AUTOMATIC BOTTLE FILLING WATER SYSTEM USING PLC WITH CONVEYOR MODEL
A thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering (Electronics & Instrumentation)
Faculty of Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering Aarupadai Veedu Institute of Technology (Vinayaka Mission University)
“I hereby declared that this thesis titled ‘Automatic Bottle Filling Water System Using PLC’ is the result of my own effort except as clearly stated in references the source of reference”
Signature :- …………………………………… Name of Author :- ………………………………...... Date :- ……………………………….....
To my beloved father, mother, brother and sister
First of all, I would like to thank Lord KRISHNA for HIS firm hands in guiding me in the course of completing this thesis writing. It is by HIS grace and mercy that I am able to obtain the research on planning project within such as limited time. Second, I would like to express my gratitude and thanks to my Faculty Assistants, Mrs. M.CHITRA & L.Chitra, for his professional guidance, wisdom, endurance, advices motivation and encouragement during his supervision period. Thank you so much for the insights and encouragement she has given to me. Without his patience and valuable assistance, the project and thesis would not have been the same as presented here. Besides that, I would like to convey my thanks to my beloved parents, Mr. Umesh Prasad Singh and Mrs. Poonam Singh for the advice and give all support to me in developing this project. My fellow friends should also be recognized for their support at various conditions. Their views and tips are useful indeed. Unfortunately, it is not possible to list all of them in this limited space. And last but not least, I am grateful to all my family members.
Nowadays, the application of PLC is widely known and use in this digital world PLC’s application is obviously applied at the industrial sector. Normally, the PLC’s that have been used at the industrial field is usually to control a mechanical movement either of the machine or heavy machine in order to create an efficient production and accurate signal processing. In this project, a discussion about PLC application will be explained in more details and specified. Whereby, a machine that used to prepare automatic filling water into the bottle is fully controlled by the PLC CPM2A, which acts as the heart of the system. The system sequence of operation is designed by ladder diagram and the programming of this project by using CX-Programmer software. Sensor usually plays its vital part as an input signal transmitter for the PLC in this system. During this project sensor has been used to detect the bottle position that move along the conveyor belt at the low speed while the machine operates. The input signal that has been sent from the sensor to the PLC has being made as a reference. Signal in order to determine the output signal that exactly a same with the PLC programming language based on the user requirement. Beside that, the electronics and electric devices that usually been controlled by the PLC are like a motor, pump, sensor, conveyor belt, buzzer and the others devices.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER TITLE PAGE TITLE PAGE i DECLARATION ii DEDICATION iii ACKOWLEDGEMENT iv ABSTRACT v TABLE OF CONTENTS vi LIST OF TABLES ix LIST OF FIGURES x LIST OF APPENDIXS xii 1 1 BACKGROUND OF PROJECT
1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Open-Loop Systems 2 1.1.2 Close-Loop Systems 3 1.2 Problem Statement 5 1.3 Project Objective 6 1.4 Scope of Project 6 1.5 Implementation of Project 7 1.6 Thesis Outline 8
2 10 2.1 10 2.2 12 2.3 13 2.3.1 14 2.3.2 15 2.4 17 2.5 18 2.6 19
LITERATURE REVIEW History of PLC What is PLC? Ladder Logic Ladder Logic Input Ladder Logic Output Programming Operation of PLC Time Response
3 METHODOLOGY 22 3.1 22 3.2 24 3.3 25 3.1.1 25 3.1.2 26 3.1.3 27 Vii CHAPTER TITLE 4 29 4.1 29 4.2 32 4.3 33 4.3 35 ELECTRIC DESIGN DC Input AC Input Relay Output Transistor Output PAGE Methodology Overview How Does the System Work Hardware Design Conveyor System Motor Infrared Sensor
5 PROGRAMMING DEVELOPMENT 37 5.1 A Systematic Approach of Control System Design 37 5.2 State Diagram 40 5.3 Assignment of Inputs and Outputs 41 5.4 Ladder Diagram 42 6 44 6.1 44 6.2 46 6.3 47 FINAL RESULT The Prototype The Wiring System The Hardware Design
7 49 7.1 49 7.2 50
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Conclusion Future Recommendation
REFERENCES 51 APPENDIX 53
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO. PAGE 5.1 41 5.2 41
Assignment of Inputs. Assignment of Outputs.
