. The storey drift of a square column is less than rectangular column regardless of the method of analysis or the size of the frame. Conclusions It can be seen from the data presented that the recorded time history being random in nature does not give any trend based on the size of the frame (G+3 to G+7) or the cross sectional shape of the columns (square or rectangular). However, when the five different methods of analysis are compared for evaluating the seismic performance of a low rise RC
The Masterbuilder - March 2011 137

Seismic Performance
Comparison of Various Methods Including Time History Analysis in Seismic Performance Evaluation of RC Frames

space frame up to G+ 7 storeys, the square shaped columns perform better as compared to the rectangular shaped columns. As the base shear values for non linear static (push over) analysis is near the value of base shear due to code specified response spectrum analysis, it can be concluded that the push over analysis represents the state of the structure in terms of plastic hinges in a more realistic manner for G+3 to G+7 storey space frames. References
ATC-40 (1996), "Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings", Volume 1 and 2, Report No. SSC 96-01, Seismic Safety Commission, Redwood City, CA. FEMA-273/274 (1997), NEHRP Guidelines and Commentary on the Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, Washington DC, USA. http://db.cosmos-eq.org Cosmos Virtual Data Centre, Consortium of Organizations for Strong Motion Observation Systems. IS 1893 (2002), Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures, Part 1: General Provisions and Buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. Kalkan E. and Kunnath S. K. (2004), "Method of Modal Combinations for Pushover Analysis of Buildings", Paper No. 2713, Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, Canada. Penelis G. G. and Kappos A. J. (2002), "3D Pushover Analysis: The Issue of Torsion", Paper No. 15, Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering, London.

Rofooei F. R., Attari N. K., Rasekh A. and Shodja A. H. (2006), "Comparison of Static and Dynamic Pushover Analysis in Assessment of the Target Displacement", International Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 3.

Authors Bio Bimal A. Shah is currently an Associate Professor with Applied Mechanics Department, Faculty of Technology & Engineering of the M. S. University of Baroda. He received his B.E. (Civil) and M.E. (Structures) Degrees from the M. S. University of Baroda in 1985 and 1987 respectively. He is pursuing Ph.D. in the field of Earthquake Engineering and has published 13 research papers in national and international conferences and journals. He has visited Manila, Philippines, Geneva and Switzerland to present technical papers in 2004 and 2006. Subhash C. Patodi received his Ph.D. from IIT Bombay in 1976. After serving for 30 years as Professor of Structural Engineering at the M. S. University of Baroda, he is currently working as Professor in Civil Engineering Department at the Parul Institute of Engineering and Technology, Baroda. He has published 276 research papers in National and International Journals and Conferences. His current research interest includes Cementitious Composites, Numerical Methods and Soft Computing Tools.

138 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Sohan Lal Gupta


ASPHALTHigher Percentages of Use PAVEMENT The Way to Achieve
eclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) has been used in the US since the mid 1970's. It has been put to many different uses. RAP has been used as aggregate base material. It has been used as shoulder material on lower volume roads. However, the most cost effect use of RAP is as a component in a new asphalt mixture. The asphalt binder and quality aggregate in the RAP will reduce the cost of producing new asphalt mixture. The costs of asphalt binders have steadily increased over the past several years with the typical price now over $450 a ton. This increase in cost of the binder makes it the most costly portion of the asphalt mix. The use of RAP in the new mix will reduce the asphalt binder needed and reduce the cost of the mix. The asphalt binder typically accounts for 50% of the cost of materials for the asphalt mix and by replacing a portion of the asphalt binder with



RAP binder significant savings can be realized. High quality aggregates are also becoming in short supply and increasing in cost. The aggregate in the RAP also contributes to the reduction in cost that can be achieved with its use. RAP usage has fluctuated over the years. When first introduced typical RAP percentages used in new mixes were in the 20 to 25% range. However, drop off in the cost of asphalt binder in the 80's and 90's saw a reduction in the use of RAP. Introduction of the Superpave system also caused a reduction in the use of RAP as agencies wanted to implement the new system with minimal additional issues such as using RAP. As Superpave has become the standard in the US and contractors and agencies are now familiar with the system the use of RAP has increased. As noted earlier the increased cost of asphalt binder has been the major

John D'Angelo Ph.D. P.E.,

140 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Asphalt Recycling
Fractionation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement the way to Achieve Higher Percentages of Use

driver in the interest of using higher percentages of RAP in the asphalt mixture. The average usage of RAP in the US is about 15%. However, asphalt mixes with 50% have been produced and placed with success. The RAP can't just be dumped in the mix at high percentages though. The use of higher percentages of RAP requires some improvements in material handling. Without care and attention to detail high percentage RAP mixes can be a disaster. If done right they can be a high quality cost saving way to produce asphalt mixtures. The production process starts with taking up of the existing roadway. This is typically done with large milling machines that grind up the pavement and deliver it into haul trucks to be taken back to the asphalt mix plant. A standard milling operation is shown in the picture below. The milling machine uses carbide teeth mounted on a drum to chip out the existing asphalt pavement. Depths from as small as 10 mm up to 150 mm can be removed at one pass. The milling process typically produces material

Picture of typical RAP milled from the roadway machine will mill and pick up the material in one operation and then conveys it to haul trucks. The existing pavement has been picked up by using rippers to pull up the pavement and loaders to pick it up. However, this process typically creates large pieces of which are more difficult to handle in the recycling process. In mixes with lower percentages of RAP, 10 to 15%, the milled material is often fed into the asphalt mix plant with little additional processing. A is scalping screen over the cold feed bin is used to remove large particles over 25mm. A picture of typical millings is shown below. The milling process will generate various size particles in addition to a large amount of fines. When the RAP is used in small percentages this can easily be handled in the mix by adjustments to the virgin aggregate to produce mixes that will meet all design requirements such as gradation, binder content and mix volumetric properties. As higher percentages of RAP are used in the mix a higher degree of control is need over the RAP material to maintain the quality of the final mix. This is done by the process of fractionation. There are several different approaches to the fractionation of the RAP material. The approach taken will be governed by the percentage of RAP to be used in the new asphalt mixture. For mixes using up to 30% RAP it is common to crush the roadway milling to a single 0- 12mm stockpile. The crushing of the milled RAP from the roadway down to a 12mm maximum size will help improve gradation control by eliminating any large aggregate that may

Picture of a typical milling machine removing asphalt pavement and transferring the millings to a haul truck.

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 141

Asphalt Recycling
Fractionation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement the way to Achieve Higher Percentages of Use

material is sent to the high efficiency screen deck. These screen decks are set at steep angles with slotted screens to provide more surface area and help prevent clogging of the screens. The material is then separated into separate stockpiles for feeding back into the asphalt mix plant using separate cold feed bins for the different sizes. One important think to note when fractionating RAP is that the different size material has to be treated as completely different material sources. When the RAP has been fractionated the binder content on the existing aggregate will be different for the different size material. The fine portion will have the highest binder content and the coarsest portion with have the lowest binder content. It will be common for the RAP that may have an overall binder content of 5% to have 7% binder in the fine portion and 3% in the coarse portion. During the asphalt mix design process this has to be taken into account when putting the overall job mix formula together and in the determination of the final binder content. In some cases with higher percentage RAP mixes a softer binder will be used to offset the increased stiffness from the RAP binder. This is governed by the stiffness of the RAP binder and per-

Picture of RAP crushed to minus 12 mm size will also produce a more consistent material with less variation from location to location in the crushed stock pile. The crushing process will also reduce the variability in the binder content of the RAP material. A picture of the crushed RAP is shown below. The smaller size RAP material also is heated more rapidly and therefor mixes more easily with the new aggregate and binder. The one disadvantage to this crushing of the RAP is the generation of additional fines that have to be accounted for in the production of the new asphalt mix. When higher percentages of RAP are to be used in the asphalt mixture even greater fractionation of the RAP material will make it easier to produce a mix that will meet design requirements and can consistently be produced at the mix plant. Asphalt mixtures with RAP percentages greater than 30% made from one RAP stockpile will be difficult to produce at the mix plant, on a consistent bases. As with any mixture controlling the gradation from one or two stockpiles is very difficult and the overall quality improves wit increased stockpiles. This is true for RAP also. The process of fractionating the RAP into multiple sizes is very similar to the crushing and screening of aggregate to meet specific size requirements. The one major difference is that the RAP binder will bond some of the finer material to the larger aggregate so that there will be a larger variation in sizes for any individually sized RAP stockpile. The picture of a typical RAP fractionation process is shown below. Here the RAP is crushed and screened into 3 sizes; 9 to 12mm, 5 to 9mm and 0 to 5 mm.

The fractionation process starts with crushing of the roadway millings or other RAP material. A horizontal shaft impact crusher is typically used for the crushing operation. This type of crusher can easily be set for a small max size and the impact on the crusher walls breaks-up the RAP with less dust generation. The goal is to breakup the RAP material with as little crushing of the existing stone as possible. Picture of a RAP crushing and screening operation From the crusher the

showing the crusher, screen deck and stockpiling operation

142 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Viki Industries (P) Ltd

Asphalt Recycling
Fractionation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement the way to Achieve Higher Percentages of Use

centage used. There are several approaches that are use to evaluate when and how much adjustment is needed to the binder grades. This information can be found from many agencies such as the National Asphalt Pavement Association and in the American Association of State highway and Transportation Officials documents. RAP stockpiles have a tendency to hold moisture. Therefore it is important to use good stockpile management when using RAP. To help remove water, the stockpiles should be placed on sloped ground that is preferably paved to drain the water away. Some contractors use large sheds to cover the RAP stockpiles so they will not be exposed to rain and can be kept dry. Separate cold feed bins should be used when introducing RAP to the asphalt mix plant. When the RAP is fractionated a separate cold feed bin should be used for each size RAP. A picture of a multiple RAP cold feeds is shown below. Using separate cold feeds improves the quality management at the plant and helps control the mix properties. Once the RAP has gone through the mix plant and been added to the new aggregate and binder the mix is treated the same as standard asphalt mixes.

Paving operation in progress using RAP mixture The material is loaded into haul trucks and taken out to the roadway. Paving operations will be very much the same as for standard asphalt mixture. The RAP mixture is typically produced at higher temperatures than a mix produced from completely new virgin materials. The RAP mixes can be somewhat stiffer than virgin mixes so higher temperatures will help adjust for this. The amount of temperature increase will depend on the percentage of RAP used in the mix and the stiffness of the aged binder. The paving crew should see very little difference from virgin mixes. Reclaimed asphalt mix has been used for many years in the production of new asphalt mixes. These mixes have overall performed well and provide a high quality riding surface. The use of fractionation of the RAP makes it possible to produce mixes with higher percentages of RAP and still meet all quality control requirements and meet the standard acceptance criteria. The use of RAP helps reduce cost and saves valuable resources. The use of fractionation helps to increase that use. Author's Bio
Dr. D'Angelo is the chief operating officer of a consulting firm specializing in asphalt materials testing, pavement design and construction quality assurance. Previously he worked for Federal Highway Administration for over 32 years. He has worked in the areas of construction management, pavement design, materials testing, and quality control. He has been involved with the implementation of the Strategic Highway Research Program, Superpave Asphalt Design System, to the highway industry and further development of the system. He has also worked extensively in the asphalt binder area, mixture design, warm mix asphalt and recycling. He has published numerous papers on asphalt material testing and quality control.

RAP Cold Feeds

144 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Cosmos Sales Corporation

Construction Awards

Vishwakarma Award 2011 A Recognition of Notable achievements and Standards of Excellence
he CIDC Vishwakarma Awards are considered among the most prestigious recognition for those in the construction industry. The awards have been inspired by Lord Vishwakarma, the presiding deity of construction practices in India are presented to those who have contributed their might towards the betterment of the construction industry in various capacities. What makes the CIDC Vishwakarma Awards different from similar events is the fact that it is one award where artisans, the unsung heroes of the construction industry are recognized for their thankless work. The 2011 award glittering award ceremony saw 45 such artisans being awarded and honoured with a commemorative trophy, medal, and certificate. The event is celebrated on the 7th of March each year, a date which is also the foundation day of Construction Industry Development Council (CIDC) , which is the apex body established by the Planning Commission of India and the Construction industry. CIDC has been working towards promoting best practices in the construction industry and help it achieve global stature. A new category of awards for “ Best Projects” covering construction subsectors such as roads & highways, dams, power, railways, bridges, oil & gas, transmission, urban infrastructure , health infrastructure buildings ( both

3rd CIDC


residential and commercial) and social infrastructure was introduced from this year onwards. Several prestigious projects were awarded for their design and application. One such project which received the award including the “ Construction of Elevated Road along Barapulla Nallah, Saraj Kale Khan to Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium “ by the Public Works Department, Govt. of NCT , Delhi. The project's design received praise from all quarters and the dedicated signalfree access from Games Village to the main venue of the recently concluded Commonwealth Games 2010, the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, was recognized for its outstanding design. Yet another project connected to the Commonwealth Games Delhi 2010, which was awarded was the “Thyagaraj Sports Complex.” PWD, Govt of Delhi

received the award for this truly worldclass stadium. The awards ceremony this year saw a total of 168 awardees being chosen from eight prime categories. The awardees included 4 women. The award winners were honoured with trophies, medals, and certificates. The Hon'ble Minister of State for Urban Development Prof.Saugata Ray was the Chief Guest during the ceremony. Other distinguished dignitaries who graced the occasion included Dr.Kavuri Samba Siva Rao, Member of Parliament, Padmabhushan Dr.G.V.Ramakrishna , former Chairman Disinvestment Commission & Member Planning Commission, Dr.Uddesh Kohli, Chairman Emiretus , CIDC, Dr. Pronab Sen, Principal Advisor, Planning Commission, Dr.D.G.Kadkade, Member of the Jury, Principal Advisor, Jaiprakash

146 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Construction Awards
3rd CIDC Vishwakarma Award 2011: A Recognition of Notable achievements and Standards of Excellence

Inaugural Ceremory

Associates Ltd, Dr.J.L.Narayan, Member of the Jury, Retd. Joint Advisor, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt of India, and Mr.K.K.Sharma, Principal Secretary PWD, Delhi, among others. In yet another highlight of the award ceremony, the late Shri B.G.Shirke, Founder Chairman, B.G.Shirke Construction Technology Pvt Ltd was posthumously awarded the Special Jury Award for Life Time Achievement.

Chief Guest Prof.Saugata Ray lauded the efforts that CIDC was taking in order to promote the betterment of the construction industry. The Minister had a word of praise especially for the Green Rating system and the efforts that CIDC was putting for the adaption of several good practices. He went on to add that excellence in every field should be recognized and rewarded. The Minister during his address pointed out to the two problems of rising population and rapid industrializa

tion and how large-scale urbanization was creating the problem of housing in urban cities in countries like India. The CIDC Vishwakarma Awards are being given to a wide number of representative categories that covers the entire spectrum of the construction industry, right from the artisans to the industry experts and construction firms. I t wa s a p r i v i l e ge fo r t h e Masterbuilder to be awarded under the 'Best Magazine' category. Editorin-Chief, Mr.K.P.Pradeep was awarded under the 'Best Journalist' category. The awards were yet another testimonial to the team of the Masterbuilder, which has been setting the benchmark in all round reportage of the construction industry in India. The Minister also released the official brochure for the forthcoming CIDC event 17th Asia Construct Event, International Exhibition & Conference in New Delhi. As part of the event an International Conference & Exhibition will be held from 13th-15th December 2011 under the theme,” Asian Economic Overview 2011 & Outlook 2012. The event would be showcasing some of the latest technologies, best practices, equipment, materials, products, and services.

