FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL-Abridged

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as NOT permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army# b$t by %e t"e &iti'enry %" paid ! r it

(a)e 1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL ............................................................1 +A,L- .F /.N+-N+S......................................................................................................................... 2 /0A(+-R 1 - IN+R.DU/+I.N.......................................................................................................... 11 SURVIVAL A/+I.NS...................................................................................................................... 11 S -Si'e Up t"e Sit$ati n................................................................................................................ 11 U -Use A11 Y $r Senses# Und$e 0aste Ma2es 3aste...................................................................11 R -Remember 3"ere Y $ Are......................................................................................................12 V -Van4$is" Fear and (ani&......................................................................................................... 12 I -Impr 5ise................................................................................................................................... 12 V -Va1$e Li5in).............................................................................................................................. 12 A -A&t Li2e t"e Nati5es.................................................................................................................. 12 L -Li5e by Y $r 3its# ,$t ! r N %# Learn ,asi& S2i11s....................................................................1* (A++-RN F.R SURVIVAL............................................................................................................. 1* /0A(+-R 2 - (SY/0.L.6Y .F SURVIVAL....................................................................................17 A L..8 A+ S+R-SS....................................................................................................................... 17 Need ! r Stress............................................................................................................................. 17 S$r5i5a1 Stress rs......................................................................................................................... 19 NA+URAL R-A/+I.NS.................................................................................................................. 16 An)er and Fr$strati n................................................................................................................... 17 Depressi n.................................................................................................................................... 17 L ne1iness and , red m............................................................................................................... 17 6$i1t............................................................................................................................................... 1: (R-(ARIN6 Y.URS-LF................................................................................................................ 1: 8n % Y $rse1!............................................................................................................................... 1: Anti&ipate Fears............................................................................................................................ 1: ,e Rea1isti&................................................................................................................................... 1: Ad pt a ( siti5e Attit$de............................................................................................................... 1: Remind Y $rse1! 3"at Is at Sta2e.................................................................................................1; +rain.............................................................................................................................................. 1; Learn Stress Mana)ement +e&"ni4$es.........................................................................................1; /0A(+-R * - SURVIVAL (LANNIN6 AND SURVIVAL 8I+S.............................................................2< IM(.R+AN/- .F (LANNIN6........................................................................................................2< SURVIVAL 8I+S.............................................................................................................................. 2< /0A(+-R 7 - ,ASI/ SURVIVAL M-DI/IN-......................................................................................22 R-=UIR-M-N+S F.R MAIN+-NAN/- .F 0-AL+0....................................................................22 3ater............................................................................................................................................ 22 F d.............................................................................................................................................. 2* (1ant F ds................................................................................................................................... 27 Anima1 F ds................................................................................................................................ 27 (ers na1 0y)iene.......................................................................................................................... 27 8eep Y $r 0ands /1ean................................................................................................................ 27 8eep Y $r 0air /1ean................................................................................................................... 29 8eep Y $r /1 t"in) /1ean............................................................................................................. 29 8eep Y $r +eet" /1ean................................................................................................................. 29 +a2e /are ! Y $r Feet................................................................................................................. 29 6et S$!!i&ient Rest........................................................................................................................ 29 8eep /amp Site /1ean.................................................................................................................. 29 M-DI/AL -M-R6-N/I-S.............................................................................................................. 26 ,reat"in) (r b1ems....................................................................................................................... 26 Se5ere ,1eedin)............................................................................................................................ 26
(a)e 2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S" &2............................................................................................................................................ 26 LIF-SAVIN6 S+-(S....................................................................................................................... 26 .pen Air%ay and Maintain............................................................................................................ 26 / ntr 1 ,1eedin)............................................................................................................................ 27 Dire&t (ress$re............................................................................................................................. 2: -1e5ati n....................................................................................................................................... 2: (ress$re ( ints............................................................................................................................. 2; Di)ita1 Li)ati n............................................................................................................................... 2; + $rni4$et..................................................................................................................................... 2; (re5ent and +reat S" &2............................................................................................................... *< ,.N- AND >.IN+ IN>URY............................................................................................................. *2 Fra&t$res....................................................................................................................................... *2 Dis1 &ati ns................................................................................................................................... *7 Sprains.......................................................................................................................................... *7 ,I+-S AND S+IN6S........................................................................................................................ *7 +reatment...................................................................................................................................... *9 ,ee and 3asp Stin)s.................................................................................................................... *9 Spider ,ites and S& rpi n Stin)s..................................................................................................*9 Sna2ebites.................................................................................................................................... *6 3.UNDS......................................................................................................................................... *7 .pen 3 $nds............................................................................................................................... *7 S2in Diseases and Ai1ments.......................................................................................................... *: , i1s.............................................................................................................................................. *: F$n)a1 In!e&ti ns........................................................................................................................... *; Ras"es.......................................................................................................................................... *; Fr stbite........................................................................................................................................ *; +ren&" F t................................................................................................................................... *; ,$rns............................................................................................................................................. 7< -NVIR.NM-N+AL IN>URI-S......................................................................................................... 7< 0eatstr 2e..................................................................................................................................... 7< 0yp t"ermia.................................................................................................................................. 7< Diarr"ea........................................................................................................................................ 71 Intestina1 (arasites........................................................................................................................ 71 0-R,AL M-DI/IN-S...................................................................................................................... 71 /0A(+-R 9 - S0-L+-RS................................................................................................................... 72 S0-L+-R SI+- S-L-/+I.N.......................................................................................................... 72 +Y(-S .F S0-L+-RS................................................................................................................... 7* ( n&" Lean-+ ............................................................................................................................ 7* ( n&" +ent.................................................................................................................................. 77 +"ree-( 1e (ara&"$te +epee........................................................................................................79 .ne-( 1e (ara&"$te +epee........................................................................................................... 76 N -( 1e (ara&"$te +epee............................................................................................................. 77 .ne-Man S"e1ter........................................................................................................................... 7: (ara&"$te 0amm &2..................................................................................................................... 7; Fie1d--?pedient Lean-+ ............................................................................................................... 7; S%amp ,ed................................................................................................................................... 9< Nat$ra1 S"e1ters............................................................................................................................ 91 Debris 0$t..................................................................................................................................... 91 +ree-(it Sn % S"e1ter................................................................................................................... 92 ,ea&" S"ade S"e1ter.................................................................................................................... 9* Desert S"e1ters............................................................................................................................. 97 /0A(+-R 6 - 3A+-R (R./UR-M-N+............................................................................................97 3A+-R S.UR/-S......................................................................................................................... 97 S+ILL /.NS+RU/+I.N.................................................................................................................. 62
(a)e * ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ab 5e)r $nd Sti11.......................................................................................................................... 62 ,e1 %)r $nd Sti11.......................................................................................................................... 6* 3A+-R (URIFI/A+I.N.................................................................................................................. 69 3A+-R FIL+RA+I.N D-VI/-S......................................................................................................69 /0A(+-R 7 - FIR-/RAF+.................................................................................................................. 67 ,ASI/ FIR- (RIN/I(L-S............................................................................................................... 67 SI+- S-L-/+I.N AND (R-(ARA+I.N.........................................................................................67 FIR- MA+-RIAL S-L-/+I.N.........................................................................................................7< 0.3 +. ,UILD A FIR-.................................................................................................................. 7< +epee............................................................................................................................................ 7< Lean-+ ......................................................................................................................................... 71 /r ss-Dit&"................................................................................................................................... 71 (yramid......................................................................................................................................... 71 0.3 +. LI60+ A FIR-.................................................................................................................. 71 M dern Met" ds........................................................................................................................... 71 Mat&"es........................................................................................................................................ 72 / n5e? Lens................................................................................................................................. 72 Meta1 Mat&".................................................................................................................................. 72 ,attery........................................................................................................................................... 72 6$np %der................................................................................................................................... 72 (rimiti5e Met" ds.......................................................................................................................... 7* F1int and Stee1............................................................................................................................... 7* Fire-(1 %....................................................................................................................................... 7* , % and Dri11................................................................................................................................. 7* /0A(+-R : - F..D (R./UR-M-N+..............................................................................................79 ANIMALS F.R F..D..................................................................................................................... 79 Inse&ts........................................................................................................................................... 79 3 rms........................................................................................................................................... 76 /r$sta&eans.................................................................................................................................. 76 M 11$s2s........................................................................................................................................ 76 Fis"............................................................................................................................................... 77 Amp"ibians................................................................................................................................... 7; Repti1es......................................................................................................................................... 7; ,irds.............................................................................................................................................. :< Mamma1s...................................................................................................................................... :1 +RA(S AND SNAR-S..................................................................................................................... :1 Use ! ,ait.................................................................................................................................... :2 +rap and Snare / nstr$&ti n........................................................................................................ :2 Simp1e Snare................................................................................................................................. :* Dra) N se................................................................................................................................... :* +%it&"-Up...................................................................................................................................... :7 +%it&"-Up Snare........................................................................................................................... :7 S4$irre1 ( 1e.................................................................................................................................. :9 .@ib%a ,ird ( 1e............................................................................................................................ :9 N sin) 3and............................................................................................................................... :6 +read1e Sprin) Snare.................................................................................................................... :6 Fi)$re 7 Dead!a11........................................................................................................................... :7 (ai$te Dead!a11.............................................................................................................................. :: , % +rap....................................................................................................................................... :; (i) Spear S"a!t............................................................................................................................. ;< , tt1e +rap.................................................................................................................................... ;< 8ILLIN6 D-VI/-S........................................................................................................................... ;1 Rabbit Sti&2................................................................................................................................... ;1 Spear............................................................................................................................................ ;1
(a)e 7 ! 2**

................................................................................ 111 RUL-S F..112 /................................................................................................NIN6...................................................... 1<: (LAN+S F................ 1<< Dryin) Meat.................................................... 112 /0A(+-R 11 ..................2 FIS0IN6 D-VI/-S....................................................................... ..... 1<.................................................$t&"erin) 6ame...................................................eaded Li'ard................................ 1<1 /0A(+-R ..................................................................................................................... Spe&i!i& Remedies.............................................: ............................................................N..................................(.........R M-DI/IN-...........................................................................2 Impr 5ised Fis"" 2s................................................... 11: DAN6-RS IN RIV-RS....................................................................................N....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................rine and Sa1t.............................................................................................................................A+S...........N ..................................... .............................F FIS0 AND 6AM...................................................................................................................................... 1<* Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est... 119 +i&2s......................................................................................... 111 ALL A.................................................................................................... 1<1 Free'in).......................F (LAN+S.................................. 119 /entipedes and Mi11ipedes....................... 1<........... ..........ILI+Y ...................................US SNA8-S..................N......................................................3 (LAN+S (...................................................................................t"er (reser5ati n Met" ds... 117 DAN6-R.......................................................US LIAARDS................................................................9 /" p Fis"in)................................................................................................................ 119 .............................. .......................................US (LAN+S............................................. 1<9 Sea%eeds..........................................................................................................................................................................................117 INS-/+S AND ARA/0NIDS....IS...............................................................................................................IS..................IDIN6 (............................................................. 11: (iran"a............................ 119 L--/0-S....... 117 S& rpi ns................................................................................................................... 1<1 ............................................................................ ..................................................7 Spear!is"in)........................... +erms and De!initi ns........S.....................R /............................................................... 1<..................................... 1<: (reparati n ! (1ant F d..................................................................................................... ..N (...............................................................................................................................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.....................................................................1<2 -DI.............................................................US (LAN+S.............................................................................................................. 116 ........................................................................... ................... ......................IS.........................................7 Sna2es............................. ........................................7 Fis".....................................: S2innin) and ...RA6-...................F (LAN+S..................................... % and Arr %................................................. ........................................IS..............6 Fis" ( is n...... Sm 2in) Meat....................................... 112 IN6-S+I....................................................................................................................................................................N+A/+ D-RMA+I+IS..............................................111 0................ /0A(+-R 1< ...................................................................................................... 117 6i1a M nster......................................................U+ (LAN+S...............................................................................................................................................2 Sta2e $t...................... 117 Me?i&an ..................................... 116 (................................. ............................................. Department ! t"e Army ......................................................................................................................................................... 1<2 (1ant Identi!i&ati n............................................................................ 1<1 ..................................................................N.................... ............................................................. 117 Spiders................. 11: (a)e 9 ! 2** ......................... 116 Sna2e-Free Areas............................................................SURVIVAL US..........................................DAN6-R........................................................................................ 11: -1e&tri& -e1.................................................................................8IN6 AND S+............................................1 S1in).................................................................................................................................................. ..................................... .................................. 11: 8 m d Dra) n................................................................R AV................................................................2 6i11 Net..................F.. .......* Fis" +raps..................................................US ANIMALS..............................................................................................................................6 (R-(ARA+I.........................ees# 3asps# and 0 rnets..........................................................................irds....................................................................................................................IS....................................

.............................................................................................................................................................................. 1** R &2y (1atea$ Deserts....................... SAL+3A+-R DAN6-RS................. 12............................. 0 rses" e (a&2.........................................................................RS........................LS# AND -=UI(M-N+..................................1*1 ....................................................................12< ...........NM-N+AL FA/+... 127 Ar&"ery -4$ipment..... 1*< /L.........................11..................................12... 1a............................................ 1*1 Anima1 S2ins.......127 +"r %in) Sti&2...............................r 2en +errain................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1*1 F r2s# 8ni5es# and Sp ns..R 3A+-R.NS...............................................................................................................................................................11............................................................................................. 1*9 Sparse Ve)etati n................................................................................................. 1*6 N--D F................................................. 127 Spear ................................................. 1*2 3ater ................................................... 1*< S4$are (a&2...............FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.................................. 122 3ei)"ted /1$b............................................................... 127 .................................................................................S...........................................................12< /0A(+-R 12 ............................................................................................................................................................N........... 1*2 /0A(+-R 1* ......................... 1*6 Mira)es........................................................................................................................................................................... 1*7 Sa1t Mars"es............................................................. 11.. 1*6 Sandst rms.............................................................................NS................................................ RU/8SA/8 /............................................ 1** Sandy r D$ne Deserts.........................................S........RDA6-....................................................................... 1*: 0eat /ramps...................... 12..............................+0-R -B(-DI-N+ 3-A(.................................................... 1*2 ( ts..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1*1 /. Fis" Dan)er $s t 0and1e# + $&"# r / nta&t.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11: (1atyp$s.. 12: LAS0IN6 AND /............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1*7 .......... 1*7 0-A+ /ASUAL+I-S................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................D-S-R+ SURVIVAL......................t"er Dan)er $s Sea /reat$res... (a)e 6 ! 2** ............................................................................................................................... Anima1s and Fis" ( is n $s t -at....... 1*7 3ide +emperat$re Ran)e...1*1 (ara&"$te Assemb1y............................................................................................. Las"in) Materia1...... 1*7 -NVIR..............................................................................................FI-LD--B(-DI-N+ 3-A(................................................ Nat$ra1 / rda)e Se1e&ti n......................................................................................................................................................................................... 126 Arr % ( ints.................................................................................................................................................................... 1*9 0i)" Minera1 / ntent.......................................................................................... 122 Simp1e /1$b....................................... 11: DAN6-RS IN ...................AYS AND -S+UARI-S.......................................................................................................................................................... 1*...... tt1es..............................8IN6 AND -A+IN6 U+-NSILS................ 122 /LU............................................................... 122 S1in) /1$b............................................................ 127 8ni5es............................NS+RU/+I.......N........................................................................................................................ 12* -D6-D 3-A(............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 12......................................................................................................................................... 126 ............................... %1s..................1ades...........................1** +-RRAIN....................................................................................................................................................................... 1*7 Intense S$n1i)"t and 0eat............................................................................+0IN6 AND INSULA+I.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1*7 L % Rain!a11........................ 1** M $ntain Deserts............... Department ! t"e Army +$rt1e...............................NS# +..................................................................................... 1*1 (1ant Fibers.................................................................................................................

..... (R-/AU+I..........................................................172 +r pi&a1 S&r$b and +" rn F rests.......................... 19* Sn % ..S.....................................................................................................................................19* De"ydrati n............................................................................................................................................................1indness................................17: Dry / 1d 3eat"er -n5ir nments.............................NS AND L................................................... ................................................................................. 19< 0Y6I-N-................................................................................................................................................................................... D-S-R+ 0AAARDS..........D.......................................IS....................................................................................................................................... 199 Sn % +ren&" S"e1ter...../..................................... 172 Semie5er)reen Seas na1 and M ns n F rests....................................................... 192 +ren&" F t and Immersi n F t..........................NS.........LD IN>URI-S........................................................................................................................................................ 197 S0-L+-RS......................................... 179 R ts.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17: /.... 17......... 171 +r pi&a1 Rain F rests.......................................................................ites.................NS.....................................+Y(-S...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................AR-AS.....................ASI/ (RIN/I(L-S ..........................................................................................................N......................................NS.............................................................................................................U60 >UN6L............................................................................................................................................................................................. Department ! t"e Army 0eat -?"a$sti n... 197 +ree-(it S"e1ter.................................................................................... 1*............................................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U..................................................F /......(I/AL SURVIVAL........................................................ 191 0yp t"ermia......... 19* S$nb$rn.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 197 Inse&t .................................. 179 Vines............../UR-M-N+....................... 171 >UN6L............................. 19: (a)e 7 ! 2** ..............................LD 3-A+0-R SURVIVAL...................................................................................................(I/AL 3-A+0-R.......... 179 3ater Fr m / ndensati n..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................LD R-6I.......... 17* Fres"%ater S%amps........................1 &2 and (ara&"$te S"e1ter.............................................................................................................................................US (LAN+S................................................................................................... 17* +RAV-L +0R...............177 3A+-R (R............................................................ 172 Se& ndary >$n)1es.... 1*.................................................................................................... 179 Anima1s as Si)ns ! 3ater......................................................................... 1*....................................17* +r pi&a1 Sa5annas................................................................. 177 /0A(+-R 19 ................................................................................................................................................................................17: 3et / 1d 3eat"er -n5ir nments................. 179 (a1m +rees............................................................ 19* / 1d Di$resis.......................................................................................................... 197 Fa11en +ree S"e1ter. 19: FIR-.... 196 Sn % ......................................................................................................................171 +R............ /0A(+-R 17 ........ 191 Fr stbite.................................................... 191 M-DI/AL AS(-/+S......................................... 19* / nstipati n........................................................................................17: 3IND/0ILL. 0eat Str 2e.......................................................... 17* Sa1t%ater S%amps............................................................................................................. 176 (.......................................196 Sn % 0 $se r I)1 .......................... 197 Sn % /a5e S"e1ter...................+R......................................................................................................................................................................................................................./A+I................ 1*..............................................177 IMM-DIA+. 179 3ater Fr m (1ants......................................................................................................................................./...................................................................................LD 3-A+0-R SURVIVAL..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 197 Lean-+ S"e1ter................................................................................... 176 F...................................................................................................................NSID-RA+I........................................ 197 2<-Man Li!e Ra!t....... 191 /.......................................................................

...............................................................................................................................167 +0..................... 16< (1ants................................................................. A$stra1ian ( n&" Ra!t............................................................................................................................... 1...........................................................................................................................N............................................................................................................................................... 16< Fis"...................................................................................7 +"e 3at&" Met" d.....................................................................................................................................................................M.............................................. 1...................... 16* L %-(ress$re Fr nt..............................................................................S......1...........................................................................................................................................................SUN AND S0AD.......................... 1:9 /0A(+-R 17 ................................................ .............................irds and Inse&ts......r$s" Ra!t.........................................................................+A+I........: /0A(+-R 1..........................SSIN6S........................-B(-DI-N+ 3A+-R /R....................................S+A/L-S................................................................................................7 MA8IN6 IM(R........... 162 Sm 2e.............................................................................7 USIN6 +0.............................................................................. Department ! t"e Army 3A+-R............................................................................................................................................. 1:6 RA(IDS................................................................................................................................................3S......................................17< Ra!t (r &ed$res........................................1:6 RIV-RS AND S+R-AMS...............................................................................+0-R M-ANS ..................................< ( n&" D n$t Ra!t..............................................................................2 FL...........N......................... 1.......................6 USIN6 +0.........................................................................................................................1 L ) Ra!t..............R-S.......................................... 1:........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................(-N S-A..................................................................................1........................................................................................................ 1................ 162 3ind.....................................................................VIS-D /........2<< A((LI/A+I.................... 176 3ater.............. 1:2 Ra!tin) r .................S-A SURVIVAL................... 1....................2 ............. 1:7 F d........................................................1... 16* .................................................................................................................................1.....................................................................................................................................M(ASS-S........ 1:7 Spe&ia1 0ea1t" 0a'ards........................................................... 17< Sai1in) Ra!ts.................................................................................................................................................. 177 F d (r &$rement......................................................................................+0-R 3A+-R .................................................................................F D-+-RMININ6 DIR-/+I.....N D-VI/-S..................... 1:* (i&2$p r Res&$e.................................* /0A(+-R 1: .......................................... 16< Sea I&e Anima1s..................... 1:7 RAF+S....16........................................................................................................ 167 D %n at Sea................................................................SI6NALIN6 +-/0NI=U-S................................................................................................................ 1............... 167 / 1d 3eat"er / nsiderati ns.......... 1.................................................................................................................................................................N .............7 S"ad %-+ip Met" ds........................................................................................................... 162 /1 $ds.........................................................................................................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U...............................................................................ea&"in) +e&"ni4$es......... 2<< (a)e : ! 2** ......................................................... 0 t 3eat"er / nsiderati ns.................................................................................9 USIN6 +0........................................................................................................................................................................... 161 +RAV-L.............................................................. 1:* S-AS0.. 1.....................1:< S"ar2s............................................................................................................................................................S+ARS................................ 1:.................................................S+A/L-S.............................. .........N.............................N FINDIN6......................... 1............................. 16* /0A(+-R 16 .................................................* V-6-+A+I.............................. 17: Medi&a1 (r b1ems Ass &iated 3it" Sea S$r5i5a1.1..................................: ...................................................................................................................... 1.............................. 1:1 Dete&tin) Land.....6 +"e N rt"ern S2y.......................................................................................6 +"e S $t"ern S2y........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 162 3-A+0-R SI6NS........ F......................................................................... 19.................. 167 (re&a$ti nary Meas$res................1:2 S%immin) As" re..............................................................................................................FI-LD--B(-DI-N+ DIR-/+I.................................................D.................... 1..

.................. 2<< A$di Si)na1s..................221 -!!e&ts ! N$&1ear 3eap ns..........................................................................................................................S.....................................S......................................../AL (-............(L-....................................................... 219 / 1 r and +e?t$re..........................................RIN6 (R...N+R........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 227 F d (r &$rement........................................................................................................N+A/+ 3I+0 L....................................... 2<9 6r $nd-t -Air -mer)en&y / de............................ 216 M 5ement.......................................................21< N ti!i&ati n t M 5e and A5 id /apt$re................................../-DUR-S.......................................... 211 0 1e-Up Areas........................i 1 )i&a1 A)ents and -!!e&ts...........................221 +0.......22: Dete&ti n ! .................. 219 S"ine...............................................................6I/AL -NVIR..................................22: ..................................RFS ......./.............................................................................................................SURVIVAL IN MAN-MAD.....................................................................................................................................................................-0AVI............................SURVIVAL M.....................................................................LI+I/AL ALL-6IAN/-.........................................$t1ine..........................................................................................22* S"e1ter......................................2<: /0A(+-R 2< .............................................. 217 /ra%1in).....................................AEFL..L................ 227 ............................ 2<6 Air&ra!t A&2n %1ed)ments................................................................(L-.......................................................................................................S+IL..................................................2<........................ 217 Upri)"t Sta12in)....217 /0A(+-R 21 .................................F S+AL8IN6............................ FRI-NDLY /................N..221 +ypes ! N$&1ear ... 21* Lin2$p at t"e F-............$rsts............2<6 ............................................................................ rder /r ssin)s...22< /0A(+-R 2* .................L.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................22< /0AN6-S +..................................................................................................+...................................................................................................../AM.............. ! 2** ................................ di1y Rea&ti ns t Radiati n.......V-M-N+ IN 0...............................................................................................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U............... 2<................................NU/L-AR -NVIR........................................................................................................................................................................................................ Department ! t"e Army M-ANS F..........................................................................0AAARDS........... 219 S"ape and ....2<........................................................................................................22* / $ntermeas$res A)ainst (enetratin) -?terna1 Radiati n......... 2<9 /.......................................................R.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 21: /0A(+-R 22 ...................... 227 3ater (r &$rement...................................................................................................................... Standin) .........................................................................................R SI6NALIN6......................NAL /AM..F (LANNIN6......................................................................................... 217 (r ne Sta12in).............................................................................................................................................................21* .......................................................... /....................................................................................................................... 21* Lin2$p 3it" Friend1y (atr 1s....................................................................................................................................................................................... 21< 0ide Site A&ti5ities..................................................................................................................21.................................................UFLA6-.........................................................................................................................................SURVIV.... 222 .....21< -B-/U+I....................................................................................NM-N+.............. / ntin)en&y (1an ! A&ti n C/(AD..................................................................................... 21: Anima1 Sta12in)............... 2<6 (ane1 Si)na1s..... 2<7 AIR/RAF+ V-/+............................................................i 1 )i&a1 A)ents.............................................................. (................................................................................................N+A/+ 3I+0 (-.........I..... 216 N ise..................................................................................................................................................................................DS ............................219 (-RS........................ 217 S&ent.. 2<9 S.. 216 S"ad %..............22...... 217 M-+0................................................21.... +0....................................................................................................................................AR-AS............................. 222 Resid$a1 Radiati n................... dy Si)na1s........... 222 N$&1ear In@$ries...............................................................UFLA6-......NM-N+S......D-S AND SI6NALS............................................................................ (0AS-S .......................... 212 R-+URN +............ 2<< Vis$a1 Si)na1s.................................................................................................. (a)e .............................peratin) (r &ed$res...................................................................................................