ix LIST OF FIGURES FIG. No. PAGES 1.1 2 1.2 3 1.3 7 2.1 12 2.2 14 2.3 15 2.4 16 2.5 17 3.1 23 3.2 24 3.3 25 3.4 27 4.1 29 4.2 30 4.3 31 4.4 32 4.5 33 4.6 33 4.7 34 4.8 35 TITLE
Block diagrams of open-loop system Block diagrams of closed-loop system Project Flow Chart Typical of PLC A Simple Relay Controller Ladder Logic Inputs Ladder Logic Outputs A Simple Ladder Logic Diagram Design of Project Conveyor Design DC Motor Basic IR receive/transmit Output for NPN and PNP sensor Internal DC input circuit diagram Wiring of AC input Internal input circuit diagram Wiring of Relay Output Internal Relay Output Diagram Wiring of Transistor for NPN Type Internal Output Circuit Diagram for NPN Type Output
5.1 38 5.2 39 5.3 40 5.4 42 6.1 44 6.2 44 6.3 44 6.4 45 6.5 45 6.6 46 6.7 46 6.8 46 6.9 47
A Systematic Approach to Programmable Control Design Flow Chart State Diagram of the Operation. Block Diagram of Plant Ladder Diagram The system from side view The system from top view The system from front view The PLC electrical wiring system The external power supply The conveyor system The buzzer circuit The IR sensor circuit The process of the filling water
X LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX PAGE A 53 B 68
TITLE Data Sheet of CPM2A Circuit of IR Emitter and Detector
Data Sheet of LM324
BACKGROUND OF PROJECT
Control engineering has evolved overtime. In the past, humans were the main method for controlling a system. More recently, electricity has been used for control and early electrical control was based on relays. These relays allow power to be switched on and off without a mechanical switch. It is common to use relay to make simple logical control decisions. The development of low cost computer has brought the most recent revolution, the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The advent of the PLC began in the 1970s, and has become the most common choice for manufacturing controls. .
PLC has been gaining popularity on the factory floor and will probably remain predominant for some time to come. Most of this because of the advantages:Cost effective for controlling complex systems Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control Trouble shooting aids make programminng easier and reduce downtime. Reliaable componnents make these likely to operate for years before failure.
Control systems are an integral part of modern society.It consists of subsystems and processes assembled for the purpose of controlling the outputs of the processes.There are many numerous applications that using control system around us. A control system provides an output or response for a given input or stimulus.The reason that control system was built isfor power amplification, remote control, convenience of input form; and compensation for disturbances. Today control systems find widespread application in the guidance, navigation, and control of missiles and spacecrafts, as well as planes and ship at sea. The applications also throughout the process control industry, regulating liquid level tanks, chemical concentrations in vats, as well as thickness of fabricated material.
2.2 What is a PLC? A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC is a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result.
A PLC (i.e. Programmable Logic Controller) is a device that was invented to replace the necessary sequential relay circuits for machine control. The PLC works by looking at its inputs and depending upon their state, turning on/off its outputs. The user enters a program, usually via software, that gives the desired results. PLC are used in many “real world” applications. If there is industry present, chances are good that there is a plc present. Almost any application that needs some type of electrical control has a need for a PLC.  2.3 Ladder Logic Ladder logic is the main programming method used for PLC. As mention before, ladder logic has been developed to mimic relay logic. The decision to use the relay logic diagrams was strategic one. By selecting ladder logic as the main programming method, the amount of retraining needed for engineers and trades people was greatly reduce.  Modern control systems still include relay, but these are rarely used for logic. A relay is a simple device that uses a magnetic field to control a switch. Relay are used to let one power source close a switch for another power source, while keeping isolated. An example of a relay in a simple control application is shown in Figure2.2. In this system the first relay on the left is used as normally closed, and will allow current to flow until a voltage is applied to the input A. The second relay is normally open and will not allow current to flow until the voltage is applied to the input B. If current is flowing through the first two relay then current will flow though the coil in the third relay, and closed the switch for output C. This circuit would normally be drawn in the ladder logic form. This can be read logically as C will be on if A is off and B is on. 