Nigel Narayan, Deputy Editor, The Masterbuilder receiving the Visvakarma award 2011 for Best News Magazine

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 147

Thermal Insulation

Thermatek Thermal Barriers
esearch has clearly proven that over 15 percent of heat inside a building comes through the roof. This being the case, it is important for incorporating energy efficient thermal barriers that act as a barrier for heat and improve the energy efficiency of a building. Ishaan Industries is a leading name in the industry when it comes to offering a wide range of cool-roof spec i f i c p ro d u c t s . T h e co m p a ny ' s Thermatek Thermal Barriers help in improving the sustainability of quotient of a building manifold. The company's products including, Thermatek Cool Mortar and Thermatek Heat Reflective Paint help in addressing all the green concerns energy, environment, and human health. Thermatek Heat Resistant Terrace Tile This is the signature product of the company whose popularity has been growing by the day. A unique, patented, stand-alone over deck, multilayered, non-porous, dense, dry-look, and ther-

Offering the Complete Range of Cool- Roof Products


mal insulation product designed to integrate seamlessly with the concrete roof system. The product is environmentally sound, commercially successful, and suitable for a wide range of projects in hot climatic conditions on multiple substrates. The tile conforms to ECBC/ LEED/IGBC cool roof standard requirements. Thermatek Cool Mortar A listed product available in dry mix form, the Thermatek Cool Mortar is a carefully proportioned blend of white cement, select assortment of fine metal and mineral stabilizers that provides a heat barrier to a building. When used as a complement to Thermatek Heat Resistant Terrace Tiles, the product provides enough insulation and heat reflectance that eliminates the need for additional insulation like PUF, XPS, Thermacole, etc. Thermatek Heat Reflective Paint Thermatek Heat Reflective Paint is a

white roof reflective paint (SRI 90.6) that insulates buildings from heat, lasts much longer than 3 years, costs no more than standard roof paint and is also environment friendly. The company would be shortly introduced coloured reflective paints in collaboration with the Institute of Chemical Technology (formerly University Department of Chemical Technology), Bombay University. Mixed Product Application Apart from the benefits derived from each of the individual products of the company, customers stand to gain immense benefits from the combined application of Thermatek Heat Resistant Terrace Tile and Thermatek Cool Mortar. This synergetic approach combines a number of high-performance elements as well as individual performance characteristics ensuring, economy, energy efficiency and environment friendliness. For further details visit Web: www.thermatek.co.in

Premium Products

148 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

JK Works Bharuch (Guj)

Rock Foundation: Case Study

Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study
R.B.Shivali1, Senior Research Officer K.S.Jamwal2, Ex. DDG, GSI A.N.N.Prasad3, Project Director Amar Kumar4, General Manager (P) R.K.Gupta5, C.M.D. 1 - CSMRS, New Delhi and deputation to WAPCOS Ltd. at Salma Dam Project in Afghanistan 2 - Geological Survey of India and, 3-5 - WAPCOS Ltd. at Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan


his paper deals with rock foundation treatment and quality control assurance of the grouting operations (slush/consolidation/curtain) and permeability tests carried out in CoT area of earth and rockfill dam. Efficacy of grouting was determined by conducting permeability tests before and after grouting. Curtain grouting is done to prevent/reduce leakage, seepage and downstream flow into the foundation to increase the percolation path to prevent possible piping and washing the fines from the core into cracks, fractures, fissures and joints in the rock foundation. Slush grouting is also done to fill the joints/fissures between rock mass on account of shrinkage of core clay and uneven over breaks in the CoT and shrinkage of concrete. Proper grouting of surrounding rock mass around the opening helps in monolithic behaviour of the rock mass. Curtain grouting was done in three rows by ascending and descending both the stages as per condition of rock strata. The foundation strata in depth of 70 m in the rock mass revealed from the cores taken from five initial primary holes in the first row comprises of numerous joints, opening, cavities and water intrusion confined zone. Rock mass in certain reach was jointed and

some reach it was continuous solid rock mass as indicated by high core recovery and low RQD. Both permeability values and grout intake were low in these reaches. At depth 37-40 m the water confined zone was encountered and heavy water ejection was observed from these drill holes. The core recovery was poor and shear zone were noticed in this reach. This is due to geological underground structure i.e. steeply plunging downstream anticline and it was intercepted confined ground water condition and such situation/condition continued till water pressure reduced itself through joints and fractures formed at the crest of anticline. Water was passing through this zone of intercepted confined ground water condition, grout intake with simple grout mix was not success. The Chemical grout mix with sodium silicate, sand, Rice Husk Powder/straw fibers and spongy (foam) materials with different combination were used to seal/plug as well make the grouting success with quality control check with fine cement in the laboratory for first row of Primary holes. The permeability of rock mass after the first row of grout was more than 5 lugeons. Hence second and third row of grout holes were taken up at 1.5 m either side of the first grout row. About eight holes have been drilled and grouted in the second and third row to

150 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Rock Foundation: Case Study
Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study

reduce the permeability of rock mass. The secondary and tertiary holes were also done with use cement of 43 grade OPC as per grout intake requirements. Project Salma Dam project located near Chist-e- Sharif in Herat Province had planed as multipurpose project and was under active constructions till late 1970`s. The construction activities of Project came to halt after out break of hostility in the area in early 1980's. After restoration of normalcy in Afghanistan Government of India with under the Reconstruction & Development programme to Afghanistan decided to undertake the development of this Project as a monument of friendship between two countries and appointed WAPCOS, who had earlier been involved with the Design and Construction supervision as Consultants & Executors to carry out the works of this landmark infrastructural project undertaken by the Government of India, The Salma dam Project is envisaged on river Harirud. The Harirud is one of the major rivers of western Hindu kush in Central Afghanistan. This river is formed near at an altitude of 4000 m and flows mostly west ward for a distance of about 560 Km, then turn north words forming boundary between Afghanistan and Iran and there after the boundary between Turkmenistan and Iran. The objectives of Salma Dam Project is of three fold Generation of Hydro Power with an installed capacity of 3x14 MW Stabilizing the existing irrigation facility to the extent of 35,000 hectares and Development of additional irrigation facility to the extent of 45,000 hectares Present scope of work covers the Generation of Hydro Power to the extent of 42 MW only. The WAPCOS Limited (A Government of India Undertaking) is executing the project on behalf of GOI (Ministry of External Affairs, New Delhi). The Project envisages construction of 107.5

meters high, 550 meter long rock fill dam across the river. Other components of the project consist of a Surface Powerhouse, Chute Spillway, Irrigation Sluice and Diversion tunnel. The diversion tunnel is located in the right flank of the river and the rock fill dam built across the river to create a reservoir. The spillway is located in the right flank of the river. The over flow spillway is 36 m wide and has a clear over flow width of 24 m. It consists of 3 bays of 8 m (width) X 10 m (height) and is controlled by the radial gates. The spill way comprises of an approach channel, a control structure with standard ogee profile, a chute for leading water to a flip bucket and a plunge pool at the end. Two sluice out lets are provided in the two piers of chute spillway, one for feeding the water to powerhouse and other for meeting the irrigation demands. The sluices are controlled by the gates A surface powerhouse having an installed capacity of 42 MW with three units of 14 MW each will be constructed at the toe of the dam A single circuit 110 Kv transmission line of about 157 Km is being constructed for evacuation of power to Heart city.The project is under execution since March, 2006. Geology Gneissic group of rocks with thin shears, marble bands, granite veins and small volcanic intrusions have been exposed along the COT of Salma dam. The gneissic stratigraphy has revealed Augen gneiss, Biotite gneiss, micaceous quartz gneiss, Biotite amphibole quartzitic gneiss, Quartzo-feldspathic biotite gneiss, amphibolite bands, mylonitized gneiss with impure marble bands and scanty sulphide mineralization. Problematic Situations Foundation Materials Unacceptable or inadequate materials rich in organic substances such as top soil, swamp muck or peat, loose deposits of sand or silt, talus accumulations and plastic, active, sensitive, or
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Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study

swelling clays or gaugy materials in foundations bed of natural deposits all may reveal inadequate localised or widespread. The loose poor foundation conditions in rocks which are associated with close fracturing, weathering or hydrothermal alteration or poorly indurated sedimentary rocks which require treatment or total removal. Confined Ground Water Ground water was intercepted at a depth between 21m and 28 during the first hole in the sequence of the No.5 vertical primary holes, drilled upto 70m depth. These holes released the confined ground water with great pressure in the beginning but gradually as further drilling progressed, the water pressure and discharge was reduced considerably.

underground depends on site conditions and size of the excavation. The most common power sources for underground grouting equipment are air compressor, electric and electric-hydraulic. Diesel powered equipments are also common but can be used with additional ventilation requirements in underground opening. Drilling Equipment Two common drilling methods used in surface structures are percussion and rotary. Percussion drilling for surface grouting application can be used effectively to drill hole depths up to approximately 15m and rotary drills are better suited for holes in excess of 15m. This criterion is based on the fact that proper holes alignment becomes difficult beyond 15m while using percussion drilling. The rock chips produced by the impact or chipping action of percussion drilling could preseal fractures in the rock, thus preventing the injection of grout slurry. This problem can be alleviated by thorough flushing of the hole with water to remove all the cutting caused by the percussion drilling. On the other hand due to grinding action, presealing of the grout hole is not seen as a problem when rotary drilling is used. The rotary drilling equipments (Indian and Iranian) are shown in Fig.2

Fig. 1 Confined ground water coming with great pressure during drilling

The water table was again noticed between depth of 37m and 40m depth i.e. about 12-15 m below the earlier level of water table in primary holes. Confined ground water coming with great pressure during drilling was shown in Fig-1 At this depth the encountered water confined zone was heavy pressure ejection water from two drill holes. The core recovery was poor and shear zone were noticed in this reach. Water was passing through this zone of intercepted confined ground water condition, grouting with simple grout mix was not success. Drilling And Grouting Equipments: The type and size of equipment required to drill grout holes, proportion/mixing of the materials, deliver and inject grout into the hole in an
152 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Fig.-2 Drilling equipments (Indian and Iranian)

Mixer Two types of mixers are predominantly used in surface/underground grouting applications, viz. paddle mixers and colloidal mixers. A paddle mixer consists of either vertically or horizontally mounted paddles

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that rotate slowly within a cylindrical tank. During the mixing process, the grout materials are stirred and thrown against baffles attached to the side of tank. The baffles prevent the formation of a vortex within the swirling mixture, which can cause centrifugal separation. The heavy materials are thus better broken apart and more evenly distributed throughout the mixture. Once completely mixed, the grout is discharged from the mixer into an agitator tank when a single mixer arrangement is used or directly into the grout pump while using a twin mixer arrangement. In either arrangement grout should be discharged by direct suction into the grout pump, not by gravity. Colloidal mixer works by recirculating the grout through a centrifugal pump. The pump which operates at high speeds of 15002000 rpm, impacts a shearing force to the grout as it paddles through the narrow steel pump casing. The pump discharges the grout tangentially into a vertical cylindrical tank causing a vortex to form. The speed of mixing and the high output capacity are important attributes to the colloidal mixers. Details of the grouting mixer and pump equipment is shown in Fig.3

Agitator An agitator is a storage tank where the thoroughly mixed grout from the mixer is stirred by a slowly revolving paddle to keep the particles of unstable grout in suspension while awaiting injection. Water Meters Water meters for measuring the amount of water added to the grout mix should always be required by the specifications. Other methods, such as calibrated buckets and predetermined water level marking on the sides of the mixing tank should not be allowed. But due to site conditions and not availability of arrangement could be done. A water meter with a "reset-to-zero" feature is strongly recommended. This eliminates the risk of miscalculating the correct cumulative meter reading by the mixer operator. Pump Two common pumps used for grouting in surface/ underground structures are progressing helical cavity pump and piston pump. Progressing helical cavity pumps produce a continuous, uniform flow of grout into a hole at relatively constant pressure. These pumps are used primarily to pump grout mixtures of water, cement and bentonite if availabe. However, these are also capable of pumping sand grout mixes. The abrasiveness of the sand, however, increases the wear of the pump. A piston pump is better suited to pump sand mixes. Piston pumps are used predominantly to fill large voids, caverns, for backfill grouting for confined water zone, intrusive water zone, water spring and behind precast concrete/steel liners and for contact/slash grouting. One disadvantage of piston pump is that these deliver a pulsating pressure that makes pressure control difficult when constant or low pressures are required. Pressure gauge Pressure gauges are used to monitor the injection pressure of the grout being delivered to the grout hole. The pressure gauge helps to ensure that the maximum allowable pressure is being applied to achieve the desired results of the grout programme as

Fig. 3 Details of the grouting mixer and pump equipment

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designed. It also helps to prevent the application of an injection pressure that is too high and could overstress the structures being grouted. The range of pressure reading of the gauge should be appropriate for the grout pressure being used. As gauges get easily damaged during constructional operation and frequently usage, they should be checked for calibrations very regularly. Gauge Savers The grout mix should never be allowed to come into direct contact with the pressure gauge. Therefore, a protective medium must be used to separate the grout from the gauge. A gauge saver, also called a "diaphragm seal" can be used for this purpose. Within the body of a gauge saver, the upper portion is isolated from the grout by a diaphragm. The area between the top of the diaphragm and the pressure gauge is completely filled with a suitable fluid, usually oil. Packers Packers are used to seal off or isolate a portion of grout hole that allows grout to be injected under pressure into a specified section of the hole. Packers are installed either at the top of the hole, also called the hole collar or at other locations along the length of the hole. The packers are set at the top of the hole for slush grouting. It is also most often installed at the collar of the hole for consolidation grouting operations, when the hole is grouted in single stage. Holes are grouted using a single-packer or doublepacker arrangements. In a single-packer arrangement the grout is discharged into the hole just below the
S.No. 1 4 5 6 7 8 Grout Mix (Water : Cement) 1.0:2.0 (0.5) 1.5:2.0 (0.75) 1.0:1.0 (1.0) 2.0:1.0 (2.0) 3.0:1.0 (3.0) 4.0:1.0 (4.0) Density g/cc 1.761 1.630 1.505 1.204 1.073 1.024 Average Viscosity in Seconds 65 48 33 30 26 22

location of the packers. In the double-packer arrangement, the grout is discharged into an isolated section of the grout hole located between an upper and lower packer. The single-packer arrangement is used in contact/slush grouting and most of the consolidation and curtain grouting operations. Two common types of packers are the mechanically activated packer and the pneumatic/hydraulic inflatable packer. Grout Materials The following are the Grout materials used for curtain grouting: Cement Sand Rice Husk Powder /Straw Fibre Spongy (foam) Water and Accelerators- Sodium Silicate Test Reults Laboratory Testing Of Grout Mix Laboratory testing is used to evaluate the proposed grouting materials for chemical and physical properties of the grout mix. Density tests were used to check proper mix proportioning. Viscosity was measured in time (seconds). The properties of grout mix such as compressive strength, viscosity and density were evaluated in the site laboratory before use at site, so as to have a check on grouting operations. Behaviour and performance of grouting materials with proposed accelerator of
Equivalent Cube Compressive Strength at 7 days age Mpa 23.99 21.32 7.06 3.75 2.39 1.48 Equivalent Cube Compressive Strength at 28 days age Mpa 32.42 29.06 9.53 5.13 3.41 2.04

Table 1: Laboratory tests results of on grout mixes at different water cement ratio.

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Rock Foundation: Case Study
Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study W/C ratio Sodium Silicate % Sand % by wt. of Rice Husk Powder/ cement by weight by wt. of cement Straw Fibre, % by wt. of cement 0.45:1.0 0.5:1.0 0.5:1.0 0.5:1.0 0.5:1.0 0.5:1.0 0.5:1.0 0.5:1.0 nil nil nil 1.5 nil 1.5 1.5 1.5 nil nil 3.5 3.5 7.0 3.5 nil 4.0 nil nil nil nil 3.0 1.0 3.5 3.0 Compressive Strength (MPa) 7 days nil nil nil nil nil nil nil 0.1 23.41 16.38 16.83 14.04 15.38 5.35 11.03 4.62 7 days 35.44 24.91 23.96 19.39 23.74 16.72 15.05 11.77

Spongy (foam)

