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Metodo di Rayleigh

1. Corda tesa
O restart: with(plots): interface(displayprecision=3):
energia potenziale
O V := (y,x) -> T/2*int(diff(y(x),x)^2, x=0..L);
L
1 d 2
V := y, x /
2
T
dx
yx dx (1.1)
0

energia cinetica
O T := (y,x) -> omega^2/2*mu*int(y(x)^2, x=0..L);
L
1 2
T := y, x / ω μ yx 2 dx (1.2)
2 0

sinusoide (soluzione esatta)


O y := x -> sin(Pi*x/L); plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
πx
y := x/sin
L

1.0
0.6
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
1 T π2 1 2
= ω μL
4 L 4

3.142 μ T
ω= (1.1.1)
μL

parabola
O y := x -> 4*x/L*(1-x/L); plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
x
4x 1K
L
y := x/
L

1.0
0.6

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
8 T 4
= ω2 μ L
3 L 15

3.162 μ T
ω= (1.2.1)
μL

spezzata
O y := x -> piecewise(x/L<1/2, 2*x/L, 2*(1-x/L)); plot(y(L*x),x=0..1);
x 1 2x 2x
y := x/piecewise ! , , 2K
L 2 L L

0.9
0.6
0.3
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
2T 1 2
= ω μL
L 6

3.464 μ T
ω= (1.3.1)
μL

spezzata con massa aggiunta in mezzeria


O y := x -> piecewise(x/L<1/2, 2*x/L, 2*(1-x/L)); plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
x 1 2x 2x
y := x/piecewise ! , , 2K
L 2 L L

0.9
0.6
0.3
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x) + 1/2*omega^2*M; evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
2T 1 2 1
= ω μ L C ω2 M
L 6 2

3.464 L μ L C 3.000 M T
ω= (1.4.1)
L μ L C 3.000 M
2. Trave
O restart: with(plots): interface(displayprecision=3):
energia potenziale
O V := (y,x) -> 1/2*EJ*int(diff(y(x),x,x)^2, x=0..L);
L
1 d2 2
V := y, x / EJ yx dx (2.1)
2 dx2
0

energia cinetica
O T := (y,x) -> omega^2/2*mu*int(y(x)^2, x=0..L);
L
1 2
T := y, x / ω μ yx 2 dx (2.2)
2 0

appoggio-appoggio soluzione esatta (sinusoide)


O y := x -> sin(Pi*x/L); plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
πx
y := x/sin
L

1.0
0.6
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
1 EJ π4 1 2
= ω μL
4 L3 4

9.870 μ EJ
ω= (2.1.1)
μ L2

appoggio-appoggio: parabola
O y := x -> 4*x/L*(1-x/L); plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
x
4x 1K
L
y := x/
L

1.0
0.6
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
32 EJ 4
= ω2 μ L
L3 15

10.954 μ EJ
ω= (2.2.1)
μ L2
incastro-incastro: esatto
O y := x ->
O -.6186471852*sinh(4.730040745*x/L)+.6296649269*cosh(4.730040745*x/L)
+.6186471852*sin(4.730040745*x/L)-.6296649269*cos(4.730040745*x/L);
O plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
4.730 x 4.730 x 4.730 x 4.730 x
y := x/K0.619 sinh C 0.630 cosh C 0.619 sin K 0.630 cos
L L L L

1.0
0.6
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
99.231 EJ
= 0.198 ω2 μ L
L3

22.373 μ EJ
ω= (2.3.1)
μ L2

incastro-incastro: coseno
O y := x -> 1/2-cos(2*Pi*x/L)/2; plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
1 1 2 πx
y := x/ K cos
2 2 L

1.0
0.6

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
EJ π4 3
= ω2 μ L
L3 16

22.793 μ EJ
ω= (2.4.1)
μ L2

incastro-libero: esatto
O y := x -> .3670*sinh(1.8751*x/L)-.5*cosh(1.8751*x/L)-.3670*sin(1.8751*
x/L)+.5*cos(1.8751*x/L);
O plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
1.875 x 1.875 x 1.875 x 1.875 x
y := x/0.367 sinh K 0.500 cosh K 0.367 sin C 0.500 cos
L L L L
0
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
K1.0
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
1.546 EJ
= 0.125 ω2 μ L
L3

3.516 μ EJ
ω= (2.5.1)
μ L2

incastro-libero: parabola
O y := x -> (x/L)^2; plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
x2
y := x/
L2

1.0

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
2 EJ 1
= ω2 μ L
L3 10

4.472 μ EJ
ω= (2.6.1)
μ L2

incastro-libero: coseno
O y := x -> 1-cos(Pi/2*x/L); plot(y(x*L),x=0..1);
1 πx
y := x/1 K cos
2 L

1.0
0.6

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
x
O V(y,x) = T(y,x); evalf(solve({%},omega)[1]);
1 EJ π4 1 ω2 μ L 3 π K 8
=
64 L3 4 π

3.664 μ EJ
ω= (2.7.1)
μ L2