..................................................2*< (r te&ti n A)ainst .............................2*1 Dete&ti n ! /"emi&a1 A)ents. 2*2 F d (r &$rement..................................................................................................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U...................................................... Department ! t"e Army In!1$en&e ! 3eat"er and +errain.......................................................... 2*1 /0-MI/AL -NVIR................................ 2*1 F d (r &$rement.................................................................2*1 (r te&ti n A)ainst /"emi&a1 A)ents...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................NM-N+S.............. 2** (a)e 1< ! 2** ............................................................................................................................................2*< S"e1ter...............S..........................................................2*2 S"e1ter.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................i 1 )i&a1 A)ents. 2*< 3ater (r &$rement............................ 2*2 3ater (r &$rement..........................................................................

e bser5ant. U -U$e A%% Y" & Se#$e$' U#( e H!$te M!)e$ *!$te Y $ may ma2e a %r n) m 5e %"en y $ rea&t 4$i&21y %it" $t t"in2in) r p1annin). (1an y $r m 5es. Use a11 y $r senses t e5a1$ate t"e sit$ati n. F r instan&e# in any &1imate# drin2 p1enty ! %ater t pre5ent de"ydrati n. I! y $ are in a & 1d r %et &1imate# p$t n additi na1 &1 t"in) t pre5ent "yp t"ermia. Size Up Your Surroundings Determine t"e pattern ! t"e area. /"e&2 y $r % $nds and )i5e y $rse1! !irst aid. St$dy and remember %"at ea&" 1etter si)ni!ies be&a$se y $ may s me day "a5e t ma2e it % r2 ! r y $. -5ery en5ir nment# %"et"er ! rest# @$n)1e# r desert# "as a r"yt"m r pattern. In d in) s # 2eep in mind y $r basi& p"ysi&a1 needs--%ater# ! d# and s"e1ter. Use y $r senses ! "earin)# sme11# and si)"t t )et a !ee1 ! r t"e batt1e!ie1d. Size Up Your Physical Condition +"e press$re ! t"e batt1e y $ %ere in r t"e tra$ma ! bein) in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n may "a5e &a$sed y $ t 5er1 2 % $nds y $ re&ei5ed. . N te s $nds and sme11s.S. The letters in this word can help guide you in your actions in any survival situation. It may a1s in&1$de enemy tra!!i& and &i5i1ian m 5ements. D nFt m 5e @$st ! r t"e sa2e ! ta2in) a&ti n. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1 . S -Size Up the Sit !ti"# I! y $ are in a & mbat sit$ati n# !ind a p1a&e %"ere y $ &an & n&ea1 y $rse1! !r m t"e enemy.INTRODUCTION This manual is based entirely on the keyword SURVIVAL. In y $r "aste y $ may a1s be& me dis riented s t"at y $ d nFt 2n % %"i&" %ay t ) .e sensiti5e t temperat$re &"an)es.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ a&t in "aste# y $ may ! r)et r 1 se s me ! y $r e4$ipment. Remember# se&$rity ta2es pri rity. +"is r"yt"m r pattern in&1$des anima1 and bird n ises and m 5ements and inse&t s $nds. . SURVIVAL ACTIONS +"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"s e?pand n t"e meanin) ! ea&" 1etter ! t"e % rd s$r5i5a1. N % t"at y $ "a5e si'ed $p y $r sit$ati n# s$rr $ndin)s# p"ysi&a1 & nditi n# and e4$ipment# y $ are ready t ma2e y $r s$r5i5a1 p1an. +"at m 5e may res$1t in y $r &apt$re r deat". . /"e&2 t see %"at e4$ipment y $ "a5e and %"at & nditi n it is in. +a2e &are t pre5ent !$rt"er b di1y "arm. Size Up Your !uip"ent (er"aps in t"e "eat ! batt1e# y $ 1 st r dama)ed s me ! y $r e4$ipment. 3"at is t"e enemy d in)G Ad5an&in)G 0 1din) in p1a&eG Retreatin)G Y $ %i11 "a5e t & nsider %"at is de5e1 pin) n t"e batt1e!ie1d %"en y $ ma2e y $r s$r5i5a1 p1an.e ready t m 5e $t 4$i&21y %it" $t endan)erin) y $rse1! i! t"e enemy is near y $. (a)e 11 ! 2** . / nsider a11 aspe&ts ! y $r sit$ati n Csi'e $p y $r sit$ati nD be! re y $ ma2e a de&isi n and a m 5e. henever !aced with a survival situation" remember the word SURVIVAL. 6et a !ee1 ! r %"at is ) in) n ar $nd y $.

3"en and %"at d t"ey eatG 3"en# %"ere# and " % d t"ey )et t"eir ! dG 3"en and %"ere d t"ey ) ! r %aterG 3"at time d t"ey $s$a11y ) t bed and )et $pG +"ese a&ti ns are imp rtant t y $ %"en y $ are tryin) t a5 id &apt$re. • +"e 1 &ati n ! !riend1y $nits and & ntr 11ed areas. +"ey &an drain y $r ener)y and t"ereby &a$se t"er ne)ati5e em ti ns. . +"is is a basi& prin&ip1e t"at y $ m$st a1%ays ! 11 %. 3e "a5e be& me &reat$res ! & m! rt. + )et a !ee1 ! t"e area# %at&" " % t"e pe p1e ) ab $t t"eir dai1y r $tine. Many ! t"ese items are &"eap t rep1a&e %"en dama)ed. • Areas t"at %i11 pr 5ide ) d & 5er and & n&ea1ment. I -I+p&"/i$e In t"e United States# %e "a5e items a5ai1ab1e ! r a11 $r needs. • +"e 1 &ati n ! 1 &a1 %ater s $r&es Cespe&ia11y imp rtant in t"e desertD. V -V!% e Li/i#0 A11 ! $s %ere b rn 2i&2in) and !i)"tin) t 1i5e# b$t %e "a5e be& me $sed t t"e s !t 1i!e. A1%ays try t determine# as a minim$m# " % y $r 1 &ati n re1ates t -• +"e 1 &ati n ! enemy $nits and & ntr 11ed areas. I! t"at pers n is 2i11ed# y $ %i11 "a5e t )et t"e map and & mpass !r m "im.t Li)e the N!ti/e$ +"e nati5es and anima1s ! a re)i n "a5e adapted t t"eir en5ir nment. *ARNIN1 (a)e 12 ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.y %at&"in) t"em# y $ &an !ind s $r&es ! %ater and ! d. I! t"ere are t"er pers ns %it" y $# ma2e s$re t"ey a1s 2n % t"eir 1 &ati n. +"is in! rmati n %i11 a11 % y $ t ma2e inte11i)ent de&isi ns %"en y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n. 3"at "appens %"en %e are !a&ed %it" a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %it" its stresses# in& n5enien&es# and dis& m! rtsG +"is is %"en t"e %i11 t 1i5e. Learn t impr 5ise.S. D n t re1y n t"ers in t"e )r $p t 2eep tra&2 ! t"e r $te. Learn t $se nat$ra1 b@e&ts ar $nd y $ ! r di!!erent needs. 3e dis1i2e in& n5enien&es and dis& m! rts.e& *he&e Y" A&e Sp t y $r 1 &ati n n y $r map and re1ate it t t"e s$rr $ndin) terrain. A -A. N matter " % & mp1ete a s$r5i5a1 2it y $ "a5e %it" y $# it %i11 r$n $t r %ear $t a!ter a %"i1e. Y $r ima)inati n m$st ta2e 5er %"en y $r 2it %ears $t. +"e e?perien&e and 2n %1ed)e y $ "a5e )ained t"r $)" 1i!e and y $r Army trainin) %i11 "a5e a bearin) n y $r %i11 t 1i5e. +"e )reatest enemies in a & mbat s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n are !ear and pani&. +a2e a t 1 desi)ned ! r a spe&i!i& p$rp se and see " % many t"er $ses y $ &an ma2e ! it.i$h Fe!& !#( P!#i. . Department ! t"e Army R -Re+e+. +"is ine?perien&e in impr 5isati n &an be an enemy in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Anima1s a1s re4$ire ! d# %ater# and s"e1ter. I! $n& ntr 11ed# t"ey &an destr y y $r abi1ity t ma2e an inte11i)ent de&isi n. Anima1 1i!e in t"e area &an a1s )i5e y $ &1$es n " % t s$r5i5e. (re5i $s s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n trainin) and se1!-& n!iden&e %i11 enab1e y $ t 5an4$is" !ear and pani&. An e?amp1e is $sin) a r &2 ! r a "ammer. +"ey may &a$se y $ t rea&t t y $r !ee1in)s and ima)inati n rat"er t"an t y $r sit$ati n. V -V!#. (ay &1 se attenti n t %"ere y $ are and t %"ere y $ are ) in). A1%ays 2n % %" in y $r )r $p# 5e"i&1e# r air&ra!t "as a map and & mpass. St$bb rnness# a re!$sa1 t )i5e in t pr b1ems and bsta&1es t"at !a&e y $# %i11 )i5e y $ t"e menta1 and p"ysi&a1 stren)t" t end$re.$r easy & me# easy ) # easy-t -rep1a&e &$1t$re ma2es it $nne&essary ! r $s t impr 5ise.p1a&in) a "i)" 5a1$e n 1i5in)-is 5ita1. / nstant1y rient y $rse1!.

F r e?amp1e# in a & 1d en5ir nment# y $ % $1d need a !ire t )et %armH a shelter t pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d# %ind# and rain r sn %H traps r snares t )et !ood# a means t signal !riend1y air&ra!tH and !irst aid t maintain "ea1t". L -Li/e . S$r5i5a1 trainin) red$&es !ear ! t"e $n2n %n and )i5es y $ se1!-& n!iden&e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. t" h +!#$4 8eep in mind t"at t"e rea&ti n ! anima1s &an re5ea1 y $r presen&e t t"e enemy. As y $ read t"e rest ! t"is man$a1# 2eep in mind t"e 2ey% rd SURVIVAL and t"e need ! r a s$r5i5a1 pattern.S. . I! in$ured" !irst aid has top priority n matter %"at &1imate y $ are in.!##"t $e&/e !$ !# !.$"% te 0 i(e t" 2h!t 3" . 0 % y $ de&ide t e4$ip y $rse1! be! re dep1 yment %i11 impa&t n %"et"er r n t y $ s$r5i5e. It tea&"es y $ t live by your wits.3 Y" & *it$' #ut $or No%& Le!&# B!$i. F r instan&e# i! y $ are ) in) t a desert# y $ need t 2n % " % t )et %ater in t"e desert. PATT RN 'OR SURVIVAL De5e1 p a s$r5i5a1 pattern t"at 1ets y $ beat t"e enemies ! s$r5i5a1. Learn t"ese basi& s2i11s #"2--n t %"en y $ are "eaded ! r r are in t"e batt1e.y st$dyin) t"e pe p1e# y $ 1earn t respe&t t"em# y $ !ten ma2e 5a1$ab1e !riends# and# m st imp rtant# y $ 1earn " % t adapt t t"eir en5ir nment and in&rease y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. Y $ need t 2n % ab $t t"e en5ir nment t %"i&" y $ are ) in)# and y $ m$st pra&ti&e basi& s2i11s )eared t t"at en5ir nment. +"is s$r5i5a1 pattern m$st in&1$de ! d# %ater# s"e1ter# !ire# !irst aid# and si)na1s p1a&ed in rder ! imp rtan&e. (ra&ti&e basi& s$r5i5a1 s2i11s d$rin) a11 trainin) pr )rams and e?er&ises. (a)e 1* ! 2** . Department ! t"e Army A#i+!%$ . /"an)e y $r s$r5i5a1 pattern t meet y $r immediate p"ysi&a1 needs as t"e en5ir nment &"an)es. S)i%%$ 3it" $t trainin) in basi& s2i11s ! r s$r5i5in) and e5adin) n t"e batt1e!ie1d# y $r &"an&es ! 1i5in) t"r $)" a & mbat s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n are s1i)"t.!# e!t !#( (&i#)4 M!#3 !#i+!%$ e!t p%!#t$ th!t !&e t"5i. I! in a !riend1y area# ne %ay y $ &an )ain rapp rt %it" t"e nati5es is t s" % interest in t"eir t 1s and " % t"ey )et ! d and %ater.

Stress &an be des&ribed as $r rea&ti n t press$re. The soldier in a survival environment !aces many stresses that ultimately impact on his mind. A key ingredient in any survival situation is the mental attitude o! the individual&s' involved. . (aving survival skills is important# having the will to survive is essential. Stress pr 5ides $s %it" &"a11en)esH it )i5es $s &"an&es t 1earn ab $t $r 5a1$es and stren)t"s. + m$&" stress &an ta2e its t 11 n pe p1e and r)ani'ati ns. These stresses can produce thoughts and emotions that" i! poorly understood" can trans!orm a con!ident" well%trained soldier into an indecisive" ine!!ective individual with )uestionable ability to survive. +"e ) a1 is t "a5e stress# b$t n t an e?&ess ! it.S. Distress &a$ses an $n& m! rtab1e tensi n t"at %e try t es&ape and# pre!erab1y# (a)e 17 ! 2** . Stress is n t a disease t"at y $ &$re and e1iminate. It is t"e name )i5en t t"e e?perien&e %e "a5e as %e p"ysi&a11y# menta11y# em ti na11y# and spirit$a11y resp nd t 1i!eFs tensi ns. Thus" every soldier must be aware o! and be able to recogni*e those stresses commonly associated with survival. 3e need t "a5e s me stress in $r 1i5es# b$t t m$&" ! anyt"in) &an be bad.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. There is a psychology to survival. Stress &an s" % $r abi1ity t "and1e press$re %it" $t brea2in)H it tests $r adaptabi1ity and !1e?ibi1ityH it &an stim$1ate $s t d $r best.e&a$se %e $s$a11y d n t & nsider $nimp rtant e5ents stress!$1# stress &an a1s be an e?&e11ent indi&at r ! t"e si)ni!i&an&e %e atta&" t an e5ent--in t"er % rds# it "i)"1i)"ts %"at is imp rtant t $s. This chapter will identi!y and e+plain the nature o! stress" the stresses o! survival" and those internal reactions soldiers will naturally e+perience when !aced with the stresses o! a real%world survival situation. Some people with little or no survival training have managed to survive li!e%threatening circumstances. + m$&" stress 1eads t distress.PSYCHOLO1Y OF SURVIVAL It takes much more than the knowledge and skills to build shelters" get !ood" make !ires" and travel without the aid o! standard navigational devices to live success!ully through a survival situation. Nee( 6"& St&e$$ 3e need stress be&a$se it "as many p siti5e bene!its. The knowledge you" the soldier" gain !rom this chapter and other chapters in this manual" will prepare you to come through the toughest times ali(e) A LOO* AT STR SS . Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 2 . ithout a desk to survive" ac)uired skills serve little purpose and invaluable knowledge goes to waste. Instead# it is a & nditi n %e a11 e?perien&e. Some people with survival training have not used their skills and died. Additionally" it is imperative that soldiers be aware o! their reactions to the wide variety o! stresses associated with survival.e! re %e &an $nderstand $r psy&" 1 )i&a1 rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 settin)# it is "e1p!$1 t !irst 2n % a 1itt1e bit ab $t stress.

• (r pensity ! r mista2es. It &an a1s &a$se y $ t pani& and ! r)et a11 y $r trainin). Department ! t"e Army a5 id. Listed be1 % are a !e% ! t"e & mm n si)ns ! distress y $ may !ind in y $r !e11 % s 1diers r y $rse1! %"en !a&ed %it" t m$&" stressI • Di!!i&$1ty ma2in) de&isi ns. +"e n1y )$arantee in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is t"at n t"in) is )$aranteed. 8ey t y $r s$r5i5a1 is y $r abi1ity t mana)e t"e ine5itab1e stresses y $ %i11 en& $nter. It is t"ere! re essentia1 t"at t"e s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 settin) be a%are ! t"e types ! stress rs "e %i11 en& $nter. I11ness and in@$ry &an a1s add t stress by 1imitin) y $r abi1ity t mane$5er# )et ! d and drin2# !ind s"e1ter# and de!end y $rse1!. Stress rs add $p. It is n1y by & n-tr 11in) t"e stress ass &iated %it" t"e 5$1nerabi1ity t in@$ry# i11ness# and deat" t"at a s 1dier &an "a5e t"e & $ra)e t ta2e t"e ris2s ass &iated %it" s$r5i5a1 tas2s. • F r)et!$1ness. +"ese e5ents are n t stress# b$t t"ey pr d$&e it and are &a11ed Jstress rs. • +r $b1e )ettin) a1 n) %it" t"ers.J Stress rs are t"e b5i $s &a$se %"i1e stress is t"e resp nse. • 0idin) !r m resp nsibi1ities. It &an be e?treme1y stress!$1 peratin) n 1imited (a)e 19 ! 2** . At t"is p int# t"e abi1ity t resist stress r $se it in a p siti5e %ay )i5es $t and si)ns ! distress appear. -5en i! i11ness and in@$ry d nFt 1ead t deat"# t"ey add t stress t"r $)" t"e pain and dis& m! rt t"ey )enerate. Stress rs are n t & $rte $sH ne stress r d es n t 1ea5e be&a$se an t"er ne arri5es.o$ Control S me pe p1e "a5e tr $b1e peratin) in settin)s %"ere e5eryt"in) is n t &1ear-&$t. • /are1essness. • / nstant % rryin). +"e s$r5i5 r is t"e s 1dier %" % r2s %it" "is stresses instead ! 1ettin) "is stresses % r2 n "im. .J +"is preparati n in5 15es an interna1 S. • An)ry $tb$rsts.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.n&e t"e b dy re& )ni'es t"e presen&e ! a stress r# it t"en be)ins t a&t t pr te&t itse1!. +"e b dy re1eases st red !$e1s Cs$)ar and !atsD t pr 5ide 4$i&2 ener)yH breat"in) rate in&reases t s$pp1y m re ?y)en t t"e b1 dH m$s&1e tensi n in&reases t prepare ! r a&ti nH b1 d &1 ttin) me&"anisms are a&ti5ated t red$&e b1eedin) !r m &$tsH senses be& me m re a&$te C"earin) be& mes m re sensiti5e# eyes be& me bi)# sme11 be& mes s"arperD s t"at y $ are m re a%are ! y $r s$rr $ndin) and "eart rate and b1 d press$re rise t pr 5ide m re b1 d t t"e m$s&1es. +"e &$m$1ati5e e!!e&t ! min r stress rs &an be a ma@ r distress i! t"ey a11 "appen t &1 se t )et"er. • L % ener)y 1e5e1. As t"e b dy resp nds t t"is S.eath In@$ry# i11ness# and deat" are rea1 p ssibi1ities a s$r5i5 r "as t !a&e. • +" $)"ts ab $t deat" r s$i&ide.S# se5era1 a&ti ns ta2e p1a&e. It &an en& $ra)e r dis& $ra)e# m 5e $s a1 n) r st p $s dead in $r tra&2s# and ma2e 1i!e meanin)!$1 r seemin)1y meanin)1ess. Anti&ipatin) stress rs and de5e1 pin) strate)ies t & pe %it" t"em are t% in)redients in t"e e!!e&ti5e mana)ement ! stress. (er"aps n t"in) is m re stress!$1 t"an bein) a1 ne in an $n!ami1iar en5ir nment %"ere y $ & $1d die !r m " sti1e a&ti n# an a&&ident# r !r m eatin) s met"in) 1et"a1.S sent t"r $)" $t t"e b dy.!ten# stress!$1 e5ents &&$r sim$1tane $s1y. +"is pr te&ti5e p st$re 1ets a pers n & pe %it" p tentia1 dan)ersH " %e5er# a pers n &ann t maintain s$&" a 1e5e1 ! a1ertness inde!inite1y. • 3it"dra%in) !r m t"ers. LetFs ta2e a 1 2 at a !e% ! t"ese. In resp nse t a stress r# t"e b dy prepares eit"er t J!i)"t r !1ee. Uncertainly and Lac. As y $ &an see# stress &an be & nstr$&ti5e r destr$&ti5e. . S &/i/!% St&e$$"&$ Any e5ent &an 1ead t stress and# as e5ery ne "as e?perien&ed# e5ents d nFt a1%ays & me ne at a time. Stress &an inspire y $ t perate s$&&ess!$11y and per! rm at y $r ma?im$m e!!i&ien&y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. In+ury& Illness& or . As t"e b dyFs resistan&e t stress %ears d %n and t"e s $r&es ! stress & ntin$e C r in&reaseD# e5ent$a11y a state ! e?"a$sti n arri5es.

. Isolation +"ere are s me ad5anta)es t !a&in) ad5ersity %it" t"ers. +"is "arm is n t @$st 1imited t p"ysi&a1 dama)eH t"e t"reat t neFs em ti na1 and menta1 %e11-bein) &an )enerate !ear as %e11. 3e n % "a5e a )enera1 2n %1ed)e ! stress and t"e stress rs & mm n t s$r5i5a1H t"e ne?t step is t e?amine $r rea&ti ns t t"e stress rs %e may !a&e. NATURAL R ACTIONS Man "as been ab1e t s$r5i5e many s"i!ts in "is en5ir nment t"r $)" $t t"e &ent$ries. As s 1diers %e 1earn indi5id$a1 s2i11s# b$t %e train t !$n&ti n as part ! a team. Department ! t"e Army in! rmati n in a settin) %"ere y $ "a5e 1imited & ntr 1 ! y $r s$rr $ndin)s. LetFs be)in. In s$r5i5a1# a s 1dier %i11 "a5e t & ntend %it" t"e stress rs ! %eat"er# terrain# and t"e 5ariety ! &reat$res in"abitin) an area. A si)ni!i&ant stress r in s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns is t"at !ten a pers n r team "as t re1y s 1e1y n its %n res $r&es. It is p ssib1e t be& me s !ati)$ed t"at t"e a&t ! @$st stayin) a%a2e is stress!$1 in itse1!.unger and Thirst 3it" $t ! d and %ater a pers n %i11 %ea2en and e5ent$a11y die. Remember# %"at is stress!$1 t ne pers n may n t be stress!$1 t an t"er. Dependin) n " % a s 1dier "and1es t"e stress ! "is en5ir nment# "is s$rr $ndin)s &an be eit"er a s $r&e ! ! d and pr te&ti n r &an be a &a$se ! e?treme dis& m! rt 1eadin) t in@$ry# i11ness# r deat". 3"en $sed in a "ea1t"y %ay# an?iety $r)es $s t a&t t end# (a)e 16 ! 2** . 0eat# & 1d# rain# %inds# m $ntains# s%amps# deserts# inse&ts# dan)er $s repti1es# and t"er anima1s are @$st a !e% ! t"e &"a11en)es a%aitin) t"e s 1dier % r2in) t s$r5i5e. F r t"e s 1dier tryin) t s$r5i5e# !ear &an "a5e a p siti5e !$n&ti n i! it en& $ra)es "im t be &a$ti $s in sit$ati ns %"ere re&21essness & $1d res$1t in in@$ry. +"e b@e&t is n t t a5 id stress# b$t rat"er t mana)e t"e stress rs ! s$r5i5a1 and ma2e t"em % r2 ! r y $. Y $r e?perien&es# trainin)# pers na1 $t1 2 n 1i!e# p"ysi&a1 and menta1 & nditi nin)# and 1e5e1 ! se1!-& n!iden&e & ntrib$te t %"at y $ %i11 !ind stress!$1 in a s$r5i5a1 en5ir nment. +"e s$r5i5a1 stress rs menti ned in t"is se&ti n are by n means t"e n1y nes y $ may !a&e. It is n t s$rprisin) t"at t"e a5era)e pers n %i11 "a5e s me psy&" 1 )i&a1 rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. 3e %i11 n % e?amine s me ! t"e ma@ r interna1 rea&ti ns y $ and any ne %it" y $ mi)"t e?perien&e %it" t"e s$r5i5a1 stress rs addressed in t"e ear1ier para)rap"s.ein) in & nta&t %it" t"ers a1s pr 5ides a )reater sense ! se&$rity and a !ee1in) s me ne is a5ai1ab1e t "e1p i! pr b1ems &&$r. Idea11y# t"r $)" rea1isti& trainin)# %e &an a&4$ire t"e 2n %1ed)e and s2i11s needed t in&rease $r & n!iden&e and t"ereby mana)e $r !ears. +"e same s$r5i5a1 me&"anisms t"at 2ept $r ! re!at"ers a1i5e &an "e1p 2eep $s a1i5e as %e11K 0 %e5er# t"ese s$r5i5a1 me&"anisms t"at &an "e1p $s &an a1s % r2 a)ainst $s i! %e d nFt $nderstand and anti&ipate t"eir presen&e. +"$s# )ettin) and preser5in) ! d and %ater ta2es n in&reasin) imp rtan&e as t"e 1en)t" ! time in a s$r5i5a1 settin) in&reases.S. Un! rt$nate1y# !ear &an a1s imm bi1i'e a pers n.e&a$se it is nat$ra1 ! r $s t be a!raid# it is a1s nat$ra1 ! r $s t e?perien&e an?iety. Fe!& Fear is $r em ti na1 resp nse t dan)er $s &ir&$mstan&es t"at %e be1ie5e "a5e t"e p tentia1 t &a$se deat"# in@$ry# r i11ness. n(iron"ent -5en $nder t"e m st idea1 &ir&$mstan&es# nat$re is 4$ite ! rmidab1e. +"is $n&ertainty and 1a&2 ! & ntr 1 a1s add t t"e stress ! bein) i11# in@$red# r 2i11ed. It &an &a$se "im t be& me s !ri)"tened t"at "e !ai1s t per! rm a&ti5ities essentia1 ! r s$r5i5a1. 0is abi1ity t adapt p"ysi&a11y and menta11y t a &"an)in) % r1d 2ept "im a1i5e %"i1e t"er spe&ies ar $nd "im )rad$a11y died !!.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . A#5iet3 Ass &iated %it" !ear is an?iety. . F r a s 1dier $sed t "a5in) "is pr 5isi ns iss$ed# ! ra)in) &an be a bi) s $r&e ! stress. An?iety &an be an $neasy# appre"ensi5e !ee1in) %e )et %"en !a&ed %it" dan)er $s sit$ati ns Cp"ysi&a1# menta1# and em ti na1D. M st s 1diers %i11 "a5e s me de)ree ! !ear %"en p1a&ed in $n!ami1iar s$rr $ndin)s $nder ad5erse & nditi ns. A1t" $)" %e# as s 1diers# & mp1ain ab $t "i)"er "ead4$arters# %e be& me $sed t t"e in! rmati n and )$idan&e it pr 5ides# espe&ia11y d$rin) times ! & n!$si n. +"ere is n s"ame in t"isK -a&" s 1dier m$st train "imse1! n t t be 5er& me by "is !ears. 'atigue F r&in) y $rse1! t & ntin$e s$r5i5in) is n t easy as y $ )r % m re tired.

+"is means %e# as "$man bein)s# en@ y t"e & mpany ! t"ers. In t"is ! rm# an?iety is ) dH " %e5er# an?iety &an a1s "a5e a de5astatin) impa&t. Very !e% pe p1e %ant t be a1 ne all the time. 3"en a pers n rea&"es t"is p int# "e starts t )i5e $p# and "is ! &$s s"i!ts !r m J3"at &an I d J t J+"ere is n t"in) I &an d . .ne $t)r %t" ! t"is !r$strati n is an)er. 6ettin) 1 st# dama)ed r ! r) tten e4$ipment# t"e %eat"er# in" spitab1e terrain# enemy patr 1s# and p"ysi&a1 1imitati ns are @$st a !e% s $r&es ! !r$strati n and an)er. An?iety &an 5er%"e1m a s 1dier t t"e p int %"ere "e be& mes easi1y & n!$sed and "as di!!i&$1ty t"in2in). Fr$strati n and an)er en& $ra)e imp$1si5e rea&ti ns# irrati na1 be"a5i r# p r1y t" $)"t. M st ! a11# y $ may tap int a reser5 ir ! inner stren)t" and ! rtit$de y $ ne5er 2ne% y $ "ad. As "e red$&es "is an?iety# t"e s 1dier is a1s brin)in) $nder & ntr 1 t"e s $r&e ! t"at an?iety--"is !ears.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.n t"e t"er "and# i! y $ a11 % y $rs e1! t sin2 int a depressed state# t"en it &an sap a11 y $r ener)y and# m re imp rtant# y $r %i11 t s$r5i5e. Additi na11y# y $ m$st de5e1 p a de)ree ! se1!-s$!!i&ien&y.J (a)e 17 ! 2** . + a&"ie5e t"is ) a1# t"e s 1dier m$st & mp1ete s me tas2s %it" minima1 res $r&es.n&e t"is "appens# it be& mes m re and m re di!!i&$1t ! r "im t ma2e ) d @$d)ments and s $nd de&isi ns. +"e e?tent ! y $r ima)inati n and &reati5ity may s$rprise y $. +"e !r$strated pers n be& mes m re and m re an)ry as "e !ai1s t rea&" "is ) a1s. L"#e%i#e$$ !#( B"&e("+ Man is a s &ia1 anima1. A destr$&ti5e &y&1e bet%een an)er and !r$strati n & ntin$es $nti1 t"e pers n be& mes % rn d %n-p"ysi&a11y# em ti na11y# and menta11y. +"e ) a1 ! s$r5i5a1 is t stay a1i5e $nti1 y $ &an rea&" "e1p r $nti1 "e1p &an rea&" y $.J S$&" t" $)"ts# in !a&t# &an )i5e y $ t"e desire t try "arder and 1i5e ne m re day. L ne1iness and b red m &an brin) t t"e s$r!a&e 4$a1ities y $ t" $)"t n1y t"ers "ad.$t de&isi ns# and# in s me instan&es# an JI 4$itJ attit$de Cpe p1e s metimes a5 id d in) s met"in) t"ey &anFt masterD.S. I! t"e s 1dier &an "arness and pr per1y &"anne1 t"e em ti na1 intensity ass &iated %it" an)er and !r$strati n# "e &an pr d$&ti5e1y a&t as "e ans%ers t"e &"a11en)es ! s$r5i5a1. I! t"e an)er d es n t "e1p t"e pers n t s$&&eed# t"en t"e !r$strati n 1e5e1 ) es e5en "i)"er. + s$r5i5e# t"e s 1dier m$st 1earn te&"ni4$es t &a1m "is an?ieties and 2eep t"em in t"e ran)e %"ere t"ey "e1p# n t "$rt. 3"en re4$ired t d s # y $ may dis& 5er s me "idden ta1ents and abi1ities. Dep&e$$i"# It % $1d be a rare pers n indeed %" % $1d n t )et sad# at 1east m mentari1y# %"en !a&ed %it" t"e pri5ati ns ! s$r5i5a1. I! t"e s 1dier d es n t pr per1y ! &$s "is an)ry !ee1in)s# "e &an %aste m$&" ener)y in a&ti5ities t"at d 1itt1e t !$rt"er eit"er "is &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1 r t"e &"an&es ! t" se ar $nd "im. As t"is sadness deepens# %e 1abe1 t"e !ee1in) Jdepressi n. Y $ m$st "a5e !ait" in y $r &apabi1ity t J) it a1 ne. Department ! t"e Army r at 1east master# t"e dan)ers t"at t"reaten $r e?isten&e. +"ere are many e5ents in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n t"at &an !r$strate r an)er a s 1dier. As y $ are a%are# t"ere is a distin&t &"an&e ! is 1ati n in a s$r5i5a1 settin). It is imperati5e t"at ea&" s 1dier resist s$&&$mbin) t depressi n. I! %e %ere ne5er an?i $s# t"ere % $1d be 1itt1e m ti5ati n t ma2e &"an)es in $r 1i5es. A#0e& !#( F& $t&!ti"# Fr$strati n arises %"en a pers n is & ntin$a11y t"%arted in "is attempts t rea&" a ) a1.J Depressi n is &1 se1y 1in2ed %it" !r$strati n and an)er. +"ere is n t"in) %r n) %it" bein) sad as y $ temp rari1y t"in2 ab $t y $r 1 5ed nes and remember %"at 1i!e is 1i2e ba&2 in J&i5i1i'ati nJ r Jt"e % r1d. / n5erse1y# 1 ne1iness and b red m &an be an t"er s $r&e ! depressi n. It is ine5itab1e# in tryin) t d t"ese tas2s# t"at s met"in) %i11 ) %r n)H t"at s met"in) %i11 "appen bey nd t"e s 1dierFs & ntr 1H and t"at %it" neFs 1i!e at sta2e# e5ery mista2e is ma)ni!ied in terms ! its imp rtan&e. As a s 1dier s$r5i5in) a1 ne# r %it" t"ers# y $ m$st !ind %ays t 2eep y $r mind pr d$&ti5e1y &&$pied. . +"$s# s ner r 1ater# s 1diers %i11 "a5e t & pe %it" !r$strati n %"en a !e% ! t"eir p1ans r$n int tr $b1e. +"is is n t bad. . +"e s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 settin) red$&es "is an?iety by per! rmin) t" se tas2s t"at %i11 ens$re "is & min) t"r $)" t"e rdea1 a1i5e.J Depressi n is an e?pressi n ! t"is " pe1ess# "e1p1ess !ee1in).