Table 2: Field tests on grout mix for Rock foundation treatment

Sodium Silicate was also evaluated in laboratory and field tests were performed during the grouting operation. Compressive strength testing was performed in the laboratory on specimen of grout. A set of three grout cubes of 50mm x 50mm x 50mm is the most common type of specimen used. The cubes are cast, cured and tested as per IS: 4031- (Part-6) - 1988. The requirement of compressive strength tests of grout is not common for geotechnical grouting application. However, it is more common for structural grouting such as contact/slush grouting. The laboratory test results of grout mix at different water cement ratio are given in Table 1. It is seen from Table-1 that 28 days cube compressive strength and density decrease with increase in water cement ratio. The compressive strength of 32.42 MPa was obtained with water cement ratio of 1:2 and it reduced to 2.04 MPa at a water cement ratio of 4:1. Field Testing Of Grout Mix The laboratory test results are directly applied to the field grouting operation during the problematic situations to seal/plug the joints, cavities, fractured and fissure inside the rock mass to make monolithic rock mass. The field results are also tabulated in Table-2 It is seen from Table-2 that 28 days cube compressive strength decrease with increase in water

cement ratio with neat cement. The compressive strength with combination of sand and Rice Husk powder increasing with their percentage of doses increases. The compressive strength of 24.91 MPa was obtained having neat cement with water cement ratio of 1:2 and the same ratio with sand and Rice Husk powder it is 23.74 was successful with 1.5% of sodium silicate to plug the water intrusion zone areas with rich grout mix1:2. Rock Foundation Tratment To improve the strength properties such as bearing capacity, shear resistance and bond between the dam and abutment to make the rock mass monolithic, rock foundation treatment by grouting technique is essential to sustain the structure. Need for Rock Grouting In surface/underground caverns and tunnels, the rock grouting is required for various purposes such as: Strengthening the rock mass by filling up the joints, fissures, cavities and cracks Filling of voids, joints and cavities between the rock mass to the rock mass, Strengthening the shattered and fractured rock mass around the excavation, Closing up the water bearing passages to prevent the flow of water into deep rock mass & tunnel and or to concentrate the area of seepage into channel from where it can be easily drained out. Slush, consolidation and curtain grouting were
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Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study

performed in CoT area at Salma Dam Project as suggested by the designers. The rock treatment by grouting can be mainly categorized as Surface and Sub-surface treatments Surface Tratment: For suitable rock available at Shallow Depths Surfaces against which material is to be placed are excavated to a slope not greater than 0.5 horizontal to 1 vertical which is generally follows. The weathered and exposed rock is treated by shotcrete to protect the rock. All seams, relief joints and faults are excavated and filled with concrete. Where rock is friable, and subject to cracking by exposure and drying, slush grout was desirable. The treatment involves improvement of contact between foundation rock and embankment by stripping the foundation area and development of uniform and smooth surface without abrupt changes in slopes and ledges / overhangs. The surface on which the core material is placed should be wet but free from standing water, and the core material should be wet of optimum desired OMC. Sub-Surface Treatment It involves slush, consolidation and curtain grouting Contact/slush Grouting Slush grouting involves the filling of voids between the parent rock mass. Slush grouting was carried out in CoT area and abutments at a low pressure of 1.0 to 3.0 kg/cm2 for filling up of the joints, fractures, voids and cavities in between rock mass. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was generally used for slush grouting. Minimum diameter of drill hole was kept as 38mm and depth of holes were kept 4-6 m into the rock mass depending upon the situation. Grouting was continued without interruption until refusal. Grout mix of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 (water: cement) were used for slush grouting. In case of high grout intake, grout mix was thickened up
158 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

to 1:2. After refusal of grout materials, the grouting was stopped. The grouting was considered complete when intake of grout was less than 1 litre/minute averaged over a period of 10 minutes. The maximum pressure of 3-5 kg/cm2 was maintained by way of closing the valve for sufficient time (20-30 minutes.) to prevent backflow. Consolidation grouting If the core foundation consists of closely fractured rock and jointed rock a blanket grout pattern is used with holes spaced at 3m to 5m with depths up to 6m to 10m. If the foundation rock is massive no blanket grouting is done. It is done to prevent possible piping of the fine core material through the foundation. It also increases the strength and deformation properties of the mass rock foundation and abutment. Consolidation grouting in CoT area were essential to reduce the coefficient of permeability and improving the deformability characteristics of surrounding rock mass. Consolidation grouting in the surrounding rock mass area was carried out up to a desired depth of 8 m as per designer and rock mass strata. Consolidation grouting minimises the flow of water outward through into the rock mass. Primary holes were drilled at 6m spacing and grouted and then secondary holes were drilled in between primary holes. Maximum pre-grouting permeability value observed was 27.58 lugeons. After grouting in primary and secondary holes, permeability observed at certain location was more than 3 Lugeons. Additional tertiary holes were drilled and grouted in between adjacent grouted primary and secondary holes. The permeability, in general, has thus been brought down to less than 3 Lugeons. Average consolidation grouting cement intake in primary, secondary and tertiary holes in bed rock of CoT was 24.45 kg/m, 15.04 kg/m and 19.77 kg/m, respectively. Consolidation grouting in CoT area were carried

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Fig. 4 Pattern and depth of drill holes for consolidation grouting in CoT

out in 38mm diameter and 8 m deep drill holes in the rock up to a maximum pressure of 5 kg/cm2. Pattern and depth of drill holes for consolidation grouting as shown in Fig. 4 were governed by the geological and the design requirements. Consolidation grouting was considered complete when the grout intake reduces to less than 1 litre/ minute averaged over a period of 10 minutes. Grout pressure was maintained for a sufficient time to prevent backflow. The ratio of water: cement was varied from 6:1 to 1:2 depending upon the amount of grout intake. Grouting was continued till refusal. After the final setting time of grout, the holes were redrilled up to 2/3rd filled with dry pack mortar of same consistency as that for filling of grouting holes. Sometimes inter-connection of holes during grouting was observed. In this case, the grout was allowed to escape from the connected holes till the escaping grout was of the same consistency as that of being injected. These coupled holes were then capped and combined holes were grouted up to the specified
160 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

pressure of 5 kg/cm2 and grouting continued till refusal. Such inter connected holes were not regrouted again. Curtain Grouting Generally, curtain grouting is carried out when permeability exceeds 1-3 lugeons depending on the height of the dam. It is done to reduce the seepage flow through the dam foundation and also to reduce the hydrostatic pressure (uplift) in the downstream foundation of the dam. Curtain grouting should be carried out in split spacing method starting from wide spacing in the Primary stage then gradually reducing the spacing in Secondary and Tertiary stages. It is done to safeguard the foundation against erodibility hazard. In bed rock foundation of CoT holes were drilled at 70 m in depth. Initially primary holes at 6 m

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spacing were drilled and grouted, and then secondary holes were drilled in between primary holes bringing the spacing of holes to 6 m c/c. Permeability tests conducted in test holes drilled between adjacent primary and secondary holes revealed zones where lugeon value was still higher than 6 lugeons. The tertiary holes were drilled in between primary and secondary holes bringing the spacing of holes to 3 m c/c. Pattern and depth of drill holes for consolidation grouting as shown in Fig. 5 were governed by the geological and the design requirements.

(foam) with different combination were used to seal/ plug as well make the grouting. The permeability of rock mass after the first row of grout was more than 5 lugeons. Hence about eight holes were drilled and grouted in the second and third row at 1.5 m either side of centre line of COT from first grout row. For primary and secondary holes maximum pressure adopted was 22 kg/cm² and grout mix used varied from 4:1 to 1:2. For tertiary holes maximum pressure adopted was also 22 kg/cm² and grout mix used was either 4:1to 1:1. Average curtain grouting intake in primary, secondary and tertiary holes in bed rock of CoT was 746.88 kg/m, 520.67 kg/m and 227.10 kg/m, respectively. Quantity Of Grout Intake: The amount of grout intake in COT depends upon many factors, viz. nature and extent of overbreaks, nature and pattern of discontinuities, method of excavation, seepage in the rock mass, grout pressure and finally the consistency of the grout. The Chemical grout mix with sodium silicate, sand, Rice Husk powder/straw fibers and spongy materials (foam) with different combination were used to seal/ plug as well make the grouting success with quality control check with fine cement in the laboratory for first row of Primary holes. The quality of these materials needs to be checked from time to time. The tests on the cement such as consistency, setting time and the compressive strength were performed regularly. Sand passing
Grout Intake, kg/m Length Secondary Grouting 507.28 11.95 0.57 0.005 0.86 lit/m 520.67 Tertiary Grouting 226 0.90 0.18 lit/m 227.10

Fig. 5: Location of drill holes in CoT area for curtain grouting

The problematic situation of CoT bed rock foundation strata in depth of 70 m in the rock mass where water was passing through this zone of intercepted confined ground water condition, grout intake with simple grout mix was not success. The Chemical grout mix with sodium silicate, sand, Rice
S.No. Grout materials Total Grout Intake

Primary Grouting Secondary Grouting Tertiary Grouting Primary Grouting 1 2 3 4 Cement Sand Rice Husk Powder/ Straw fibre Spongy (foam) Sodium Silicate 8822 bags 6347 kg 557 kg 7.7 kg 1239 lit 449250.7 kg 4454 bags 5246 kg 250 kg 2.2 kg 378 Lit. 228576.2 kg 3015 bags 600 kg 120 lit 151470.0 kg 733 10.55 0.93 0.013 2.06 lit/m 746.88

5 Total intake material (Av.)

Table 3: Grout intake during curtain grouting in COT area for rock foundation treatment

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Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study


Grout materials

Total Grout Intake

Grout Intake, kg/m Length Secondary Grouting 15.04 Tertiary Grouting 19.77

Primary Grouting Secondary Grouting Tertiary Grouting Primary Grouting 1. Cement 11339.42 kg 4692.73 kg 3143.60 kg 24.45

Table 4: Grout intake during consolidation grouting in COT rock foundation treatment

through 2.36 mm sieve and 10-25%was used in the curtain grouting along with sodium silicate by 1.5% of the weight of cement and Rice Husk powder/Straw fibres with 8% and foam of 0.1% by wt. of cement to seal and plug the problematic confined zone of pressure water. The amount of grout intakes in COT during curtain and consolidation grouting have been tabulated in Table-3 and Table-4. It is clear from Tables that there is no fix rule for quantity of grout intake. In general, grout intake in consolidation grouting is lesser than in curtain grouting. Total Nos. of holes for grouting: P=5, S=4, T=9 in First row, 4 Nos. in Second row and 4 Nos. in Third row Total hole depth of grouting: P-601.5 m, S-439.0 m, T-667.0 m Total Nos. of holes for grouting: P=58, S=39, T=20 Total hole depth of grouting: P-463.8 m, S-312 m, T-159 m Permeability Tests Field permeability test is the most important tool for checking the effectiveness of grouting operation at all stages of execution. For in-situ water pressure testing, a section of hole is isolated with a double packer or single packer. Water is injected at specified pressure into the test hole section. The amount of water loss to the geological formation at a particular pressure over a time interval is recorded. This is used to evaluate permeability coefficient (k) as expressed in terms of cm/sec. The unit of measuring the coefficient of permeability is called lugeon, which is defined as percolation of 1 litre of water per minute per meter length of drill hole at a pressure of 10 kg/ cm2 (1 bar). Criteria for Locations of Permeability Tests Locations for conducting the permeability tests

before consolidation grouting were decided on the basis of grout intake in the contact grouting and the available geological data of the reach. On the basis of results of the permeability tests conducted in the pre consolidation stage as well as amount of grout intake during the consolidation grouting, the locations for conducting the permeability test in the post consolidation grouting stage, were finalised. In the regions of low permeability values during the pre consolidation grouting stage, certain holes can be skipped during the consolidation grouting. Permeability Tests in COT Permeability tests were conducted before consolidation grouting to decide the pattern of drill holes, grouting planes, consistency of grout mix and finally to check the efficiency of grouting operation. Permeability tests were conducted up to a maximum pressure of 5 kg/cm2 in the drill holes drilled in different depth into the rock. Permeability test results and the degree of efficiency of grouting at some of the typical locations in COT are given in Table 5 and Table 6 for consolidation and curtain grouting respectively. The lugeon values obtained after consolidation grouting were compared with those determined in the preconsolidation grouting stage and the same accordingly for the curtain grouting. This was used as a measure for checking the effectiveness of grouting operation. The locations where high coefficient of permeability values were obtained after consolidation and curtain grouting, the drill holes were regrouted and the permeability tests were conducted again to confirm the efficiency of grouting. It can be seen from Table-5 and Table-6 that proper grouting of surrounding rock mass helps in sealing of cracks/joints/fissure/cavities and other
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Rock Foundation: Case Study
Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study Sl. No. Coefficient of Permeability Lugeon Before After 24.74 27.58 11.84 18.80 17.44 19.28 21.60 10.08 1.28 5.28 1.56 0.20 3.36 2.60 1.29 1.92 Efficacy of Consolidation Grouting in %

Location/ RD in m

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

121, 3m towards d/s from c/l 121, 21m towards d/s from c/l 118, 6m towards d/s from c/l 127, 3m towards u/s from c/l 133, 3m towards d/s from c/l 142, 9m towards u/s from c/l 148, 9m towards u/s from c/l 151, 6m towards u/s from c/l

95.0 81.0 87.0 99.0 81.0 86.5 94.0 81.0

Table-5: Permeability test results and degree of efficacy of consolidation grouting Sl. No. Location/ RD m Coefficient of Permeability Lugeon Before 1 2 3 4 5 106 at different location in 20m depth hole after that water intrusion felt 109m at different location in 30m depth hole 127m at different location in 70m depth hole 151m at different location in 70m depth hole 164m at different location in 25m depth hole 5.5 2.72-7.43 At some location 40-45 and some depth heavy water intrusion At some location 36-42 and some depth heavy water intrusion 2.10-6.22 After 1.01 0.89 4.10 4.86 0.76 Efficacy of Curtain Grouting in % 82 88 90 88 88

Table-6: Permeability test results and degree of efficacy of curtain grouting

discontinuities present in the geological strata. The water table after completing the grouting has been shifted below the original water table which has been shown in Fig.6 Quality Assurance

The desirable quality for a structure includes its serviceability, safety, durability, economy, timely completion, environment friendliness, least or minimum maintenance, easy maintenance, allowance for modification and aesthetic acceptability. As per ISO: 8402, the term Quality is defined as the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. The development of a Quality Assurance involves the identification of quality objectives, and their implementation. A Quality Assurance System is defined as 'an administrative control system which sets for the commitments, policies, designated responsibilities and requirements of the owner/ client. The overall quality as defined above can only be achieved through an effective Quality Assurance System as per ACI Committee 121. The two basic elements of a Quality Assurance system are:

Fig.6: Details of water table after completing the grouting

Quality Assurance Plan

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Rock Foundation: Case Study
Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study

Quality Assurance Programme Quality Assurance (QA) Plan QA plan is a written guideline for a project, developed by the owner/ client which contains the client/owner's policy statement and describes the scope of work, organizational relationships and the quality objectives for the project. A Quality Assurance plan should include the following elements: Client/Owner's policy statement including authorization of engineers or consultants for developing a QA system and verifying its implementation. Quality objectives. Scope of work. Organizational relationships. Authority and responsibilities of various organizations. Quality Assurance (QA) Programme A QA programme is a document that describes the policies, practices and procedures to comply with quality requirements and contract documents. Each organization assigned responsibilities in QA plan has its own QA programme detailing the methods to be used to meet the client/owner's quality objectives applicable to that organization's scope of work. The elements of QA programme are: Organizational responsibilities-Defining organizational structure and delineating the responsibilities of various personnel. Control of design-Detailed design, verification of design basis such as codes, standards, assumptions, documentation, checking and applied of calculations. Material control- Supplier evaluation and selection, storage and handling of material, testing of material prior to use for compliance with contract documents. Inspection - Inspection personnel with approved qualification, inspection programme (check lists & criteria for acceptance), inspection records.
166 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Testing & evaluation - Sampling and testing of materials, documentation of testing details. Identification of non- complying conditions including corrective actions to be taken such as repair, rework etc. Records- Documents that furnished evidence of quality of materials, equipment or activity to be kept accurately. Quality Control in Grouting Operations Checking for location of grout holes Checking of pipe connections for leakage etc. Checking of pressure Checking of water cement ratio, proportions and consistency Checking for permeability rate Checking for the efficacy of grouting Conclusions Impact and successful proper grouting of the surrounding rock mass is essential in sealing of cracks/joints/fissures/cavities and other discontinuities present in the geological strata. This will not only help in controlling and minimising the seepage of water from structures to the geological mass but will also help in behaving the rock mass monolithically around the core of embankment dam body. Rock Permeability and groutability tests conducted before and after consolidation and curtain grouting proved to be an important tool for checking the efficiency of problematic grouting. It also helped in taking decisions for regrouting in the reach of certain sections of COT where coefficients of permeability after grouting were found to be high. The field grout mix properties with different proportion of the materials with sand, Rice Husk powder/Straw fibres and spongy (foam) during the problematic situation in the curtain grouting having setting time and viscosity determined in the laboratory before the grouting operation

Cosmos Construction Machineries & Equip.Pvt.Ltd

Rock Foundation: Case Study
Innovative Construction Techniques for Rock Foundation Treatment and Quality Assurance of Salma Dam Project, Afghanistan - A Case Study

proved to its usefulness. These properties of the grout mix improved considerably the success in problematic zone for the grouting. In general, the design criteria given in different manuals were followed for grouting. However, based on the water permeability tests conducted during pre consolidation and curtain stage, some holes may be skipped during consolidation as well as curtain grouting after few trials at site. This may not only help in savings in terms of time but will also lead to financial savings as well as per the technical requirements of grouting. References
The suggestions and advices given by Sh. Murari Ratnam, Director, CSMRS, Dr. Anbalagam, Prof. IIT Roorkee, Dr. T.N.Singh, Prof. Geology Deptt. IIT Mumbai, Sh. Y.R. Putty, GM & Expert Grouting, ITD Cementation and Sh. Jaggi sahib, Vice President, Afcon Co. Pvt. are highly appreciable during the problematic situation of high pressure water intrusion for making successful grouting with different mix proportion of grout materials. IS 12169:1987 Criteria for design of small embankment dams IS 9429:1999 Code of practice for drainage system for earth and rockfill dams IS 8414:1977 Guidelines for design of under seepage control measures for earth and rock fill dams IS 6066:1994 Pressure grouting of rock foundations in river valley projects - Recommendations (Second revision) IS 4031 (Part-6):1988 "Methods of Physical tests for Hydraulic Cement" (Part-6, "Determination of Compressive strength of Hydraulic cement other than masonry cement"), Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi. IS 5529 (Part-2):1985 "Code of practice for In-situ Permeability tests" (Part 2 Tests in bedrock), Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi. IS 5878 (Part VII):1972 "Code of practice for construction of tunnels" (Part VII - Grouting), Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi. IS 1498:1970 Classification and identification of soils for general engineering purpose IS 7894:1975 Code of practice for stability analysis of earth dams IS 516: 1999 "Methods of tests for strength of concrete", Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi. Barton N., Lien R and Lunde J. (1974), "Engineering Classification of Rock Masses for Design of Tunnel Support", Rock Mechanics Vol. 6, No. 4, pp 189-236.

