Running Head: Quantitative Research Critique

“Beliefs, Knowledge, and Self Efficacy of Nursing Students Regarding Tobacco Cessation”


design and sample population. variables. The findings gathered from this research study are beneficial to undergraduate nursing educators to develop better teaching strategies including not only knowledge and information. The aim was to determine if the participants own lifestyle choices had an effect on the different variables of the study. addresses the framework.The purpose of this descriptive study was to develop three different sample populations and analyze their beliefs. This critique focuses on the research problem and purpose. objectives. but rather addressing one’s belief system and attitudes. knowledge and self-efficacy regarding tobacco cessation. it provides a brief literature review. . It also critiques the measurement tools as well as the collection process and analysis of the data.

“Beliefs. Research Problem and Purpose A research problem is an area of concern where there is a gap of knowledge base needed for nursing practice (Burns & Grove. Knowledge. their own beliefs regarding tobacco cessation treatment and their selfefficacy in providing effective interventions. is. the research sample. However the concern of the clinical situation focuses on nursing students and barriers such as. the amount of knowledge about tobacco use. the reader might still question the problem of the study. There is no abstract for this article. 2008). and Self Efficacy of Nursing Students Regarding Tobacco Cessation” The title of the research article summarizes what the article entails.” The background or what we know about the problem area is registered nurses constitute the largest group of healthcare professionals…employed in a variety of settings…spend more direct time with patients. why registered nurses are in pivotal positions to address smoking cessation and some barriers they may face. However there is an introduction which includes a background. dependence and treatments. This research problem for this article is not clearly stated. which indicates the importance of the problem to nursing and to the health of individuals.” . The significance of the problem. It addresses the topic and population of concern being tobacco cessation and nursing students. After reading the introduction. “ensuring that registered nurses are knowledgeable and have the self-efficacy to provide such clinical interventions.

The purpose of this research was “to examine nursing students’ beliefs about smoking. For example. however does not provide the reader with any detail of the study. but does not narrow the population of nursing students or identify the setting. The author relies heavily on previously conducted studies and questionnaires in order to conduct her own research. and a related study that reported that students who smoked provided less frequent counseling…”. the author is linking her findings to previous studies. The subjects were readily available.These findings were similar to a study of Kansas nursing programs. selfefficacy to intervene with their patients who use tobacco. The researchers knowledge of the topic was difficult to determine.” The purpose clarifies the aim of the study. The author also provides theoretical literature. the author discusses nurses and the amount of time they spend on direct patient care.. The study did not appear to require a large amount of money in order to be conducted. knowledge about tobacco use and tobacco dependence interventions. therefore linking the importance of effective knowledge base in order to intervene tobacco abuse with their patients. “. which provides a background of concepts and relates them together. In this example. all located in the Minnesota area and recruitment was done via e-mail and a follow-up phone call. The previous studies were relevant in identifying the barriers for the current study. The previous studies are not described in detail or critiqued by the author nevertheless the outcomes are clearly identified. For example the on page 494 the author states. The . Literature Review The author provides empirical literature by briefly discussing previously conducted studies. and perceived barriers and benefits to delivering tobacco-cessation interventions.

perceived barriers and benefits. knowledge. The review of literature appears valid and the references up to date. The reference list consists of only nineteen references.theoretical literature is appropriate and although not in-depth. The model gives clarity to the framework and directly links it to the variables in the study. 11 references are 6-10 years old and 3 references that are greater than 10 years old. which provides a framework to examine perceived barriers. The four main constructs of the health belief model (perceived threat. The review of literature summarizes the pivotal position nurses are in to effectively intervene and provide smoking cessation information and treatment. The literature conveys a small amount of previous known knowledge from previous studies. There are 5 references that are less that 5 years old. and selfefficacy for exploring why some nurses take action and others fail to provide tobaccocessation intervention (Lenz. perceived benefits. The majority of the literature focuses on the perceived barriers and how it affects nursing students that currently smoke and nursing students that do not smoke. it is enough information for the reader to relate to the purpose of the current research study. The underlying concept of the original health belief . The author should have explained the health belief model that is used as the framework for the study in order to help the reader understand and link the model to the study. Framework In this study the theoretical framework was based on the health belief model. 2008). The literature provided is organized and the results from previous research studies are appropriately used within the study to show progressive development of ideas needed to develop the current research. and self-efficacy) were used to select specific variables.