+"ese &an % r2 ! r y $# r t"ey &an % r2 t y $r d %n!a11. 3"en y $ ) int a s$r5i5a1 settin) %it" $nrea1isti& e?pe&tati ns# y $ may be 1ayin) t"e )r $nd% r2 ! r bitter disapp intment.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army 1 i%t +"e &ir&$mstan&es 1eadin) t y $r bein) in a s$r5i5a1 settin) are s metimes dramati& and tra)i&. D nFt be a!raid ! y $r Jnat$ra1 rea&ti ns t t"is $nnat$ra1 sit$ati n. Stren)t"en y $r str n)er 4$a1ities and de5e1 p t"e areas t"at y $ 2n % are ne&essary t s$r5i5e. See &ir&$mstan&es as t"ey are# n t as y $ %ant t"em t be.ip!te Fe!&$ D nFt pretend t"at y $ %i11 "a5e n !ears. .J (repare y $rse1! t r$1e 5er t"ese rea&ti ns s t"ey ser5e y $r $1timate interest--stayin) a1i5e %it" t"e " n r and di)nity ass &iated %it" bein) an Ameri&an s 1dier. +"ese are t"e 4$a1ities it &an brin) $t in y $ i! y $ "a5e prepared y $rse1!.e)in t"in2in) ab $t %"at % $1d !ri)"ten y $ t"e m st i! ! r&ed t s$r5i5e a1 ne. A#ti.e1 % are a !e% tips t "e1p prepare y $rse1! psy&" 1 )i&a11y ! r s$r5i5a1. As y $ &an see# y $ are ) in) t e?perien&e an ass rtment ! t" $)"ts and em ti ns. 7#"2 Y" &$e%6 +"r $)" trainin)# !ami1y# and !riends ta2e t"e time t dis& 5er %" y $ are n t"e inside. 3"i1e nat$ra11y re1ie5ed t be a1i5e# y $ sim$1tane $s1y may be m $rnin) t"e deat"s ! t"ers %" %ere 1ess ! rt$nate.S. It may be t"e res$1t ! an a&&ident r mi1itary missi n %"ere t"ere %as a 1 ss ! 1i!e. +"is s 1dier e?perien&es psy&" 1 )i&a1 de!eat 1 n) be! re "e p"ysi&a11y s$&&$mbs. +rain in t" se areas ! & n&ern t y $. PR PARIN/ YOURS L' Y $r missi n as a s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is t stay a1i5e. +"e ) a1 is n t t e1iminate t"e !ear# b$t t b$i1d & n!iden&e in y $r abi1ity t !$n&ti n despite y $r !ears. A("pt ! P"$iti/e Attit (e (a)e 1: ! 2** . 3"ate5er reas n y $ )i5e y $rse1!# d n t 1et )$i1t !ee1in)s pre5ent y $ !r m 1i5in). +"ey pr mpt t"e s 1dier t pay m re attenti n in trainin)# t !i)"t ba&2 %"en s&ared# t ta2e a&ti ns t"at ens$re s$stenan&e and se&$rity# t 2eep !ait" %it" "is !e11 % s 1diers# and t stri5e a)ainst 1ar)e dds. +"ese rea&ti ns# %"en & ntr 11ed in a "ea1t"y %ay# "e1p t in&rease a s 1dierFs 1i2e1i" d ! s$r5i5in). . S metimes# s$r5i5 rs tried t stay a1i5e s t"at t"ey & $1d &arry n t"e % r2 ! t" se 2i11ed. Fear# an?iety# an)er# !r$strati n# )$i1t# depressi n# and 1 ne1iness are a11 p ssib1e rea&ti ns t t"e many stresses & mm n t s$r5i5a1. It is n t $n& mm n ! r s$r5i5 rs t !ee1 )$i1ty ab $t bein) spared !r m deat" %"i1e t"ers %ere n t. +"e 1i5in) %" aband n t"eir &"an&e t s$r5i5e a&& mp1is" n t"in). 8eep y $r " pes and e?pe&tati ns %it"in t"e estimate ! t"e sit$ati n. It in5 15es preparati n t ens$re t"at y $r rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 settin) are pr d$&ti5e# n t destr$&ti5e. +"is !ee1in)# %"en $sed in a p siti5e %ay# "as en& $ra)ed pe p1e t try "arder t s$r5i5e %it" t"e be1ie! t"ey %ere a11 %ed t 1i5e ! r s me )reater p$rp se in 1i!e. Instead ! ra11yin) "is interna1 res $r&es# t"e s 1dier 1istens t "is interna1 !ears. +"r $)" st$dyin) t"is man$a1 and attendin) s$r5i5a1 trainin) y $ &an de5e1 p t"e survival attitude. Be Re!%i$ti. S$&" an a&t % $1d be t"e )reatest tra)edy. Remember# s$r5i5a1 is nat$ra1 t e5ery neH bein) $ne?pe&ted1y t"r$st int t"e 1i!e and deat" str$))1e ! s$r5i5a1 is n t. 3"en t"e s$r5i5 r &ann t & ntr 1 t"ese rea&ti ns in a "ea1t"y %ay# t"ey &an brin) "im t a standsti11. F 11 % t"e ada)e# J0 pe ! r t"e best# prepare ! r t"e % rst. (er"aps y $ %ere t"e n1y# r ne ! a !e%# s$r5i5 rs.J It is m$&" easier t ad@$st t p1easant s$rprises ab $t neFs $ne?pe&ted ) d ! rt$nes t"an t be $pset by neFs $ne?pe&ted "ars" &ir&$mstan&es. D nFt be a!raid t ma2e an " nest appraisa1 ! sit$ati ns. +"e &"a11en)e ! s$r5i5a1 "as pr d$&ed & $nt1ess e?amp1es ! "er ism# & $ra)e# and se1!-sa&ri!i&e.

3"i1e %e !ten &ann t & ntr 1 t"e s$r5i5a1 &ir&$mstan&es in %"i&" %e !ind $rse15es# it is %it"in $r abi1ity t & ntr 1 $r resp nse t t" se &ir&$mstan&es.e$ (e p1e $nder stress "a5e a p tentia1 t pani& i! t"ey are n t %e11-trained and n t prepared psy&" 1 )i&a11y t !a&e %"ate5er t"e &ir&$mstan&es may be.h#i. A !e% ) d te&"ni4$es t de5e1 p in&1$de re1a?ati n s2i11s# time mana)ement s2i11s# asserti5eness s2i11s# and & )niti5e restr$&t$rin) s2i11s Ct"e abi1ity t & ntr 1 " % y $ 5ie% a sit$ati nD. Remember# t"e m re rea1isti& t"e trainin)# t"e 1ess 5er%"e1min) an a&t$a1 s$r5i5a1 settin) %i11 be. ! 2** . Remember# Jt"e %i11 t s$r5i5eJ &an a1s be & nsidered t be Jt"e re!$sa1 t )i5e $p. Learnin) stress mana)ement te&"ni4$es &an en"an&e si)ni!i&ant1y y $r &apabi1ity t remain &a1m and ! &$sed as y $ % r2 t 2eep y $rse1! and t"ers a1i5e. d n t n1y b sts m ra1e# it a1s is Re+i#( Y" &$e%6 *h!t I$ !t St!)e Remember# !ai1$re t prepare y $rse1! psy&" 1 )i&a11y t & pe %it" s$r5i5a1 1eads t rea&ti ns s$&" as depressi n# &are1essness# inattenti n# 1 ss ! & n!iden&e# p r de&isi n-ma2in)# and )i5in) $p be! re t"e b dy )i5es in.S. Dem nstratin) y $r s2i11s in trainin) %i11 )i5e y $ t"e & n!iden&e t &a11 $p n t"em s" $1d t"e need arise. Department ! t"e Army Learn t see t"e p tentia1 ) d in e5eryt"in). At sta2e is y $r 1i!e and t"e 1i5es ! t"ers %" are dependin) n y $ t d y $r s"are.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.J (a)e 1. L 2in) ! r t"e ) e?&e11ent ! r e?er&isin) y $r ima)inati n and &reati5ity. Le!&# St&e$$ M!#!0e+e#t Te. T&!i# +"r $)" mi1itary trainin) and 1i!e e?perien&es# be)in t day t prepare y $rse1! t & pe %it" t"e ri) rs ! s$r5i5a1.

0 % m$&" e4$ipment y $ p$t in y $r 2it depends n " % y $ %i11 &arry t"e 2it. (1a&e b$12y items in t"e r$&2sa&2. /arry 1ess imp rtant items n y $r 1 ad-bearin) e4$ipment. 0 %e5er# i! y $ 2n % %"at t"ese 2its & ntain# it %i11 "e1p y $ t p1an and t prepare y $r %n s$r5i5a1 2it. SURVIVAL *ITS +"e en5ir nment is t"e 2ey t t"e types ! items y $ %i11 need in y $r s$r5i5a1 2it. (reparati n means "a5in) s$r5i5a1 items and 2n %in) " % t $se t"em (e p1e %" 1i5e in sn % re)i ns prepare t"eir 5e"i&1es ! r p r r ad & nditi ns. A 2it &arried n y $r b dy %i11 "a5e t be sma11er t"an ne &arried in a 5e"i&1e. F r t"e &ase# y $ mi)"t %ant t $se a . A denta1 pr b1em in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %i11 red$&e y $r abi1ity t & pe %it" t"er pr b1ems t"at y $ !a&e. I! y $ are n t an a5iat r# y $ %i11 pr bab1y n t "a5e a&&ess t t"e s$r5i5a1 5ests r s$r5i5a1 2its. Fina11y# emer)en&y p1annin) is essentia1. In preparin) y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# se1e&t items y $ &an $se ! r m re t"an ne p$rp se. F r e?amp1e# i! y $r @ b re-4$ires t"at y $ % r2 in a sma11# en&1 sed area t"at 1imits %"at y $ &an &arry n y $r pers n# p1an %"ere y $ &an p$t y $r r$&2sa&2 r y $r 1 ad-bearin) e4$ipment. An t"er e?amp1e ! preparati n is !indin) t"e emer)en&y e?its n an air&ra!t %"en y $ b ard it ! r a !1i)"t. A1%ays 1ayer y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# 2eepin) t"e m st imp rtant items n y $r b dy. Y $ need n1y !$n&ti na1 items t"at %i11 meet y $r needs and a &ase t " 1d t"e items.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"ere are 2its ! r 5er-%ater s$r5i5a1# ! r " t &1imate s$r5i5a1# and an a5iat r s$r5i5a1 5est Csee Appendi? A ! r a des&ripti n ! t"ese s$r5i5a1 2its and t"eir & ntentsD. I0PORTANC O' PLANNIN/ Detai1ed pri r p1annin) is essentia1 in p tentia1 s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. +"ey p$t sn % tires n t"eir 5e"i&1es# add e?tra %ei)"t in t"e ba&2 ! r tra&ti n# and t"ey &arry a s" 5e1# sa1t# and a b1an2et. (a)e 2< ! 2** .e! re ma2in) y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# " %e5er# & nsider y $r $nitFs missi n# t"e perati na1 en5ir nment# and t"e e4$ipment and 5e"i&1es assi)ned t y $r $nit. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 8 . In&1$din) s$r5i5a1 & nsiderati ns in missi n p1annin) %i11 en"an&e y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1 i! an emer)en&y &&$rs. (reparin) and &arryin) a s$r5i5a1 2it is as imp rtant as t"e & nsiderati ns menti ned ab 5e. +"$s# s$r5i5a1 p1annin) means preparati n. Fai1$re t 2eep y $r s" ts &$rrent may mean y $r b dy is n t imm$ne t diseases t"at are pre5a1ent in t"e area. ($t it %"ere it %i11 n t pre5ent y $ !r m )ettin) $t ! t"e area 4$i&21y# yet %"ere it is readi1y a&&essib1e. +"is &ase s" $1d be-• 3ater repe11ent r %aterpr !.and-Aid b ?# a !irst aid &ase# an amm$niti n p $&"# r an t"er s$itab1e &ase. D n t d$p1i&ate items# as t"is in&reases y $r 2itFs si'e and %ei)"t. A11 Army air&ra!t n rma11y "a5e s$r5i5a1 2its n b ard ! r t"e type areaCsD 5er %"i&" t"ey %i11 !1y. I! y $ "a5e t% items t"at %i11 ser5e t"e same !$n&ti n# pi&2 t"e ne y $ &an $se ! r an t"er !$n&ti n. F r e?amp1e# y $r map and & mpass s" $1d a1%ays be n y $r b dy. . -5en t"e sma11est s$r5i5a1 2it# i! pr per1y prepared# is in5a1$ab1e %"en !a&ed %it" a s$r5i5a1 pr b1em.SURVIVAL PLANNIN1 AND SURVIVAL 7ITS S$r5i5a1 p1annin) is n t"in) m re t"an rea1i'in) s met"in) & $1d "appen t"at % $1d p$t y $ in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n and# %it" t"at in mind# ta2in) steps t in&rease y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. Y $r s$r5i5a1 2it need n t be e1ab rate. (reparati n & $1d a1s mean 2n %in) y $r intended r $te ! tra5e1 and !ami1iari'in) y $rse1! %it" t"e area.S. -ns$rin) t"at y $ "a5e n denta1 pr b1ems and t"at y $r imm$ni'ati ns are &$rrent %i11 "e1p y $ a5 id p tentia1 denta1 r "ea1t" pr b1ems. .ne imp rtant aspe&t ! pri r p1annin) is pre5enti5e medi&ine.

S$itab1e t a&&ept 5arisi'ed & mp nents. +"en prepare y $r s$r5i5a1 2it. • Si)na1in) mirr r. • F d pr &$rement items. • 3ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets r dr ps. • Fis"" 2s. • /and1e. S me e?amp1es ! t"ese items are-• Li)"ter# meta1 mat&"# %aterpr ! mat&"es. • 3ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets.$tter!1y s$t$res. • . • S$r)i&a1 b1ades. Department ! t"e Army • • • -asy t &arry r atta&" t y $r b dy. • 3rist & mpass. • Snare %ire. • . (a)e 21 ! 2** . In&1$de a %eap n n1y i! t"e sit$ati n s di&tates.S. D$rab1e. / nsider y $r $nitFs missi n and t"e en5ir nment in %"i&" y $r $nit %i11 perate. • /"ap Sti&2. • Sma11 "and 1ens. In y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# y $ s" $1d "a5e-• First aid items. • / nd ms ! r %ater st ra)e. • Fire startin) e4$ipment.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.?ytetra&y&1ine tab1ets Cdiarr"ea r in!e&ti nD. • Si)na1in) items. • S 1ar b1an2et. Read ab $t and pra&ti&e t"e s$r5i5a1 te&"ni4$es in t"is man$a1. • Need1e and t"read. • S"e1ter items. • Fis" and snare 1ine. • 8ni!e.

• L % $rine $tp$t. D$rin) a5era)e dai1y e?erti n %"en t"e atm sp"eri& temperat$re is 2< de)rees /e1si$s C/D C6: de)rees Fa"ren"eitD# t"e a5era)e ad$1t 1 ses and t"ere! re re4$ires 2 t * 1iters ! %ater dai1y.BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE -oremost among the many problems that can compromise a survivor. Y $ m$st a1s "a5e and app1y "i)" pers na1 "y)iene standards. ALT. (a)e 22 ! 2** . R 1UIR 0 NTS 'OR 0AINT NANC O' .S. 0ne man with a !air amount o! basic medical knowledge can make a di!!erence in the lives o! many. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 9 . / nsider t"e ! 11 %in) res$1ts ! b dy !1$id 1 ssI • A 9 per&ent 1 ss ! b dy !1$ids res$1ts in t"irst# irritabi1ity# na$sea# and %ea2ness. . ithout )uali!ied medical personnel available" it is you who must know what to do to stay alive. *!te& Y $r b dy 1 ses %ater t"r $)" n rma1 b dy pr &esses Cs%eatin)# $rinatin)# and de!e&atin)D. + s$r5i5e# y $ need %ater and ! d. /any evaders and survivors have reported di!!iculty in treating in$uries and illness due to the lack o! training and medical supplies.t"er !a&t rs# s$&" as "eat e?p s$re# & 1d e?p s$re# intense a&ti5ity# "i)" a1tit$de# b$rns# r i11ness# &an &a$se y $r b dy t 1 se m re %ater.s ability to return to sa!ety are medical problems resulting !rom parachute descent and landing" e+treme climates" ground combat" evasion" and illnesses contracted in captivity. Y $ m$st rep1a&e t"is %ater. De"ydrati n res$1ts !r m inade4$ate rep1a&ement ! 1 st b dy !1$ids.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Dar2# s$n2en eyes. +"e m st & mm n si)ns and sympt ms ! de"ydrati n are-• Dar2 $rine %it" a 5ery str n) d r. It de&reases y $r e!!i&ien&y and# i! in@$red# in&reases y $r s$s&eptibi1ity t se5ere s" &2. • A 19 per&ent 1 ss res$1ts in dim 5isi n# pain!$1 $rinati n# s% 11en t n)$e# dea!ness# and a n$mb !ee1in) in t"e s2in. • A 1 ss )reater t"an 19 per&ent ! b dy !1$ids may res$1t in deat". The ability to treat themselves increased their morale and cohesion and aided in their survival and eventual return to !riendly !orces. -or some" this led to capture or surrender. • A 1< per&ent 1 ss res$1ts in di''iness# "eada&"e# inabi1ity t %a12# and a tin)1in) sensati n in t"e 1imbs. Survivors have related !eeling o! apathy and helplessness because they could not treat themselves in this environment.

+"e a5era)e pers n needs 2#<<< &a1 ries per day t !$n&ti n at a minim$m 1e5e1. De1ayed &api11ary re!i11 in !in)ernai1 beds. (a)e 2* ! 2** .9 t <. In any sit$ati n %"ere ! d inta2e is 1 %# drin2 6 t : 1iters ! %ater per day. +"irst. Y $ &an estimate !1$id 1 ss by se5era1 means. F d rep1enis"es t"e s$bstan&es t"at y $r b dy b$rns and pr 5ides ener)y. • Ration water. /a1 ries are a meas$re ! "eat and p tentia1 ener)y. +"e a5era)e diet &an $s$a11y 2eep $p %it" t"ese 1 sses b$t in an e?treme sit$ati n r i11ness# additi na1 s $r&es need t be pr 5ided. A mi?t$re ! <.9 1iterD ! a s$)ar-%ater mi?t$re C2 teasp ns per 1iterD %i11 s$!!i&e t pre5ent se5ere de"ydrati n ! r at 1east a %ee2# pr 5ided y $ 2eep %ater 1 sses t a minim$m by 1imitin) a&ti5ity and "eat )ain r 1 ss. Limit s%eat-pr d$&in) a&ti5ities b$t drin2 %ater. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • Fati)$e. • 3it" a <.9 1iter e5ery 27 " $rs. L ss ! s2in e1asti&ity.! a11 t"e p"ysi&a1 pr b1ems en& $ntered in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# t"e 1 ss ! %ater is t"e m st pre5entab1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e b dy per! rms m re e!!i&ient1y in e?treme & nditi ns %"en a&&1imati'ed. M st pe p1e &ann t & m! rtab1y drin2 m re t"an 1 1iter ! %ater at a time. An ade4$ate am $nt ! &arb "ydrates# !ats# and pr teins %it" $t an ade4$ate &a1 ri& inta2e %i11 1ead t star5ati n and &anniba1ism ! t"e b dyFs %n tiss$e ! r ener)y. -m ti na1 instabi1ity. A standard !ie1d dressin) " 1ds ab $t <. +"e t% basi& s $r&es ! ! d are p1ants and anima1s Cin&1$din) !is"D. Unti1 y $ !ind a s$itab1e s $r&e# rati n y $r %ater sensib1y. It pr 5ides 5itamins# minera1s# sa1ts# and t"er e1ements essentia1 t ) d "ea1t". +ren&" 1ine d %n &enter ! t n)$e. • Acclimati*e. +ryin) t ma2e $p a de!i&it is di!!i&$1t in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# and t"irst is n t a si)n ! " % m$&" %ater y $ need.9 t 2 1iter 1 ss t"e p$1se rate %i11 be 12< t 17< beats per min$te and *< t 7< breat"s per min$te.79 1iter 1 ss t"e %rist p$1se rate %i11 be $nder 1<< beats per min$te and t"e breat"in) rate 12 t 2< breat"s per min$te. 3ater is $sed and & ns$med as a part ! t"e di)esti n pr &ess and &an 1ead t de"ydrati n.29 teasp n ! sa1t t 1 1iter ! %ater %i11 pr 5ide a & n&entrati n t"at t"e b dy tiss$es &an readi1y abs rb. In t"is type ! &1imate# y $ s" $1d drin2 17 t *< 1iters ! %ater per day. Use t"e ! 11 %in) as a )$ideI • 3it" a <. In an e?treme &1imate# espe&ia11y an arid ne# t"e a5era)e pers n &an 1 se 2.79 t 1.9 1iters ! %ater per hour. 3it" $t ! d y $r menta1 and p"ysi&a1 &apabi1ities %i11 deteri rate rapid1y# and y $ %i11 be& me %ea2. ( ssib1y m re imp rtant# it "e1ps m ra1e. In 5aryin) de)rees b t" pr 5ide t"e &a1 ries# &arb "ydrates# !ats# and pr teins needed ! r n rma1 dai1y b dy !$n&ti ns. Last n t"e 1ist be&a$se y $ are a1ready 2 per&ent de"ydrated by t"e time y $ &ra5e !1$ids. F""( A1t" $)" y $ &an 1i5e se5era1 %ee2s %it" $t ! d# y $ need an ade4$ate am $nt t stay "ea1t"y.29 1iter C ne-! $rt" &anteenD ! b1 d. Y $ &an a1s $se t"e p$1se and breat"in) rate t estimate !1$id 1 ss.79 1iter. Y $ rep1a&e t"e %ater as y $ 1 se it. I! y $ are $nder p"ysi&a1 and menta1 stress r s$b@e&t t se5ere & nditi ns# in&rease y $r %ater inta2e. Drin2 en $)" 1i4$ids t maintain a $rine $tp$t ! at 1east <. A dai1y inta2e ! 9<< &$bi& &entimeter C<. S # e5en %"en n t t"irsty# drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater at re)$1ar inter5a1s ea&" " $r t pre5ent de"ydrati n.9 1iter 1 ss t"e p$1se rate %i11 be 1<< t 12< beats per min$te and 2< t *< breat"s per min$te.S. . 3it" t"e 1 ss ! %ater t"ere is a1s a 1 ss ! e1e&tr 1ytes Cb dy sa1tsD. +"e ! 11 %in) are basi& )$ide1ines ! r t"e pre5enti n ! de"ydrati nI • Always drink water when eating. Vita1 si)ns ab 5e t"ese rates re4$ire m re ad5an&ed &are. • 3it" a 1.9 t *. • 1onserve sweat not water. A s a2ed +-s"irt " 1ds <.