Grimstad E and Barton N. (1993), "Updating of the Q-System for NMT", Proc. Of Int. Symp. on Sprayed Concrete for Underground Support, Fagernes, Norwegian Concrete Association, Oslo. Lecture notes on Rock Permeability and Groutability Related to Dams and Reservoirs, by Ewart, Friedrich-Karl, University of Paderborn, Germany, September, 1994. Manual No. 1110-1-2908 for Engineering and Design, Rock Foundation by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC 20314-1000, November 1994. Water Resources Commission N.S.W., Grouting Manual, 3rd edition, Australia, 1980. Field Manual, Foundation Treatment for Rockfill Dams, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 98, No. SM10, pp. 9951016, October 1972. Preparation of Rock Foundations for Embankment Dams, Embankment Dams Engineering, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp. 355-363, 1973. Treatment of High Embankment Dam Foundations, Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 98, No. SM10, pp. 10991113, October 1972. Engineer Manual No. EM 1110-2-2300, General Design and Construction Considerations for Earth and `Rock-Fill Dams by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC 20314-1000, July, 2004

Authors Bio Ram Bachan Shivali is graduate B.Tech. (Civil Engg.) from NIT Warangal, A.P (Formerly REC) and M.Tech. (WRD) from IITRoorkee (Formerly University of Roorkee). He is the member and Review Committee member of American Concrete Institute (ACI), Indian Society for Construction Materials and Structures, Indian Society for Rock Mechanics and Tunneling Technology and Indian Geotechnical Society. His interest of works are in the fields of Concrete Technology, Rock Engineering & Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering for field constructions of dam (Concrete dam, Earthen dam and Earth & Rockfill dam), Quality Control and Quality Assurance programme and design & planning for different components of their related structures and construction. Investigation works related to construction materials, fields and laboratory testing of all above fields and results analysis & data as per design parameters required for designing the structures.

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Steel: Roving Seminar

TRMA Launches Crusade for

'Proper Steel Reinforcement'
hermex Rebar Manufacturers' Association (TRMA) officially flagged off its all-India drive for 'Proper Steel Reinforcement' in Mumbai city in the presence of a sterling group of government and nongovernment bodies. TRMA, a no-profit company comprising Thermex steel rebar manufacturers, has set out to uplift the quality of steel rebars used in India's civil construction by spreading awareness of desirable properties in rebars. At its inaugural Mumbai seminar, TRMA laid bare the myths and realities of rebars to eminent representatives from MMRDA, CIDCO, MCGM, Indian Society of Structural Engineers, India Chapter of American Concrete Institute, Association of Consulting Civil E n g i n e e r s , L a r s e n & To u b r o , Hiranandani Group, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, and several structural engineers. Attention was drawn to 4 key points: 1. India's continued used of improper Cold Twisted Deformed (CTD) rebars in construction activity since 1972. While such rebars were discontinued in Europe almost 40 years ago, many Indian builders continue to use these improper rebars in their current projects. 2. India's need for high-strength and


high-ductility rebars because 60% of India (Mumbai, Thane, Kutch, Delhi and many other parts of North and North-East India) lies in the high-hazard seismic zones 3, 4 and 5. 3. Myths surrounding rebars such as Earthquake Resistant Steel bars, Xpattern ribs etc. 4. Potential savings of Rs. 8,000 crore per year if India switches from the rebars it has been using since 1972 to today's high-strength and highductility rebars such as Thermex Grade500 that are easily available across the country. Lending credibility to TRMA's crusade were independent professors, engi-

neers and auditors who drew attention to: 1. Production of spurious 'TMT' steel reinforcement bars. These impartial speakers regretted that the new Indian Standard (IS):1786-2008 gave a license for use of improper TMT quenching technology by stating that non-uniform peripheral quenching was not a ground for rejection. 2. 70-year old buildings on Mumbai's Marine Drive continue to stand tall, while newer stories built atop the same buildings using CTD steel rebars need repair within 5-6 years, testifying to CTD's poor performance. Even so, many Indian build-

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Steel: Roving Seminar
TRMA Launches Crusade for 'Proper Steel Reinforcement'

ers continue to use CTD rebars. 3. The need for IS to specify the same level of high ductility for rebars irrespective of the Yield Strength, as is specified in the codes of European countries. 4. The need for IS to specify higher values of elongation and stress ratio for rebars to be used in earthquake prone areas. 5. IS code gives importance to elongation at fracture instead of uniform elongation of rebar. This poses a grave risk to residents of buildings in high seismic hazard places. Other countries have already shifted to uniform elongation since the past 5 years - the correct option. 6. Many expressed surprise that different chemical compositions were specified for 7 differing rebar grades in the code. All speakers felt the IS code must be urgently revised to keep pace with global standards. This conference will travel to many other Indian cities and towns to address the civil engineering fraternity. The conference's next instalment will be in Chennai. The inventor, Mr. Franz Tamm, of the world-famous and much-indemand 'Thermex Quenching & Self Tempering' technology of HSE technology graced the occasion. He was felicitated at the event for his contribution to steel reinforcement, as was Mr. Surendra Hiranandani, Managing D i re c t o r a n d Fo u n d e r o f t h e Hiranandani Group. In keeping with its outstanding reputation for quality and innovation, the construction conglomerate was the first to adopt Thermex Grade500 rebars in its projects. Mr. Hiranandani received the 'Pioneer in Building Construction' award.

At the event, the new Thermex symbol was officially unveiled. From now onwards structural engineers can use the new symbol in all their project drawings/designs to specify use of Thermex rebars. The patented Thermex technology enjoys front-runner status in the world for 'quenching and self-tempering' technology. The technology enables production of desired high-strength steel reinforcement bars that meet all requirements of civil construction yield strength ranging from 500MPa or more, toughness, ductility, weldability and excellent bend properties. Ductility is key as it prevents the rebar from snapping outright and causing the immediate collapse of a building during an earthquake. High-strength, highductility rebars drastically reduce the risks of total building collapse - as witnessed in the Bhuj quake of 26 January 2001 - thereby increasing the opportunity for residents to escape instead of being crushed to death. Thermex systems are installed worldwide, ranging from Asia, Australasia, Europe, Russia, Africa, Americas, and the Indian sub-continent.

In the Indian sub-continent, Thermex systems have already been commissioned in 128 steel mills, while 22 are currently under execution. Today, more than 60% of the steel reinforcement bars produced in India is Thermex rebars. Although Thermex rebars are produced by 128 different steel plants or companies, great effort is made to ensure consistency in quality. Thermex rebars from each Thermex Licensee are subject to quarterly, third-party, quality audit to ensure that besides meeting the IS Code they also a) exhibit uniform peripheral tempered martensite and b) meet the strict Thermex standards of tensile properties and ductility as per global norms. Steel mills found to be producing rebars of lower quality risk the danger of losing their Thermex licence. Thus Indian builders can source Thermex rebars from any of the several Thermex licensees in their region, while at all times being assured the quality of the rebar will be consistent no matter from which steel plant it is sourced. In the Indian sub-continent, Thermex systems are supplied, installed and commissioned by H&K India, the exclusive and perpetual collaborator of HSE Germany.

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Reliance Industries Ltd

Student Interaction

A Truly Invigorating Experience for Civil Engineering Students


ith the objective of inculcating competitive spirit and motivating students to become better professionals, UltraTech Cement Ltd, part of the Aditya Birla group, conducted a Civil Engineering Quiz for final year civil engineering students.


Dr. M R Kalgal, Dr. V Ramachandra, Mr. N Balachandran Nair officials from UltraTech Cement Limited giving away the trophy and the cash prize to the Stimulus 2011 Champions

The regional rounds of the event were held in Chennai, Vellore, Kochi, K o z h i ko d e , S a l e m , Tr i c h y a n d Coimbatore repectively. This one-of-itskind event received enthusiastic response from engineering colleges with students showing keen interest in participation. What set the event apart was the fact that it was being conducted by a major industrial house and was exclusively focused on civil engineering. Students thronged all the venues where the regional rounds of Stimulus 2010-11 were held in large numbers. A good example was the Coimbatore round, where six institutions participated with PSNA College of Technology walking away with the first prize, fol-

lowed by the PSG College of Technology. The Salem round of the quiz program saw six institutions participate with the Institute of Road and Transport Technology, Erode, walking away the deserved winners. The event was held at Sona College of Technology, Salem. The Kozhikode round of the quiz saw the participation of six engineering colleges in the region. The round saw enthusiastic participation with the respective college students cheering and encouraging their teams. Nowhere perhaps the lively atmosphere more evident than in the Trichy round of Stimulus 2010-11, with the quiz master Mr.Giri Balasubramaniam

Ravali Tata and K. Srinath, IIT Madras - Champions of Stimulus 2011

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Student Interaction
Stimulus 2011 A Truly Invigorating Experience for Civil Engineering Students

likening it to a 20-20 cricket match. The competition was intense between the NIT-T and Periyar Maniyam University teams and had a nail biting finish to boot. The grand finale of Stimulus 2010-11 was held at Hotel GRT Convention Centre, Chennai on 01st of March 2011 with IIT Madras represented by Ravali Tata and K. Srinath walking away as winners. The quiz programme was designed to bridge the gap between textbook knowledge and industry expectations. It gave prospective engineers an insight into what exactly industry experience is all about.

'Pick Brain' Giri Balasubramanian firing his salvo

Enthralled audience keenly watching the fierce competition

T. Anu Vetriselvi and Yogesh Dahal of PSNA College of Technology Dindigul - Runnder of Stimulus 2011

Stimulus 2011 winners and runners with other participating teams in their team attires aptly provided by the organisers

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 173


Concrete Roads & White Toppings
Hold Immense Possibilities for India
ack-breaking drives on pot-holed filled blacktopped roads may soon be a thing of past on Indian cities. The encouraging results of pilot projects on white-topping that has been undertaken in a few cities including Bengaluru and Mumbai has meant that white-topping of roads would become fairly commonplace in India. To put it in simple terms, whitetopping road involves laying a concrete surface and then giving it a white coating. White-topping is a common procedure in Europe and America where there are thousands of kilometers of roads that have benefited from the concept. Not only are white-topped roads pot-hole free, they are also skid resistant and help in reducing fuel and maintenance expenses. Contrary to popular perception, concrete roads are not a recent phenomenon. Historical references point out to concrete roads being built by Romans way back in time during 300 Bc-


476 AD. Innovative materials including 'Pozzolana'cement from a village Pozzouli near Italy with the use of horse hairs as fibres in concrete and primitive forms of admixtures including, animal blood, milk and fat were used by the Romans, which in fact led to the famous adage “ all roads lead to Rome”. The US Success Story The success of white-topped roads in the USA is a fascinating case study in itself, something that is worthy of emulation, by a country like India, which is in the midst of its largest ever road-building spree. The intricacies involved in the process, along with the various related aspects that are involved were bought out in detail in a recent roundtable on “Concrete Roads & Toppings- Experience and Success in USA', conducted by leading cement manufacturer, Ultra Tech Cement. The round table saw experts from the USA share their experience on white topped roads with a select audience. Expert Speak Welcoming the audience and the speakers, Mr.Vijay Shankar, General Manager (Technical Services) Ultra Tech and Chairman, Indian Concrete Institute, Tamil Nadu Centre, gave an insight into the various divisions of the Aditya Birla Group. He highlighted how Ultra Tech has today grown into becoming among the top 2 cement manufacturers in the country. Speaking about the company's state-of-the-art R & D Centre at Taloj near Mumbai he explained how the company was “focused on sustainability”. Stressing on the growing importance of white topped roads, Mr.A.K.Jain, Senior Consultant of Ultratech Cement spoke about the increasing number of concrete roads in India. “It was a bold

decision to create the NHDP program in 1999 by the then government,” he said before going into the details of the various other similar initiatives including the NHAI, Expressways, and PMGSY. Speaking about the challenges faced today he said “ The trucks in our country cover on an average 300-400 kms per day against 700800 kms in countries where good roads are available,” before he went on to explain how concrete roads with white topping can help in ending this anomaly. The rising price of bitumen was another facet that was highlighted by Mr.Jain. He pointed out how estimates projected the rate of bitumen would be around 1, 80,000 per ton by 2021, prices which would not be economically viable for the country. “Cement is available locally throughout the country. Good quality aggregates is another thing that is available in India. We can create worldclass concrete or rigid pavements in India,” remarked Mr.Jain highlighting the cost benefits of the technology during his address. Dr.Gajanan Sabnis, Professor Civil Engineering , Howard University, Washington DC, considered an authority on concrete, began by saying “Concrete roads are here to stay. The long pavement life makes it a sustainable option.” He was of the opinion that sustainability of concrete pavements is something that is to be looked at from a long term perspective. He added further that concrete pavement systems will require very low maintenance and as such their impact on environment is very small. Dr.Thomas Van Dam, of Michigan Technological University, one of the American experts who had come for addressing the seminar pointed out that “You have to design a structure so that it

Jayasankar, GM (Technical Services) UltraTech & Chairman ICI TNCC

174 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Communication Feature

To Make Good Things
n today's Modern World the “Construction Industries” are in need for good supply for quality products to the market in order to stand strong. Basic blend products like OPC / blended special cement etc in the case of specialty construction aim for quality assurance. The advanced technology is compelled to include the micro ingredients in building products formulation to enhance Fast processing at site The surface finish & Right Mixing Technique Toshniwal offers the new generation powder mixing equipment which works on “fluidized zone” principle mixing technique. Their main characteristics are : Batch mixing of high capacity for solid components Use of more no. of mixing tools Assurance for the homogeneity of supplementary substances in PPM range by mass Gentle action hence assurance for no temperature increase and suitable for sensitive ingredients inclusion. The Mixer has proven record for the building materials and construction care products like Building Material Dry Mortar Renders Wall Plasters Wall Putty (Dry) Floor Screeds Skim Coats Blended Cement Construction Care Integral Water Proofing Compound Grouts Flour Hardener Repairing Mortar Tile Joining Compound Thermal insulation products Fire Proof Cement Wall Paper Compounds Building performance Durability of the structure


Even Better


The company also supports new entrepreneurs those who are willing to launch their product by offering them Medium sized batch mixing plant on job work basis to blend as per their requirement. Further details from: M/S. Toshniwal Systems & Instruments Pvt Ltd 267, Kilpauk Garden Road, Chennai - 600 010, India. Phone: 91-44-26445626 / 26448983 Email: sales@toshniwal.net / Web: www.toshniwal.net

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 175

Concrete Roads & White Toppings: Hold Immense Possibilities for India

A.K.Jain, Senior Consultant, Ultratech Cement

Dr.Gajanan Sabnis, Professor, Civil Engineering, Howard University, Washington DC

lasts under the traffic that you anticipate.” He went on to add that “You can have the best design, the best materials, but if you built it (roads) poorly, it will fail,” stressing on the importance of the right engineering methodology. Going into detail as to how concrete roads have already made an appearance in India, Mr.Suneel Vanikar, FHWA, Office of Pavement Technology, Washington DC, said “I have come across several news reports on concrete roads in India. The case for them has been made in several quarters.” He went on to tell the select gathering about how the US had been inspired by Europe when it came to adopting concrete pavements in a major way, particularly German and Austria. Mr.Vanikar dwelling on the two-lift projects spoke about the fact that concrete roads and white topping was a

proven technology. “1000s of kilometers of overlay stand testimony to the technology,” quipped Mr.Vanikar on the subject. Mr.Vanikar pointed out to the steps that are needed for the success of such projects including, evaluating the pavement in place, choosing the right type of overlay, repair any damage-if needed, preparing the interface, cutting joints, and curing, as part of the successful procedure for concrete white topped roads. Huge Potential The technology has wide ranging implications for a country like India, where conditions of roads are appalling in some areas. Apart from its use in laying new roads, white topping can also help in restoring or increasing the load carrying capacity or both of existing roads. The

experts during the round table pointed out how concrete overlays restore the rideabaility of existing pavements, which have suffered long due to rutting and deformation in addition to addressing other issues such as improving the texture of roads. With the concept fast catching up with policy makers, the concept of concrete roads with white toppings is all set to increase in the country. The recent times have seen rapid developments in the field of production and laying of concrete, which in turn favour concrete overlays as a cost-effective and sustainable road construction option for a country like India. Plus the fact that the country produces about 250 million tonnes of cement, which is among the highest in the world, has set the ball rolling for concrete roads with white topping in the country.