2.3.1 Ladder Logic Inputs PLC inputs are easily represented in ladder logic. In Figure 2.3 there are three types of inputs shown. The first two are normally open and normally closed inputs, discussed previously. The IIT (Immediate Input) function allows inputs to be read after the input scan, while the ladder logic is being scanned. This allows ladder logic to examine input values more often than once every cycle. (Note: This instruction is not available on the Control Logic processors, but is still available on older models.) 
2.3.2 Ladder Logic Outputs In ladder logic there are multiple types of outputs, but these are not consistently available on all PLC. Some of the outputs will be externally connected to devices outside the PLC, but it is also possible to use internal memory locations in the PLC. Six types of outputs are shown in Figure 2.4. The first is a normal output, when energized the output will turn on, and energize an output. The circle with a diagonal line through is a normally on output. When energized the output will turn off, this type of output is not available on all PLC types. When initially energized the OSR (One Shot Relay) instruction will turn on for one scan, but then be off for all scans after, until it is turned off. The L (latch) and U (unlatch) instructions can be used to lock outputs on. When an L output is energized the output will turn on indefinitely, even when the output coil is reenergized. The output can only be turned off using a U output. The last instruction is the IOT (Immediate Output) that will allow outputs to be updated without having to wait for the ladder logic scan to be completed. 
Figure 2.4 Ladder Logic Diagram
2.4 Programming Programming software CX-Programmer has been utilized in this project. CXProgrammer is a PLC programming tool for the creation, testing and maintenance of programs associated with OMRON’s CPM2A series. It provides facilities for the support of PLC devices and address information and for communications with OMRON PLCs and their supported network types. An example of ladder logic can be seen in Figure 2.5. To interpret this diagram imagines that the power is on the vertical line on the left hand side, we call this the hot rail. On the right hand side is the neutral rail. In the figure there are two rungs, and on each rung there are combinations of inputs (two vertical lines) and outputs (circles). If the inputs are opened or closed in the right combination the power can flow from the hot rail, through the inputs, to power the outputs, and finally to the neutral rail. An input can come from a sensor, switch, or any other type of sensor. An output will be some device outside the PLC that is
switched on or off, such as lights or motors. In the top rung the contacts are normally open and normally closed. This means if input A is on and input B is off, then power will flow through the output and activate it. Any other combination of input values will result in the output X being off. 
Figure 2.5: A Simple Ladder Logic Diagram
2.5 Operation of PLC A PLC works by continually scanning a program. We can think of this scan cycle as consisting of 3 important steps. There are typically more than 3 but we can focus on the important parts and not worry about the others. Typically the others are checking the system and updating the current internal counter and timer values. 
Step 1-CHECK INPUT STATUS-First the PLC takes a look at each input to determine if it is on or off. In other words, is the sensor connected to the first input on? How about the second input? How about the third... It records this data into its memory to be used during the next step. Step 2-EXECUTE PROGRAM-Next the PLC executes your program one instruction at a time. Maybe your program said that if the first input was on then it should turn on the first output. Since it already knows which inputs are on/off from the previous step it will be able to decide whether the first output should be turned on based on the state of the first input. It will store the execution results for use later during the next step. Step 3-UPDATE OUTPUT STATUS-Finally the PLC updates the status of the outputs. It updates the outputs based on which inputs were on during the first step and the results of executing your program during the second step. Based on the example in step 2 it would now turn on the first output because the first input was on and your program said to turn on the first output when this condition is true. After the third step the PLC goes back to step one and repeats the steps continuously. One scan time is defined as the time it takes to execute the 3 steps listed above. 2.6 Time Response The PLC can only see an input turn on/off when it’s looking. In other words, it only looks at its inputs during the check input status part of the scan.