• ( $r %ater 5er t"e as"es and & 11e&t t"e 1i4$id t"at drips $t ! t"e sp $t in a separate & ntainer. +"ese &an satis!y y $r immediate "$n)er %"i1e y $ are preparin) traps and snares ! r 1ar)er )ame. *eep Your . (ay spe&ia1 attenti n t t"e !eet# armpits# &r t&"# "ands# and "air as t"ese are prime areas ! r in!estati n and in!e&ti n. In !a&t# it may e5en be m re readi1y a5ai1ab1e in s me p1a&es. Use a &1 t" and s apy %ater t %as" y $rse1!. • / 2 t"e !at s1 %1y# stirrin) !re4$ent1y. ( r "y)iene &an red$&e y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. • (1a&e as"es in a & ntainer %it" a sp $t near t"e b tt m.ands Clean 6erms n y $r "ands &an in!e&t ! d and % $nds. An t"er %ay t )et t"e 1ye is t p $r t"e s1$rry Ct"e mi?t$re ! as"es and %aterD t"r $)" a strainin) &1 t". +"e ! d 5a1$e ! p1ants be& mes m re and m re imp rtant i! y $ are e1$din) t"e enemy r i! y $ are in an area %"ere %i1d1i!e is s&ar&e. Ani"al 'oods Meat is m re n $ris"in) t"an p1ant ! d.S. Rem 5e as m$&" ! y $r &1 t"in) as pra&ti&a1 and e?p se y $r b dy t t"e s$n and air ! r at 1east 1 " $r. • In a & 2in) p t# mi? t% parts )rease t ne part p tas". F r instan&e-• Y $ &an dry p1ants by %ind# air# s$n# r !ire. . • A!ter t"e !at is rendered# p $r t"e )rease int a & ntainer t "arden. 0 %e5er# t )et meat# y $ need t 2n % t"e "abits !# and " % t &apt$re# t"e 5ari $s %i1d1i!e. • Add en $)" %ater t t"e p t t 2eep t"e !at !r m sti&2in) as it & 2s. +"is retards sp i1a)e s t"at y $ &an st re r &arry t"e p1ant ! d %it" y $ t $se %"en needed. +"is is e?treme1y imp rtant %"en t"e enemy is near. I! y $ d nFt "a5e s ap# $se as"es r sand# r ma2e s ap !r m anima1 !at and % d as"es# i! y $r sit$ati n a11 %s. • (1a&e t"is mi?t$re 5er a !ire and b i1 it $nti1 it t"i&2ens. A1t" $)" p1ants may n t pr 5ide a ba1an&ed diet# t"ey %i11 s$stain y $ e5en in t"e ar&ti&# %"ere meatFs "eat-pr d$&in) 4$a1ities are n rma11y essentia1. Department ! t"e Army Plant 'oods +"ese ! ds pr 5ide &arb "ydrates--t"e main s $r&e ! ener)y. A!ter t"e mi?t$re--t"e s ap--& 1s# y $ &an $se it in t"e semi 1i4$id state dire&t1y !r m t"e p t. • Y $ &an btain p1ants m re easi1y and m re 4$iet1y t"an meat.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. + ma2e s ap-• -?tra&t )rease !r m anima1 !at by &$ttin) t"e !at int sma11 pie&es and & 2in) t"em in a p t. + satis!y y $r immediate ! d needs# !irst see2 t"e m re ab$ndant and m re easi1y btained %i1d1i!e# s$&" as inse&ts# &r$sta&eans# m 11$s2s# !is"# and repti1es. Many p1ants pr 5ide en $)" pr tein t 2eep t"e b dy at n rma1 e!!i&ien&y.e &are!$1 n t t s$nb$rn. Many p1ant ! ds s$&" as n$ts and seeds %i11 )i5e y $ en $)" pr tein and i1s ! r n rma1 e!!i&ien&y. +"is 1i4$id is t"e p tas" r 1ye. A dai1y s" %er %it" " t %ater and s ap is idea1# b$t y $ &an stay &1ean %it" $t t"is 1$?$ry. It be& mes e5en m re imp rtant in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Y $ &an a1s p $r it int a pan# a11 % it t "arden# and &$t it int bars ! r 1ater $se. I! %ater is s&ar&e# ta2e an JairJ bat". Pe&$"#!% H30ie#e In any sit$ati n# &1ean1iness is an imp rtant !a&t r in pre5entin) in!e&ti n and disease. 3as" y $r "ands a!ter "and1in) any materia1 t"at is 1i2e1y t &arry )erms# a!ter 5isitin) t"e 1atrine# a!ter &arin) ! r t"e si&2# and be! re "and1in) any ! d# ! d (a)e 27 ! 2** . R ts# )reen 5e)etab1es# and p1ant ! d & ntainin) nat$ra1 s$)ar %i11 pr 5ide &a1 ries and &arb "ydrates t"at )i5e t"e b dy nat$ra1 ener)y.

Department ! t"e Army $tensi1s# r drin2in) %ater. • Deta&" t"e need1e and 1ea5e b t" ends ! t"e t"read "an)in) $t ! t"e b1ister. ( %der and &"e&2 y $r !eet dai1y ! r b1isters.S. I! %ater is s&ar&e# JairJ &1ean y $r &1 t"in) by s"a2in)# airin)# and s$nnin) it ! r 2 " $rs. A1s # !1 ssin) y $r teet" %it" strin) r !iber "e1ps ra1 "y)iene. An inta&t b1ister is sa!e !r m in!e&ti n. /"e% ne end ! t"e sti&2 t separate t"e !ibers. Ma2e s$re y $ &1ean t"e &a5ity by rinsin) r pi&2in) t"e parti&1es $t ! t"e &a5ity be! re p1a&in) a !i11in) in t"e &a5ity. I! y $ are $sin) a s1eepin) ba)# t$rn it inside $t a!ter ea&" $se# !1$!! it# and air it. +"en rinse y $r m $t" %it" %ater# sa1t %ater# r %i11 % bar2 tea. An t"er %ay is t %rap a &1ean strip ! &1 t" ar $nd y $r !in)ers and r$b y $r teet" %it" it t %ipe a%ay ! d parti&1es. App1y a paddin) materia1 ar $nd t"e b1ister t re1ie5e press$re and red$&e !ri&ti n. +"is red$&es t"e si'e ! t"e " 1e and ens$res t"at t"e " 1e d es n t &1 se $p. 8eep y $r !in)ernai1s &1 se1y trimmed and &1ean# and 2eep y $r !in)ers $t ! y $r m $t".air Clean Y $r "air &an be& me a "a5en ! r ba&teria r !1eas# 1i&e# and t"er parasites. I! y $ )et a sma11 b1ister# d n t pen it. /1ean and dress it dai1y and pad ar $nd it. /et Su$$icient Rest Y $ need a &ertain am $nt ! rest t 2eep ) in). Find a t%i) ab $t 2< &entimeters 1 n) and 1 &entimeter %ide. +rim y $r t enai1s strai)"t a&r ss. 3as" and massa)e y $r !eet dai1y. *eep Ca"p Site Clean (a)e 29 ! 2** . *eep Your Teeth Clean +" r $)"1y &1ean y $r m $t" and teet" %it" a t t"br$s" at 1east n&e ea&" day. *eep Your Clothing Clean 8eep y $r &1 t"in) and beddin) as &1ean as p ssib1e t red$&e t"e &"an&e ! s2in in!e&ti n as %e11 as t de&rease t"e dan)er ! parasiti& in!estati n. Lea5e 1ar)e b1isters inta&t. Learn t ma2e y $rse1! & m! rtab1e $nder 1ess t"an idea1 & nditi ns. 3ear &1ean $nder&1 t"in) and s &2s ea&" day. *eep Your . Y $ &an a1s br$s" y $r teet" %it" sma11 am $nts ! sand# ba2in) s da# sa1t# r s ap. I! y $ "a5e &a5ities# y $ &an ma2e temp rary !i11in)s by p1a&in) &and1e %a?# t ba&& # aspirin# " t pepper# t t" paste r p %der# r p rti ns ! a )in)er r t int t"e &a5ity. A &"an)e !r m menta1 t p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity r 5i&e 5ersa &an be re!res"in) %"en time r sit$ati n d es n t permit t ta1 re1a?ati n. N % br$s" y $r teet" t" r $)"1y. Ta-e Care o$ Your 'eet + pre5ent seri $s ! t pr b1ems# brea2 in y $r s" es be! re %earin) t"em n any missi n. + a5 id "a5in) t"e b1ister b$rst r tear $nder press$re and &a$se a pain!$1 and pen s re# d t"e ! 11 %in)I • . I! y $ d nFt "a5e a t t"br$s"# ma2e a &"e%in) sti&2. +"e t"read %i11 abs rb t"e 1i4$id inside.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.btain a se%in)-type need1e and a &1ean r steri1i'ed t"read. 3ear an ins 1e and t"e pr per si'e ! dry s &2s. I! t"e b1ister b$rsts# treat it as an pen % $nd. /1ean y $r $ter &1 t"in) %"ene5er it be& mes s i1ed. • (ad ar $nd t"e b1ister. 8eepin) y $r "air &1ean# & mbed# and trimmed "e1ps y $ a5 id t"is dan)er. • R$n t"e need1e and t"read t"r $)" t"e b1ister a!ter &1eanin) t"e b1ister. (1an ! r re)$1ar rest peri ds ! at 1east 1< min$tes per " $r d$rin) y $r dai1y a&ti5ities.

A pers n may die !r m arteria1 b1eedin) m re 4$i&21y t"an !r m an air%ay bstr$&ti n in s me &ases. • Fa&e r ne&2 in@$ries. Stand by# reass$re t"e 5i&tim# and be ready t &1ear "is air%ay and per! rm m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n s" $1d "e be& me $n& ns&i $s. Reass$re "im and try t 2eep "im 4$iet. (a)e 26 ! 2** . Step 3. L 2 ! r t"e &a$se ! t"e in@$ry and ! 11 % t"e A. Sh".%e+$ Any ne ! t"e ! 11 %in) &an &a$se air%ay bstr$&ti n# res$1tin) in st pped breat"in)I • F rei)n matter in m $t" ! t"r at t"at bstr$&ts t"e penin) t t"e tra&"ea. 3"en an indi5id$a1 is $n& ns&i $s# t"e m$s&1es ! t"e 1 %er @a% and t n)$e re1a? as t"e ne&2 dr ps ! r%ard# &a$sin) t"e 1 %er @a% t sa) and t"e t n)$e t dr p ba&2 and b1 &2 t"e passa)e ! air. Ope# Ai&2!3 !#( M!i#t!i# Y $ &an pen an air%ay and maintain it by $sin) t"e ! 11 %in) steps.) S" &2 Ca&$te stress rea&ti nD is n t a disease in itse1!. Department ! t"e Army D n t s i1 t"e )r $nd in t"e &amp site area %it" $rine r !e&es. Usin) t"e @a% t"r$st met" d# )rasp t"e an)1es ! t"e 5i&timFs 1 %er @a% and 1i!t %it" b t" "ands# ne n ea&" side# m 5in) t"e @a% ! r%ard. 3"en 1atrines are n t a5ai1ab1e# di) J&at " 1esJ and & 5er t"e %aste. F r stabi1ity# rest y $r e1b %s n t"e s$r!a&e n %"i&" t"e 5i&tim is 1yin). +"e 1 ss ! * 1iters is $s$a11y !ata1. (er! rm a rapid p"ysi&a1 e?am. I! "is 1ips are &1 sed# )ent1y pen t"e 1 %er 1ip %it" y $r t"$mb CFi)$re 7-1D. B&e!thi#0 P&"./s ! !irst aid# startin) %it" t"e air%ay and breat"in)# b$t be dis&ernin). 0 . +"e 1 ss ! 1 1iter ! b1 d %i11 pr d$&e m derate sympt ms ! s" &2. Step 4. I! "e &an & $)" r spea2# a11 % "im t &1ear t"e bstr$&ti n nat$ra11y. ($ri!y a11 %ater. Usin) a !in)er# 4$i&21y s%eep t"e 5i&timFs m $t" &1ear ! any ! rei)n b@e&ts# br 2en teet"# dent$res# sand.ICAL 0 R/ NCI S Medi&a1 pr b1ems and emer)en&ies y $ may be !a&ed %it" in&1$de breat"in) pr b1ems# se5ere b1eedin)# and s" &2. / 11e&t drin2in) %ater $pstream !r m t"e &amp site.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • In!1ammati n and s%e11in) ! m $t" and t"r at &a$sed by in"a1in) sm 2e# !1ames# and irritatin) 5ap rs r by an a11er)i& rea&ti n. • + n)$e b1 &2s passa)e ! air t t"e 1$n)s $p n $n& ns&i $sness. LI' SAVIN/ ST PS / ntr 1 pani&# b t" y $r %n and t"e 5i&timFs. Use 1atrines# i! a5ai1ab1e. +"e 1 ss ! 2 1iters %i11 pr d$&e a se5ere state ! s" &2 t"at p1a&es t"e b dy in e?treme dan)er. /"e&2 i! t"e 5i&tim "as a partia1 r & mp1ete air%ay bstr$&ti n. • J8in2J in t"e t"r at C&a$sed by t"e ne&2 bent ! r%ard s t"at t"e &"in rests $p n t"e &"estD may b1 &2 t"e passa)e ! air. I! "is air%ay is & mp1ete1y bstr$&ted# administer abd mina1 t"r$sts $nti1 t"e bstr$&ti n is &1eared. Step 2.S. It is a &1ini&a1 & nditi n &"ara&teri'ed by sympt ms t"at arise %"en &ardia& $tp$t is ins$!!i&ient t !i11 t"e arteries %it" b1 d $nder en $)" press$re t pr 5ide an ade4$ate b1 d s$pp1y t t"e r)ans and tiss$es. Se/e&e B%ee(i#0 Se5ere b1eedin) !r m any ma@ r b1 d 5esse1 in t"e b dy is e?treme1y dan)er $s.

+"ere! re# arteria1 b1eedin) is t"e m st seri $s type ! b1eedin). Step 6. • 1apillary. Ven $s b1 d is b1 d t"at is ret$rnin) t t"e "eart t"r $)" b1 d 5esse1s &a11ed 5eins.e&a$se t"e b1 d in t"e arteries is $nder "i)" press$re# an indi5id$a1 &an 1 se a 1ar)e 5 1$me ! b1 d in a s" rt peri d %"en dama)e t an artery ! si)ni!i&ant si'e &&$rs. A steady !1 % ! dark red" maroon" or bluish blood &"ara&teri'es b1eedin) !r m a 5ein. (a)e 27 ! 2** . • Venous. 8ote9 1ardiopulmonary resuscitation &1:R' may be necessary a!ter cleaning the airway" but only a!ter ma$or bleeding is under control. Step 7.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.1 d 5esse1s &a11ed arteries &arry b1 d a%ay !r m t"e "eart and t"r $)" t"e b dy. See -/ 32%3. I! n t & ntr 11ed pr mpt1y# it &an be !ata1." the American (eart Association manual" the Red 1ross manual" or most other !irst aid books !or detailed instructions on 1:R. C"#t&"% B%ee(i#0 In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ m$st & ntr 1 seri $s b1eedin) immediate1y be&a$se rep1a&ement !1$ids n rma11y are n t a5ai1ab1e and t"e 5i&tim &an die %it"in a matter ! min$tes. /"e&2 t"e 5i&timFs m $t" peri di&a11y ! r 5 mit and &1ear as needed. . A11 % t"e 1$n)s t de!1ate a!ter t"e se& nd in!1ati n and per! rm t"e ! 11 %in)I • Look ! r "is &"est t rise and !a11. +"e &api11aries are t"e e?treme1y sma11 5esse1s t"at & nne&t t"e arteries %it" t"e 5eins.S. Y $ &an & ntr 1 e?terna1 b1eedin) by dire&t press$re# indire&t Cpress$re p intsD press$re# e1e5ati n# di)ita1 1i)ati n# r t $rni4$et. • Listen ! r es&apin) air d$rin) e?"a1ati n. . 3it" t"e 5i&timFs air%ay pen# pin&" "is n se &1 sed %it" y $r t"$mb and ! re!in)er and b1 % t% & mp1ete breat"s int "is 1$n)s. +"ere is dan)er ! t"e 5i&tim 5 mitin) d$rin) m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n. /api11ary b1eedin) m st & mm n1y &&$rs in min r &$ts and s&rapes. • -eel ! r !1 % ! air n y $r &"ee2. -?terna1 b1eedin) !a11s int t"e ! 11 %in) &1assi!i&ati ns Ca&& rdin) t its s $r&eDI • Arterial. +"is type ! b1eedin) is n t di!!i&$1t t & ntr 1. Y $ &an $s$a11y & ntr 1 5en $s b1eedin) m re easi1y t"an arteria1 b1eedin). Department ! t"e Army Step 5. I! t"e ! r&ed breat"s d n t stim$1ate sp ntane $s breat"in)# maintain t"e 5i&timFs breat"in) by per! rmin) m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n. A &$t artery iss$es bright red b1 d !r m t"e % $nd in distinct spurts r p$1ses t"at & rresp nd t t"e r"yt"m ! t"e "eartbeat.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. It s" $1d be ti)"ter t"an an rdinary & mpressi n banda)e b$t n t s ti)"t t"at it impairs &ir&$1ati n t t"e rest ! t"e 1imb. . 0 %e5er# e1e5ati n a1 ne %i11 (a)e 2: ! 2** . +"is dressin) & nsists ! a t"i&2 dressin) ! )a$'e r t"er s$itab1e materia1 app1ied dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd and "e1d in p1a&e %it" a ti)"t1y %rapped banda)e CFi)$re 7-2D. Lea5e t"e press$re dressin) in p1a&e ! r 1 r 2 days# a!ter %"i&" y $ &an rem 5e and rep1a&e it %it" a sma11er dressin). +"is press$re m$st n t n1y be !irm en $)" t st p t"e b1eedin)# b$t it m$st a1s be maintained 1 n) en $)" t Jsea1 !!J t"e dama)ed s$r!a&e.irect Pressure +"e m st e!!e&ti5e %ay t & ntr 1 e?terna1 b1eedin) is by app1yin) press$re dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd. le(ation Raisin) an in@$red e?tremity as "i)" as p ssib1e ab 5e t"e "eartFs 1e5e1 s1 %s b1 d 1 ss by aidin) t"e ret$rn ! b1 d t t"e "eart and 1 %erin) t"e b1 d press$re at t"e % $nd. Department ! t"e Army .S.n&e y $ app1y t"e dressin)# do not remove it" e5en %"en t"e dressin) be& mes b1 d s a2ed. I! b1eedin) & ntin$es a!ter "a5in) app1ied dire&t press$re ! r *< min$tes# app1y a press$re dressin). In t"e 1 n)-term s$r5i5a1 en5ir nment# ma2e !res"# dai1y dressin) &"an)es and inspe&t ! r si)ns ! in!e&ti n.

n "ands# !eet# and "ead# t"is %i11 be t"e %rist# an21e# and ne&2# respe&ti5e1y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ &ann t remember t"e e?a&t 1 &ati n ! t"e press$re p ints# ! 11 % t"is r$1eI App1y press$re at t"e end ! t"e @ int @$st ab 5e t"e in@$red area. ! 2** . Tourni!uet (a)e 2. *ARNIN1 Use &a$ti n %"en app1yin) press$re t t"e ne&2. . . Maintain press$re p ints by p1a&in) a r $nd sti&2 in t"e @ int# bendin) t"e @ int 5er t"e sti&2# and t"en 2eepin) it ti)"t1y bent by 1as"in). + m$&" press$re ! r t 1 n) may &a$se $n& ns&i $sness r deat".S. It is rare %"en a sin)1e ma@ r & mpressib1e artery s$pp1ies a dama)ed 5esse1.y $sin) t"is met" d t maintain press$re# it !rees y $r "ands t % r2 in t"er areas. 3"en treatin) a sna2ebite# " %e5er# 2eep t"e e?tremity 1 %er t"an t"e "eart. Y $ &an $se di)ita1 press$re n a press$re p int t s1 % arteria1 b1eedin) $nti1 t"e app1i&ati n ! a press$re dressin). Maintain t"e press$re $nti1 t"e b1eedin) st ps r s1 %s d %n en $)" t app1y a press$re banda)e# e1e5ati n# and s ! rt".igital Ligation Y $ &an st p ma@ r b1eedin) immediate1y r s1 % it d %n by app1yin) press$re %it" a !in)er r t% n t"e b1eedin) end ! t"e 5ein r artery. Pressure Points A press$re p int is a 1 &ati n %"ere t"e main artery t t"e % $nd 1ies near t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e s2in r %"ere t"e artery passes dire&t1y 5er a b ny pr minen&e CFi)$re 7-*D. . Ne5er p1a&e a t $rni4$et ar $nd t"e ne&2. Department ! t"e Army n t & ntr 1 b1eedin) entire1yH y $ m$st a1s app1y dire&t press$re 5er t"e % $nd. (ress$re p int & ntr 1 is n t as e!!e&ti5e ! r & ntr 11in) b1eedin) as dire&t press$re e?erted n t"e % $nd.

Department ! t"e Army Use a t $rni4$et n1y %"en dire&t press$re 5er t"e b1eedin) p int and a11 t"er met" ds did n t & ntr 1 t"e b1eedin). 3"en y $ "a5e ti)"tened t"e t $rni4$et# bind t"e !ree end ! t"e sti&2 t t"e 1imb t pre5ent $n%indin).) (a)e *< ! 2** . A!ter y $ se&$re t"e t $rni4$et# &1ean and banda)e t"e % $nd.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. P&e/e#t !#( T&e!t Sh". An impr per1y app1ied t $rni4$et &an a1s &a$se permanent dama)e t ner5es and t"er tiss$es at t"e site ! t"e & nstri&ti n. A 1 ne s$r5i5 r ("e$ #"t rem 5e r re1ease an app1ied t $rni4$et. I! y $ 1ea5e a t $rni4$et in p1a&e t 1 n)# t"e dama)e t t"e tiss$es &an pr )ress t )an)rene# %it" a 1 ss ! t"e 1imb 1ater. Use a sti&2 as a "and1e t ti)"ten t"e t $rni4$et and ti)"ten it n1y en $)" t st p b1 d !1 %. In a b$ddy system# " %e5er# t"e b$ddy &an re1ease t"e t $rni4$et press$re e5ery 1< t 19 min$tes ! r 1 r 2 min$tes t 1et b1 d !1 % t t"e rest ! t"e e?tremity t pre5ent 1imb 1 ss. Ne5er p1a&e it dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd r a !ra&t$re. I! y $ m$st $se a t $rni4$et# p1a&e it ar $nd t"e e?tremity# bet%een t"e % $nd and t"e "eart# 9 t 1< &entimeters ab 5e t"e % $nd site CFi)$re 7-7D.S.

• I! t"e 5i&tim is & ns&i $s# s1 %1y administer sma11 d ses ! a %arm sa1t r s$)ar s 1$ti n# i! a5ai1ab1e. • I! t"e 5i&tim is $n& ns&i $s r "as abd mina1 % $nds# d n t )i5e !1$ids by m $t".n&e t"e 5i&tim is in a s" &2 p siti n# d n t m 5e "im. (a)e *1 ! 2** . • I! t"e 5i&tim is $n& ns&i $s# p1a&e "im n "is side r abd men %it" "is "ead t$rned t ne side t pre5ent &" 2in) n 5 mit# b1 d# r t"er !1$ids. • I! y $ are $ns$re ! t"e best p siti n# p1a&e t"e 5i&tim per!e&t1y !1at.S. • I! %et# rem 5e a11 t"e 5i&timFs %et &1 t"in) as s n as p ssib1e and rep1a&e %it" dry &1 t"in).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . • I! y $ are %it" a b$ddy# reassess y $r patient & nstant1y. • Use %arm 1i4$ids r ! ds# a pre%armed s1eepin) ba)# an t"er pers n# %armed %ater in &anteens# " t r &2s %rapped in &1 t"in)# r !ires n eit"er side ! t"e 5i&tim t pr 5ide e?terna1 %armt". • Maintain b dy "eat by ins$1atin) t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e s$rr $ndin)s and# in s me instan&es# app1yin) e?terna1 "eat. +reat a11 in@$red pers ns as ! 11 %s# re)ard1ess ! %"at sympt ms appear CFi)$re 7-9DI • I! t"e 5i&tim is & ns&i $s# p1a&e "im n a 1e5e1 s$r!a&e %it" t"e 1 %er e?tremities e1e5ated 19 t 2< &entimeters. • I! y $ are a 1 ne s$r5i5 r# 1ie in a depressi n in t"e )r $nd# be"ind a tree# r any t"er p1a&e $t ! t"e %eat"er# %it" y $r "ead 1 %er t"an y $r !eet. • 0a5e t"e 5i&tim rest ! r at 1east 27 " $rs. • Impr 5ise a s"e1ter t ins$1ate t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e %eat"er. Department ! t"e Army Anti&ipate s" &2 in a11 in@$red pers nne1.

(a)e *2 ! 2** . 3it" an pen C r & mp $ndD !ra&t$re# t"e b ne pr tr$des t"r $)" t"e s2in and & mp1i&ates t"e a&t$a1 !ra&t$re %it" an pen % $nd. A!ter settin) t"e !ra&t$re# treat t"e % $nd as any t"er pen % $nd. +"e si)ns and sympt ms ! a !ra&t$re are pain# tenderness# dis& 1 rati n# s%e11in) de! rmity# 1 ss ! !$n&ti n# and )ratin) Ca s $nd r !ee1in) t"at &&$rs %"en br 2en b ne ends r$b t )et"erD. Department ! t"e Army #ON AN.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e &1 sed !ra&t$re "as n pen % $nds.t &e$ +"ere are basi&a11y t% types ! !ra&t$resI pen and &1 sed. F 11 % t"e )$ide1ines ! r imm bi1i'ati n# and set and sp1int t"e !ra&t$re.S. 2OINT IN2URY Y $ & $1d !a&e b ne and @ int in@$ries t"at in&1$de !ra&t$res# dis1 &ati ns# and sprains. F&!.

S. . Y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y p$11 sma11er b nes s$&" as t"e arm r 1 %er 1e) by "and. (a)e ** ! 2** . • (1a&e a 1<. I! y $ n ti&e t"e area be1 % t"e brea2 be& min) n$mb# s% 11en# & 1 t t"e t $&"# r t$rnin) pa1e# and t"e 5i&tim s" %s si)ns ! s" &2# a ma@ r 5esse1 may "a5e been se5ered. • Las" t"e sti&2 t maintain tra&ti n. F 11 % t"e sp1intin) )$ide1ines. Rest t"e 5i&tim ! r s" &2# and rep1a&e 1 st !1$ids. Usin) t"e sti&2# t%ist t"e materia1 t ma2e t"e tra&ti n easier. Y $ &an ma2e an impr 5ised tra&ti n sp1int $sin) nat$ra1 materia1 CFi)$re 7-6D as ! 11 %sI • 6et t% ! r2ed bran&"es r sap1in)s at 1east 9 &entimeters in diameter. Very str n) m$s&1es " 1d a br 2en t"i)"b ne C!em$rD in p1a&e ma2in) it di!!i&$1t t maintain tra&ti n d$rin) "ea1in). I! you must change or repair the splint" maintain the traction manually !or a short time. • (ad t"e t% sp1ints. • 3it" a5ai1ab1e materia1# !as"i n a %rap t"at %i11 e?tend ar $nd t"e an21e# %it" t"e t% !ree ends tied t t"e &r ss member.by 2.9-&entimeter sti&2 in t"e midd1e ! t"e !ree ends ! t"e an21e %rap bet%een t"e &r ss member and t"e ! t. Y $ m$st & ntr 1 t"is interna1 b1eedin). Y $ &an &reate tra&ti n by %ed)in) a "and r ! t in t"e V-n t&" ! a tree and p$s"in) a)ainst t"e tree %it" t"e t"er e?tremity. F r t"is reas n minim$m manip$1ati n s" $1d be d ne# and n1y 5ery &a$ti $s1y. Meas$re ne !r m t"e patientFs armpit t 2< t *< &entimeters past "is $nbr 2en 1e). N t&" t"e ends %it" $t ! r2s and 1as" a 2<. Usin) a5ai1ab1e materia1 C5ines# &1 t"# ra%"ideD# tie t"e sp1int ar $nd t"e $pper p rti n ! t"e b dy and d %n t"e 1en)t" ! t"e br 2en 1e).t *<-&entimeter &r ss member made !r m a 9-&entimeter diameter bran&" bet%een t"em. 1heck the traction periodically. -ns$re t"at b t" e?tend an e4$a1 distan&e bey nd t"e end ! t"e 1e). Meas$re t"e t"er !r m t"e )r in t 2< t *< &entimeters past t"e $nbr 2en 1e). Department ! t"e Army +"e dan)ers %it" a !ra&t$re are t"e se5erin) r t"e & mpressi n ! a ner5e r b1 d 5esse1 at t"e site ! !ra&t$re.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 8ote9 0ver time you may lose traction because the material weakened. • / ntin$e t%istin) $nti1 t"e br 2en 1e) is as 1 n) r s1i)"t1y 1 n)er t"an t"e $nbr 2en 1e). Y $ &an t"en sp1int t"e brea2.!ten y $ m$st maintain tra&ti n d$rin) t"e sp1intin) and "ea1in) pr &ess.