Dr.Thomas Van Dam, Michigan Technological University

Suneel Vanikar, FHWA, Office of pavement technology, Washington, DC

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 176


Tensile Fabric Roofing Specialist Raises the Bar Higher
these Tensile Shade Structures come into play. Apart from offering protection against heat, dust, and rain, they are also aesthetically pleasing. With the growth of the IT industry in the recent years, there has been an increased demand for these products. The Indian market is demanding a wide range of high quality products that are able to withstand extreme weather conditions while being durable and maintenance friendly. You see these architectural fabrics used in various tensile structures, tent, and temporary roofing projects like sun awnings, gazebos, structures for restaurants, market tents, swimming
High-tenacity Polyester Yarn

ensile fabric architecture and textile construction is an area that is rapidly finding an increasing number of takers globally. Lucky International has been a trendsetter and industry leader in this highly specialized field. The company offers a range of laminated textiles including, PVDC, PVC, PU, and acrylic coated fabrics, which find wide application in architectural structures, gazebos, market tents, structure for tents, etc. The company is also leading name in the production and supply of PVC Coated Paper and Paper Board, which find wide application in book binding and dairies. Speaking exclusively to the Masterbuilder, Mr.Puneet Jhaveri, who heads Lucky International, gave an insight into the company's products and future plans. Here are excerpts from the interview. What are your views on the growth of fabric roofing industry in India? India is predominantly a sunny country during most part of the year. Then there are rains for some 3-5 months. Hence, you can understand- that some kind of shade is required to protect against this heat and rains. This is where


pools, warehouses, etc. Give us a brief insight about Lucky International. Lucky International, part of Jhaveri Group, is a diversified business entity dealing in Technical Textiles, PVC Coated Paper & related product. We are merchant exporter and importer for these products. For more than five decades, our group has been at the forefronts of the Coating & Laminating Industry. Our grandfather, Mr. Rajmal Jhaveri laid the foundation for Dharampur Leather Cloth Co Ltd, which was Original Equipment (O.E.) supplier of PVC Coated Fabrics to Indian Railways, Defense, automobile industry, etc.
Double Layer PVC Frontside Double Ink Absorption Lacquering

Double Layer PVC Backside With Double Protective Lacquering

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Lucky International Tensile Fabric Roofing Specialist Raises the Bar Higher

Another group company by the name Coated Sales Co Pvt Ltd, specializes in the manufacturing of PVC Coated Fabrics and P V C C o a t e d Pa p e r fo r v a r i o u s applications like tents, awnings, canopies, inflatables, balloon, umbrella, auto& jeep hoods, book binding, etc. We have tied up with the world's largest manufacturer of Coated Fabrics- SIOEN Industries, Belgium. It's a win- win situation for both of us- with SIOEN's technically advanced products and our market presence of so many years and expertise. We are exclusive representative of SIOEN for Tent, tensile membrane and truck tarpaulins fabrics. Tell us about your principal SIOEN Industries. Headquartered in Ardooie, BelgiumSIOEN Industries is a diversified stock quoted group with an extensive portfolio of products and activities: spinning, weaving and coating, manufacturing of clothing, production of fine chemicals and processing of technical textiles. SIOEN Industries is a world leader in coated technical textiles. The company has strong specialization in high end technical apparel. It is a specialist in fine chemicals and global player in processing

of technical textiles. It is the largest manufacturer of Coated Fabrics (> than 80 mn SQM p.a.). With a Euro 349 million t u r n o ve r, t h e c o m p a ny h a s 3 8 subsidiaries in 14 countries, with more than 4,600 employees and sales in over 90 countries. SIOEN Industries also owns a color pigments manufacturing plant. What is the specialty of your product? Our PVC Coated Fabric is a Nine Layer fabric. The high tenacity Polyester Fabric is coated with 2 layers of PVC on both sides and then lacquered with 2 layers of Protective film on each side. Its applications include, architectural structures, sun awnings, gazebos, structures for restaurants, market tents, tarpaulins for truck containers, partition walls, inflatables games and promotions, car boxes, balloons, swimming pools, etc. What makes your products and services superior to the others? SIOEN's product line is backed by solid research by an experienced R & D team. The Tensile Fabric is coated with 2 layers of PVDF on both sides of High Tenacity Polyester Fabric which is also treated to low wick. It has excellent UV- which adds to the

life of the product. It has a self cleaning property, hence no need to use the services of an expert or expensive cleaning detergents. SIOEN has the entire production process under one roof, from the raw fabric and pigment pastes to coating and processing the technical textile. Firstly, with respect to the coating layer or protective layer, consisting of polymers in liquid or solid form - with SIOEN Chemicals- they produce all pastes, varnishes and granules themselves. Second, with respect to the carrier or substrate, in the form of a woven or knitted fabric or non-woven item - SIOEN has one spinning mill and 3 weaving mills. Finally, with respect to the coating technology: this includes the entire process of applying the coating layer to the substrate- SIOEN specializes in 5 coating techniques Please give us examples of major International projects done with SIOEN Fabrics. In the recently concluded Olympics in Beijing, China, SIOEN's fabrics were extensively used for the tent structures. Tell us about the green initiatives of the company. SIOEN has been following a proactive environmental policy. The company's slogan for many years now has been 'Protection through Innovation'. They produce products that protect human beings, their environment, and their possessions and do so in an environmentally friendly way. The group is making increasing use of recycling and energy recovery technologies. Coating sites are fitted with distillation and combustion towers, which minimize exhausts and recover hot air which can be used to pre-heat ovens. At Ardooie, contaminated solvents from cleaning paste tubs are distilled for re-use and we use heat exchangers. The new extension at Ardooie (Veranneman production hall plus storage warehouse) is fitted with electricity generating solar panels.

World leader in PVC knife coating we are committed to supply best materials to our international customership.
Sr.Sales Manager, Doka

SIOEN headquarter located in Ardooie, Belgium

178 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Columbia Pakona Engineering Pvt.Ltd

Cemseal System & Sales (Webac)

Site Report

Site Report - MARINI MAC 200 State of-the-art Efficiency Delivered
he MARINI MAC Series of hot mix asphalt plants, known for their superior energy efficiency and design have been making waves in recent times. Ramky Infrastructure Ltd, one of the leading infrastructure development companies in the country, has been the latest to experience the immense benefits of the series. Ramky has recently installed, the largest plant of their fleet- there are no prizes for guessing, the MARINI MAC 200 for their Moradabad project. Incidentally, the plant is now known as the greenest asphalt plant installed in North India. Another impressive


landmark record that was achieved by Ramky in the project is that the MARINI MAC 200 plant was installed in a record number of hours. The plant, installed by India's leading sustainable development focused company, has been delivered with a host of special features that are aimed at improving productivity and at the same time reduce fuel consumption. The record time in which the plant was erected and commissioned has come as a pleasant surprise for everyone involved with the project. Said Mr.L.Narayanel, Senior Manager Resources from Ramky, who till now was used to seeing asphalt plants take

around 45-60 days to be erected and commissioned in the country, “ We erected and commissioned the plant in a record 20 days time. MAC's modular design facilitates quick set-up and thanks to the pre-wired and pre-tested units, it was all plug and play, “before adding, “All the components fit so well without the need for field modifications. In addition, the plant's control system help diagnose plant problems with ease.” Speaking about the plant Mr.Y.Nagaraja - Managing Director, Ramky Infrastructure had recently said, “ O u r c o m p a ny i s fo c u s e d o n sustainable development and we found in Fayat Group the right partner”. The recent addition of Green asphalt plants from MARINI have further fortified Ramky's image in terms of a green company. The management team at Ramky did a thorough analysis of the various aspects before opting for the MAC asphalt plant. Describing the process of selection of the plant Mr.Mahendra Kumar - VP-

180 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Site Report
Site Report - MARINI MAC 200 - State of-the-art Efficiency Delivered

SCM, during a meeting with the Fayat team stated “We wanted to graduate and keep our leadership position in the market. India's road construction industry is quite dynamic and the standards are ever-raising. Strategic investment into the right crucial tool like the asphalt plant is therefore a must. We have realized that it is impossible to be profitable without being efficient and green. MARINI MAC featured several energy efficient features and carbon saving technology that we were convinced about the plant being the right tool to keep up with the vision of our company.” Stating his views Mr. Haribabu - VP Transportation, a key member of the decision making team observed, “ The decision for MARINI asphalt plants were taken because they have excellent track record in India, as well as world-wide. To ensure our bottom lines, we needed our project durations to be shortened, as much as possible. This calls for a highly efficient, productive, and reliable asphalt plant. Once the plant is on project site, project handling, commissioning, and testing procedures need to be done very efficiently to save time. The plant must be bang on the job and produce quality mix, as each day costs the contractor a lot… and that is exactly what MARINI MAC did.” Ramky's MARINI MAC has been supplied with state-of-the-art features. The plant is capable of producing futuristic and low carbon emitting mixes; recycled asphalt mixes with up to 35 percent RAP content with traditional specification mixes. The plant features dual storage facilities to stock reclaimed filler. This feature was particularly important for Ramky, as they didn't want to have a plant with a top-notch bag filter but then have dust fly all over and around the asphalt plant. A 36 Cbm foreign filler silo with

feeding arrangement for both filler bags and bulk conveying along with modified bitumen handling tanks come as standard on MARINI plants supplied in India. This New Generation MARINI plant has being designed to perform at very high efficiency. The plant is configured to work on the highly acclaimed heavy/waste oil firing system of MARINI, which helps customers realize huge savings on production costs. The waste heat recovery system, advanced blue flame assisted burner system, highly efficient bitumen heating system, ensure that Ramky's production costs are always unbeatable.

"If something goes wrong, the control system will indicate exactly when a motor came on, the amps it was drawing, and when it was turned off. When you have a problem, this control system saves you a lot of time and trouble. Instead of running around all over the plant trying to see what has gone wrong, you just go to the screen, and the control system will tell you. That way, you know exactly where to start to make the repair." Mr. Soundarraj reiterated the fact that the plant is state-of-the-art, before rounding off saying “It is a great piece of work and is exactly what Ramky wanted”.

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The inaugural bC India show exceeded all expectations, mirroring the growth of the CE sector in the country. The Masterbuilder team was present in full strength during the show, covering the premiere event in detail from its booths at the venue. As part of our post event reportage we bring to you a host of valuable information on the products, technologies, services, and people that made the bC India show a grand success.

Thumbs-up from Industry

bC India 2011 gets a
petence in the organization of international trade fairs for construction machinery. In Munich, it hosts bauma, the world's leading trade fair for the sector. In Shanghai, it organizes bauma China, the leading event of its kind for the Asian market. For the Indian market bC India represents the competence of MMI. AEM has an ownership stake in and/or manages several worldclass exhibitions, including CONEXPOCON/AGG, one of the world's largest gathering places for the construction and construction materials industries. bC India 2011 marked the coming together of these two globally reputable orga-

f there was any proof required of India's growing prowess as the country to watch out for in the near future when it comes to construction equipment, it was clearly evident by the resounding success of the bC India show held 8 to 11 February 2011 at the Bandra Kurla Complex in Mumbai. The show exceeded all expectations and went onto reiterate, once again, the coming of age of the Indian construction equipment industry. More than 22,000 visitors from 69 countries attended the first edition of the International Trade Fair for construction machinery, building materials machines, mining machines, and construction vehicles. The event was a j o i nt ve nt u re b et we e n M e s s e Munchen International (MMI) and the Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM). MMI has built up global com-


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nizers for a truly epoch making event in the annals of Indian CE industry. Growing Might of Indian CE Market The importance of India as a market for world-class construction equipment was aptly bought out by Mr. Eugen Egetenmeir, Member, Management Board, Messe Munchen GmbH, when he had during an interaction with the Masterbuilder said, “Messe Munchen has made strategic decisions to organize successful trade fairs in countries where there is an appropriate demand. This has inevitably led the most successful construction machinery fair in the world to the booming economic market of India, “a sentiment, which was shared by almost every overseas exhibitor at the event. The event only went on to reiterate the burgeoning growth of the construction equipment market in India, which had hit new highs in 2010. The industry had reportedly hit an all time high

2010, which was a remarkable 42 percent jump over the preceding year. Market buoyancy and increased expectations made the event one of the most eagerly awaited in recent times. The tone for the show was set during the inaugural address by Eugen Egetenmeir, who during his inaugural address remarked, “With this level of participation, we can say it is a real success.” Thomas Löffler, Chief Executive Officer of the show organizer bC Expo India and Deputy CEO of MMI India highlighted the success of the event when he observed during his address “This result shows clearly that our decision to launch bC India just came at the right time at the right place. Furthermore, the number of exhibitors as well as the feedback from all participants evidence impressively that bC India truly is a new dimension for the construction industry.” The Union Minister for Urban Development, Mr.Kamal Nath unfortunately could not make it to the inaugural function due to foggy conditions affecting the take off of his aircraft in New Delhi. His absence was made up

by the presence of Dr.LeopoldTheodor Heldman, Consulate General of Germany in Mumbai, who during his inaugural address drew the attention to the pace of progress of India, which according to him “ we have only in China,” before adding “ India will become one of the largest economies in the world.” Expressing his views on the occasion Mr.Bhagwan Deokar, President , the Builder's Association of India said , “ We need technology in construction

“This result shows clearly that our decision to launch bC India just came at the right time at the right place. Furthermore, the number of exhibitors as well as the feedback from all participants evidence impressively that bC India truly is a new dimension for the construction industry.”

We need technology in construction and technology in machinery to come here”
President, The Builder's Association of India

CEO bC Expo India

Thomas Löffler

Bhagwan Deokar

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als. In addition to that the show is the most international event within the construction exhibition sector in India, as 70 percent of the registered exhibitors were headquartered outside of India. The international character of this trade fair was further underlined by the fact that it saw the participation of nine national pavilions from Australia, China, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Korea, Spain and the United Kingdom, all showcasing state-of-the-art technology produced in these countries. The joint venture partners were also highly satisfied with the outcome of the show. “bC India proves to be a premium platform for the construction machinery industry in India by setting new organizational standards,” said Eugen Egetenmeir, Managing Director of MMI. Dennis Slater, President of AEM, added: “The overall numbers are outstanding. I am convinced that bC India will indeed play a very important role in the Indian market in the near future.” The show offered just about the perfect platform for global giants, as well as several first time exhibitors to showcase their products, services, and tech-

“The overall numbers are outstanding. I am convinced that bC India will indeed play a very important role in the Indian market in the near future.”

“We had crowds of visitors at our stand, and lots of contacts, including many new customers. The quality of the visitors was very good. India definitely needed bC India

Dennis Slater
President of AEM

Michael Schmid-Lindenmayer
Managing Director, Putzmeister Inida

here” and went on to explain how latest technology will help the Indian economy to grow at a rate of 8.5 to 9.5 percent. International Participation Responding to very strong demand from exhibitors in the run-up to the show, the exhibition space for bC India had been extended to a total of around 88,000 square meters. In all, 508 exhibitors from over 30 countries showcased their latest products and innovations in machinery and equipment for construction, mining and building materi-

nologies. The show was marked by the demonstration of a wide variety of construction equipment including, lifting, concrete making, pneumatics, hydraulic power tools, material handling and earthmoving equipment. These categories apart, the bC India 2011 show also saw the enthusiastic participation of several firms dealing with construction vehicles. The positive sentiments shared by a majority of the exhibitors were aptly put forward by Mr. Michael Schmid-Lindenmayer, Managing Director, Putzmeister India when he quipped “We had crowds of visitors at our stand, and lots of contacts, including many new customers. The quality of the visitors was very good. India definitely needed bC India. We shall certainly be taking part again next time, with a stand of at least the same size." The event saw several companies hold press meetings, either at the conference halls that were available in the venue or in their respective stalls. With interest levels on the higher side, thanks to the presence of the strong 'bauma' brand name, the event received widespread media coverage,

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Maco Coporation India Pvt.Ltd

Realm Intermediates (P) Ltd

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bC India 2011 gets a thumbs -up from CE Industry

both from the print and electronic media. Organization Draws Praise The event also gave an insight into the organizational skills of the key organizers. Almost every exhibitor was satisfied with the indoor and outdoor exhibition area. "The organization has been perfect and we are enjoying a first-class exhibition. I recommend this event to all equipment manufacturers. We will come back", said José Luis del Prim, CEO of Enarco, and President of the Committee for European Construction Equipment CECE.Mr. Liang Weisen, Managing Director, Liugong, China lauded the organizers when he said "Congratulations on a successful launch of bC India. We are impressed by the quality of Indian and international visitors as well as the strong participation of local and international companies." High praise for the event also came from Dr Christof Kemmann, Chairman of the VDMA Construction Equipment and Building Material Machinery Industry Association and CEO BHS Sonthofen, Germany, who observed "I am deeply impressed and very excited about what the organizers have achieved here. We had lots of cus-

tomer contacts and many new leads. Our expectation is that bC India, just like bauma China, will grow and establish itself in the Indian market." The choice of Mumbai as the venue also came in for praise from several quarters. “So far, Mumbai hasn't had a good fair and bC India has filled that gap,” observed Mr.V.G.Sakthi Kumar, Chief Operating Officer, Schwing Stetter, Germany's Indian subsidiary. The central location could mean that exhibitors and visitors from virtually every nook and corner of the country had a presence in the event. The event has also reportedly drawn visitors from as far away as the Gulf countries. That a lot of thought had gone into ensuring quality business visitors was evident from how the visitors had been divided into different categories. By offering free of cost pre-registration and charging an entrance fee to non pre-registered visitors, a high professional level of business visitors was achieved. "The quality of visitors has been extremely good thanks to the restricted entry policy", said Mr. V. Venkataramana, Vice-President of Puzzolana, a thought that was shared by Mr. Ramesh Palagiri, Managing