In the diagram, input 1 is not seen until scan 2. This is because when input 1 turned on, scan 1 had already finished looking at the inputs. Input 2 is not seen until scan 3. This is also because when the input turned on scan 2 had already finished looking at the inputs. Input 3 is never seen. This is because when scan 3 was looking at the inputs, signal 3 was not on yet. It turns off before scan 4 looks at the inputs. Therefore signal 3 is never seen by the plc. Now let’s consider the longest time for an output to actually turn on. Let’s assume that when a switch turns on we need to turn on a load connected to the plc output.
The diagram below shows the longest delay (worst case because the input is not seen until scan 2) for the output to turn on after the input has turned on. The maximum delay is thus 2 scan cycles – 1 input delay time.
Pulse stretch function. This function extends the length ofthe input signal until the plc looks at the inputs during the nextscan.( i.e. it stretches the duration of the pulse.)
Interrupt function. This function interrupts the scan toprocess a special routine that you have written. i.e. As soon as the input turns on, regardless of where the scan currently is,the plc immediately stops what its doing and executes aninterrupt routine. (A routine can be thought of as a miniprogram outside of the main program.) After its done executing the interrupt routine, it goes back to the point it leftoff at and continues on with the normal scan process.
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY This chapter will mainly discuss about the methodology of the project and also the aspect or factors that must be taken into consideration during the development process. All this factors were
very important to make sure the project will achieve it objective. Moreover, this chapter will also discuss about the designation stage on this project including electronic design, hardware design and material selection. 3.1 Project Overview In this section, it will discuss an overall overview of Automatically Filling Water System Using PLC project. The introduction to system task will also briefly explain in this chapter. Finally, the entire decision making will be addressed in this section. Basically, software and hardware design will be used in order to implement this project. In addition, there some methods must be executed to keep this project implemented successfully.
3.2 How Does the System Work?
Figure 3.1: Design of Project Through this project, the bottle will move on the conveyor belt. The conveyor will be stopped automatically after the infrared sensor detected the presence of the bottle. The controller will switch on the pumps when the conveyor stops to move. The water pump will start to fill into the bottle. The filling process will be stopped automatically by using the timer and will be turn on and buzzer will sound for five seconds subsequently. This system will repeat the process continuously. 3.3 Hardware Design In the hardware design part, overall component such as conveyor system, motor, infrared sensor, pump and buzzer circuit will be integrated to form the complete prototype. The hardware components are the backbone of the system. More detailed information of each section will be discussed in the following sections.
3.3.1 Conveyor System
Figure 3.2: Conveyor Design The dimension of the prototype is approximately 19 inch of length and three inch of width. This prototype consist of motor, trek, gear and other electronic circuit. It presents a continually moving surface that is designed to move objects from one location to another. Conveyor belt is a long loop of rubber or plastic (usually combined with steel for strength, just like tire treads), that is wrapped around a set of motorized rollers. A simple conveyor belt will be stretched between two rollers, one driven roll which powers it and one idle roll which is free to spin as the belt moves. 3.3.2 Motor Motor is a small electronic device that can move if the power supply connect. It is a main part to make the conveyor belt moves perfectly. There are many type of DC Motor at market such as gear DC motor, motor servo and stepper motor but in this project DC motor will be used because it can spin 360° continuously. Moreover, it is strong enough to move the trek.