Y $ m$st p1a&e t"ese @ ints ba&2 int a1i)nment as 4$i&21y as p ssib1e. I! p ssib1e# 1ea5e t"e b sprained an21e $n1ess &ir&$1ati n is & mpr mised. 3it" $t an B ray# y $ &an @$d)e pr per a1i)nment by t"e 1 2 and !ee1 ! t"e @ int and by & mparin) it t t"e @ int n t"e pp site side. Department ! t"e Army Di$%". t na #IT S AN. Ticks &an &arry and transmit diseases# s$&" as R &2y M $ntain sp tted !e5er & mm n in many parts ! t"e United States. Red$&ti n r Jsettin)J is p1a&in) t"e b nes ba&2 int t"eir pr per a1i)nment. Y $ &an $se se5era1 met" ds# b$t man$a1 tra&ti n r t"e $se ! %ei)"ts t p$11 t"e b nes are t"e sa!est and easiest. • (ad sp1ints t red$&e dis& m! rt. -1e5ati n ! t"e a!!e&ted area. 6rad$a11y $se t"e in@$red @ int $nti1 !$11y "ea1ed. 3"en treatin) sprains# t"in2 RI/--R Rest in@$red area. Imm bi1i'ati n is n t"in) m re t"an sp1intin) t"e dis1 &ati n a!ter red$&ti n. In many parts ! t"e % r1d y $ %i11 be e?p sed t seri $s# e5en !ata1# diseases n t en& $ntered in t"e United States. I / I&e ! r 27 " $rs# t"en "eat a!ter t"at.S. Si)ns and sympt ms ! dis1 &ati ns are @ int pain# tenderness# s%e11in)# dis& 1 rati n# 1imited ran)e ! m ti n# and de! rmity ! t"e @ int. +"ese misa1i)nments &an be e?treme1y pain!$1 and &an &a$se an impairment ! ner5e r &ir&$1at ry !$n&ti n be1 % t"e area a!!e&ted. • /"e&2 &ir&$1ati n be1 % t"e !ra&t$re a!ter ma2in) ea&" tie n t"e sp1int. +"ey n t n1y &a$se irritati ns# b$t t"ey are !ten &arriers ! diseases t"at &a$se se5ere a11er)i& rea&ti ns in s me indi5id$a1s. +i&2s a1s transmit t"e Lyme disease. -lies &an spread disease !r m & nta&t %it" in!e&ti $s s $r&es. / mpressi n-%rappin) andE r sp1intin) t "e1p stabi1i'e. STIN/S Inse&ts and re1ated pests are "a'ards in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. /os)uitoes may &arry ma1aria# den)$e# and many t"er diseases. +"ey are &a$ses ! s1eepin) si&2ness# typ" id# &" 1era# and dysentery. +"e si)ns and sympt ms are pain# s%e11in)# tenderness# and dis& 1 rati n Cb1a&2 and b1$eD. +"e basi& )$ide1ines ! r sp1intin) are-• Sp1int ab 5e and be1 % t"e !ra&t$re site.n&e per! rmed# red$&ti n de&reases t"e 5i&timFs pain and a11 %s ! r n rma1 !$n&ti n and &ir&$1ati n.!ti"#$ Dis1 &ati ns are t"e separati ns ! b ne @ ints &a$sin) t"e b nes t ) $t ! pr per a1i)nment. Lice &an transmit typ"$s and re1apsin) !e5er. . Y $ treat dis1 &ati ns by red$&ti n# imm bi1i'ati n# and re"abi1itati n. -leas &an transmit p1a)$e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Sp&!i#$ +"e a&&identa1 5erstret&"in) ! a tend n r 1i)ament &a$ses sprains. + re"abi1itate t"e dis1 &ati n# rem 5e t"e sp1ints a!ter 7 t 17 days. Y $ &an $se any !ie1de?pedient materia1 ! r a sp1int r y $ &an sp1int an e?tremity t t"e b dy. (a)e *7 ! 2** . +"e best %ay t a5 id t"e & mp1i&ati ns ! inse&t bites and stin)s is t 2eep imm$ni'ati ns Cin&1$din) b ster s" tsD $p-t -date# a5 id inse&t-in!ested areas# $se nettin) and inse&t repe11ent# and %ear a11 &1 t"in) pr per1y.

+"e area t$rns dar2 and m$mmi!ied in a %ee2 r t% . Department ! t"e Army I! y $ )et bitten r st$n)# d n t s&rat&" t"e bite r stin)# it mi)"t be& me in!e&ted. • +"e & mm n !1y-b rne diseases are $s$a11y treatab1e %it" peni&i11ins r eryt"r my&in.e ready t per! rm /(R. 3it"in a !e% " $rs a pain!$1 red area %it" a m tt1ed &yan ti& &enter appears. +a2e &are t rem 5e t"e %" 1e ti&2. +"e pain )rad$a11y spreads 5er t"e entire b dy and sett1es in t"e abd men and 1e)s. • / & n$t meat. . • /r$s"ed &1 5es ! )ar1i&. I! y $ !ind ti&2s atta&"ed t y $r b dy# & 5er t"em %it" a s$bstan&e# s$&" as Vase1ine# "ea5y i1# r tree sap# t"at %i11 &$t !! t"eir air s$pp1y. 3as" t"e stin) site t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater t 1essen t"e &"an&e ! a se& ndary in!e&ti n. +"e br %n " $se spider r br %n re&1$se spider is a sma11# 1i)"t br %n spider identi!ied by a dar2 br %n 5i 1in n its ba&2."&pi"# Sti#0$ +"e b1a&2 %id % spider is identi!ied by a red " $r)1ass n its abd men. +"e mar)ins separate and t"e s&ab !a11s !!# 1ea5in) an pen $1&er.n1y t"e !ema1e bites# and it "as a ne$r t ?i& 5en m. Re1ie5e t"e it&"in) and dis& m! rt &a$sed by inse&t bites by app1yin)-• / 1d & mpresses. Anap"y1a&ti& rea&ti ns &an &&$r. /1ean t"e ti&2 % $nd dai1y $nti1 "ea1ed. +"e !$nne1%eb spider is a 1ar)e br %n r )ray spider ! $nd in A$stra1ia.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • A & 1in) paste ! m$d and as"es. /1ean and dress t"e bite area t red$&e t"e ris2 ! in!e&ti n. I! y $ &ann t remember t"e e?a&t d se rate t treat a disease# 2 tab1ets# 7 times a day ! r 1< t 17 days %i11 $s$a11y 2i11 any ba&teria. 3as" y $r "ands a!ter t $&"in) t"e ti&2. Bee !#( *!$p Sti#0$ I! st$n) by a bee# immediate1y rem 5e t"e stin)er and 5en m sa&# i! atta&"ed# by s&rapin) %it" a !in)ernai1 r a 2ni!e b1ade. +"ere is n pain# r s 1itt1e pain# t"at $s$a11y a 5i&tim is n t a%are ! t"e bite. Sympt ms be)in t re)ress a!ter se5era1 " $rs and are $s$a11y ) ne in a !e% days. • Sap !r m dande1i ns. D n t s4$ee'e r )rasp t"e stin)er r 5en m sa&# as s4$ee'in) %i11 ! r&e m re 5en m int t"e % $nd. +"e initia1 pain is n t se5ere# b$t se5ere 1 &a1 pain rapid1y de5e1 ps. T&e!t+e#t It is imp ssib1e t 1ist t"e treatment ! a11 t"e di!!erent types ! bites and stin)s. Ne&r sis d es n t &&$r in a11 bites# b$t $s$a11y in * t 7 days# a star-s"aped# !irm area ! deep p$rp1e dis& 1 rati n appears at t"e bite site. Se& ndary in!e&ti n and re)i na1 s% 11en 1ymp" )1ands $s$a11y be& me 5isib1e at t"is sta)e. Abd mina1 &ramps and pr )ressi5e na$sea# 5 mitin)# and a ras" may &&$r. Inspe&t y $r b dy at 1east n&e a day t ens$re t"ere are n inse&ts atta&"ed t y $. +"e sympt ms and t"e treatment ! r its bite are as ! r t"e b1a&2 %id % spider. An anti5enin is a5ai1ab1e. .ni n. • M st ti&2-# !1ea-# 1 $se-# and mite-b rne diseases are treatab1e %it" tetra&y&1ine.S. • M st antibi ti&s & me in 29< mi11i)ram Cm)D r 9<< m) tab1ets. Use t%ee'ers i! y $ "a5e t"em. • . 6rasp t"e ti&2 %"ere t"e m $t" parts are atta&"ed t t"e s2in. +"reat ! r s" &2. +reat bites and stin)s as ! 11 %sI • I! antibi ti&s are a5ai1ab1e ! r y $r $se# be& me !ami1iar %it" t"em be! re dep1 yment and $se t"em. I! y $ 2n % r s$spe&t t"at y $ are a11er)i& t inse&t stin)s# a1%ays &arry an inse&t stin) 2it %it" y $. +"e $tstandin) &"ara&teristi& ! t"e br %n re&1$se bite is an $1&er t"at d es n t "ea1 b$t (a)e *9 ! 2** . 3ea2ness# trem rs# s%eatin)# and sa1i5ati n may &&$r. • (redep1 yment imm$ni'ati ns &an pre5ent m st ! t"e & mm n diseases &arried by m s4$it es and s me &arried by !1ies. 3it" $t air# t"e ti&2 re1eases its " 1d# and y $ &an rem 5e it. D n t s4$ee'e t"e ti&2Fs b dy. Spi(e& Bite$ !#( S.

+"ey "a5e 1ar)e !an)s.ite$ +"e &"an&e ! a sna2ebite in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is rat"er sma11# i! y $ are !ami1iar %it" t"e 5ari $s types ! sna2es and t"eir "abitats. M st d n t in@e&t 5en m# b$t s me S $t" Ameri&an spe&ies d . +reat s& rpi n stin)s as y $ % $1d a b1a&2 %id % bite. . +"e primary & n&ern in t"e treatment ! sna2ebite is t 1imit t"e am $nt ! e5ent$a1 tiss$e destr$&ti n ar $nd t"e bite area. • Rem 5e %at&"es# rin)s# bra&e1ets# r t"er & nstri&tin) items. . (a)e *6 ! 2** . 0 %e5er# t"e &"an&e ! a sna2ebite in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n &an a!!e&t m ra1e# and !ai1$re t ta2e pre5enti5e meas$res r !ai1$re t treat a sna2ebite pr per1y &an res$1t in need1ess tra)edy. • Se5ere systemi& rea&ti n# %it" 1itt1e r n 5isib1e 1 &a1 rea&ti n. +arant$1as are 1ar)e# "airy spiders ! $nd main1y in t"e tr pi&s. • Maintain an air%ay Cespe&ia11y i! bitten near t"e !a&e r ne&2D and be prepared t administer m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n r /(R. +"ese p is ns &an &a$se a 5ery 1ar)e area ! tiss$e deat"# 1ea5in) a 1ar)e pen % $nd. +"ere are t% di!!erent rea&ti ns# dependin) n t"e spe&iesI • Se5ere 1 &a1 rea&ti n n1y# %it" pain and s%e11in) ar $nd t"e area ! t"e stin). L &a1 pain may be present. M re t"an ne-"a1! ! t"e sna2ebite 5i&tims "a5e 1itt1e r n p is nin)# and n1y ab $t ne-4$arter de5e1 p seri $s systemi& p is nin). Deat" is rare# &&$rrin) main1y in &"i1dren and ad$1ts %it" "i)" b1 d press$re r i11nesses. • Set $p ! r s" &2 and ! r&e !1$ids r )i5e an intra5en $s CIVD.9 t 2 " $rs a!ter t"e bite. Sna2e 5en ms n t n1y & ntain p is ns t"at atta&2 t"e 5i&timFs &entra1 ner5 $s system Cne$r t ?insD and b1 d &ir&$1ati n C"em t ?insD# b$t a1s di)esti5e en'ymes C&yt t ?insD t aid in di)estin) t"eir prey. . S" &2 and pani& in a pers n bitten by a sna2e &an a1s a!!e&t t"e pers nFs re& 5ery. +reat a tarant$1a bite as ! r any pen % $nd# and try t pre5ent in!e&ti n. ( ssib1e pri&21y sensati n ar $nd t"e m $t" and a t"i&2-!ee1in) t n)$e.e! re y $ start treatin) a sna2ebite# determine %"et"er t"e sna2e %as p is n $s r n np is n $s. +"ese si)ns $s$a11y appear 1. Systemi& rea&ti n in&1$des respirat ry di!!i&$1ties# t"i&2-!ee1in) t n)$e# b dy spasms# dr 1in)# )astri& distenti n# d $b1e 5isi n# b1indness# in5 1$ntary rapid m 5ement ! t"e eyeba11s# in5 1$ntary $rinati n and de!e&ati n# and "eart !ai1$re. • /1ean t"e bite area. A bite % $nd# re)ard1ess ! t"e type ! anima1 t"at in!1i&ted it# &an be& me in!e&ted !r m ba&teria in t"e anima1Fs m $t". I! y $ determine t"at a p is n $s sna2e bit an indi5id$a1# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) stepsI • Reass$re t"e 5i&tim and 2eep "im sti11. Sympt ms ! a p is n $s bite may be sp ntane $s b1eedin) !r m t"e n se and an$s# b1 d in t"e $rine# pain at t"e site ! t"e bite# and s%e11in) at t"e site ! t"e bite %it"in a !e% min$tes r $p t 2 " $rs 1ater. -?&itement# "ysteria# and pani& &an speed $p t"e &ir&$1ati n# &a$sin) t"e b dy t abs rb t"e t ?in 4$i&21y. Rea&ti ns C!e5er# &"i11s# @ int pain# 5 mitin)# and a )enera1i'ed ras"D &&$r &"ie!1y in &"i1dren r debi1itated pers ns. Si)ns ! s" &2 &&$r %it"in t"e !irst *< min$tes a!ter t"e bite. In additi n t t"e $1&er# t"ere is !ten a systemi& rea&ti n t"at is seri $s and may 1ead t deat".reat"in) di!!i&$1ty# para1ysis# %ea2ness# t%it&"in)# and n$mbness are a1s si)ns ! ne$r t ?i& 5en ms.ites !r m a p is n $s sna2e may "a5e r %s ! teet" s" %in)# b$t %i11 "a5e ne r m re distin&ti5e p$n&t$re mar2s &a$sed by !an) penetrati n. Department ! t"e Army persists ! r %ee2s r m nt"s. S& rpi ns are a11 p is n $s t a )reater r 1esser de)ree. S#!)e. I! sympt ms ! p is nin) appear# treat as ! r t"e bite ! t"e b1a&2 %id % spider. +"is & nditi n & $1d 1ead t t"e need ! r e5ent$a1 amp$tati n i! n t treated. 3it" n np is n $s as %e11 as p is n $s sna2ebites# t"is 1 &a1 in!e&ti n is resp nsib1e ! r a 1ar)e part ! t"e resid$a1 dama)e t"at res$1ts.S. 0 %e5er# it & $1d "appen and y $ s" $1d 2n % " % t treat a sna2ebite. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! bitten# pain and b1eedin) are &ertain# and in!e&ti n is 1i2e1y.ites !r m a n np is n $s sna2e %i11 s" % r %s ! teet". Deat"s !r m sna2ebites are rare.

Lea5e t"e % $nd pen t a11 % t"e draina)e ! any p$s res$1tin) !r m in!e&ti n. D n t try t &1 se any % $nd by s$t$rin) r simi1ar pr &ed$res. Ope# *" #($ . :lace a suction cup over the bite so that you have a good vacuum seal. Suction the bite site 4 to 5 times.S. 0eat a1s "e1ps t dra% $t an in!e&ti n. Imm bi1i'e t"e site. • +" r $)"1y &1eanin) t"e s2in ar $nd t"e % $nd. +"ese % $nds & $1d be pen % $nds# s2in diseases# !r stbite# tren&" ! t# and b$rns. A!ter &arin) ! r t"e 5i&tim as des&ribed ab 5e# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) a&ti ns t minimi'e 1 &a1 e!!e&tsI • • • • I! in!e&ti n appears# 2eep t"e % $nd pen and &1ean. Department ! t"e Army • • • Use a & nstri&tin) band bet%een t"e % $nd and t"e "eart. (a)e *7 ! 2** .S An interr$pti n ! t"e s2inFs inte)rity &"ara&teri'es % $nds. . 8ote9 I! medical treatment is over one hour away" make an incision &no longer than 7 millimeters and no deeper than 4 millimeter' over each puncture" cutting $ust deep enough to enlarge the !ang opening" but only through the !irst or second layer o! skin. • 6i5e m rp"ine r t"er &entra1 ner5 $s system C/NSD depress rs. D" #"t-• 6i5e t"e 5i&tim a1& " 1i& be5era)es r t ba&& pr d$&ts. /1ean t"e % $nd as s n as p ssib1e a!ter it &&$rs by-• Rem 5in) r &$ttin) &1 t"in) a%ay !r m t"e % $nd. • • ($t y $r "ands n y $r !a&e r r$b y $r eyes# as 5en m may be n y $r "ands. • Rinsin) Cn t s&r$bbin)D t"e % $nd %it" 1ar)e am $nts ! %ater $nder press$re.rea2 pen t"e 1ar)e b1isters t"at ! rm ar $nd t"e bite site. Use mouth suction only as a last resort and only i$ you do not ha(e open sores in your "outh) Spit the envenomed blood out and rinse your mouth with water. As 1 n) as t"e % $nd &an drain# it )enera11y %i11 n t be& me 1i!e-t"reatenin)# re)ard1ess ! " % $np1easant it 1 2s r sme11s.a&teria n t"e b@e&t t"at made t"e % $nd# n t"e indi5id$a1Fs s2in and &1 t"in)# r n t"er ! rei)n materia1 r dirt t"at t $&"es t"e % $nd may &a$se in!e&ti n. Rem 5e t"e p is n as s n as p ssib1e by $sin) a me&"ani&a1 s$&ti n de5i&e r by s4$ee'in). Use "eat a!ter 27 t 7: " $rs t "e1p pre5ent t"e spread ! 1 &a1 in!e&ti n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ &an $se !res" $rine i! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e. +"e J pen treatmentJ met" d is t"e sa!est %ay t mana)e % $nds in s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. . percent o! the venom. 3OUN. This method will draw out 36 to 4.y ta2in) pr per &are ! t"e % $nd y $ &an red$&e !$rt"er & ntaminati n and pr m te "ea1in). Ven m may &a$se b1indness. • Ma2e any deep &$ts at t"e bite site. /$ttin) pens &api11aries t"at in t$rn pen a dire&t r $te int t"e b1 d stream ! r 5en m and in!e&ti n. .pen % $nds are seri $s in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# n t n1y be&a$se ! tiss$e dama)e and b1 d 1 ss# b$t a1s be&a$se t"ey may be& me in!e&ted. 0a5e t"e 5i&tim drin2 1ar)e am $nts ! !1$ids $nti1 t"e in!e&ti n is ) ne. 8eep t"e % $nd & 5ered %it" a dry# steri1e dressin). • A1%ays 1 2in) ! r an e?it % $nd i! a s"arp b@e&t# )$n s" t# r pr @e&ti1e &a$sed a % $nd.

. (1a&e a banda)e n t"e dressin) t " 1d it in p1a&e. • . • . App1y t"e & mpresses t"ree r ! $r times dai1y. I! a % $nd is )apin)# y $ &an brin) t"e ed)es t )et"er %it" ad"esi5e tape &$t in t"e ! rm ! a Jb$tter!1yJ r Jd$mbbe11J CFi)$re 7-7D. • Dress and banda)e t"e % $nd. • /"e&2 t"e % $nd e5ery ! $r " $rs ! r se5era1 days t ens$re a11 ma)) ts "a5e been rem 5ed. • Drain t"e % $nd. In&reased pain and bri)"t red b1 d in t"e % $nd indi&ate t"at t"e ma)) ts "a5e rea&"ed "ea1t"y tiss$e. It s" $1d "ea1 n rma11y. / ntin$e t"is treatment dai1y $nti1 a11 si)ns ! in!e&ti n "a5e disappeared.pen and )ent1y pr be t"e in!e&ted % $nd %it" a steri1e instr$ment. + treat an in!e&ted % $nd-• (1a&e a %arm# m ist & mpress dire&t1y n t"e in!e&ted % $nd. • Drin2 a 1 t ! %ater. Department ! t"e Army / 5er t"e % $nd %it" a &1ean dressin). • /"e&2 dai1y ! r ma)) ts. • Rem 5e a11 ma)) ts %"en t"ey "a5e &1eaned $t a11 dead tiss$e and be! re t"ey start n "ea1t"y tiss$e. #oils (a)e *: ! 2** . S)i# Di$e!$e$ !#( Ai%+e#t$ A1t" $)" b i1s# !$n)a1 in!e&ti ns# and ras"es rare1y de5e1 p int a seri $s "ea1t" pr b1em# t"ey &a$se dis& m! rt and y $ s" $1d treat t"em.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# s me de)ree ! % $nd in!e&ti n is a1m st ine5itab1e.n&e ma)) ts de5e1 p# 2eep % $nd & 5ered b$t &"e&2 dai1y.anda)e t"e % $nd and treat it as any t"er % $nd. (ain# s%e11in)# and redness ar $nd t"e % $nd# in&reased temperat$re# and p$s in t"e % $nd r n t"e dressin) indi&ate in!e&ti n is present. I! y $ d n t "a5e antibi ti&s and t"e % $nd "as be& me se5ere1y in!e&ted# d es n t "ea1# and rdinary debridement is imp ssib1e# & nsider ma)) t t"erapy# despite its "a'ardsI • -?p se t"e % $nd t !1ies ! r ne day and t"en & 5er it. /"an)e t"e & mpress %"en it & 1s# 2eepin) a %arm & mpress n t"e % $nd ! r a t ta1 ! *< min$tes. /"an)e t"e dressin) dai1y t &"e&2 ! r in!e&ti n. • F1$s" t"e % $nd repeated1y %it" steri1e %ater r !res" $rine t rem 5e t"e ma)) ts.S.

/"e&2 y $r b$ddyFs !a&e !ten and ma2e s$re t"at "e &"e&2s y $rs. • Salt water. . R$b it n a % $nd r b i1 it t e?tra&t t"e i1s and $se t"e %ater t rinse t"e a!!e&ted area. I! y $ are a1 ne# peri di&a11y & 5er y $r n se and 1 %er part ! y $r !a&e %it" y $r mittens. 3as" y $r !eet dai1y and p$t n dry s &2s. • Sphagnum moss. • ?ee honey. D n t try t t"a% t"e a!!e&ted areas by p1a&in) t"em &1 se t an pen !1ame. Dry t"e part and p1a&e it ne?t t y $r s2in t %arm it at b dy temperat$re. As with any =unorthodo+= method o! treatment" use it with caution. +"e ner5es and m$s&1es s$stain t"e main dama)e# b$t )an)rene &an &&$r. Use as a dressin). Li)"t !r stbite in5 15es n1y t"e s2in t"at ta2es n a d$11# %"itis" pa11 r. T&e#. Use a & mpress ! 5ine)ar r tanni& a&id deri5ed !r m tea r !r m b i1in) a& rns r t"e bar2 ! a "ard% d tree t dry %eepin) ras"es. Rashes + treat a s2in ras" e!!e&ti5e1y# !irst determine %"at is &a$sin) it. 3"en %it" t"ers# pre5ent !r stbite by $sin) t"e b$ddy system. D$rin) t"e S $t"east Asian & n!1i&t# s 1diers $sed anti!$n)a1 p %ders# 1ye s ap# &"1 rine b1ea&"# a1& " 1# 5ine)ar# & n&entrated sa1t %ater# and i dine t treat !$n)a1 in!e&ti ns %it" 5aryin) de)rees ! s$&&ess. +"e best pre5enti n is t 2eep y $r !eet dry. F $nd in b ))y areas % r1d%ide# it is a nat$ra1 s $r&e ! i dine.bser5e t"e ! 11 %in) r$1es t treat ras"esI • I! it is m ist# 2eep it dry. +"ere are many s$bstan&es a5ai1ab1e t s$r5i5 rs in t"e %i1d r in &apti5ity ! r $se as antisepti&s t treat % $ndI • Iodine tablets. Y $r !eet# "ands# and e?p sed !a&ia1 areas are parti&$1ar1y 5$1nerab1e t !r stbite. +"e tiss$es be& me s 1id and imm 5ab1e. • I! it is dry# 2eep it m ist. +"is determinati n may be di!!i&$1t e5en in t"e best ! sit$ati ns.h F""t +"is & nditi n res$1ts !r m many " $rs r days ! e?p s$re t %et r damp & nditi ns at a temperat$re @$st ab 5e !ree'in). +"en pen t"e b i1 $sin) a steri1e 2ni!e# %ire# need1e# r simi1ar item. Again" use noncommercially prepared materials with caution. Use 9 t 19 tab1ets in a 1iter ! %ater t pr d$&e a ) d rinse ! r % $nds d$rin) "ea1in). / 5er t"e b i1 site# &"e&2in) it peri di&a11y t ens$re n !$rt"er in!e&ti n de5e1 ps. 6ent1y r$b t"em in 1$2e%arm %ater. • D n t s&rat&" it. Department ! t"e Army App1y %arm & mpresses t brin) t"e b i1 t a "ead. Use it strai)"t r diss 15ed in %ater. +" r $)"1y &1ean $t t"e p$s $sin) s ap and %ater. 'ungal In$ections 8eep t"e s2in &1ean and dry# and e?p se t"e in!e&ted area t as m$&" s$n1i)"t as p ssib1e. <o not scratch t"e a!!e&ted area. Remember# treat ras"es as pen % $nds and &1ean and dress t"em dai1y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. /arry e?tra s &2s %it" y $ in a %aterpr ! pa&2et. ! 2** .S. 8eep dry ras"es m ist by r$bbin) a sma11 am $nt ! rendered anima1 !at r )rease n t"e a!!e&ted area. (a)e *. F&"$t. • >arlic. Use 2 t * tab1esp ns per 1iter ! %ater t 2i11 ba&teria. Dry %et s &2s a)ainst y $r b dy.ite +"is in@$ry res$1ts !r m !r 'en tiss$es. Deep !r stbite e?tends t a dept" be1 % t"e s2in. In e?treme &ases t"e !1es" dies and it may be& me ne&essary t "a5e t"e ! t r 1e) amp$tated.

• Un& ns&i $sness r de1iri$m# %"i&" &an &a$se pa11 r# a b1$is" & 1 r t 1ips and nai1 beds C&yan sisD# and & 1 s2in. • Vi&tim n t s%eatin). • Reb $nd "eatstr 2e %it"in 7: " $rs. Department ! t"e Army B &#$ +"e ! 11 %in) !ie1d treatment ! r b$rns re1ie5es t"e pain s me%"at# seems t "e1p speed "ea1in)# and !!ers s me pr te&ti n a)ainst in!e&ti nI • First# st p t"e b$rnin) pr &ess.s head. I! one is not available" douse the victim with urine" water" or at the very least" apply cool wet com%presses to all the $oints" especially the neck" armpits" and crotch.t"er "eat in@$ries# s$&" as &ramps r de"ydrati n# d n t a1%ays pre&ede a "eatstr 2e. ($t $t t"e !ire by rem 5in) &1 t"in)# d $sin) %it" %ater r sand# r by r 11in) n t"e )r $nd. ?e sure to wet the victim. 1ool him by dipping him in a cool stream. (eat loss through the scalp is great. NVIRON0 NTAL IN2URI S 0eatstr 2e# "yp t"ermia# diarr"ea# and intestina1 parasites are en5ir nmenta1 in@$ries y $ & $1d !a&e. • (r 1 n)ed $n& ns&i $sness. H3p"the&+i! (a)e 7< ! 2** .S. • S" $tin). 8ote9 Treat !or dehydration with lightly salted water. • / nsider $sin) m rp"ine# $n1ess t"e b$rns are near t"e !a&e. 8ote9 ?y this time the victim is in severe shock.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Diarr"ea. F r b$rns &a$sed by %"ite p" sp" r $s# pi&2 $t t"e %"ite p" sp" r $s %it" t%ee'ersH d n t d $se %it" %ater. • Rep1a&e !1$id 1 ss. Si)ns and sympt ms ! "eatstr 2e are-• S% 11en# beet-red !a&e. • +reat as an pen % $nd. He!t$t&")e +"e brea2d %n ! t"e b dyFs "eat re)$1at ry system Cb dy temperat$re m re t"an 7<. Administer IVs and provide drinking !luids. • / 1 t"e dressin)s r &1ean ra)s and app1y 5er b$rns. 1ool the victim as rapidly as possible. • S a2 dressin)s r &1ean ra)s ! r 1< min$tes in a b i1in) tanni& a&id s 1$ti n C btained !r m tea# inner bar2 ! "ard% d trees# r a& rns b i1ed in %aterD. • Reddened %"ites ! eyes. . @ou may !an the individual. • +reat ! r s" &2. • /ardia& arrestH be ready t per! rm /(R. -?pe&t# d$rin) & 1in)-• V mitin). / 1 t"e b$rnin) s2in %it" i&e r %ater. • S"i5erin).9 de)rees / L1<9 de)rees FMD &a$ses a "eatstr 2e. • Str$))1in). • Maintain air%ay.