Director and CEO of Wirtgen India, added: “All visitors at our booth were 100 per cent quality visitors." E. Moses, Business Development Head, Kobelco, Japan, seconded these views when he chipped in saying "Most of the footfall has been meaningful and related. Being a part of this exhibition is very important for our company in particular." Perfect Timing Another interesting coincidence about the entire event was the time that it was held. It could not have been

“So far, Mumbai hasn't had a good fair and bC India has filled that gap,”

"The quality of visitors has been extremely good thanks to the restricted entry policy"

Chief Operating Officer, Schwing Stetter India

V.G.Sakthi Kumar

V. Venkataramana
VP, Puzzolana

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"We had customers from different parts of the country at our booth. More than 90 per cent of who were quality visitors. bC India has the potential to become the major platform here in India."
Managing Director, Peri India

Raj Lakhani

more perfectly timed, since the economy has now almost completely recovered from the lull that was experienced during the global economic downturn and the government being bullish about infrastructure projects. Thomas Furtado, Group General Manager, Greaves Cotton Limited, India put things into perspective when he observed "bC India is very unique as bauma and CONEXPO came together it surely is a good thing. As the Indian market is very strong right now, bC India came just at the right time. All the big names are here." With plans to pump in funds to the tune of US 1 trillion in the 12th Plan Period (2012-17), things could not have been better planned, when it came to the staging of an event of this magnitude. With the global economy well and truly on the recovery path and with infrastructure development activities in India on an overdrive, the event has come as a shot in the arm for the rapidly growing construction equipment industry in the country. For exhibitors the event offered the perfect launch pad for the hectic future that is on offer

in the form of the Indian construction and mining equipment market. Going into the trend that was observed Mr. Raj Lakhani, Managing Director, Peri Germany, Indian subsidiary explained "We had customers from different parts of the country at our booth. More than 90 per cent of who were quality visitors. bC India has the potential to become the major platform here in India." Similar sentiments were shared by Mr. Prashant Nair, Marketing Manager, Mahindra & Mahindra, India,

when he said "The quality of the visitors was good. Such exhibitions are important as they add value to our business." The Indian construction and mining equipment industry has been growing by leaps and bounds in recent years and it has received the necessary stimulus through the successful conduct of bC India 2011. The epoch making event promises to return in a bigger and improved form a couple of years down the line. The event has already set the benchmark higher for similar other events that take place in the country. The Masterbuilder- Coverage The Masterbuilder, as ever has covered the event extensively for its readers. The Masterbuilder had an exclusive stand in the event, manned by a large contingent that had been assembled from our various branches for extensive coverage of the show. Readers can find reports on the various participants, new product launches and one-on-one interaction with industry big-wigs in this issue.

“All visitors at our booth were 100 per cent quality visitors."
Ramesh Palagiri Managing Director and CEO of Wirtgen India

The Masterbuilder - March 2011 187

Ajax Fiori:
One on-one with Mr.K.Vijay
Managing Director, Ajax Fiori at the bC India 2011 Show
jax Fiori Engineering (I) Pvt Ltd is one of the leading construction equipment manufacturers in India. The company manufactures a wide range of equipment for the construction industry including, selfloading mobile concrete mixers, batching plants and site dumpers. Ajax Fiori machinery has been used for RMC operations, at building construction , canal lining, dam, road and other infrastructure construction projects, to name only a few. The company has a long standing Joint Venture with Fiori S.p.A of Italy, who have been prominent in the global market for well over six decades now. The company displayed its entire range of products during the recently held bC India 2011 show. The centre piece of its booth was its new launch


Dragline Batching Plant. With a typical concrete output of 30 cubic metres per hour, the plant features a Planetary Mixer, comprising of hydraulic operated discharge doors, interchangeable wear resisting linings, reversible mixing blades, round mixing arms in NiCr special steel and inspection covers for easy maintenance, among others. Speaking exclusively to the Masterbuilder on the sidelines of the bC India 2011 show, Mr.K.Vijay, Managing Director of the company gave insights into the new launch and its future plans. Here are excerpts from the interview. On the bC India 2011 Show I am very happy with the show. This time around, quite a spectrum of companies is participating in the show. I see

without a doubt a very large European presence. It is perhaps because of the 'bauma' and the fact that the European market has shrunk recently, that they are focusing towards overseas markets. On the visitor profile at bC India 2011 Show It is a good sign to note that only serious visitors are coming to our stall. In fact, every footfall has been very productive. On the New Product Launch The new Dragline Plant is what we have added to our product range during this show. A dragline plant as a concept is not something new. What we have done in it is to add a Planetary Mixer. A Planetary Mixer vis-à-vis a Turbo Mixer is a much better product both in terms of energy efficiency and the quality of mixing. We have a tie up with a reputed European company called Euro Star for the product. Planetary mixers from the company are well-known globally and we are making them in India. The dragline plant comes with a special customized control system, which is more operator-friendly. Moreover, customers are assured that it is backed by a well known company with high brand equity. On the Company's Product Range With the addition of the dragline plant, we have the complete range of batching plants. We already had several

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Nicomac Doors Pvt. Ltd

Thermoshield India (P) Ltd

BC 2011: Post Event Report
Ajax Fiori: One on-one with Mr.K.Vijay, Managing Director, Ajax Fiori at the bC India 2011 Show

other concepts. This product complements our existing range. We have a solution for every kind of batching plant activity now with the introduction of this new product. On Ajax Fiori's Focus Areas We would not like to be tempted by the rise in demand for asphalt plants. We would like to have a clear identity as a concrete specialist. We want to stay focused on concrete. Having said that, you must remember that we already have a big presence in the road construction industry, particularly in the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana - Rural Road Development Program. A lot of our machines can also be found in various urban projects too. On the Self-Loading Concrete Mixer Being a new product concept, it has been a case of the application and the product developing together. Each has driven the growth of the other. Every time a company wanted a new application, it has driven us to do some kind of development on the product. On Competition It is a of course a competitive market out there. But we are confident about our product range. We are looking to sustain a growth rate of 30 percent annually. Our machines are working all over the country and we hope that with increased capacity, we will be able to match the market expectations and our production volumes in the near future. On Future Plans We have a range of products that are ideally suited for the African market. These products are also suited for the immediate markets around India. Exports to these countries could be one of the probable areas of focus for us in the near future.

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The Road Construction Equipment Specialist has Big Plans for India
mmann is a globally renowned construction equipment brand that has made a mark with its range of high quality machines, systems, and services catering to the varied needs of the construction industry. The group, which has a rich legacy of being in the forefront of introducing technologically superior products since 1869, offers high quality asphalt mix plants, concrete mixing plants, mineral processing equipment, compact excavators, and compaction equipment. The group is now making aggressive forays into the rapidly growing Indian infrastructure scene. Ammann Group's booth at the recently held bC India 2011 show was one of the busiest in the event, with visitors envisaging keen interest in their products. In an exclusive interaction with the Masterbuilder, Mr.Rolf J.Jenny, Senior Vice-President, Corporate Development, Ammann, observed,” We have had very good response. More and more people are interested in our product now, which gives us increased confidence in offering a wide range of products for the Indian market.” The Ammann Group has been mak-


ing rapid inroads in the Indian market with its array of road construction equipment, ranging from high quality asphalt plants to compactors. Apart from the Indian market, the brand is now a familiar name elsewhere in the Asia-Pacific region too. Explained Mr.Rolf J.Jenny, “For the past two years, we have grown rapidly in countries such as China, Malaysia, Vietnam and

Thailand. We also have a major presence in Australia and even as far away as New Zealand now.” According to Mr.Rolf J.Jenny, the spurt in road projects has meant that an increasing number of people involved in the road construction sphere are now aware of the Ammann brand. He also felt that the market has now evolved, with a distinct change visi-

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Ammann Group: The Road Construction Equipment Specialist has Big Plans for India

ble in buyer behavior. He pointed out that “the typical Indian customer is no longer making buying decisions only based on the price. Customers are now looking for reliability, quality, prompt after-sales technical support and lesser downtime. All these factors have meant that we have a competitive advantage in this burgeoning market.” The company has already installed over 3,000 asphalt mixing plants globally, being a pioneer in the field, with its strong R & D focus. Speaking about the group's R & D initiatives Mr.Rolf Jenny said “We have invested heavily on our R & D Center in Switzerland. We have been successful in introducing technology with which asphalt can be produced at 115 degrees Celsius, instead of the usually 170 degrees Celsius. This means lesser energy consumption. We already have completed 20 plants in Europe and 6 plants in Australia, where the technology has been put to use.” He went on to add that the company had plans to bring the technology to India too in the near future. Ammann offers a range of asphalt mixing plants, ranging from mobile to semi-mobile and stationary high performance units, with capacities ranging from 80 TPH to 400 TPH worldwide. The company has also added paving machinery to its product portfolio in recent times. Mr.Rolf Jenny said that the paving equipment could soon be introduced for the Indian market too. Ammann also offers state-of-the-art compactors including single drum rollers and pneumatic tyre rollers. High compaction quality with a low number of compaction runs is the distinguishing features of these rollers which are known to work efficiently even under conditions of extreme duress. The high efficiency pneumatic tyre rollers of

Ammann are capable of achieving compaction on both natural, as well as bituminous asphalt layers. Ammann has also recently come out with its latest plant- the 100 % recycler. “Once the roads are built, they need to be maintained and this is where the 100 % recycler, which we

launched in Bauma Munich, has a role to play, “observed Mr.Rolf Jenny. With 6 plants already working in various parts of Europe and with asphalt recycling picking up in a big way in other parts of the world, the company intends to launch the product in the Indian market in the near future.

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The Masterbuilder Corporate Ad

M&IG (A producer of Russian industrial machines CHETRA)

Announces Plans for Production Unit at the bC India 2011 Show
he bC India 2011 show focusing on construction machinery for the Indian subcontinent was a resounding success which saw 508 exhibitors from over 30 countries showcasing their latest product and technology offerings. The show held from 8-11 February 2011 at the MMRDA Grounds, Bandra Kurla Complex, Mumbai attracted over 22,000 business visitors. There were several companies for whom this was the first time that they participated in an Indian expo. Machinery & Industrial Group N.V. (M&IG is a producer of Russian industrial machines CHETRA) was one amongst them, with the company making an immediate


impact with its wide range of products, featuring latest technological innovations from Russia. To fulfill the growing demand of Indian customers for technically advanced M&IG industrial p ro d u c t s a 1 0 0 % s u b s i d i a r y Chetra Machinery India Pvt. Ltd was established. Inauguration of the Stall CHETRA had a nicely built stall, with the display of following popular model of machines in the stand. Crawler Dozer with 90 hp power, Model: VT90 Crawler Dozer with 310 hp power, Model: T20 Crawler Dozer with 419 hp power,

Model: T25 Pipe Layer with 65ton lifting capacity, Model: TG301 Undercarriage parts for Dozers & Pipe Layer. All the Indian Dealers & Business associates were present in the CHETRA's exhibition stall and they could interact with potential customers. CHETRA's stall was inaugurated by Mr. Mikahil Rapota, Trade commission of Russia in India, in General counselor for Russia in India Mumbai, Mr. Alexey Novikov, Vice Presidents Association Of Equipment Manufacturers, Ms. Megan Tanel, in presence of Company's Vice Presidents Mr. Vladimir Lepin &

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Pioneer India

Ermotec International Pvt.Ltd


BC 2011: Post Event Report
M&IG (A producer of Russian industrial machines CHETRA) Announces Plans for Production Unit at the bC India 2011 Show

Mr. Vadim Kalabashkin. CEO of CHETRA Machinery India, Mr. Ben Callow did the presentation of products CHETRA's has exhibited during the show.“ Today the company offers dozers with the power range 90-590 hp, pipe layers with the lifting capacity 25-104 t for the pipelines with the tube diam. 200-1420 mm; wheel loaders with the bucket capacity 3. 5 to 6. 7 cm. and operating power range 140-600 hp; various types of special equipments for Pipeline cleaning, priming, heating & Insulation works; excavators with 23 ton operating capacity,” company CEO Mr.Ben Callow said during the stand inauguration. The main competitive advantages of the Russian machines are price, robust construction and the use of the best Russian technology, he added. One of the highlights for the company during the show was the visit by Dr. Mikahil Bolotin, President of M&IG, the holding company, who had visited the country for the expo. Launches from CHETRA During the show CHETRA launched its 90 hp dozer, VT90 for the Indian market. CHETRA also launched its Indian edition of Quarterly Corporate news Magazine during the expo. Press meeting & Presentations CEHTRA Machinery & Industrial Group organized a Presentation and press meet on the first day evening to announce its long term plans for India and announced that Company will complete its assembly units set up in India by 2011 end. The session saw the company's top management team give detailed presentations on the various products that it had on offer for the Indian market and its future plans. CHETRA M&IG's long terms plans for India CHETRA as a whole group has got a

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M&IG (A producer of Russian industrial machines CHETRA) Announces Plans for Production Unit at the bC India 2011 Show

wide range of machines in 40 various product lines. Today the group holding company “Machinery & Industrial Group N.V” has become the 3rd largest industrial machinery manufacturer in World. After having a series of success stories in Russia, Europe and other developed & developing countries across the world, CHETRA M&IG is now focusing on the growing Indian market in a big way now. The establishment of a subsidiary company for India “CHETRA Machinery India Pvt. Ltd” was the initial step towards this and the company is now looking at the option of setting up a manufacturing unit in India. The company is also in the process of establishing an even wider dealership network across the country. Production Unit in India The company is considering establishment of a CHETRA Production unit in India, something that could be a reality very soon. M&IG products were being imported in India since 1999. To fulfill the growing demand of Indian customers in technically advanced industrial machines there was established a 100% subsidiary - CHETRA Machinery India Pvt. Ltd. Today the company offers dozers, pipe layers; wheel loaders; various

types of special equipments for pipeline cleaning, priming, heating & Insulation works as well as excavators. Innovative machines by M&IG are used in biggest state and private companies of India, like KCC, Jaihind, Punj Lloyd, Coal India, etc. Company's share at the Indian pipe layer market has already reached 30 percent. As estimated by the market players, taking into account the demand of mining and construction industries, it may reach 40-50 per cent soon. Speaking during the press meeting M&IG Vice-president for global markets

Mr. Vladimir Lepin said that the establishment of the production unit will strengthen Russian producer's position not only in India, but in the whole South East Asia region as well. Australia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and South Korea have already shown special interest in Russian CHETRA machines. “By the end of 2015 the number of yearly produced machines will have reached 200”, said Mr. Lepin at the presentation of the project. “Besides, Russian specialists will carry out educational and qualification-raising programs for the Indian engineers participating in CHETRA production and services,” he added. Russian Trade Representative in India Mr. Rapota emphasized the importance of such international projects that promote scientific and technical co-operation of the two countries. “I am absolutely sure that the future Russian machinery production unit in India will cover the demand for these highly competitive industrial machines and become the contribution of the Russian machine-builders into the economy of the partner state.” The company is expected to come out with the formal announcement of the exact location of the production unit in the near future.

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DMI Engineering & Manufacturing Co Ltd
Superior Technology and Service Enable DMI to Stay Ahead

MI Engineering and Manufacturing (DMI E&M) Co Ltd, is one of the reputed manufacturer of Asphalt batch mix plants and Concrete batching plants. The company has made good presence into the fast growing Indian market in recent times. The recently held bC India 2011 show saw DMI Engineering & Manufacturing Co Ltd, promote its range of high quality products in a big way. S p e a k i n g exc l u s i v e l y t o t h e Masterbuilder at their stall during the show, Mr.Rin-Kwon, Managing Director of the company said, “The response has been very positive, “a sentiment that is shared by Mr.Parag Shah, CEO of Vimtech Corporation, which represents DMI in India. Going into the company's strength, Mr.Parag Shah highlighted that “Durability, service and prompt aftersales service support, have been behind our growth story.” Another area of strength for the company is the fact that since almost every component in the asphalt plant is manufacture red by them and not outsourced, service and availability of spares is always prompt. Asphalt mixing plant and concrete batching plants from the company are known for their high quality standards. The superior technology incorporated in the machines is evident from the lower cost of operations, a result of lower fuel consumption and superior engineering. The entire erection and installation process has been simplified. The entire asphalt plant can be erected within a week. The company's mobile asphalt mix plants have also been very successful in India. Observed Mr.Shah, “Our mobile asphalt plants have been highly success-


ful. That is because of the unique, userfriendly design features that we have incorporated in our plants.” The company now offers asphalt mix plants ranging in capacity from 40 TPH to 400 TPH. Speaking about the trend that is

being seen Mr.Shah explained, “An increasing number of projects today are being built on BOT basis. Bigger projects have meant that the demand for higher capacity plants is rising. We want to concentrate on plants with capacity of 200

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Bridge Seminar

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DMI Engineering & Manufacturing Co Ltd: Superior Technology and Service Enable DMI to Stay Ahead

TPH and upwards.” Added Mr.Rin-Kwon, “The typical Indian client has evolved from a price conscious customer to one who wants more value in the form of service and technical support. These are our areas of strength and reasons which make us competitive.” Dwelling on the technology that goes behind the plants, Mr.Shah observed that,” We have a team of trained technical professionals with us. In fact, in a vast majority of cases, we don't need the assistance of our Korean principles, as we are ourselves capable of resolving issues.” The asphalt mix plants of the company feature user-friendly mouseoperated controls. The control panel is connected to the Internet in the plants and this enables engineers from the company's Korean head quarters to undertake repairs on any plant situated in a remote location. The company chose the bC India 2011 platform to promote the latest addition to its product line DMI Recycle Asphalt Plant. “Recycling is going to be the future and we offer an excellent solution,” quipped Mr.Shah, who was seconded by Mr.Rin-Kwon who added,” DMI is the market leader in the field of recycling plants in the highly competitive market of Korea.” One of the advantages of the recycling plants is that it can be attached to plants of other companies too, a fact that gives it an edge over competing products. Apart from its wide range of asphalt mix plants, the company also manufactures concrete batching plants in the 30 cubic meters to 360 cubic meters per hour capacity range. Excellent service backup and a strong R & D focus, with a strict commitment to the highest standards of quality have been the reasons fueling the growth of DMI Engineering. With India in the midst of its biggest infrastructure development spree, the company is well and truly on its way to attaining market leadership in the highly competitive market.