Figure 3.3: DC Motor
Figure 3.3 above shows the sample of the DC motor. DC motor or direct current motor is the most common motor. There are many types of DC motor likes 5-pole motor, servomotor, brushless motor, coreless motor, fix magnet motor and many more. DC motor takes direct current voltages as input and converts it into a rotational movement. DC motor basically have two wires, and can directly powered from a battery or other DC power supply. DC motor also can be power from the driver circuit that can regulate the speed and direction of the motor. The usual voltages of the DC motor use are 6V and 12V. The current rating depends on the make of the conveyor build for and it is usually between IA and 3A. Varying the voltage input to the motor will varies the speed of motor accordingly. DC motor has ability to turn at high revolution per minutes (RPM) but has low torque. The most significant limitation of the DC motor is the low output torque. The speed can be reduced and the torque increase by adding gear rain to the output shaft. For the purpose of conveyor belt building, DC motor is the cheapest compare to stepper motor or servo motor. 3.3.3 Infrared Sensor This sensor provides the system with ability to detect the presence of object position. The theory is the IR emitter emits infrared light. If an object presence the signal will be reflected back to the receiver. Then, the IR detector implemented will detect the reflected light. Then, the correspondence signal sends to the PLC for being analyze.  Based on the measurement of the intensity of the reflected light from the target area such a bottle, it has a light source sending light to the moving target and a light sensor receiving the light. The output signal from the sensor decreases exponentially with the increase of the distance to the measured object. Infrared light-emitting diodes (LED's) and photosensitive diodes are used in this transducer. The sensor output is inversely proportional to the amount of occupation. A multilink array of light sensitive elements and a light-beam scanning technique determines and qualifies the shape of the measured object by processing data from the elements.
Figure 3.4 shows the electro optical displacement transducers, a = transducer with moving target, b = dimension sensor; f = displacement, 1 = moving target with light reflector, 2 = light source, 3 = light sensor, 4 = object to be gage.
CHAPTER 4 ELECTRICAL DESIGN Electrical design of the Automatic Filling Water System involves the electrical components used, and the installation of the electrical components on the system. Before all connection was established all the input and output devices to PLC, the concept on how the input and outputs circuits of PLC must be understood. The wiring of the DC input, AC input, relay output, and the transistor output is discussed. 4.1 DC Input Typically, dc input modules are available that will work with 5, 12, 24, and 48V. the connections of the DC input modules is either PNP( sourcing) or NPN( sinking) transistor types devices. For a regular switch (i.e. toggle or pushbutton, etc), typically no need to worry about whether wire it as NPN or PNP. Most PLCs not allow mix NPN and PNP devices on the same modules. The difference between the two types is whether the load switched to ground or positive voltages. An NPN type’s sensor has the load switches to ground whereas a PNP device has the load switches to positive voltage. Figure 4.1 is shown the output for NPN and PNP sensor.
Figure 4.1: Output for NPN and PNP sensor On the NPN sensor, one output is connected to the PLC input and the other output to the power supply ground. If the sensor is not powered from the same supply as the PLC, both grounds should be connected together. On the PNP sensor, connect one output to positive voltages and the other output to the PLC input. If the sensor is not powered from the same supply as the PLC, both V+’s should be connected together. The common terminal either gets connected to V+ or ground where it’s connected depends upon the type of sensor used. When using NPN sensor this terminal is connected to V+, when using a PNP sensor this terminal is connected to 0V(ground). A common switch (i.e. limit switch, pushbutton, toggle etc) would be connected to the input in similar way. One side of the switch would be connected directly to V+. The other end goes to the PLC input terminal. This assumes the common terminal is connected to 0V (ground). If the common is connected to V+ the simply connect one end of the switch to 0V (ground) and the other end to the PLC input terminal. The photo couplers are used to isolate the PLCs internal circuit from the inputs as shown in Figure 4.2. This eliminates the chance of any electrical noise
entering the internal circuitry. They work by converting the electrical input signal to light and then by converting the light back to an electrical signal to be processed by the internal circuit.