Many ! t"e "erbs Cp1antsD and treatments t"ey $se are as e!!e&ti5e as t"e m st m dern medi&ati ns a5ai1ab1e. i1 t"e inner bar2 ! a "ard% d tree ! r 2 " $rs r m re t re1ease t"e tanni& a&id. • Aerosene. 6et t"e 5i&tim int dry &1 t"in). Rep1a&e 1 st !1$ids# and %arm "im. . .9 &i)arettes. • Drin2 ne &$p ! a str n) tea s 1$ti n e5ery 2 " $rs $nti1 t"e diarr"ea s1 %s r st ps. I! t"e in!estati n is se5ere# repeat t"e treatment in 27 t 7: " $rs# but no sooner. . +"e m st e!!e&ti5e %ay t pre5ent intestina1 parasites is t a5 id $n& 2ed meat and ra% 5e)etab1es & ntaminated by ra% se%a)e r "$man %aste $sed as a !erti1i'er.ICIN S . +"e ni& tine in t"e &i)arette %i11 2i11 r st$n t"e % rms 1 n) en $)" ! r y $r system t pass t"em. +"ey &reate an en5ir nment t"at is pr "ibiti5e t parasiti& atta&"ment. 8eep in mind t"at t"ese " me remedies % r2 n t"e prin&ip1e ! &"an)in) t"e en5ir nment ! t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t. In many areas ! t"e % r1d# " %e5er# t"e pe p1e sti11 depend n 1 &a1 J%it&" d &t rsJ r "ea1ers t &$re t"eir ai1ments. F r e?amp1e# ne5er ) bare! t. -at 1 t 1. S me "erba1 medi&ines are dan)er $s and may &a$se !$rt"er dama)e r e5en deat".S.# S$r5i5a1 Use ! (1ants# ! r s me basi& "erba1 medi&ine treatments. Y $ &an eat t"em ra% r p$t t"em in s $ps r ri&e and meat dis"es. Y $ &an a5 id m st ! t"ese &a$ses by pra&ti&in) pre5enti5e medi&ine.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 71 ! 2** . +"ey may &a$se 1$n) irritati n. Drin2 2 tab1esp ns ! 2er sene but no more. I#te$ti#!% P!&!$ite$ Y $ &an $s$a11y a5 id % rm in!estati ns and t"er intestina1 parasites i! y $ ta2e pre5enti5e meas$res.e &are!$1 n t t in"a1e t"e !$mes. • Ma2e a s 1$ti n ! ne "and!$1 ! )r $nd &"a12# &"ar& a1# r dried b nes and treated %ater. Diss 15e 7 tab1esp ns ! sa1t in 1 1iter ! %ater and drin2. (eppers are e!!e&ti5e n1y i! t"ey are a steady part ! y $r diet. +a2e 2 tab1esp ns ! t"e s 1$ti n e5ery 2 " $rs $nti1 t"e diarr"ea s1 %s r st ps. R#AL 0 . I! y $ )et diarr"ea# " %e5er# and d n t "a5e antidiarr"ea1 medi&ine# ne ! t"e ! 11 %in) treatments may be e!!e&ti5eI • Limit y $r inta2e ! !1$ids ! r 27 " $rs. • Tobacco. Department ! t"e Army De!ined as t"e b dyFs !ai1$re t maintain a temperat$re ! *6 de)rees / C. I! ne&essary# y $ &an repeat t"is treatment in 27 t 7: " $rs. *ARNIN1 Use "erba1 medi&ines %it" e?treme &are# " %e5er# and n1y %"en y $ 1a&2 r "a5e 1imited medi&a1 s$pp1ies.7 de)rees FD. I! y $ "a5e s me app1e p ma&e r t"e rinds ! &itr$s !r$it# add an e4$a1 p rti n t t"e mi?t$re t ma2e it m re e!!e&ti5e.$r m dern % nder dr$)s# 1ab rat ries# and e4$ipment "a5e bs&$red m re primiti5e types ! medi&ine in5 15in) determinati n# & mm n sense# and a !e% simp1e treatments. See /"apter . De"ydrati n and 1a&2 ! ! and rest predisp se t"e s$r5i5 r t "yp t"ermia. d Di!&&he! A & mm n# debi1itatin) ai1ment &a$sed by a &"an)e ! %ater and ! d# drin2in) & ntaminated %ater# eatin) sp i1ed ! d# be& min) !ati)$ed# and $sin) dirty dis"es. 0 %e5er# s" $1d y $ be& me in!ested and 1a&2 pr per medi&ine# y $ &an $se " me remedies. +"e tanni& a&id in t"e tea "e1ps t & ntr 1 t"e diarr"ea. Un1i2e "eatstr 2e# y $ m$st )rad$a11y %arm t"e "yp t"ermia 5i&tim. +"e ! 11 %in) are " me remedies y $ & $1d $seI • Salt water. -?p s$re t & 1 r & 1d temperat$re 5er a s" rt r 1 n) time &an &a$se "yp t"ermia. • (ot peppers. In !a&t# many m dern medi&ati ns & me !r m re!ined "erbs. D n t repeat t"is treatment.

In some areas" your need !or shelter may take precedence over your need !or !ood and possibly even your need !or water. (a)e 72 ! 2** . D$rin) & 1d %inter m nt"s y $ %i11 %ant a site t"at %i11 pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d and %ind# b$t %i11 "a5e a s $r&e ! !$e1 and %ater. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER : . It can help you maintain your will to survive. +% re4$isites are-• It m$st & ntain materia1 t ma2e t"e type ! s"e1ter y $ need. It must also be small enough to contain your body heat" especially in cold climates. • A5 id sites near b dies ! %ater t"at are be1 % t"e "i)" %ater mar2. S.S. • Is s$itab1e ! r si)na1in)# i! ne&essary.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In s me areas# t"e seas n ! t"e year "as a str n) bearin) n t"e site y $ se1e&t. Y $ m$st a1s remember t"e pr b1ems t"at & $1d arise in y $r en5ir nment. Idea1 sites ! r a s"e1ter di!!er in %inter and s$mmer. An e+hausted person may develop a =passive= outlook" thereby losing the will to survive. • 0as &am $!1a)ed es&ape r $tes. • Is !ree !r m inse&ts# repti1es# and p is n $s p1ants. LT R SIT S L CTION 3"en y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n and rea1i'e t"at s"e1ter is a "i)" pri rity# start 1 2in) ! r s"e1ter as s n as p ssib1e. Y $ m$st a1s & nsider %"et"er t"e site-• (r 5ides & n&ea1ment !r m enemy bser5ati n. D$rin) s$mmer m nt"s in t"e same area y $ %i11 %ant a s $r&e ! %ater# b$t y $ %i11 %ant t"e site t be a1m st inse&t !ree. -or e+ample" prolonged e+posure to cold can cause e+cessive !atigue and weakness &e+haustion'. It can give you a !eeling o! well%being. The most common error in making a shelter is to make it too large. • It m$st be 1ar)e en $)" and 1e5e1 en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie d %n & m! rtab1y. F r instan&e-• A5 id !1as" !1 d areas in ! t"i11s. A shelter must be large enough to protect you.SHELTERS A shelter can protect you !rom the sun" insects" wind" rain" snow" hot or cold temperatures" and enemy observation. 3"en y $ & nsider t"ese re4$isites# " %e5er# y $ &ann t i)n re y $r ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n r y $r sa!ety. • A5 id a5a1an&"e r r &2s1ide areas in m $ntain $s terrain. • (r 5ides pr te&ti n a)ainst %i1d anima1s and r &2s and dead trees t"at mi)"t !a11. As y $ d s # remember %"at y $ %i11 need at t"e site.

9 &entimeters !r m t"e )r mmet. +ie t"e t"er "a1! t t"e t"er & rner )r mmet.L % si1" $ette. +"ese drip sti&2s %i11 2eep rain%ater !r m r$nnin) d %n t"e r pes int t"e 1ean-t . S . Use a r $nd t$rn and t% "a1! "it&"es %it" a 4$i&2-re1ease 2n t. -ns$re t"at t"e ba&2 ! y $r 1ean-t %i11 be int t"e %ind. Y $ need a p n&" # 2 t * meters ! r pe r para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine# t"ree sta2es ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n)# and t% trees r t% p 1es 2 t * meters apart. I! n t# &an y $ ma2e impr 5ised t 1sG • I! y $ "a5e t"e type and am $nt ! materia1s needed t b$i1d it. I . . • +ie t"e r pes ab $t %aist "i)" n t"e trees C$pri)"tsD. + ans%er t"ese 4$esti ns# y $ need t 2n % " % t ma2e 5ari $s types ! s"e1ters and %"at materia1s y $ need t ma2e t"em.1end in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin)s. . ($11 t"e dra%strin) ti)"t# r 11 t"e " d 1 n)%ays# ! 1d it int t"irds# and tie it !! %it" t"e dra%strin).e! re se1e&tin) t"e trees y $ %i11 $se r t"e 1 &ati n ! y $r p 1es# &"e&2 t"e %ind dire&ti n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. L . LT RS 3"en 1 2in) ! r a s"e1ter site# 2eep in mind t"e type ! s"e1ter Cpr te&ti nD y $ need. 0 %e5er# y $ m$st a1s & nsider-• 0 % m$&" time and e!! rt y $ need t b$i1d t"e s"e1ter.Sma11. Department ! t"e Army 3"en & nsiderin) s"e1ter site se1e&ti n# $se t"e % rd .S. • I! y $ "a5e t"e t 1s t b$i1d it. S . • I! t"e s"e1ter %i11 ade4$ate1y pr te&t y $ !r m t"e e1ements Cs$n# %ind# rain# sn %D.Se&1$ded 1 &ati n. • /$t t"e r pe in "a1!. TYP S O' S.LISS as a )$ide.Irre)$1ar s"ape. (a)e 7* ! 2** . . +yin) strin)s Cab $t 1< &entimeters 1 n)D t ea&" )r mmet a1 n) t"e p n&" Fs t p ed)e %i11 a11 % t"e %ater t r$n t and d %n t"e 1ine %it" $t drippin) int t"e s"e1ter.h" Le!#-T" It ta2es n1y a s" rt time and minima1 e4$ipment t b$i1d t"is 1ean-t CFi)$re 9-1D. • Atta&" a drip sti&2 Cab $t a 1<-&entimeter sti&2D t ea&" r pe ab $t 2.. + ma2e t"e 1ean-t -• +ie !! t"e " d ! t"e p n&" . .n ne 1 n) side ! t"e p n&" # tie "a1! ! t"e r pe t t"e & rner )r mmet. P"#.

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Spread t"e p n&" and an&" r it t t"e )r $nd# p$ttin) s"arpened sti&2s t"r $)" t"e )r mmets and int t"e )r $nd.

I! y $ p1an t $se t"e 1ean-t ! r m re t"an ne ni)"t# r y $ e?pe&t rain# ma2e a &enter s$pp rt ! r t"e 1ean-t . Ma2e t"is s$pp rt %it" a 1ine. Atta&" ne end ! t"e 1ine t t"e p n&" " d and t"e t"er end t an 5er"an)in) bran&". Ma2e s$re t"ere is n s1a&2 in t"e 1ine. An t"er met" d is t p1a&e a sti&2 $pri)"t $nder t"e &enter ! t"e 1ean-t . +"is met" d# " %e5er# %i11 restri&t y $r spa&e and m 5ements in t"e s"e1ter. F r additi na1 pr te&ti n !r m %ind and rain# p1a&e s me br$s"# y $r r$&2sa&2# r t"er e4$ipment at t"e sides ! t"e 1ean-t . + red$&e "eat 1 ss t t"e )r $nd# p1a&e s me type ! ins$1atin) materia1# s$&" as 1ea5es r pine need1es# inside y $r 1ean-t . 8ote9 hen at rest" you lose as much as B; percent o! your body heat to the ground.

+ in&rease y $r se&$rity !r m enemy bser5ati n# 1 %er t"e 1ean-t Fs si1" $ette by ma2in) t% &"an)es. First# se&$re t"e s$pp rt 1ines t t"e trees at 2nee "ei)"t Cn t at %aist "ei)"tD $sin) t% 2nee-"i)" sti&2s in t"e t% &enter )r mmets Csides ! 1ean-t D. Se& nd# an)1e t"e p n&" t t"e )r $nd# se&$rin) it %it" s"arpened sti&2s# as ab 5e.

P"#.h" Te#t
+"is tent CFi)$re 9-2D pr 5ides a 1 % si1" $ette. It a1s pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e e1ements n t% sides. It "as# " %e5er# 1ess $sab1e spa&e and bser5ati n area t"an a 1ean-t # de&reasin) y $r rea&ti n time t enemy dete&ti n. + ma2e t"is tent# y $ need a p n&" # t% 1.9- t 2.9-meter r pes# si? s"arpened sti&2s ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n)# and t% trees 2 t * meters apart.

+ ma2e t"e tent-• +ie !! t"e p n&" " d in t"e same %ay as t"e p n&" 1ean-t . • +ie a 1.9- t 2.9-meter r pe t t"e &enter )r mmet n ea&" side ! t"e p n&" . • +ie t"e t"er ends ! t"ese r pes at ab $t 2nee "ei)"t t t% trees 2 t * meters apart and stret&" t"e p n&" ti)"t. • Dra% ne side ! t"e p n&" ti)"t and se&$re it t t"e )r $nd p$s"in) s"arpened sti&2s t"r $)" t"e )r mmets. • F 11 % t"e same pr &ed$re n t"e t"er side.

(a)e 77 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ need a &enter s$pp rt# $se t"e same met" ds as ! r t"e p n&" 1ean-t . An t"er &enter s$pp rt is an A-!rame set $tside b$t 5er t"e &enter ! t"e tent CFi)$re 9-*D. Use t% ;<- t 12<-&entimeter-1 n) sti&2s# ne %it" a ! r2ed end# t ! rm t"e A-!rame. +ie t"e " dFs dra%strin) t t"e A-!rame t s$pp rt t"e &enter ! t"e tent.

Th&ee-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
I! y $ "a5e a para&"$te and t"ree p 1es and t"e ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n a11 %s# ma2e a para&"$te tepee. It is easy and ta2es 5ery 1itt1e time t ma2e t"is tepee. It pr 5ides pr te&ti n !r m t"e e1ements and &an a&t as a si)na1in) de5i&e by en"an&in) a sma11 am $nt ! 1i)"t !r m a !ire r &and1e. It is 1ar)e en $)" t " 1d se5era1 pe p1e and t"eir e4$ipment and t a11 % s1eepin)# & 2in)# and st rin) !ire% d. Y $ &an ma2e t"is tepee $sin) parts ! r a %" 1e pers nne1 main r reser5e para&"$te &an py. I! $sin) a standard pers nne1 para&"$te# y $ need t"ree p 1es *.9 t 7.9 meters 1 n) and ab $t 9 &entimeters in diameter. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-7D-• Lay t"e p 1es n t"e )r $nd and 1as" t"em t )et"er at ne end. • Stand t"e !rame% r2 $p and spread t"e p 1es t ! rm a trip d. • F r m re s$pp rt# p1a&e additi na1 p 1es a)ainst t"e trip d. Fi5e r si? additi na1 p 1es % r2 best# b$t d n t 1as" t"em t t"e trip d. • Determine t"e %ind dire&ti n and 1 &ate t"e entran&e ;< de)rees r m re !r m t"e mean %ind dire&ti n. • Lay $t t"e para&"$te n t"e Jba&2sideJ ! t"e trip d and 1 &ate t"e brid1e 1 p Cny1 n %eb 1 pD at t"e t p Cape?D ! t"e &an py. • (1a&e t"e brid1e 1 p 5er t"e t p ! a !ree-standin) p 1e. +"en p1a&e t"e p 1e ba&2 $p a)ainst t"e trip d s t"at t"e &an pyFs ape? is at t"e same "ei)"t as t"e 1as"in) n t"e t"ree p 1es. • 3rap t"e &an py ar $nd ne side ! t"e trip d. +"e &an py s" $1d be ! d $b1e t"i&2ness# as y $ are %rappin) an entire para&"$te. Y $ need n1y %rap "a1! ! t"e trip d# as t"e remainder ! t"e &an py %i11 en&ir&1e t"e trip d in t"e pp site dire&ti n. • / nstr$&t t"e entran&e by %rappin) t"e ! 1ded ed)es ! t"e &an py ar $nd t% !ree-standin) p 1es. Y $ &an t"en p1a&e t"e p 1es side by side t &1 se t"e tepeeFs entran&e. • (1a&e a11 e?tra &an py $nderneat" t"e tepee p 1es and inside t &reate a !1 r ! r t"e s"e1ter. • Lea5e a *<- t 9<-&entimeter penin) at t"e t p ! r 5enti1ati n i! y $ intend t "a5e a !ire inside t"e tepee.

(a)e 79 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

O#e-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
Y $ need a 17-) re se&ti n Cn rma11yD ! &an py# sta2es# a st $t &enter p 1e# and inner & re and need1e t & nstr$&t t"is tepee. Y $ &$t t"e s$spensi n 1ines e?&ept ! r 7<- t 79-&entimeter 1en)t"s at t"e &an pyFs 1 %er 1atera1 band. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-9D-• Se1e&t a s"e1ter site and s&ribe a &ir&1e ab $t 7 meters in diameter n t"e )r $nd. • Sta2e t"e para&"$te materia1 t t"e )r $nd $sin) t"e 1ines remainin) at t"e 1 %er 1atera1 band. • A!ter de&idin) %"ere t p1a&e t"e s"e1ter d r# emp1a&e a sta2e and tie t"e !irst 1ine C!r m t"e 1 %er 1atera1 bandD se&$re1y t it. • Stret&" t"e para&"$te materia1 ta$t t t"e ne?t 1ine# emp1a&e a sta2e n t"e s&ribed 1ine# and tie t"e 1ine t it. • / ntin$e t"e sta2in) pr &ess $nti1 y $ "a5e tied a11 t"e 1ines.
(a)e 76 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• •

L se1y atta&" t"e t p ! t"e para&"$te materia1 t t"e &enter p 1e %it" a s$spensi n 1ine y $ pre5i $s1y &$t and# t"r $)" tria1 and err r# determine t"e p int at %"i&" t"e para&"$te materia1 %i11 be p$11ed ti)"t n&e t"e &enter p 1e is $pri)"t. +"en se&$re1y atta&" t"e materia1 t t"e p 1e. Usin) a s$spensi n 1ine C r inner & reD# se% t"e end ) res t )et"er 1ea5in) 1 r 1.2 meters ! r a d r.

N"-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
Y $ $se t"e same materia1s# e?&ept ! r t"e &enter p 1e# as ! r t"e ne-p 1e para&"$te tepee. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-6D-• +ie a 1ine t t"e t p ! para&"$te materia1 %it" a pre5i $s1y &$t s$spensi n 1ine. • +"r % t"e 1ine 5er a tree 1imb# and tie it t t"e tree tr$n2. • Startin) at t"e pp site side !r m t"e d r# emp1a&e a sta2e n t"e s&ribed *.9- t 7.*-meter &ir&1e. • +ie t"e !irst 1ine n t"e 1 %er 1atera1 band. • / ntin$e emp1a&in) t"e sta2es and tyin) t"e 1ines t t"em. • A!ter sta2in) d %n t"e materia1# $n!asten t"e 1ine tied t t"e tree tr$n2# ti)"ten t"e tepee materia1 by p$11in) n t"is 1ine# and tie it se&$re1y t t"e tree tr$n2.

(a)e 77 ! 2**

• Use any e?&ess materia1 t & 5er t"e entran&e. Department ! t"e Army O#e-M!# She%te& A ne-man s"e1ter y $ &an easi1y ma2e $sin) a para&"$te re4$ires a tree and t"ree p 1es.9 meters 1 n) and t"e t"er t% ab $t * meters 1 n).S. (a)e 7: ! 2** . A &and1e# $sed &are!$11y# &an 2eep t"e inside temperat$re & m! rtab1e.9 meter p 1e s t"at ab $t t"e same am $nt ! materia1 "an)s n b t" sides.ne p 1e s" $1d be ab $t 7.9meter p 1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is s"e1ter is $nsatis!a&t ry# " %e5er# %"en sn % is !a11in) as e5en a 1i)"t sn %!a11 %i11 &a5e it in. • Sta2e d %n r p$t a spreader bet%een t"e t% *-meter p 1es at t"e s"e1terFs entran&e s t"ey %i11 n t s1ide in%ard. • +$&2 t"e e?&ess materia1 $nder t"e *-meter p 1es# and spread it n t"e )r $nd inside t ser5e as a !1 r. + ma2e t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-7D-• Se&$re t"e 7. +"e para&"$te &1 t" ma2es t"is s"e1ter %ind resistant# and t"e s"e1ter is sma11 en $)" t"at it is easi1y %armed.9-meter p 1e t t"e tree at ab $t %aist "ei)"t. . • Lay t"e t% *-meter p 1es n t"e )r $nd n eit"er side ! and in t"e same dire&ti n as t"e 7. • Lay t"e ! 1ded &an py 5er t"e 7.

) Y $ &an ma2e a "amm &2 $sin) 6 t : ) res ! para&"$te &an py and t% trees ab $t 7. Department ! t"e Army P!&!.h te H!++". It ta2es 1 n)er t ma2e t"is type ! s"e1ter t"an it d es t ma2e t"er types# b$t it %i11 pr te&t y $ !r m t"e e1ements.S.9 meters apart CFi)$re 9-:D.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. ! 2** .D %it" $t t"e aid ! t 1s r %it" n1y a 2ni!e. Fie%(-E5pe(ie#t Le!#-T" I! y $ are in a % ded area and "a5e en $)" nat$ra1 materia1s# y $ &an ma2e a !ie1d-e?pedient 1ean-t CFi)$re 9-. (a)e 7.

F rm t% r %s ! sta&2ed 1 )s t &reate an inner spa&e %it"in t"e %a11 t"at y $ &an !i11 %it" dirt. I! a standin) tree is n t a5ai1ab1e# & nstr$&t a biped $sin) Y-s"aped sti&2s r t% trip ds. S2!+p Be( In a mars" r s%amp# r any area %it" standin) %ater r & ntin$a11y %et )r $nd# t"e s%amp bed CFi)$re 9-1<D 2eeps y $ $t ! t"e %ater. (a)e 9< ! 2** . +"is is t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt. • (1a&e stra%# 1ea5es# pine need1es# r )rass inside t"e s"e1ter ! r beddin).9 &entimeters in diameter ! r beamsH & rd r 5ines ! r se&$rin) t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt t t"e treesH and t"er p 1es# sap1in)s# r 5ines t &riss&r ss t"e beams. (1a&e and tie int p1a&e sma11er sti&2s a&r ss t"ese p 1es. Dri5e ! $r 1. 3it" @$st a 1itt1e m re e!! rt y $ &an "a5e a dryin) ra&2. 3"en se1e&tin) s$&" a site# & nsider t"e %eat"er# %ind# tides# and a5ai1ab1e materia1s.ind t"e t p ! t"e s$pp rt sta2es s t"at t"e )reen 1 )s and dirt %i11 stay in p1a&e. Department ! t"e Army Y $ %i11 need t% trees C r $pri)"t p 1esD ab $t 2 meters apartH ne p 1e ab $t 2 meters 1 n) and 2. . + ma2e t"is 1ean-t -• +ie t"e 2-meter p 1e t t"e t% trees at %aist t &"est "ei)"t.9meter-1 n) sta2es int t"e )r $nd t s$pp rt t"e %a11.9 &entimeters in diameterH !i5e t ei)"t p 1es ab $t * meters 1 n) and 2. • (1a&e ne end ! t"e beams C*-meter p 1esD n ne side ! t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt. Y $ n % "a5e a p1a&e t dry &1 t"es# meat# r !is". /$t a !e% 2-&entimeter-diameter p 1es C1en)t" depends n t"e distan&e bet%een t"e 1ean-t Fs " ri' nta1 s$pp rt and t"e t p ! t"e !ire re!1e&t r %a11D. In & 1d %eat"er# add t y $r 1ean-t Fs & m! rt by b$i1din) a !ire re!1e&t r %a11 CFi)$re 9-. As %it" a11 1ean-t type s"e1ters# be s$re t p1a&e t"e 1ean-t Fs ba&2side int t"e %ind. Sta&2 )reen 1 )s n t p ! ne an t"er bet%een t"e s$pp rt sta2es.S. Lay ne end ! t"e p 1es n t"e 1ean-t s$pp rt and t"e t"er end n t p ! t"e re!1e&t r %a11.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.D. • / 5er t"e !rame% r2 %it" br$s"# 1ea5es# pine need1es# r )rass# startin) at t"e b tt m and % r2in) y $r %ay $p 1i2e s"in)1in). • /riss&r ss sap1in)s r 5ines n t"e beams. +"is a&ti n n t n1y stren)t"ens t"e %a11 b$t ma2es it m re "eat re!1e&ti5e.

+ ma2e a debris "$t CFi)$re 9-11D-• . • /$t additi na1 p 1es t"at span t"e re&tan)1eFs 1en)t". +"ey s" $1d be !ar en $)" apart and str n) en $)" t s$pp rt y $r "ei)"t and %ei)"t# t in&1$de e4$ipment. +"i&2# br$s"y# 1 % )r $nd a1s "arb rs m re inse&ts. +"ey# t # m$st be str n) en $)" t s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t.$i1d a !ire pad by 1ayin) &1ay# si1t# r m$d n ne & mer ! t"e s%amp bed and a11 % it t dry. • . .$i1d it by ma2in) a trip d %it" t% s" rt sta2es and a 1 n) rid)ep 1e r by p1a&in) ne end ! a 1 n) rid)ep 1e n t p ! a st$rdy base.S. (a)e 91 ! 2** . • Se&$re t"ese t% p 1es t t"e trees C r p 1esD.&i$ H t F r %armt" and ease ! & nstr$&ti n# t"is s"e1ter is ne ! t"e best. • L 2 ! r 1 se r &2s# dead 1imbs# & & n$ts# r t"er nat$ra1 )r %t" t"an & $1d !a11 n y $r s"e1ter. N!t &!% She%te&$ D n t 5er1 2 nat$ra1 ! rmati ns t"at pr 5ide s"e1ter. • /"e&2 ! r p is n $s sna2es# ti&2s# mites# s& rpi ns# and stin)in) ants. Lay t"em a&r ss t"e t% side p 1es# and se&$re t"em. 0 %e5er# %"en se1e&tin) a nat$ra1 ! rmati n-• Stay a%ay !r m 1 % )r $nd s$&" as ra5ines# narr % 5a11eys# r &ree2 beds. 3"en s"e1ter is essentia1 t s$r5i5a1# b$i1d t"is s"e1ter. L % areas & 11e&t t"e "ea5y & 1d air at ni)"t and are t"ere! re & 1der t"an t"e s$rr $ndin) "i)" )r $nd. • /$t t% p 1es t"at span t"e %idt" ! t"e re&tan)1e. An t"er s"e1ter desi)ned t )et y $ ab 5e and $t ! t"e %ater r %et )r $nd $ses t"e same re&tan)$1ar & n!i)$rati n as t"e s%amp bed. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e a s%amp bed-• L 2 ! r ! $r trees &1$stered in a re&tan)1e# r &$t ! $r p 1es Cbamb is idea1D and dri5e t"em !irm1y int t"e )r $nd s t"ey ! rm a re&tan)1e. De. Y $ 5ery simp1y 1ay sti&2s and bran&"es 1en)t"%ise n t"e inside ! t"e trees C r p 1esD $nti1 t"ere is en $)" materia1 t raise t"e s1eepin) s$r!a&e ab 5e t"e %ater 1e5e1. -?amp1es are &a5es# r &2y &re5i&es# &1$mps ! b$s"es# sma11 depressi ns# 1ar)e r &2s n 1ee%ard sides ! "i11s# 1ar)e trees %it" 1 %-"an)in) 1imbs# and !a11en trees %it" t"i&2 bran&"es.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.e s$re t"ey are "i)" en $)" ab 5e t"e )r $nd r %ater t a11 % ! r tides and "i)" %ater. • / 5er t"e t p ! t"e bed !rame %it" br ad 1ea5es r )rass t ! rm a s !t s1eepin) s$r!a&e.