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Greaves Cotton Launches
Premium Range of Construction Equipment

at bC India 2011 Show
reaves Cotton, a leading name in the construction equipment domain, launched a premium range of construction equipment for the infrastructure industry at bC India 2011 show. With this launch, Greaves Cotton augments its already formidable presence with its wide range of products in the 3 segments of Concreting, Soil and Asphalt in the infrastructure equipment industry. The range of products launched includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Milling Machines Paver Loader Twin Shaft Batching Plant


Greaves Cotton now brings to India the most advanced, state-of-art BOMAG Milling Machines. With features like Front Loading, Track Mount & Steering and Auto Control & Auto Engine power regulation; these machines are the latest technology in the road construction industry. These features enhance steering ability, load distribution, safety & operator convenience and efficiency resulting in precision finish of roads. The range comes in 1 to 2 metres and is backed by Greaves service and support assurance. Also on offer is the Paver, this stateof-the-art equipment offers 9.2 metres of paving width and comes with enhanced screed features offering

superior compaction, resulting in high quality finish and undulation effect on roads. The features in the Paver offers faster operation, better productivity, low and easy maintenance and operator comfort which is a hallmark of Bomag technology-World leaders in road construction equipment technology.

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Greaves Cotton Launches Premium Range of Construction Equipment at bC India 2011 Show

Continuing from its earlier range of loaders; Greaves now launched its 5T (ton) loader, extending its range from the already available 3T loader. This loader comes with components from world renowned manufacturers and is manufactured by Greaves technology. With ergonomically designed and fully air-conditioned operators' cabin as a standard feature coupled with brilliant enhanced features like single lever bucket operation and tilt steering column, this loader sets a new benchmark in this segment with operators comfort resulting in improved productivity and efficiency. Complementing its existing range of batching plants, Greaves now brings the 60cbm Twin Shaft batching plant; an advanced global technology with twin shaft mixer technology offering a range of features for safety and enhanced productivity. This plant comes with a fully automatic software controlled operation and a rigid structure. With the promise of service and support round the clock, this world class technology product is low on maintenance. This product further establishes the leading position of Greaves Cotton along with its varied and wide range of batching plants, stationery & mobile concrete pumps and concrete mixers in the concreting segment of the construction equipment business. “Greaves Cotton and BOMAG have had a long standing relation and with these set of new product launches it enhances its presence in the construction equipment segment. With world class BOMAG technology, enhanced value additions, a formidable National Network with 24X7 anytime anywhere service and support; thus offering a triple benefit of Technology, Value and Reach to its customers”, said a company spokesperson commenting on the occasion.

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Manitowoc Emphasizes Commitment to Indian Market at bC India 2011 Show
anitowoc is a name that has become synonymous with lifting equipment globally. The company offers a wide range of cranes including, lattice-boom cranes, mobile telescopic cranes, and tower cranes. It is the first global company to manufacture tower cranes in the country in its Pune manufacturing facility. The company had displayed its range of lifting equipment and accessories during the bC India 2011 show, which highlighted its market leadership in India.


Dwelling on the company's growth Mr.Raman Joshi, Managing Director, Manitowoc Cranes India, said that the company is well positioned in the country. “We have long seen the potential of India and have invested heavily here,” he said. “We're now seeing our vision becoming a reality as the country starts to achieve its true potential. At bC India, we will be increasing awareness of Manitowoc Crane Care and showing our latest cranes, each of which has features and benefits of interest to Indian customers.” Wide Range on Display Manitowoc showcased a Potain MC 125 model from the top-slewing tower crane range and an Igo 32 self-erecting crane, during the show. The MC 125 combines a cost-effective lifting tool with industry leading performance. The new crane will be manufactured at the Manitowoc factory in Pune, India and is considered perfect for a variety of city centric and general building projects.

good rebound for the tower crane industry. Another good thing that we are seeing is that a good percent of our buyers now are first time buyers.” Pointing out to the rapidly evolving marketing, Mr.Joshi said, “India is and always has been a price sensitive market. But today people are willing to spend money, if they are provided value.” The 4 t capacity Igo 32 is part of Potain's range of self-erecting cranes that offers significant timesaving on small and medium sized job sites that was on display during the event. They are often more cost-effective than other material handling options. Also on display was the GT 25-5A from the Dongyue mobile truck crane product line. bC India marked the first time that these cranes were being shown in India. Manitowoc's national office will sell the cranes directly and the full Manitowoc Crane Care support is in place for them. Besides the equipment, a simulator allowed visitors to the booth to sit in a replica crane cab and experience what it is like to operate a Manitowoc crane.

Managing Director, Manitowoc

Raman Joshi

Giving his views about the latest market trends Mr. Joshi observed, “2010 was

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Showcases Russian Trucks of European Quality for India
AMAZ Vectra Motors Ltd, which is a joint venture between KAMAZ OJSC and Vectra group, showcased a wide range of products at the recently held bC India 2011 show. The show gave the company a good platform to show its technologically superior products to prospective customers. On display at the company's booth

was the dump truck model KAMAZ-6540 (8x4) which belongs to the family of heavy duty trucks with 19t legal payload, GVW upto 31t and comes with a host of attractive features, besides being well known for its productivity and efficiency. The KAMAZ-6540 is equipped with KAMAZ V8, 260 hp Euro 2 engine and the Cummins 285 hp Euro 3 engine. In addition, two fuel tanks of 210 litres displacement each allow for lengthy truck operation without the need for refueling. Another feature is the comfortable cab for the driver. The truck platform is worth of special description. It can accommodate 18 cubic metres of cargo and its tipping angle during the unloading can reach 55 degrees. Fully loaded KAMAZ-6540 can easily accelerate and reach speeds


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KAMAZ Vectra Showcases Russian Trucks of European Quality for India

up to 85 kmph. There are four variants of the 6540 available in the market 16 cum box and rock body, 18 cum box body and 20 cum box body. Currently, the Russian-Indian JV domiciled in Hosur, Tamil Nadu will assemble 1000 locally produced KAMAZ trucks as per its business plan which has been approved in February 2005. At the moment this JV is producing a single truck model KAMAZ-6540 but in future the plant which has been designed for annual output of 5,000 trucks, will start to produce road tractors , KAMAZ-5460 (4x2) and KAMAZ-6460 (6x4) , specially designed for the local conditions, as well as the KAMAZ-6520 dump trucks along with rigid KAMAZ-6540 of

original design. Such trucks as the KAMAZ-6540 can be operated on concrete roads, which have been lately constructed in India and do not allow vehicles with excessive axle loads. The newly established manufacturing facility is focused on the specific market to approach domestic customers with its unique vehicle o p e ra t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . K V M L ' s engineering team has done specific modifications to make the vehicle, the best in its class. Localization process is on fast track and more than 70 percent localization has been achieved. KAMAZ is having JV and close cooperation with world's leading truck and component manufactures

like Daimler AG CUMMINS, ZF, Knorr-Bremse SfN GmbH Bosch, etc, along with the introduction of specially developed set of lean production methods (KAMAZ Manufacturing System), which has radically improved the technical capabilities and quality of our products. The company has already e sta b l i s h e d a we l l d e ve l o p e d dealership network in India. In October 2010, the company signed 11 c o o p e ra t i o n a g re e m e n t s w i t h dealership companies. The company has already covered about 87 percent area through KVML dealers. It has also appointed one overseas dealer to reach its customers in Lhachhen Mineral Industry, Timphu, Bhutan.

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Stiff Boom Crane at bC India 2011
stablished in 1932, PALFINGER has for many years been among the leading international manufacturers of hydraulic lifting, loading and handling systems. As a multinational company group with its headquarters in Salzburg , Austria, PALFINGER has manufacturing and assembly sites in Europe, in North and South America, as well as in Asia. Innovation, further internationalization and diversification of products and services form the strategic pillars of the corporate strategy. PALFINGER enjoys over 30 % of market share globally in the manufacture and marketing of truck mounted cranes. The company established facility at Chennai in 2008 to develop, manufacture and distribute products “for India and other Asian market from India”, by using local resources.


PALFINGER India has huge range of truck mounted cranes, hook loaders, specialized log handling and recycling heavy duty cranes in its platter to offer to the Indian customers.

The bC India 2011 show saw PALFINGER participate in a major way , true to its motto ,” Efficiency and Reliability” and how it is all about innovative and attractively-priced lifting, loading and handling solutions that make day to- day work easier for the user. As a leader in technology and aftersales service, the PALFINGER brand is considered to be the epitome of quality and reliability all over the world. A clear strategy based on the three pillars of innovation, internationalization and diversification, with committed employees and an affirmed philosophy of “making customers more successful” in their jobs are the ingredients of this recipe for success. “A competitive edge gained through technological innovation and a high level of product quality has always been central to the

Subhamoy Ghosh Managing Director, PALFINGER India

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PALFINGER Launches Stiff Boom Crane at bC India 2011 Show

company” said Mr.Subhamoy Ghosh, Managing Director, PALFINGER India. PALFINGER is presented both product innovations and time-tested system solutions at bC India where the focus on its booth was squarely on the company's efficiency in the construction and waste management industry. The presentation of the PS 8000 4.0 model was the highlight. PALFINGER is launching this 3-tonne telescopic truck-mounted crane, specifically tailored to the Asian market, for mounting on small and medium-sized trucks. PALFINGER also exhibited a PK 38502 and a PK 1000 Performance from its extensive range of knuckle boom cranes. PALFINGER knuckle boom cranes are the perfect workhorses on any construction site due to their lightweight design, power, and maneuverability. The combination of the PK 10000 truck-mounted crane with a T 13 PALIFT TELESCOPIC hookloader, mounted on a 16-tonne truck including waste container, demonstrated the interesting and powerful range of applications that PALFINGER system try. An EPSILON M110L97 recycling crane mounted on an MAN truck with a gross vehicle weight of 25 tonnes demonstrated just how much power and efficiency is packed into these cranes that have been specially designed to

tion and waste management indus-

tional truck-mounted crane attachments and equipment for every eventuality completed the exhibition display of the company.

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Structural Engineers World Congress (SEWC)

Structural Engineers World Congress (SEWC)

Putzmeister Showcasing a Wide Range of
Products for the Indian Market
utzmeister Concrete Machines Pvt Ltd, India, the 100 percent subsidiary of Putzmeister GmbH, Germany an acknowledged world leader and global supplier of concrete pumps, tunneling machines, industrial pumps and mortar machines, showcased a wide range of products at its booth during the recently held bC India 2011 show. The Indian arm of the company has been growing rapidly and is also exporting its products to Srilanka, Bangladesh, South Africa, and South East Asia. In 2010, Putzmeister in India has grown by an astonishing 160 percent


and has further increased its market share in all product categories. The bC India 2011 show offered the perfect platform for the company to introduce new technology and products. Expressing his views about the event Mr.Michael Schmid- Lindenmayer, Managing Director of the company's Indian arm said "We had crowds of visitors at our stand, and lots of contacts, including many new customers. The quality of the visitors was very good. India definitely needed bC India. We shall certainly be taking part again next time, with a stand of at least the same size." The company has been very active

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Putzmeister - Showcasing a Wide Range of Products for the Indian Market

in introducing new technology and products into the strong growing Indian market. It has implemented new models for customers, which starts with concrete placing machinery, which are very simple to operate and very cost competitive at the same time. The company introduced the stationary concrete pump model BSA702D, which is designed for 20 cubic m/h output, which can be delivered by a reversible drum mixer. The global leader in concrete equipment also introduced a very price competitive boom placer, the BSF20.07, which is the ideal starter boom placer for road contractors and RMC companies, which are still not capable enough of investing in a bigger boom placer. The introduction of the price competitive boom placer was part of the company's strategy to cover a wider segment of customers. Explained Mr.Lindenmayer on the market conditions prevailing in India , “ On one hand, there is demand for high tech concrete pumps for large projects, while on the other hand, the mass market needs low cost equipment, with the focus on pro

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Putzmeister - Showcasing a Wide Range of Products for the Indian Market

ductivity and reliable techn o l o g y,” a combination that the company intends to achieve through its new product offerings. As far as the high-end products were concerned, the company introduced the BSA1409D concrete pump, which is based on free flow hydraulics for customers who require higher output. The BSA1408HD, a high pressure pump, which can pump buildings in the height range of 200 to 250 m, was another introduction from the company. The new model hopes to be the industry standard for buildings of these heights. In order to place concrete on top of the building Putzmeister introduced stationary boom systems called MX in combination with the pipelines, valve

system, cleaning stations and accessories. As the pioneer in R & D in concrete pumping technology, the company offers a wide range of concrete pumping solutions. The company has created records in both vertical and horizontal pumping of concrete high rise con-

crete pumping at the Burj Khalifa Project in Dubai and long distance pumping to a distance of 2015 m at the Le Refrain construction project in France. The company has its state of the art manufacturing facility at Goa, spread over 100, 000 sq m. The company has also got a countrywide sales and service network with regional offices all over India. In addition to its technologically advanced products, Putzmeister also offers its customers competent advice and individually designed concepts. The philosophy behind the company's rapid growth in the Indian market was aptly summed up by Mr.Lindenmayer when he said “Putzmeister is committed to bringing latest technology to India and we believe in best products, best quality and best service,” attributes which are expected to contribute to the continued growth of the company in the near future.

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The Masterbuilder Subscription Form

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REL-CED forays into Foundation Equipment - Launches

at bC India Show

“CF” Series Piling Rigs
player in the construction equipment field for long time now. “There is a huge demand for piling rigs for small and medium pile diameters from 400 mm to 750mm in many construction sites like commercial complexes, power plants, SEZ etc. Today Piling Contractors either depend on the big machines to do the job, which means higher cost by way of fuel, transportation, and maintenance, or resort to the conventional methods, which mean very low productivity. REL and TES CAR together will address this gap with their 'CF' series” said Mr. M Sunil, Associate Vice-President, REL. TESCAR range begins with the CF 2.5 which can be mounted on a variety of Base machines and can do up to a depth of 15 Meters for Pile Diameters ranging from 400 mm to 800 mm. “The most popular in the CF 2.5 range is CF 2.5A, an 8Ton machine with 'Telescopic Mast' and on a 'Bobcat' Base which is a sought after model world over due to its flexibility and also the ability to operate in very confined area

Associate Vice-President Marketing REL- Construction Equipment Division

Mr. M. Sunil

EL (Revathi Equipment Ltd), a part of the Renaissance group headed by Mr. Abhishek Dalmia, have entered the ground engineering equipment segment by augmenting their construction equipment range with hydraulic drilling rigs. The company is already a major player in the domain of concrete equipment segment. REL in association with M/s. TESCAR Srl, Italy, launched the “CF” series Piling Rigs at the recently concluded bC India 2011 show in Mumbai. REL will be targeting the emerging market for Mini Piling Rigs and is confident of making a mark in this niche segment. The company already has a strong distribution network, having been a leading


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REL-CED forays into Foundation Equipment - Launches “CF” Series Piling Rigs at bC India Show

“We are betting on this machine to do well in Indian Market and our plans include phased indigenization to make the offer better”. with very low head room.TES CAR has a patent for their design of this telescopic mast ” informed Mr. M Sunil. “The country's long coastal Belt throws up huge opportunity for medium range piling rigs for depths up to 30 meters and pile diameters between 500to 800 mm. TES CAR 'CF-6' is an ideal machine for this application with a total weight of 20 Tons on a 'Hitachi' Base and 66 kW engine. 'CF-6' will be a very cost effective solution for the Indian Piling Contractors and also the rental segment , which will combine Productivity with Low operating Costs”, pointed out Mr. Sunil , before adding TES CAR is also the leading manufacturer of Tools including Kelly Bars, and supplies to every leading manufacturer of Piling Rigs in the world.REL, Construction equipment Division offers a 'Full Liner' in concrete equipment with technical collaboration with leading German manufacturers. “Every product from REL-CED stable has certain feature incomparable and offering value addition to clients in terms of productivity, saving in operating cost or additional safety features.” Mr. Sunil explained. The THP 45 D High pressure Concrete Pump launched in 2010 is already rated high by users due to its capability

to pump up to even 100 meters vertical height at the same time giving a very good output.REL also have expanded its own Network to all four regions of the country and have currently 13 Dealerships to provide after sales support to its range.