Figure 4.2: Internal DC input circuit diagram 4.2 AC Input An ac voltage is non-polarized, means that there is no positive and negative polarity. Typically, ac input modules are available that will work with 24, 48, 110, and 220V an ac device is connected to input PLC as shown in Figure 4.3
Figure 4.3: Wiring of AC input Commonly the ac “hot” wire is connected to the switch while the “neutral” goes to the PLC common. The ac ground (3rd wire) should be connected to the frame ground terminal of the PLC. AC connection is typically color code. In US is commonly white (neutral), black (hot), and green (3rd wire ground when applicable). Outside the US its commonly coded as brown (hot), blue (neutral), and green with yellow stripe (3rd wire ground when applicable). A common switch (i.e. limit switch, pushbutton, toggle, etc) would be connected to the input terminals directly as shown in Figure 4.4. One side of the switch would be connected directly to PLC input. The other end goes to the ac hot wire. This assumes the common terminal is connected to neutral.
Figure 4.4: Internal input circuit diagram 4.3 Relay Output One of the most common types of outputs available is the relay outputs. A relay can be used with both AC and DC loads. Some forms of a load are a solenoid, buzzer, motor, etc. Always check the specifications of the load before connecting it to the PLC output and make sure that the maximum current it will consume is within the specifications of the PLC outputs. Some types of loads are very deceiving. These deceiving loads are called inductive loads. These have a tendency to deliver a “back current” when they turn on. This back current is like a voltage spike coming through the system. Typically a diode, resistor, or other snubbed circuit should be used to prevent any damage to the relay.
Figure 4.5: Wiring of Relay Output Figure 4.5 is a typical method of connecting the outputs to the PLC relays. AC supply or DC supply can be used as well connected to the output. A relay is nonpolarized and typically it can switch either AC or DC. Here the common is connected to one end of the AC power supply or DC power supply and the other end of the supply is connected to the load. The other half of the load gets connected to the actual PLC outputs.
The relay is internal to the PLC. Its circuit diagram is shown in Figure 4.6. When ladder diagram tells the outputs to turn on, the PLC will internally apply a voltage to the relay coil. This voltage will allow the proper contact to close. When the contact close, and external current is allowed to flow through our external circuit. When the ladder diagram tell the PLC to turn off the output, it will simply remove the voltage from the internal circuit thereby enabling the output contact to release the load will than have an open circuit and will therefore be off. 4.4 Transistor Output The next type of outputs is transistor type outputs. Typically a PLC will have either NPN or PNP type outputs. It is important to note that a transistor can only switch a dc current. For this reason it cannot be used with an ac voltage. A transistor is a solid-state switch or an electrical switch. A small current applied to the transistor base (i.e. input) and switch a much larger current through its outputs. The PLC applies a small current to the transistor base and the transistor output “close”. When it’s closed, the devices connected to the PLC output will be turn on.
Figure 4.7: Wiring of Transistor for NPN Type Figure 4.7 shows how to connect the output devices to the transistor output for NPN type transistor. If it were a PNP type, the common terminal is connected to V+ and V- would connect to one end of the load.
Figure 4.8: Internal Output Circuit Diagram for NPN Type Output There is a photo coupler isolating the “real world” from the internal circuit as shown in Figure 4.8. When the ladder diagram call for it, the internal circuit turn on the photo coupler by applying a small voltage to the LED side of the photo coupler. This make the LED emit light and the receiving part of the photo coupler will see it and allow current to flow. This small current will turn on the base of the outputs transistor connection to output 0500. Therefore, whatever is connected between COM and 0500 will turn on. When the ladder tell 0500 to turn off, the LED will stop emitting light and hence the output transistor connected between 0500 and COM will turn off.