At t"e entran&e# pi1e ins$1atin) materia1 t"at y $ &an dra) t y $ n&e inside t"e s"e1ter t &1 se t"e entran&e r b$i1d a d r. Add 1i)"t# dry# i! p ssib1e# s !t debris 5er t"e ribbin) $nti1 t"e ins$1atin) materia1 is at 1east 1 meter t"i&2--t"e t"i&2er t"e better. 1# y $ (a)e 92 ! 2** . (r p 1ar)e sti&2s a1 n) b t" sides ! t"e rid)ep 1e t &reate a %ed)e-s"aped ribbin) e!!e&t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • • Se&$re t"e rid)ep 1e Cp 1e r$nnin) t"e 1en)t" ! t"e s"e1terD $sin) t"e trip d met" d r by an&" rin) it t a tree at ab $t %aist "ei)"t. -ns$re t"e ribbin) is %ide en $)" t a&& mm date y $r b dy and steep en $)" t s"ed m ist$re. (1a&e !iner sti&2s and br$s" &r ss%ise n t"e ribbin). (1a&e a *<-&entimeter 1ayer ! ins$1atin) materia1 inside t"e s"e1ter. +"ese ! rm a 1atti&e% r2 t"at %i11 2eep t"e ins$1atin) materia1 C)rass# pine need1es# 1ea5esD !r m !a11in) t"r $)" t"e ribbin) int t"e s1eepin) area. T&ee-Pit S#"2 She%te& I! y $ are in a & 1d# sn %-& 5ered area %"ere e5er)reen trees )r % and y $ "a5e a di))in) t &an ma2e a tree-pit s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-12D.S. As a !ina1 step in & nstr$&tin) t"is s"e1ter# add s"in)1in) materia1 r bran&"es n t p ! t"e debris 1ayer t pre5ent t"e ins$1atin) materia1 !r m b1 %in) a%ay in a st rm.

See /"apter 19 ! r t"er ar&ti& r & 1d %eat"er s"e1ters. (a)e 9* ! 2** . + ma2e t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-1*D-• Find and & 11e&t dri!t% d r t"er nat$ra1 materia1 t $se as s$pp rt beams and as a di))in) t 1. Be!. • Use nat$ra1 materia1s s$&" as )rass r 1ea5es t ! rm a bed inside t"e s"e1ter. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e t"is s"e1ter-• Find a tree %it" b$s"y bran&"es t"at pr 5ides 5er"ead & 5er. • -n1ar)e t"e s"e1terFs entran&e by di))in) $t m re sand in !r nt ! it. Ma2e t"e tren&" 1 n) and %ide en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie d %n & m! rtab1y.S. • Di) $t t"e sn % ar $nd t"e tree tr$n2 $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e dept" and diameter y $ desire# r $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e )r $nd. It is easy t ma2e $sin) nat$ra1 materia1s.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • M $nd s i1 n t"ree sides ! t"e tren&". • (a&2 t"e sn % ar $nd t"e t p and t"e inside ! t"e " 1e t pr 5ide s$pp rt. • Se1e&t a site t"at is ab 5e t"e "i)" %ater mar2. (1a&e t"em 5er t"e t p ! t"e pit t )i5e y $ additi na1 5er"ead & 5er. +"e "i)"er t"e m $nd# t"e m re spa&e inside t"e s"e1ter. • Find and &$t t"er e5er)reen b $)"s. • Lay s$pp rt beams Cdri!t% d r t"er nat$ra1 materia1D t"at span t"e tren&" n t p ! t"e m $nd t ! rm t"e !rame% r2 ! r a r !. (1a&e e5er)reen b $)"s in t"e b tt m ! t"e pit ! r ins$1ati n.h Sh!(e She%te& +"is s"e1ter pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e s$n# %ind# rain# and "eat. • S&rape r di) $t a tren&" r$nnin) n rt" t s $t" s t"at it re&ei5es t"e 1east am $nt ! s$n1i)"t.

%centimeter to 56% centimeter airspace between the two halves.$i1d a m $nd ! sand r $se t"e side ! a sand d$ne ! r ne side ! t"e s"e1ter. (a)e 97 ! 2** . Department ! t"e Army De$e&t She%te&$ In an arid en5ir nment# & nsider t"e time# e!! rt# and materia1 needed t ma2e a s"e1ter.$i1din) it# " %e5er# re4$ires m re time and e!! rt t"an ! r t"er s"e1ters. 8ote9 I! you have enough material" !old it in hal! and !orm a 4. • -?tend and an&" r t"e t"er end ! t"e materia1 s it pr 5ides t"e best p ssib1e s"ade. . • An&" r ne end ! t"e materia1 n t p ! t"e m $nd $sin) sand r t"er %ei)"ts. A be1 %)r $nd s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-17D &an red$&e t"e midday "eat as m$&" as 16 t 22 de)rees / C*< t 7< de)rees FD. I! y $ "a5e materia1 s$&" as a p n&" # &an5as# r a para&"$te# $se it a1 n) %it" s$&" terrain !eat$res as r &2 $t&r ppin)# m $nds ! sand# r a depressi n bet%een d$nes r r &2s t ma2e y $r s"e1ter. • -?tend and an&" r t"e t"er end ! t"e p n&" s it pr 5ides t"e best p ssib1e s"ade. In a sandy area-• . Sin&e y $r p"ysi&a1 e!! rt %i11 ma2e y $ s%eat m re and in&rease de"ydrati n# & nstr$&t it be! re t"e "eat ! t"e day.S. Usin) r &2 $t&r ppin)s-• An&" r ne end ! y $r p n&" C&an5as# para&"$te# r t"er materia1D n t"e ed)e ! t"e $t&r p $sin) r &2s r t"er %ei)"ts.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. This airspace will reduce the temperature under the shelter.

Department ! t"e Army + ma2e t"is s"e1ter-• Find a 1 % sp t r depressi n bet%een d$nes r r &2s. I! ne&essary# di) a tren&" 79 t 6< &entimeters deep and 1 n) and %ide en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie in & m! rtab1y. F r ma?im$m pr te&ti n# y $ need a minim$m ! t% 1ayers ! para&"$te materia1 CFi)$re 9-19D. +"is 1ayerin) ! t"e materia1 %i11 red$&e t"e inside temperat$re 11 t 22 de)rees / C2< t 7< de)rees FD.n t"e pen end ! t"e tren&"# di) $t m re sand s y $ &an )et in and $t ! y $r s"e1ter easi1y. • Se&$re t"e materia1 in p1a&e $sin) sand# r &2s# r t"er %ei)"ts. 3"ite is t"e best & 1 r t re!1e&t "eatH t"e innerm st 1ayer s" $1d be ! dar2er materia1. I! y $ "a5e e?tra materia1# y $ &an !$rt"er de&rease t"e midday temperat$re in t"e tren&" by se&$rin) t"e materia1 *< t 79 &entimeters ab 5e t"e t"er & 5er. • / 5er t"e tren&" %it" y $r materia1. (a)e 99 ! 2** . • (i1e t"e sand y $ ta2e !r m t"e tren&" t ! rm a m $nd ar $nd t"ree sides.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • . An t"er type ! be1 %)r $nd s"ade s"e1ter is ! simi1ar & nstr$&ti n# e?&ept a11 sides are pen t air &$rrents and &ir&$1ati n.

Department ! t"e Army (a)e 96 ! 2** .S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

*ATER PROCUREMENT ater is one o! your most urgent needs in a survival situation. To !unction e!!ectively" you must replace the !luid your body loses. 3AT R SOURC S A1m st any en5ir nment "as %ater present t s me de)ree. @ou can.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. @our body loses !luid as a result o! heat" cold" stress" and e+ertion. Fi)$re 6-1 1ists p ssib1e s $r&es ! %ater in 5ari $s en5ir nments. t live long without it" especially in hot areas where you lose water rapidly through perspiration. /ore than three%!ourths o! your body is composed o! !luids. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 6 . So" one o! your !irst goals is to obtain an ade)uate supply o! water. Cven in cold areas" you need a minimum o! 3 liters o! water each day to maintain e!!iciency.S. It a1s pr 5ides in! rmati n n " % t ma2e t"e %ater p tab1e. (a)e 97 ! 2** .

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army (a)e 9: ! 2** .S.

I! y $ d n t "a5e a re1iab1e s $r&e t rep1enis" y $r %ater s$pp1y# stay a1ert ! r %ays in %"i&" y $r en5ir nment &an "e1p y $.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. CAUTION D n t s$bstit$te t"e !1$ids 1isted in Fi)$re 6-2 ! r %ater. Department ! t"e Army 8ote9 I! you do not have a canteen" a cup" a can" or other type o! container" improvise one !rom plastic or water%resistant cloth. (a)e 9. ! 2** . Use pins or other suitable items%%even your hands%%to hold the pleats. Shape the plastic or cloth into a bowl by pleating it.

. As t"e ra)s r )rass t$!ts abs rb t"e de%# %rin) t"e %ater int a & ntainer. 3ater !r m )reen bamb is &1ear and d r1ess. . Department ! t"e Army 0ea5y de% &an pr 5ide %ater. Use t"e ab 5e pr &ed$res t )et t"e %ater. CAUTION ($ri!y t"e %ater be! re drin2in) it. A$stra1ian nati5es s metimes m p $p as m$&" as a 1iter an " $r t"is %ay.S. +"e !irst t"ree !i11in)s ! %ater %i11 be bitter# b$t s$&&eedin) !i11in)s %i11 be pa1atab1e. In arid areas# bird dr ppin)s ar $nd a &ra&2 in t"e r &2s may indi&ate %ater in r near t"e &ra&2.e s$re t & 5er it t 2eep $t inse&ts. + )et t"e %ater# bend a )reen bamb sta12# tie it d %n# and &$t !! t"e t p CFi)$re 6-*D. 6reen bamb t"i&2ets are an e?&e11ent s $r&e ! !res" %ater. +"e %ater %i11 drip !ree1y d$rin) t"e ni)"t. 3ater !r m t"e r ts %i11 immediate1y start t !i11 t"e " 11 %. (a)e 6< ! 2** .ees r ants ) in) int a " 1e in a tree may p int t a %ater-!i11ed " 1e. Y $ &an a1s st$!! &1 t" in t"e " 1e t abs rb t"e %ater and t"en %rin) it !r m t"e &1 t".1d# &ra&2ed bamb may & ntain %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . /$t d %n t"e tree# 1ea5in) ab $t a *<&entimeter st$mp# and s& p $t t"e &enter ! t"e st$mp s t"at t"e " 11 % is b %1-s"aped. +ie ra)s r t$!ts ! !ine )rass ar $nd y $r an21es and %a12 t"r $)" de%& 5ered )rass be! re s$nrise. 3ater s metimes )at"ers in tree &r t&"es r r &2 &re5i&es. +"e st$mp CFi)$re 6-7D %i11 s$pp1y %ater ! r $p t ! $r days. 3"ere5er y $ !ind banana r p1antain trees# y $ &an )et %ater. Repeat t"e pr &ess $nti1 y $ "a5e a s$pp1y ! %ater r $nti1 t"e de% is ) ne. Sip" n t"e %ater %it" p1asti& t$bin) r s& p it $p %it" an impr 5ised dipper.

S. Department ! t"e Army S me tr pi&a1 5ines &an )i5e y $ %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. /at&" t"e dr ppin) 1i4$id in a & ntainer r in y $r m $t" CFi)$re 6-9D. /$t a n t&" in t"e 5ine as "i)" as y $ &an rea&"# t"en &$t t"e 5ine !! &1 se t t"e )r $nd. (a)e 61 ! 2** .

A. • Traveler.9 t 1 1iter ! %ater.r$ise a 1 %er !r nd and p$11 it d %n s t"e tree %i11 Jb1eedJ at t"e in@$ry. (a1ms# s$&" as t"e b$ri# & & n$t# s$)ar# rattan# and nips# & ntain 1i4$id. +"ey dra% m ist$re !r m t"e )r $nd and !r m p1ant materia1. It be)ins !ermentin)# be& min) dan)er $s as a %ater s $r&e. (a)e 62 ! 2** . In t"e Ameri&an tr pi&s y $ may !ind 1ar)e trees %" se bran&"es s$pp rt air p1ants.s tree. CAUTION D n t 2eep t"e sap !r m p1ants 1 n)er t"an 27 " $rs. +"is tree ! t"e sandy p1ains ! n rt"ern A$stra1ia and A!ri&a & 11e&ts %ater in its b tt1e1i2e tr$n2 d$rin) t"e %et seas n. +"e mi12 !r m )reen C$nripeD & & n$ts is a ) d t"irst 4$en&"er. +"ese air p1ants may " 1d a & nsiderab1e am $nt ! rain%ater in t"eir 5er1appin)# t"i&21y )r %in) 1ea5es.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. /$t !! a se&ti n ! t"e p1ant and s4$ee'e r smas" t"e p$1p s t"at t"e m ist$re r$ns $t. • Umbrella tree. /at&" t"e 1i4$id in a & ntainer. . Department ! t"e Army CAUTION D n t drin2 t"e 1i4$id i! it is sti&2y# mi12y# r bitter tastin). • ?aobab tree. STILL CONSTRUCTION Y $ &an $se sti11s in 5ari $s areas ! t"e % r1d. Di) r pry t"e r ts $t ! t"e )r $nd# &$t t"em int s" rt pie&es# and smas" t"e p$1p s t"at t"e m ist$re r$ns $t. +"e ! 11 %in) trees &an a1s pr 5ide %aterI • :alms. Drin2 in m derati n n1y. +"e 1ea! bases and r ts ! t"is tree ! %estern tr pi&a1 A!ri&a &an pr 5ide %ater. (1ant r ts may pr 5ide %ater. Y $ need &ertain materia1s t b$i1d a sti11# and y $ need time t 1et it & 11e&t t"e %ater. Y $ &an )et %ater !r m p1ants %it" m ist p$1py &enters. Strain t"e %ater t"r $)" a &1 t" t rem 5e inse&ts and debris."/e0&" #( Sti%% + ma2e t"e ab 5e)r $nd sti11# y $ need a s$nny s1 pe n %"i&" t p1a&e t"e sti11# a &1ear p1asti& ba)# )reen 1ea!y 5e)etati n# and a sma11 r &2 CFi)$re 6-6D. It ta2es ab $t 27 " $rs t )et <. /at&" t"e 1i4$id in a & ntainer. /$t r n t&" t"e sta12s at t"e base ! a @ int t drain $t t"e 1i4$id.S. F1es"y 1ea5es# stems# r sta12s# s$&" as bamb # & ntain %ater. Fre4$ent1y# y $ &an !ind &1ear# !res" %ater in t"ese trees a!ter %ee2s ! dry %eat"er. F $nd in Mada)as&ar# t"is tree "as a &$p1i2e s"eat" at t"e base ! its 1ea5es in %"i&" %ater & 11e&ts. 0 %e5er# t"e mi12 !r m mat$re & & n$ts & ntains an i1 t"at a&ts as a 1a?ati5e.

. /1 se t"e ba) and tie t"e m $t" se&$re1y as &1 se t t"e end ! t"e ba) as p ssib1e t 2eep t"e ma?im$m am $nt ! air spa&e. +"en tie !! r p1$) t"e t$bin) s t"at air %i11 n t es&ape. + )et t"e & ndensed %ater !r m t"e sti11# 1 sen t"e tie ar $nd t"e ba)Fs m $t" and tip t"e ba) s t"at t"e %ater & 11e&ted ar $nd t"e r &2 %i11 drain $t.S. CAUTION D n t $se p is n $s 5e)etati n. +"is %i11 ens$re ma?im$m $tp$t ! %ater. 1# a & ntainer# a &1ear p1asti& s"eet# a drin2in) t$be# (a)e 6* ! 2** .e s$re t rem 5e a11 "ard sti&2s r s"arp spines t"at mi)"t p$n&t$re t"e ba). +"en retie t"e m $t" se&$re1y and rep siti n t"e sti11 t a11 % !$rt"er & ndensati n. +"is t$bin) %i11 a11 % y $ t drain $t & ndensed %ater %it" $t $ntyin) t"e ba). • • • • (1a&e a sma11 r &2 r simi1ar item in t"e ba). It %i11 pr 5ide p is n $s 1i4$id. /"an)e t"e 5e)etati n in t"e ba) a!ter e?tra&tin) m st ! t"e %ater !r m it. Sett1e t"e ba) in p1a&e s t"at t"e r &2 % r2s itse1! int t"e 1 % p int in t"e ba).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Be%"20&" #( Sti%% + ma2e a be1 %)r $nd sti11# y $ need a di))in) t and a r &2 CFi)$re 6-7D. • Fi11 t"e p1asti& ba) "a1! t t"ree-! $rt"s !$11 ! )reen 1ea!y 5e)etati n. (1a&e t"e ba)# m $t" d %n"i11# n a s1 pe in !$11 s$n1i)"t. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e t"e sti11-• Fi11 t"e ba) %it" air by t$rnin) t"e penin) int t"e bree'e r by Js& pin)J air int t"e ba). I! y $ "a5e a pie&e ! t$bin)# a sma11 stra%# r a " 11 % reed# insert ne end in t"e m $t" ! t"e ba) be! re y $ tie it se&$re1y. ( siti n t"e m $t" ! t"e ba) s1i)"t1y "i)"er t"an t"e 1 % p int in t"e ba).

S. Department ! t"e Army Se1e&t a site %"ere y $ be1ie5e t"e s i1 %i11 & ntain m ist$re Cs$&" as a dry stream bed r a 1 % sp t %"ere rain%ater "as & 11e&tedD. +"e %ater t"en & ndenses n t"e p1asti& and drains int t"e & ntainer. +"e s i1 at t"is site s" $1d be easy t di)# and s$n1i)"t m$st "it t"e site m st ! t"e day. . + & nstr$&t t"e sti11-• Di) a b %1-s"aped " 1e ab $t 1 meter a&r ss and 6< &entimeters deep. • Di) a s$mp in t"e &enter ! t"e " 1e. (a)e 67 ! 2** . I! s # di) $t additi na1 s i1 !r m t"e sides ! t"e " 1e t ! rm a s1 pe n %"i&" t p1a&e t"e p1ants. • ($t m re s i1 n t"e ed)es ! t"e p1asti& t " 1d it se&$re1y in p1a&e and t pre5ent t"e 1 ss ! m ist$re. I! p 11$ted %ater is y $r n1y m ist$re s $r&e# di) a sma11 tr $)" $tside t"e " 1e ab $t 29 &entimeters !r m t"e sti11Fs 1ip CFi)$re 6-:D. It n % ! rms an in5erted & ne %it" t"e r &2 at its ape?. +"e tr $)" " 1ds t"e p 11$ted %ater and t"e s i1 !i1ters it as t"e sti11 dra%s it. • (1$) t"e t$be %"en n t in $se s t"at t"e m ist$re %i11 n t e5ap rate. Ma2e s$re t"at t"e & neFs ape? is dire&t1y 5er y $r & ntainer. • (1a&e t"e p1asti& s"eet 5er t"e " 1e# & 5erin) its ed)es %it" s i1 t " 1d it in p1a&e. +"en pr &eed as ab 5e. Di) t"e tr $)" ab $t 29 &entimeters deep and : &entimeters %ide. +"e s$mpFs dept" and perimeter %i11 depend n t"e si'e ! t"e & ntainer t"at y $ "a5e t p1a&e in it. +"is pr &ess % r2s e?treme1y %e11 %"en y $r n1y %ater s $r&e is sa1t %ater. Y $ may %ant t $se p1ants in t"e " 1e as a m ist$re s $r&e. • (1a&e a r &2 in t"e &enter ! t"e p1asti& s"eet. Y $ &an drin2 %ater %it" $t dist$rbin) t"e sti11 by $sin) t"e t$be as a stra%.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.e s$re y $ d n t spi11 any p 11$ted %ater ar $nd t"e rim ! t"e " 1e %"ere t"e p1asti& s"eet t $&"es t"e s i1. ( $r t"e p 11$ted %ater in t"e tr $)". • L %er t"e p1asti& s"eet int t"e " 1e $nti1 it is ab $t 7< &entimeters be1 % )r $nd 1e5e1. • An&" r t"e t$bin) t t"e & ntainerFs b tt m by ! rmin) a 1 se 5er"and 2n t in t"e t$bin). A1s ma2e s$re t"e p1asti& & ne d es n t t $&" t"e sides ! t"e " 1e be&a$se t"e eart" %i11 abs rb t"e & ndensed %ater. • -?tend t"e $nan&" red end ! t"e t$bin) $p# 5er# and bey nd t"e 1ip ! t"e " 1e. • (1a&e t"e & ntainer $pri)"t in t"e s$mp. +"e b tt m ! t"e s$mp s" $1d a11 % t"e & ntainer t stand $pri)"t.

Y $ may be s$s&eptib1e t t"ese diseases re)ard1ess ! in &$1ati ns. . Se5ere# pr 1 n)ed diarr"ea %it" b1 dy st 1s# !e5er# and %ea2ness. @ou will have to puri!y it. CF 11 % t"e dire&ti ns pr 5ided. I! y $ s%a11 % a 1ee&"# it &an " 2 nt t"e t"r at passa)e r inside t"e n se. I! t"e &anteen is !$11 ! &1 $dy r & 1d %ater# $se 1< dr ps. Department ! t"e Army Y $ %i11 need at 1east t"ree sti11s t meet y $r indi5id$a1 dai1y %ater inta2e needs. 3AT R 'ILTRATION . • Leeches. 3AT R PURI'ICATION Rain%ater & 11e&ted in &1ean & ntainers r in p1ants is $s$a11y sa!e ! r drin2in). -?amp1es ! s$&" diseases r r)anisms are-• <ysentery.S. It %i11 s$&2 b1 d# &reate a % $nd# and m 5e t an t"er area. ($ri!y %ater by-• Usin) %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets.y p1a&in) it in a & ntainer and 1ettin) it stand ! r 12 " $rs. CLet t"e &anteen ! %ater stand ! r *< min$tes be! re drin2in).y p $rin) it t"r $)" a !i1terin) system. i1in) %ater ! r 1 min$te at sea 1e5e1# addin) 1 min$te ! r ea&" additi na1 *<< meters ab 5e sea 1e5e1# r b i1 ! r 1< min$tes n matter %"ere y $ are. VIC S I! t"e %ater y $ !ind is a1s m$ddy# sta)nant# and ! $1 sme11in)# y $ &an &1ear t"e %ater-• .D • . -a&" b1eedin) % $nd may be& me in!e&ted. Sta)nant# p 11$ted %ater--espe&ia11y in tr pi&a1 areas-. 3"en p ssib1e# p$ri!y a11 %ater y $ ) t !r m 5e)etati n r !r m t"e )r $nd by $sin) i dine r &"1 rine# r by b i1in). • . I! y $ s%a11 % !1$2es# t"ey %i11 b re int t"e b1 dstream# 1i5e as parasites# and &a$se disease.D • (1a&in) 9 dr ps ! 2 per&ent tin&t$re ! i dine in a &anteen !$11 ! &1ear %ater. 0 %e5er# p$ri!y %ater !r m 1a2es# p nds# s%amps# sprin)s# r streams# espe&ia11y t"e %ater near "$man sett1ements r in t"e tr pi&s. 8ote9 These procedures only clear the water and make it more palatable. • -lukes.!ten & ntains b1 d !1$2es. • 1holera and typhoid.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 69 ! 2** .y drin2in) n np tab1e %ater y $ may & ntra&t diseases r s%a11 % r)anisms t"at &an "arm y $.

S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.D. (a)e 66 ! 2** . Rem 5e t"e d r !r m %ater by addin) &"ar& a1 !r m y $r !ire. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e a !i1terin) system# p1a&e se5era1 &entimeters r 1ayers ! !i1terin) materia1 s$&" as sand# &r$s"ed r &2# &"ar& a1# r &1 t" in bamb # a " 11 % 1 )# r an arti&1e ! &1 t"in) CFi)$re 6-. Let t"e %ater stand ! r 79 min$tes be! re drin2in) it.

PR PARATION Y $ %i11 "a5e t de&ide %"at site and arran)ement t $se. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 7 . @ou can also use !ire to produce tools and weapons. F$e1 Cin a n n)ase $s stateD d es n t b$rn dire&t1y. . • +imeI " % m$&" time y $ "a5eG • NeedI %"y y $ need a !ireG • Se&$rityI " % &1 se is t"e enemyG L • • • 2 ! r a dry sp t t"at-Is pr te&ted !r m t"e %ind.S. #ASIC 'IR PRINCIPL S + b$i1d a !ire# it "e1ps t $nderstand t"e basi& prin&ip1es ! a !ire. -ire can !ul!ill many needs. CSee Fi)$re 7-7 ! r types ! materia1 y $ &an $se. +"is )as# & mbined %it" ?y)en in t"e air# b$rns. -ire can also cause burns carbon mono+ide poisoning when used in shelters. +"e t"ree sides ! t"e trian)1e represent air" heat" and !uel. It not only cooks and preserves !ood" it also provides warmth in the !orm o! heated !ood that saves calories our body normally uses to produce body heat. 3i11 & n&entrate t"e "eat in t"e dire&ti n y $ desire.D (a)e 67 ! 2** 0as a s$pp1y ! % . It can be a psychological boost by providing peace o! mind and companionship. • +"e materia1s and t 1s a5ai1ab1e. Understandin) t"e & n&ept ! t"e !ire trian)1e is 5ery imp rtant in & rre&t1y & nstr$&tin) and maintainin) a !ire. d r t"er !$e1 a5ai1ab1e. SIT S L CTION AN. I! y $ rem 5e any ! t"ese# t"e !ire %i11 ) $t. -ire can cause problems" as well. +"e n1y %ay t 1earn t"is rati is t pra&ti&e. +"e & rre&t rati ! t"ese & mp nents is 5ery imp rtant ! r a !ire t b$rn at its )reatest &apabi1ity. 3"en y $ app1y "eat t a !$e1# it pr d$&es a )as.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.FIRECRAFT In many survival situations" the ability to start a !ire can make the di!!erence between living and dying. The enemy can detect the smoke and light it produces. It can provide warmth and com!ort.e! re b$i1din) a !ire & nsider-• +"e area Cterrain and &1imateD in %"i&" y $ are peratin). @ou can use !ire to puri!y water" sterili*e bandages" signal !or rescue" and provide protection !rom animals. It can cause !orest !ires or destroy essential e)uipment. Is s$itab1y p1a&ed in re1ati n t y $r s"e1ter Ci! anyD. Remember weigh your need !or !ire against your need to avoid enemy detection.

Department ! t"e Army I! y $ are in a % ded r br$s"-& 5ered area# &1ear t"e br$s" and s&rape t"e s$r!a&e s i1 !r m t"e sp t y $ "a5e se1e&ted. /1ear a &ir&1e at 1east 1 meter in diameter s t"ere is 1itt1e &"an&e ! t"e !ire spreadin). I! time a11 %s# & nstr$&t a !ire %a11 $sin) 1 )s r r &2s. It %i11 a1s red$&e !1yin) spar2s and &$t d %n n t"e am $nt ! %ind b1 %in) int t"e !ire. (a)e 6: ! 2** .S. 0 %e5er# y $ %i11 need en $)" %ind t 2eep t"e !ire b$rnin).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. CAUTION D n t $se %et r p r $s r &2s as t"ey may e?p1 de %"en "eated. +"is %a11 %i11 "e1p t re!1e&t r dire&t t"e "eat %"ere y $ %ant it CFi)$re 7-1D.