Piling Rigs

iling is a kind of ground treatment for strengthening the ground soil in order to make it capable of supporting the load of the project. It basically involves driving the pile into the ground below the ground level. Generally, piles are of the following types: concrete piles, timber piles, steel piles and bored piles. Equipments used to drive these piles into the ground are called Piling rigs. A piling rig is an equipment mainly applied to drill in sandy soil, clay, silty clay etc. and widely used cast-inplace piles, diagram walls, foundation reinforcement and other foundation projects.


These rigs come in 3 main categories: Small sized Torque: 60 -100 kNm, Engine power 108 kW, drilling diameter .5 1.2m, drilling depth 40m, total quality 40t. Middle-sized - torque is around 120180 kNm, engine power 125-200 kW, drilling diameter 0.8-1.8m, drilling depth 60m, total quality 42-65t. Large-sized - torque is around 240 kNm, engine power 300 kW, drilling diameter 12.5m, drilling depth 80m, total quality 100t.

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SCHWING Stetter India
Unveils Two New Concrete Pumps at bc India Show
CHWING Stetter (India) Pvt Ltd., a 100% subsidiary of SCHWING Gmbh, Germany, and a leading player in the Indian Ready Mix Concrete (RMC) equipment industry, unveiled two new concrete pumps new concrete pumps, SP 8800 and SP 2880, for the Indian market at the recently held bC India show at Mumbai from February 811, 2011. Aimed at the high-rise construction market in India, the SP 2880 can pump concrete vertically upto a height of 250 metres, while the SP 8800 can pump concrete vertically upto a height of more than 500 metres. Speaking about at the launch of the new products, Mr. Anand Sundaresan, Managing Director, SCHWING Stetter (India), observed, “We are extremely happy to unveil our two new concrete pumps, SP 8800 and SP 2880. These products are specifically designed for high-rise construction projects, where high capacities are required, for rapid placement of large quantities of concrete, extreme pumping heights and / or distances and difficult concrete mixes. The pumps are ideal for use in the construction of various civil engineering


the new products at the bC India fair is dual in nature on the one hand, it gives us the opportunity to meet with our clients. More importantly, it also gives us the platform to leverage on the demand for such high-capacity equipment in Mumbai, which is seeing a consistent growth in terms of high-rise constructions. With their ability to pump concrete upto heights of 250 and 500 metres respectively, we are sure that the SP 2880 and the SP 8800 will meet the requirements of our customers here.”
Anand Sundaresan, Managing Director, SCHWING Stetter(India) Pvt Ltd

projects, including high-rise buildings, power plants, and tunnels.” Going into further details of the new launches Mr.Sundaresan said “We have been seeing increased activity in highrise constructions, especially in Mumbai, which is the high-rise capital in India. With the kind of development that the city is facing, we are sure that one will see a further increase, not only in the number of high-rise constructions here but also in terms of the height of the projects. And this is where our new concrete pumps will make the difference. We believe that, going forward, there will be a strong demand for these products, especially in a market like Mumbai.” Speaking about the launch of the two new concrete pumps the company's Chief Operating Officer, Mr.V.G.Sakthikumar said “We are extremely happy to launch our concrete pumps at the prestigious bc India International Trade Fair. Our ability to clearly understand what our customers need and to launch products that meet these requirements has always set us apart. Our objective of unveiling

Mr. John Keenan, Head of Sales AsiaPacific, SCHWING GmbH Germany, while giving his views on the two new launches said, “SCHWING is known today as a total concrete equipment solutions provider and in our endeavor to help our customers overcome all concrete handling challenges, we felt a strong need to enhance our product-line. Thus, our latest offerings, the BP 8800 and BP 2880 concrete pumps, feature a combination of advanced technology, economy, flexibility, quality and exclusively for high-rise constructions. We are hopeful of providing our customers with solutions which are both practical and cost-effective.” The SP 8800, according to the company will redefine concrete pumping, in terms of pumping output, operating convenience, and economic efficiency. Driven by a powerful Deutz Diesel engine and combined with DN 180 and DN 200 pumping cylinders, the customers will have the choice of selecting the specific pump that meets the requirements of a specific project. The open-circuit hydrostatic drives with soft-push controls are characterized by exceptionally soft pushing of the

V.G.Sakthikumar, CEO, SCHWING Stetter (India) Pvt Ltd

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Truevents, Singapore

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SCHWING Stetter India Unveils Two New Concrete Pumps at bC India Show

BP 8800

SSIPL 2880

concrete column into the delivery line and gentle switchover with no pressure peaks. This makes for smooth running and high service lives. Large upward folding side doors permit effortless, direct access for ser vicing and maintenance purposes. The hydrostatic drive features rugged, sturdy axial-piston pumps with power regulator and additional output adjustment. All operating and control devices are centrally located, readily visible, and easily accessible. The heart of the concrete pump is the rock-valve, designed for maximum concrete pressure of up to 250 bars, which offers exemplary pumping characteristics, wearing properties and operational safety. The SP 2880 is a stationary concrete pump that is based on the forwardlooking design of the modern plastic casting, with significant weight savings
SS IPL 8800

leading to substantially lower fuel consumption during transport. The energy-consuming changeover block for the changeover has been shifted from the piston to the rod side and the hydraulic hoses can be detached and reconnected easily. This ensures that there is no oil dripping and no waste of fuel due to changeover block heating. the SP 2880 is also equipped with a noise abatement system, making the pump more environment-friendly. The pump has impressive controls with display, which provides all current operating data like engine speed, hydraulic pressure, and stroke. The control system can be enhanced with a Bluetooth remote control. The modular structure, including a vertically adjustable hitch, permits use of two different axles a construction site axle and an optional road axle for towing speeds of up to 80 km/h.

In August 2009, SCHWING Stetter was recognized internationally for the world record set by the company in pumping concrete vertically up to a record height to 715 meters for the Parbati Hydro-electric project in Suind village, Himachal Pradesh. The project was implemented by the National Hydropower Corporation. SCHWING Stetter supplied BP 4000 super concrete pumps to Gammon India, which executed the project for pumping concrete from the bottom of the tunnel to the top of the tunnel, which had a total length of 1500 meters and an inclination of 30°. Besides the new concrete pumps, SCHWING Stetter (India) also unveiled a high pressure water cleaning system at the bC India 2011 International Trade Fair. With the launch of these two new concrete pumps, SCHWING Stetter offers the entire range of concrete pumps, including the BP 350, the BP 1800, the SP 1400, and the LP 1400.

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TIL - The Growth

Story Continues

ince 1944, TIL has been partnering India's infrastructure growth. As a responsible nation builder, the company remains committed to India's infrastructure creation by providing high-technology equipment and total solutions, with the eventual aim of enhancing customer value. Technology, innovation, and leadership are three qualities that have come to define TIL as an organization and its philosophy. Over the past six decades the company has emerged as one of the leading providers of a wide range of equipment that represent some of the finest in global technology. TIL continues to strive for new ways and better solutions while serving customers with cutting edge technology products and excellent service by constantly innovating and evolving. The company showcased several


products from its wide range during the recently held bC India 2011 show. The company has always been a pioneer when it comes to introducing material handling equipment. Explained Mr.S.K.Bhatnagar, Director & President, TIL, dwelling on the company's philosophy during the press conference at bC India 2011 show, “TIL has continuously

and successfully anticipated future needs of the industry and introduced state-of-the art products, “before adding, “Whenever there has been a requirement for a high capacity crane or whenever there has been a requirement for new technology, we have been the pioneers.” Today TIL is the only manufacturer in the country that

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TIL - The Growth Story Continues

offers mobile cranes with load lifting capacity of 40 tonne and beyond. TIL launched its 75 tonne crane in its truck mounted series during the bC India 2011 show. The model- TMS 875, comes with several key features including, 4 section trapezoidal full power boom, maximum road and speed of 50 km/hr, hoisting speed of 110 m/min. “ Loads are getting heavier and customers are looking for higher capacity cranes, “ observed Mr.Bhatnagar on the trends being witnessed in the industry. Going into details about the target customers and applications for the new 75 tonne crane, Mr.Bhatnagar said, “This crane will be extensively used in heavy infrastructure sector, building of power plants, refineries, chemical plants, building bridges, etc.” The crane comes with the benefits of synchronization that ensures even distribution of load on the boom sections, better service facility, higher mobility, and efficient hoist unit. The company also launched a 10 tonne truck mounted crane during the bC India 2011 show. With this the company now offers customers a choice from 10 to 75 tonnes. The new modelTMS 10, comes with key features such as 3 section full power fully synchronized, mounted on Ashok Leyland Chassis, maximum lifting height of 25.7 m and less gross vehicle weight. Speaking about one of the key advantages of the new launch Mr.Bhatnagar pointed out, “It is based on a drive line sourced completely from Indian companies. What this means is a cost-effective product that is easy to maintain. “ In its continuous quest to enhance

customer experience, TIL has always formed a new business association to expand product portfolio, deepen market penetration, and offer superior solutions to a wider cross-section of customers. The company has recently entered into an agreement with Astec Inc; to introduce equipment meant for the road construction industry, including, cone crushers, high frequency screens, and hot mix asphalt plants. As part of the diversification initiative the company had recently introduced hot mix asphalt plants, based on double barrel technology. Giving details about the road construction equipment range Mr.R.Nandagopal, TIL-ASTEC, Vice President, Equipment & Project Solutions, explained, “India is currently a batch mix country. But with

increase in road project size, you will need hot mix asphalt plants which feature continuous mix or double barrel technology. “ Apart from the Telesmith 44 SBS Cone Crusher, AMS 2618VM Screening solution, the company has also entered into a licensee agreement with Paceco Corp, USA, now a part of the Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co Ltd, for the designing and manufacturing of Rubber Gantry Cranes in India. Mr.Bhatnagar during the press conference also spoke about the new plant of TIL that is under construction in Kharagpur, about 120 km from Kolkata. With a world-class product line, buoyant economy and spurt in infrastructure projects, the TIL growth story looks all set to continue in the years to come.

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Roof India Exhibition


Volvo Drives Home the
Fuel Efficiency Message
at bC India 2011 Show
t the bC India 2011 show Volvo Construction Equipment highlighted how a package of advanced engine and support solutions lies at the heart of the company's expanding production and distribution base in India. Volvo Construction Equipment used its extensive display at the inaugural Bauma Conexpo India 2011 show to demonstrate its commitment to improving fuel consumption and lowering emissions in its products


and also underline the company's expanding product, manufacturing, and distribution capabilities. Pointing to the recent market trends, Mr.A.M.Muralidharan, Managing Director of Volvo India Private Ltd and Head of Volvo Construction Equipment Business in India observed, “Volvo Construction Equipment enjoyed a sharp increase in sales and profitability in 2010, amid improving conditions for the industry. The company also

increased unit sales by 70 percent compared to 2009- selling an all-time high of 66,000 machines during the year, which is significant growth.” The centerpiece of the company's display during the show was a pair of the latest Volvo excavators the EC 140B Prime and the EC210B Prime; the latter specially adapted for work in granite and marble quarry applications. Road machinery also featured highly with an

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patented Reverse By Braking (RBB) technology. 'Operator Behaviour' is another cornerstone and programs such as Eco-Operator highlight good working practices when using machines to develop an environmentally-friendly style of driving. The third cornerstone is 'Future Technologies” such as hybrids and the final element 'Engines' an area where the company's fuel efficient V-ACT design excels. Volvo Diesel Engine The Volvo diesel engine is at the heart of the company's wide range of products. based on well-proven, robust technology, the Volvo V-ACT engine range meets the needs of the Indian customers by providing increased machine performance along with reduced emissions. Along with environmental improvements, the engine also represents new achievements in combustion efficiency and overall engine performance. Giving an insight into the company's philosophy with

respect to fuel efficiency Mr.Muralidharan quipped, “We have always been focused on fuel efficiency. We have been the pioneers when it comes to offering fuel efficient products.” With new fuel injection, air management technology, and advanced electronics, the inherent potential of the V-ACT engine is then tailored by Volvo engineers to meet the specific performance criteria required by different machine types and applications. Reman The show also saw the company promote the introduction of a dedicated component remanufacturing service initiative 'Reman' in the Indian market. Volvo has recently invested in a new Factory Remanufactured Component Centre in Bangalore, whose technicians expertly restore a range of components to an often better-than-new standard ('better' because components are upgraded to the latest iteration of that unit's development). “It's like giving ld

ABG 4361 asphalt paver ( which was built in Volvo's Indian factory) supported by the 8,200 kg DD 80 large asphalt compactor and the L120F wheel loader. The show also saw Mr.Muralidharan give a lecture on the company's four pronged approach to improve fuel efficiency. These cornerstones include 'Systems' such as the OptiShift- a feature fitted to Volvo wheel loaders that integrates a torque converter with Volvo's

A.M.Muralidharan, Managing Director of Volvo India Private Limited and Head of Volvo Construction Equipment Business in India and Dr. Eberhard Wedekind, President - Region Asia, Volvo CE and Chairman - Volvo India

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BC 2011: Post Event Report
Volvo Drives Home the Fuel Efficiency Message at bC India 2011 Show

components a second life, explained Mr.Muralidharan, before adding, “The components are disassembled at our factory, by trained technicians, whatever were the parts required they are then replaced, before it is sold to another customer. This way we offer a very economical way of using the core and replacing the parts.” The facility allows users of Volvo construction equipment to have their used components renovated at a lower cost than buying new and consuming far less new materials and energy. The program according to the company is a natural extension of Volvo's commitment towards a greener environment. CareTrack The show also highlighted the CareTrack-Volvo's telematic system that allows remote monitoring and machine diagnostics on all general purpose machines- which is now available in India as standard and comes with a free three year subscription. The system offers customers a number of advantages, the primary one being its ability to effectively manage machine maintenance, servicing and repair through the system's ability to 'see' how the machine is performing, has performed and a range of important information. The show also saw company officials explain the benefits of Volvo's 'hard' machine product solutions as well as the extensive range of 'soft' non-machine product and service offerings. Specialists from the company were also available to explain the benefits of Customer Support Agreements (CSAs) which come in several forms, depending on customer needs and the work environment the machine operates in.

224 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

Ermotec International Pvt.Ltd

SKG Equipments Pvt. Ltd.



A True

Garden House
n today's modern world when houses even with a few plants here and there claim to have a garden, this gorgeous building in Linkebeek, Belgium is a true blue garden house. Completely draped with gorgeous greenery, it is a sight to behold. The building that has been designed by Samyn and Partners took all of 8 years in construction. It was originally designed to be draped with ivory and not plants. In fact, patinated copper material was actually chosen for the roof. It so happened that the construction process took very long and the owners finally scrapped the idea of ivory and copper and instead went for some green façade. The selections of exotic plants that cover the building have been chosen by an expert botanist Patrick Blanc. PVC panels that have been incorporated in the design act as the support system, apart from helping in irrigation of the beautiful green façade of the building.

Ancient Church becomes a Modern Bookstore
n ancient Dominican Church has been transformed into a spectacular modern book store, thanks to the creative genius of architecture. The 'brand new' bookstore in the heart of Maastricht is now attracting visitors by the hordes, who seem to be as much fascinated by the architecture, as by the books. The Church which dates back to the 13th Century has been briefly used as a parish, before it was converted into a warehouse and then into a giant parking lot. It was converted into its present form by architecture firm Merkx and Girod. There is a special viewing gallery at the back of the structure from where visitors can admire the spectacular 14th century ceiling frescoes or relax over a cup of coffee at the café that is located in place of the former choir.


Emergency Parasitic Homes
ith an avant-garde approach and forward thinking, Brazilian architect Mike Reyes who’s goal was to provide sustainable homes for the stranded survivors has come up with an emergency shelter that has been inspired by favelas or Brazilian shanty towns.The structures are box-like homes that can be attached onto the facades of other buildings. Reye's’ concept is unique in that it actually enlists able-bodied survivors to assist with the implementation of the shelters – a cool idea, since it empowers them to take action instead of simply sitting around, waiting for help. Reyes envisions that the preconstructed structures could be airlifted by helicopter to sites where they are needed and then guided into place with the help of survivors. They “clip” onto building facades using leverage. Each shelter would contain beds, lighting, storage and a skylight and be made of recycled materials from local construction sites. There would also be attachments for solar energy, water purification and organic farming.


226 The Masterbuilder - March 2011

JSW Serverfield Structures Ltd

Zamil Steel Buildings India.Pvt.Ltd