CHAPTER 5 PROGRAMMING DEVELOPMENT A systematic approach of control system design using programming logic controller is presented in this chapter. As a rule, the layout of the entire of Automatic Filling Water System using PLC is designed before implementing programming development process. The machine sequences of operation will be discussed. Next, the assignment of input and outputs are shown in tables. Finally, the ladder diagram design using CX-Programmer are shown. 5.1 A Systematic Approach of Control System Design. In general, a control system is a collection of electronic devices and equipment which are in place to ensure the stability, accuracy and smooth transition of a process or a manufacturing activity. Every single component in a control system plays an important role regardless of size. Before programming, the concept of controlling a control system is introduce, which is the systematic approach of control system design using a PLC. The operation procedure of the system approach is shown in Figure 5.1
Figure 5.1: A Systematic Approach to Programmable Control Design Flow Chart
5.2 State Diagram The general state diagram of the sequences of operation is shown in Figure 5.2 below.
Figure 5.2: State Diagram of the Operation 5.3 Assignment of Inputs and Outputs After the system sequence of operation is determine, all external input and output devices connected to the PLC must be determined and assigned the number corresponding to the input and output number. Table 5.1 and 5.2 shows the assignment of inputs and outputs.
Table 5.1: Assignment of Inputs.
Table 5.2: Assignment of Outputs.
Figure 5.3: Block Diagram of Plant 5.4 Ladder Diagram A ladder diagram is produced according to the state diagram of the system and based on the system operation and condition. Figure 5.3 shows the ladder diagram of the system. The system in the ladder diagram form will be programmed into PLC. Once the programs have been downloaded into PLC, it can be monitored in the Diagram Workspace during execution. Furthermore, the CX-programmer provides on-line editing functions during execution. Note that the on-line editing is not possible in Run mode. All activities occurs can be observed using the CX-programmer.
Figure 5.4: Ladder Diagram
FINAL RESULT As mentioned in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, all the system of the desired project was implemented and the results of the systems illustrated in this Chapter 6. During the operation, all activities that occur can be observed by computer using CX-Programmer. The system needs to debug along the way and fine tune if necessary. Test run the system thoroughly until if is safe to be operated. 6.1 The Prototype The prototype was mainly built by combining the mechanical design and the electrical designs. The system require three external DC power supply for input output devices, two AC power supply for supplying pump and PLC, and one 9V battery for buzzer. The pictures below show that the prototype of system from different view:-
6.2 The Wiring System
Before running the system, thoroughly ensure that the input and wiring are correctly connected according to the I/O assignment to avoid any unwanted accidents. Once confirmed, the operation of the Automatic Filling Water System using PLC can be started.
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION An Automatic Filling Water System using PLC has been successfully constructed and designed by applying all the concept of control system at this project. The system that is produced can be modified to be better if some of the electrical devices and system are upgraded and improved. 7.1 Conclusion The theory and concept of the automatic filling water system is based on the control system. In electrical design, the features and functions of the electrical components are required to determine the system requirement. Furthermore, the theoretical of the wiring system is required for connecting the inputs and outputs devices to PLC. In programming design, understandings of the desired control system and how to use the Ladder Diagram to translate the machine sequence of operation are the most important parts, because it have direct effect on the system performance. The main aim in this process is to apply PLC to design automatic filling water system and all objectives in this project were successfully done as planned. Finally, the basis control system and logic design apply in this project can be used as a references to design other applications of automation system, and also can be used as a teaching material for the Industrial Control subject. 7.2 FUTURE RECOMMENDATION Actually, a lot of weakness from the project can be taken as future works so that the improved system will be better in terms of performance. So that, there are several recommendations or suggestions that we can take to increase performance in this project. The performance of Automatic Filling Water System can be increased based on two recommendations which are; The system that is proposed now is using only one sensor that is IR sensor to detect position of bottle. It will be better if we add more sensors in this system like a flow sensor to detect water flow or use level sensor to detect water level. Thus, the system will be more sensitive as there will be more sensing points Besides using PLC as controller, the other controller can be used in this future work is like Microcontroller. However, many factors must be considered like cost, practically and others.
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