self-efficacy and application of cessation interventions. do you consider yourself a smoker and tobacco use within the last 30 days. beliefs about tobacco 2. 1. age of first tobacco use. Lenz’s study states the health belief model identifies knowledge about a disease or health condition as an essential element of perceived susceptibility. Questions. or Hypothesis The first aim (question) of the study was to determine if baccalaureate-nursing students in Minnesota believed that they received sufficient training in the clinical treatment of tobacco dependence. ethnicity. 3. knowledge. Multiple operational variables were listed under the three main categories.model is that health behavior is determined by personal beliefs and perceptions about a disease and the strategies available to decrease its occurrence (Hochbaum. In reference to this study. Operational definitions are derived to manipulate or to measure the existence or degree of existence of the dependant variable (Burns & Grove. Variables The author identifies demographic variables in the study being gender. The aims were logically linked to the purpose statement. 1958). They are directly linked to the framework based on the health belief model four main constructs: perceived threat. 2008). type of college. location of college. 2009). The study does not provide conceptual defintions. perceived barriers and benefits and self-efficacy (Lenz. . the author used an appropriate model for the framework to generate and refine the research problem and purpose and link it to knowledge in nursing. age. nurses knowledge of tobacco treatment. The second aim (objective) was to identify the perceived barriers that may limit their ability to intervene with their patients. Objectives.

Setting The target population is clearly defined. According to Burns & Grove. The inclusions are described as Minnesota BSN program students in their senior year spring semester 2007 including seven private and four public institions. 2008). and during the past 30 days how many days did you use. 675 (87%) senior nursing students were recruited with 102 (13%) choosing not to take part or absent (mortality). and make judegements. The exlusion was also stated.In this study three dependant variables are clearly identified. Design The research design is clearly addressed in the abstract of the study stating it is a quantitative descriptive study. A pilot test was mentioned but not talked about. (Lenz. “excluded from the sample were BSN programs…” (Lenz. Responses to these two items became the dependant variables. A total of 657 students actually took part in the study. 2008) The author does state that two questions were asked and responsesto the questions . There were no threats mentioned by the author in regards to design validity. “Two items asked about smoking: do you consider yourself a smoker. occasional smokers and smokers. The method used to obtain the sample was recruitment via email and follow-up phone call.” The first dependant variable was individuals who smoke and smoked within the past 30 days. From the 10 participating institutions. however a correlational descriptive design may have been better in order to compare the knowledge and beliefs between the nonsmokers. identify problems. Sample. 2009 descriptive characteristics are to gain more knowledge. The second dependant variable is identified as occasional smokers and the third variable being non-smokers. Population. The design was therefore appropriate for this study.

The setting avoided internal validity. Items too were measured using a 5-point Likert scale. Tobacco use history was measured using an Attitudes Towards Smoking Scale. A big enough sample size was used to avoid type II error with a significant difference between the groups being smokers. Even so. The National College Health Risk Behavior Survey was used to measure tobacco-use history. Lastly a 4-point Likert scale (ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree) was used to ask about the nurse’s role in tobacco cessation (Lenz. From the two questions the author explains the respones and how the groups were divided based on fact and therefor little bias. The IRB approval was obtained from the principal investigator’s institution and additional approval when required. Measurements and Instruments The measurement strategies are described individually by the author. Items were measured using a 5-point Likert scale to measure positive and negative beliefs. The knowledge of tobacco treatment was measured using a seven item tool developed and implemented by Freid et al. to administer a paper survery in a classroom. Selfefficacy and application of cessation interventions was measured using the Modified 5A’s Training Program Survey and measured using the Likert Scale. being in one location and having the survey be the primary focus. Informed consent was received from participants and site visits were made to each instituion (being the setting). It is not clearly stated whether the rights of human subjects were protected and HIPAA regualtions followed. . The author does state that content was validated by a panel of experts prior to pilot testing and administering the tool.divided participants into three groups. 2008). occasional smokers and non smokers. the author does not address internal validity threats and how to reduce possible threat.

2008). occasional smokers and nonsmokers were displayed in each category for each variable. According to Burns and Grove. Games-Howell test was completed where . There was only one psychmetric measurement tool used. attitudes. The author does not state a time frame in regards to the collection process. The questions (variables) asked under “Beliefs About Tobacco”. 2009 ANOVA is the statisical technique used to examine differences between two or more groups by comparing the variability.Questionnaires The survey consisted of a 46-item questionnaire on knowledge about tobacco treatment. The table also displays the ANOVA variable and the post-hoc analysis. self-efficacy and behavioral application of cessation interventions and demographic items. tobacco-use history. Data Collection The data collection process was conducted in a consistent way. Three way ANOVAs were completed on responses to tobacco related knowledge. “Knowledge About Tobacco” and “Self-Efficacy Tobacco” address the objectives stated in the beginning of the study. The author states measurement validity could be a limitation as only eight of the 18 items were used from the ATS-18 validated instrument. beliefs about smoking. beliefs and self-efficacy variables. The ANOVAs between and within subgroups were followed by pot-hoc test using the Levine’s test to determine the appropriate test. Data Analysis Statistical analysis was completed with SPSS (Lenz. which does not allow for validation of responses. They are displayed in tables within the research study. The mean scores and standard deviations among the smokers.

Also in regard to the health belief model. (Lenz. Therefore no comparison can be made between the expected and actual findings. The findings were generalized in tables which depicts the mean and standard deviation of the variables for the smokers. Regarding the health belief model which identifies knowledge about a disease. one’s belief . Limitations were addressed in the end of the study.equal variances could not be justified and the Tukey honestly significant differences when variances were assumed to be equal when indicated. In addition the study demonstrates that smoking behavior affected students beliefs about smoking and their view about the professional role in helping smokers quit. Interpretation and Findings The researchers interpretation of findings is that there is a need for future research regarding effective methods for teaching students about tobacco cessation. 2008).05. the study found regardless of their own smoking behavior. nonsmokers and occasional smokers. students reported similar knowledge preparation. including the potential for respondant bias. In regards to smoking beliefs there was significant difference between the smokers and nonsmokers beliefs. The author did not state expected findings prior to conducting the research study. Results were considered statistically significant when p<0. nonsmokers demonstrated consistent viewpoints between their professional role and personal beliefs about smoking whereas the smokers beliefs supported their personal smoking behaviors. The findings have implications for undergraduate nursing education. However it is stated that more research regarding students’ smoking beliefs is needed for comparison of results. “Teaching strategies cannot be based solely on impairing knowledge or information.

. when the focus should have been on nurses currently practicing. 2008). Conclusion The overall quality of this study is poor. helping to recognize obstacles and develop interventions. The study mainly identifies possible barriers nursing students might face when the opportunity to intervene in tobacco cessation is needed with a patient. This article focused on nursing students. Parts of the research done in this study may be used in order to develop a stronger study regarding tobacco cessation and interventions needed to assist patients in quitting.system or attitude needs to be addressed…Professional and state board of nursing need to develop minimal competencies and standards”(Lenz. The study does not generate a lot of new knowledge nor does it provide theories or change for existing knowledge.

Lenz. The practice of nursing research: Conduct. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. (5th Ed. N.). critique and utilization. 572).M. (2009). Knowledge. Beliefs. 35(6S) S494-S500 . Public Participation in Medical Screening Programs:A SocioPsychological Study (Public Health Service Publication No. Washington. DC: Government Printing Office. Hochbaum. S. St. G. & Grove. (2008).References Burns. and Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students Regarding Tobacco Cessation. Louis: Elsevier Saunders. (1958). B.

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