• . It & n&ea1s t"e !ire and ser5es %e11 ! r & 2in) ! d. + ma2e an $nder)r $nd !irep1a&e r Da2 ta !ire " 1e CFi)$re 7-2D-• Di) a " 1e in t"e )r $nd.n t"e $p%ind side ! t"is " 1e# p 2e r di) a 1ar)e & nne&tin) " 1e ! r 5enti1ati n.$i1d y $r !ire in t"e " 1e as i11$strated. Lay t"e t p 1ayer ! 1 )s pp site t" se be1 % it. (a)e 6. • .S. Add ne r t% m re 1ayers. /$t r brea2 se5era1 )reen 1 )s and 1ay t"em side by side n t p ! t"e sn %. ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +rees %it" %rist-si'ed tr$n2s are easi1y br 2en in e?treme & 1d. I! y $ are in a sn %-& 5ered area# $se )reen 1 )s t ma2e a dry base ! r y $r !ire CFi)$re 7-*D. Department ! t"e Army In s me sit$ati ns# y $ may !ind t"at an $nder)r $nd !irep1a&e %i11 best meet y $r needs.

(a)e 7< ! 2** . +"is type ! !ire b$rns %e11 e5en %it" %et % d.n&e it is b1a&2# y $ m$st 2eep it in an airti)"t & ntainer t 2eep it dry. A 'IR +"ere are se5era1 met" ds ! r 1ayin) a !ire# ea&" ! %"i&" "as ad5anta)es. 8ind1in) in&reases t"e !ireFs temperat$re s t"at it %i11 i)nite 1ess & mb$stib1e materia1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Add it t y $r indi5id$a1 s$r5i5a1 2it. As t"e tepee b$rns# t"e $tside 1 )s %i11 !a11 in%ard# !eedin) t"e !ire. Li)"t t"e &enter. I! y $ n1y "a5e a de5i&e t"at )enerates spar2s# &"arred &1 t" %i11 be a1m st essentia1. Tepee + ma2e t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# arran)e t"e tinder and a !e% sti&2s ! 2ind1in) in t"e s"ape ! a tepee r & ne. . It " 1ds a spar2 ! r 1 n) peri ds# a11 %in) y $ t p$t tinder n t"e " t area t )enerate a sma11 !1ame. A)ain# t"is materia1 s" $1d be abs 1$te1y dry t ens$re rapid b$rnin).S. Y $ &an ma2e &"arred &1 t" by "eatin) & tt n &1 t" $nti1 it t$rns b1a&2# b$t d es n t b$rn. +"e tinder m$st be abs 1$te1y dry t be s$re @$st a spar2 %i11 i)nite it. . F$e1 is 1ess & mb$stib1e materia1 t"at b$rns s1 %1y and steadi1y n&e i)nited. Department ! t"e Army 'IR 0AT RIAL S L CTION Y $ need t"ree types ! materia1s CFi)$re 7-7D t b$i1d a !ire--tinder# 2ind1in)# and !$e1. (repare t"is &1 t" %e11 in ad5an&e ! any s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n.O3 TO #UIL. +"e sit$ati n y $ !ind y $rse1! in %i11 determine %"i&" !ire t $se. 8ind1in) is readi1y & mb$stib1e materia1 t"at y $ add t t"e b$rnin) tinder. +inder is dry materia1 t"at i)nites %it" 1itt1e "eat--a spar2 starts a !ire.

As t"e starter !ire b$rns# it %i11 i)nite t"e 1 )s be1 % it. ( int t"e end ! t"e sti&2 in t"e dire&ti n ! t"e %ind.O3 TO LI/. I)niters pr 5ide t"e initia1 "eat re4$ired t start t"e tinder b$rnin). Lean pie&es ! 2ind1in) a)ainst t"e 1ean-t sti&2. +"e s"a11 % dit&" a11 %s air t s%eep $nder t"e tinder t pr 5ide a dra!t. Y $r sit$ati n and t"e materia1 a5ai1ab1e in t"e area may ma2e an t"er met" d m re s$itab1e. .T A 'IR A1%ays 1i)"t y $r !ire !r m t"e $p%ind side.$i1d a 2ind1in) pyramid ab 5e t"e tinder. Department ! t"e Army Le!#-T" + 1ay t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# p$s" a )reen sti&2 int t"e )r $nd at a *<-de)ree an)1e. +"ere are se5era1 t"er %ays t 1ay a !ire t"at are 4$ite e!!e&ti5e. . Di) t"e &r ss 7. As t"e 2ind1in) &at&"es !ire !r m t"e tinder# add m re 2ind1in). (1a&e a s 1id 1ayer ! sma11 1 )s a&r ss t"e para11e1 1 )s. (1a&e s me tinder deep $nder t"is 1ean-t sti&2. +"is )i5es y $ a !ire t"at b$rns d %n%ard# re4$irin) n attenti n d$rin) t"e ni)"t. P3&!+i( + 1ay t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# p1a&e t% sma11 1 )s r bran&"es para11e1 n t"e )r $nd. M"(e&# Meth"($ (a)e 71 ! 2** .S. Add t"ree r ! $r m re 1ayers ! 1 )s r bran&"es# ea&" 1ayer sma11er t"an and at a ri)"t an)1e t t"e 1ayer be1 % it. C&"$$-Dit. Ma2e a starter !ire n t p ! t"e pyramid.9 &entimeters deep. ($t a 1ar)e %ad ! tinder in t"e midd1e ! t"e &r ss. Li)"t t"e tinder.h + $se t"is met" d CFi)$re 7-9D# s&rat&" a &r ss ab $t *< &entimeters in si'e in t"e )r $nd. +"ey !a11 int t% &ate) riesI m dern met" ds and primiti5e met" ds. Ma2e s$re t 1ay y $r tinder# 2ind1in)# and !$e1 s t"at y $r !ire %i11 b$rn as 1 n) as y $ need it.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Department ! t"e Army M dem i)niters $se m dem de5i&es--items %e n rma11y t"in2 ! t start a !ire. . S&rape y $r 2ni!e a)ainst t"e meta1 mat&" t pr d$&e spar2s. (a)e 72 ! 2** . 0atches Ma2e s$re t"ese mat&"es are %aterpr dependab1e stri2er pad. #attery Use a battery t )enerate a spar2. I! s # &are!$11y e?tra&t t"e b$11et !r m t"e s"e11 &asin)# and $se t"e )$np %der as tinder. (1a&e t"e tip ! t"e meta1 mat&" n t"e dry 1ea!# " 1din) t"e meta1 mat&" in ne "and and a 2ni!e in t"e t"er.!ten# y $ %i11 "a5e amm$niti n %it" y $r e4$ipment. + $&" t"e ends ! t"e bare %ires t )et"er ne?t t t"e tinder s t"e spar2s %i11 i)nite it. !. A1s # st re t"em in a %aterpr ! & ntainer a1 n) %it" a Con(e4 Lens Use t"is met" d CFi)$re 7-6D n1y n bri)"t# s$nny days.S. 3"en t"e tinder starts t sm 1der# pr &eed as ab 5e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. An)1e t"e 1ens t & n&entrate t"e s$nFs rays n t"e tinder. A spar2 %i11 i)nite t"e p %der. Atta&" a %ire t ea&" termina1. +"e 1ens &an & me !r m bin &$1ars# &amera# te1es& pi& si)"ts# r ma)ni!yin) )1asses. Use ! t"is met" d depends n t"e type ! battery a5ai1ab1e. 6ent1y b1 % r !an t"e tinder int !1ame# and app1y it t t"e !ire 1ay.e e?treme1y &are!$1 %"en e?tra&tin) t"e b$11et !r m t"e &ase. 0etal 0atch (1a&e a !1at# dry 1ea! $nder y $r tinder %it" a p rti n e?p sed. 0 1d t"e 1ens 5er t"e same sp t $nti1 t"e tinder be)ins t sm 1der. /unpo%der . +"e spar2s %i11 "it t"e tinder.

+"en# as y $ app1y m re press$re n ea&" str 2e# t"e !ri&ti n i)nites t"e % d parti&1es.S. 3"en a spar2 "as &a$)"t in t"e tinder# b1 % n it. /$t a depressi n ab $t 2 &entimeters !r m t"e ed)e n ne side ! t"e b ard.n t"e $nderside# ma2e a V-s"aped &$t !r m t"e ed)e ! t"e b ard t t"e depressi n. Stri2e a !1int r t"er "ard# s"arp-ed)ed r &2 ed)e %it" a pie&e ! &arb n stee1 Cstain1ess stee1 %i11 n t pr d$&e a ) d spar2D. +"e dri11 s" $1d be a strai)"t# seas ned "ard% d sti&2 ab $t 2 &entimeters in diameter and 29 &entimeters 1 n). +"is met" d re4$ires a 1 se-@ inted %rist and pra&ti&e. Use it t " 1d t"e dri11 in p1a&e and t app1y d %n%ard press$re. +"e s &2et is an easi1y )rasped st ne r pie&e ! "ard% d r b ne %it" a s1i)"t depressi n in ne side. +"e p1 %in) a&ti n ! t"e s"a!t p$s"es $t sma11 parti&1es ! % d !ibers. +"e t p end is r $nd and t"e 1 % end b1$nt Ct pr d$&e m re !ri&ti nD.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.9 &entimeters t"i&2 and 1< &entimeters %ide is pre!erab1e. 'lint and Steel +"e dire&t spar2 met" d is t"e easiest ! t"e primiti5e met" ds t $se. 'ire5Plo% +"e !ire-p1 % CFi)$re 7-7D is a !ri&ti n met" d ! i)niti n. Its si'e is $p t y $. +"e spar2 %i11 spread and b$rst int !1ames. (a)e 7* ! 2** . + $se t"is met" d# &$t a strai)"t )r 5e in t"e base and p1 % t"e b1$nt tip ! t"e s"a!t $p and d %n t"e )r 5e. <rill. Y $ r$b a "ard% d s"a!t a)ainst a s !ter % d base. Department ! t"e Army P&i+iti/e Meth"($ (rimiti5e i)niters are t" se attrib$ted t $r ear1y an&est rs. .rill +"e te&"ni4$e ! startin) a !ire %it" a b % and dri11 CFi)$re 7-:D is simp1e# b$t y $ m$st e?ert m$&" e!! rt and be persistent t pr d$&e a !ire. Y $ need t"e ! 11 %in) items t $se t"is met" dI • • • Socket. #o% and . A seas ned s !t% d b ard ab $t 2. -ire board. +"e !1int and stee1 met" d is t"e m st re1iab1e ! t"e dire&t spar2 met" ds.

. /arry 1i)"ted p$n2# %"en p ssib1e. +"e b % is a resi1ient# )reen sti&2 ab $t 2. (1a&e t"e s &2et# "e1d in ne "and# n t"e t p ! t"e dri11 t " 1d it in p siti n. +"e b %strin) &an be any type ! & rda)e. +"e type ! % d is n t imp rtant. 8ote9 :rimitive !ire%building methods are e+haustive and re)uire practice to ensure success. Department ! t"e Army • ?ow. . (a)e 77 ! 2** . HELPFUL HINTS Use n nar mati& seas ned "ard% d ! r !$e1# i! p ssib1e. / 11e&t 2ind1in) and tinder a1 n) t"e trai1.S.1 % n t"e tinder $nti1 it i)nites. Add inse&t repe11ent t t"e tinder. (1a&e ne ! t n t"e !ire b ard. Dry damp !ire% d near t"e !ire. Y $ tie t"e b %strin) !r m ne end ! t"e b % t t"e t"er# %it" $t any s1a&2.an2 t"e !ire t 2eep t"e & a1s a1i5e 5erni)"t. +"is a&ti n %i11 )rind " t b1a&2 p %der int t"e tinder# &a$sin) a spar2 t &at&". . + $se t"e b % and dri11# !irst prepare t"e !ire 1ay. (ress d %n n t"e dri11 and sa% t"e b % ba&2 and ! rt" t t%ir1 t"e dri11 CFi)$re 7-:D. +"en p1a&e a b$nd1e ! tinder $nder t"e V-s"aped &$t in t"e !ire b ard.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. It may appear t be dry b$t )enera11y d esnFt pr 5ide en $)" !ri&ti n. D n t se1e&t % d 1yin) n t"e )r $nd.n&e y $ "a5e estab1is"ed a sm t" m ti n# app1y m re d %n%ard press$re and % r2 t"e b % !aster. 8eep t"e !ire% d dry.9 &entimeters in diameter and a strin).e s$re t"e !ire is $t be! re 1ea5in) &amp. L p t"e b %strin) 5er t"e dri11 and p1a&e t"e dri11 in t"e pre&$t depressi n n t"e !ire b ard. .

Inse&ts t a5 id in&1$de a11 ad$1ts t"at stin) r bite# "airy r bri)"t1y & 1 red inse&ts# and &aterpi11ars and inse&ts t"at "a5e a p$n)ent d r. In contemplating virtually any hypothetical survival situation" the mind immediately turns to thoughts o! !ood. Y $ &an# %it" re1ati5e1y !e% e?&epti ns# eat anyt"in) t"at &ra%1s# s%ims# %a12s# r !1ies. St nes# b ards# r t"er materia1s 1yin) n t"e )r $nd pr 5ide t"e inse&ts %it" ) d nestin) sites. Un1ess y $ "a5e t"e &"an&e t ta2e 1ar)e )ame# & n&entrate y $r e!! rts n t"e sma11er anima1s# d$e t t"eir ab$ndan&e. 6rassy areas# s$&" as !ie1ds# are ) d areas t sear&" be&a$se t"e inse&ts are easi1y seen. I#$e. +"is !a&t ma2es inse&ts an imp rtant# i! n t 5er1y appeti'in)# ! d s $r&e. 0ist ri&a11y# pe p1e in star5ati n sit$ati ns "a5e res rted t eatin) e5eryt"in) ima)inab1e ! r n $ris"ment. A1t" $)" it may pr 5e di!!i&$1t at !irst# a s$r5i5 r m$st eat %"at is a5ai1ab1e t maintain "is "ea1t". Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER . The survivor must remember that the three essentials o! survival%%water" !ood" and shelter%%are prioriti*ed according to the estimate o! the actual situation. +"e !irst bsta&1e is 5er& min) y $r nat$ra1 a5ersi n t a parti&$1ar ! d s $r&e. Inse&ts s$&" as beet1es and )rass" ppers t"at "a5e a "ard $ter (a)e 79 ! 2** .t$ +"e m st ab$ndant 1i!e-! rm n eart"# inse&ts are easi1y &a$)"t. Re1ati5e1y !e% are p is n $s# and t"ey ma2e a sma11er 1ist t remember. Unless the situation occurs in an arid environment" even water" which is more important to maintaining body !unctions" will almost always !ollow !ood in our initial thoughts. . Some situations may well dictate that shelter precede both !ood and water. F r e?amp1e# anima1s t"at are e?&e11ent &" i&es ! r trappin)# t" se t"at in"abit a parti&$1ar ran)e and &&$py a den r nest# t" se t"at "a5e s me%"at !i?ed !eedin) areas# and t" se t"at "a5e trai1s 1eadin) !r m ne area t an t"er.FOOD PROCUREMENT A!ter water" man. Inse&ts pr 5ide 69 t :< per&ent pr tein & mpared t 2< per&ent ! r bee!. +"e sma11er anima1 spe&ies are a1s easier t prepare. ANI0ALS 'OR 'OO.S. D n t 5er1 2 inse&t nests n r in t"e )r $nd.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ m$st n t 2n % a11 t"e anima1 spe&ies t"at are s$itab1e as ! d. Inse&t 1ar5ae are a1s edib1e. /"e&2 t"ese sites. Lar)er# "erdin) anima1s# s$&" as e12 r &arib $# r am 5ast areas and are s me%"at m re di!!i&$1t t trap. R ttin) 1 )s 1yin) n t"e )r $nd are e?&e11ent p1a&es t 1 2 ! r a 5ariety ! inse&ts in&1$din) ants# termites# beet1es# and )r$bs# %"i&" are beet1e 1ar5ae. A1s a5 id spiders and & mm n disease &arriers s$&" as ti&2s# !1ies# and m s4$it es. A1s # y $ m$st $nderstand t"e ! d &" i&es ! a parti&$1ar spe&ies. A pers n %" i)n res an t"er%ise "ea1t"y ! d s $r&e d$e t a pers na1 bias# r be&a$se "e !ee1s it is $nappeti'in)# is ris2in) "is %n s$r5i5a1. 3"at is imp rtant is t 1earn t"e "abits and be"a5i ra1 patterns ! &1asses ! anima1s.s most urgent re)uirement is !ood. This estimate must not only be timely but accurate as well.

L bsters and &rabs are n &t$rna1 and &a$)"t best at ni)"t. /ray!is" are a2in t marine 1 bsters and &rabs. 3"en t"e &ray!is" )rabs t"e bait# p$11 it t s" re be! re it "as a &"an&e t re1ease t"e bait. S"rimp may & me t a 1i)"t at ni)"t %"ere y $ &an s& p t"em $p %it" a net. Y $ &an a1s !ind t"em by 1 2in) in t"e s !t m$d near t"e &"imney1i2e breat"in) " 1es ! t"eir nests. Department ! t"e Army s"e11 %i11 "a5e parasites. +"e taste 5aries !r m ne spe&ies t an t"er. *"&+$ 3 rms CAnnelideaD are an e?&e11ent pr tein s $r&e. (a)e 76 ! 2** . Y $ &an &at&" 1 bsters and &rabs %it" a baited trap r a baited " 2. 3 d )r$bs are b1and# %"i1e s me spe&ies ! ants st re " ney in t"eir b dies# )i5in) t"em a s%eet taste. Y $ !ind bi5a15es simi1ar t $r !res"%ater m$sse1 and terrestria1 and a4$ati& snai1s % r1d%ide $nder a11 %ater & nditi ns. Y $ &an mi? t"em %it" edib1e 5e)etati n. Y $ &an distin)$is" t"em by t"eir "ard e? s2e1et n and !i5e pairs ! 1e)s# t"e !r nt pair "a5in) 5ersi'ed pin&ers. +"e % rms %i11 nat$ra11y p$r)e r %as" t"emse15es $t# a!ter %"i&" y $ &an eat t"em ra%.S.e!#$ Fres"%ater s"rimp ran)e in si'e !r m <. Y $ !ind sa1t%ater 1 bsters# &rabs# and s"rimp !r m t"e s$r!Fs ed)e $t t %ater 1< meters deep. Y $ &an )rind a & 11e&ti n ! inse&ts int a paste.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. M"%% $)$ +"is &1ass in&1$des &t p$ses and !res"%ater and sa1t%ater s"e11!is" s$&" as snai1s# &1ams# m$sse1s# bi5a15es# barna&1es# peri%in21es# &"it ns# and sea $r&"ins CFi)$re :-1D. Y $ &an &at&" &ray!is" by tyin) bits ! !!a1 r interna1 r)ans t a strin).9 &entimeters. A!ter &apt$rin) t"em# dr p t"em int &1ean# p tab1e %ater ! r a !e% min$tes. Y $ &an & 2 t"em t impr 5e t"eir taste. /rabs %i11 & me t bait p1a&ed at t"e ed)e ! t"e s$r!# %"ere y $ &an trap r net t"em. Rem 5e any %in)s and barbed 1e)s a1s . Y $ &an eat m st inse&ts ra%. Di) ! r t"em in damp "$m$s s i1 r %at&" ! r t"em n t"e )r $nd a!ter a rain. /ray!is" are a&ti5e at ni)"t# b$t y $ &an 1 &ate t"em in t"e daytime by 1 2in) $nder and ar $nd st nes in streams.29 &entimeter $p t 2. +"ey &an ! rm rat"er 1ar)e & 1 nies in mats ! !1 atin) a1)ae r in m$d b tt ms ! p nds and 1a2es. / 2 t"em be! re eatin). C& $t!.

CAUTION D n t eat s"e11!is" t"at are n t & 5ered by %ater at "i)" tideK Fi$h (a)e 77 ! 2** . Lar)e snai1s# &a11ed &"it ns# ad"ere ti)"t1y t r &2s ab 5e t"e s$r! 1ine. +"ey ma2e e?&e11ent ste%s in & mbinati n %it" )reens and t$bers. R &2s a1 n) bea&"es r e?tendin) as ree!s int deeper %ater !ten bear &1in)in) s"e11!is". Snai1s and 1impets &1in) t r &2s and sea%eed !r m t"e 1 % %ater mar2 $p%ard. M$sse1s $s$a11y ! rm dense & 1 nies in r &2 p 1s# n 1 )s# r at t"e base ! b $1ders. Near t"e sea# 1 2 in t"e tida1 p 1s and t"e %et sand. +"ese snai1s may be pen&i1 p int r )1 b$1ar in s"ape. CAUTION M$sse1s may be p is n $s in tr pi&a1 ' nes d$rin) t"e s$mmerK Steam# b i1# r ba2e m 11$s2s in t"e s"e11. In !res" %ater# 1 2 ! r m 11$s2s in t"e s"a11 %s# espe&ia11y in %ater %it" a sandy r m$ddy b tt m. Department ! t"e Army Ri5er snai1s r !res"%ater peri%in21es are p1enti!$1 in ri5ers# streams# and 1a2es ! n rt"ern & ni!er $s ! rests. L 2 ! r t"e narr % trai1s t"ey 1ea5e in t"e m$d r ! r t"e dar2 e11ipti&a1 s1it ! t"eir pen 5a15es.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

/ 2 a11 !res"%ater !is" t 2i11 parasites. + be s$&&ess!$1 at &at&"in) !is"# y $ m$st 2n % t"eir "abits. /ertain sa1t%ater spe&ies ! !is" "a5e p is n $s !1es". A1s & 2 sa1t%ater !is" &a$)"t %it"in a ree! r %it"in t"e in!1$en&e ! a !res"%ater s $r&e as a pre&a$ti n. (a)e 7: ! 2** . -?amp1es ! p is n $s sa1t%ater !is" are t"e p r&$pine !is"# tri))er!is"# & %!is"# t" rn !is"# i1!is"# red snapper# @a&2# and p$!!er CFi)$re :-2D. Any marine 1i!e btained !art"er $t in t"e sea %i11 n t & ntain parasites be&a$se ! t"e sa1t%ater en5ir nment. In s me spe&ies t"e p is n &&$rs seas na11y in t"ers# it is permanent.S. +"ere are n p is n $s !res"%ater !is". +"ey !!er s me distin&t ad5anta)es t t"e s$r5i5 r r e5ader. +"e barra&$da# %"i1e n t a&t$a11y p is n $s itse1!# may transmit &i)$atera C!is" p is nin)D i! eaten ra%. +"ese &an in!1i&t pain!$1 p$n&t$re % $nds t"at 4$i&21y be& me in!e&ted. Li)"t !ten attra&ts !is" at ni)"t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ &an eat t"ese ra%. +"ey are $s$a11y m re ab$ndant t"an mamma1 %i1d1i!e# and t"e %ays t )et t"em are si1ent. 3"en t"ere is a "ea5y &$rrent# !is" %i11 rest in p1a&es %"ere t"ere is an eddy# s$&" as near r &2s. Fis" are n t 1i2e1y t !eed a!ter a st rm %"en t"e %ater is m$ddy and s% 11en. F r instan&e# !is" tend t !eed "ea5i1y be! re a st rm. 0 %e5er# t"e &at!is" spe&ies "as s"arp# need1e1i2e pr tr$si ns n its d rsa1 !ins and barbe1s. Department ! t"e Army Fis" represent a ) d s $r&e ! pr tein and !at. Fis" %i11 a1s )at"er %"ere t"ere are deep p 1s# $nder 5er"an)in) br$s"# and in and ar $nd s$bmer)ed ! 1ia)e# 1 )s# r t"er b@e&ts t"at !!er t"em s"e1ter.

Repti%e$ (a)e 7. A5 id any bri)"t1y & 1 red !r ) r ne t"at "as a distin&t JBJ mar2 n itFs ba&2. Se5era1 spe&ies ! t ads se&rete a p is n $s s$bstan&e t"r $)" t"eir s2in as a de!ense a)ainst atta&2. Department ! t"e Army A+phi. ! 2** . L 2 in %ater ar $nd r &2s and m$d ban2s ! r sa1amanders.i!#$ Fr )s and sa1amanders are easi1y ! $nd ar $nd b dies ! !res" %ater. D n t & n!$se t ads %it" !r )s. Sa1amanders are n &t$rna1. +"ere are !e% p is n $s spe&ies ! !r )s. Fr )s se1d m m 5e !r m t"e sa!ety ! t"e %aterFs ed)e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. At t"e !irst si)n ! dan)er# t"ey p1$n)e int t"e %ater and b$ry t"emse15es in t"e m$d and debris. +"ey &an ran)e in si'e !r m a !e% &entimeters t %e11 5er 6< &entimeters in 1en)t". +"e best time t &at&" t"em is at ni)"t $sin) a 1i)"t. Y $ n rma11y !ind t ads in drier en5ir nments. +"ere! re# t a5 id p is nin)# d n t "and1e r eat t ads.S.

irds tend t "a5e re)$1ar !1y%ays ) in) !r m t"e r st t a !eedin) area# t %ater# and s ! rt". D$rin) t"e nestin) seas n# s me spe&ies %i11 n t 1ea5e t"e nest e5en %"en appr a&"ed. Y $ &an ta2e pi)e ns# as %e11 as s me t"er spe&ies# !r m t"eir r st at ni)"t by "and.&ean# be&a$se ! its p is n $s t" ra? )1and.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. As %it" any %i1d anima1# y $ m$st $nderstand birdsF & mm n "abits t "a5e a rea1isti& &"an&e ! &apt$rin) t"em. Y $ s" $1d & 2 t"em# b$t in an emer)en&y# y $ &an eat t"em ra%. Y $ may s2in !is"-eatin) birds t impr 5e t"eir taste. +"e b ? t$rt1e is a & mm n1y en& $ntered t$rt1e t"at y $ s" $1d n t eat. A5 id t"e "a%2sbi11 t$rt1e# ! $nd in t"e At1anti& . (a)e :< ! 2** . Bi&($ A11 spe&ies ! birds are edib1e# a1t" $)" t"e !1a5 r %i11 5ary & nsiderab1y. ( is n $s sna2es# a11i)at rs# &r & di1es# and 1ar)e sea t$rt1es present b5i $s "a'ards t t"e s$r5i5 r. /are!$1 bser5ati n s" $1d re5ea1 %"ere t"ese !1y%ays are and indi&ate ) d areas ! r &at&"in) birds in nets stret&"ed a&r ss t"e !1y%ays CFi)$re :-7D. It !eeds n p is n $s m$s"r ms and may b$i1d $p a "i)"1y t ?i& p is n in its !1es". . +"eir ra% !1es" may transmit parasites# b$t be&a$se repti1es are & 1db1 ded# t"ey d n t &arry t"e b1 d diseases ! t"e %arm-b1 ded anima1s. / 2in) d es n t destr y t"is t ?in.S. R stin) sites and %ater" 1es are s me ! t"e m st pr misin) areas ! r trappin) r snarin). Department ! t"e Army Repti1es are a ) d pr tein s $r&e and re1ati5e1y easy t &at&". 8n %in) %"ere and %"en t"e birds nest ma2es &at&"in) t"em easier CFi)$re :-*D.

e &apab1e ! & nstr$&tin) a pr per trap. Rem 5e a11 b$t t% r t"ree e))s !r m t"e &1$t&"# mar2in) t"e nes t"at y $ 1ea5e. A11 mamma1s "a5e teet" and near1y a11 %i11 bite in se1!-de!ense. • Nestin) r r stin) sites. (a)e :1 ! 2** . +"e bird %i11 & ntin$e t 1ay m re e))s t !i11 t"e &1$t&". • .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Dr ppin)s. A11 mamma1s are edib1eH " %e5er# t"e p 1ar bear and bearded sea1 "a5e t ?i& 1e5e1s ! 5itamin A in t"eir 1i5ers. / ntin$e rem 5in) t"e !res" e))s# 1ea5in) t"e nes y $ mar2ed. Any anima1 %it" n r $te ! es&ape %i11 !i)"t %"en & rnered. L 2 ! r t"e ! 11 %in)I • R$ns and trai1s. +"ere are s me dra%ba&2s t btainin) mamma1s. In a " sti1e en5ir nment# t"e enemy may dete&t any traps r snares p1a&ed n 1and. +"e p1atyp$s# nati5e t A$stra1ia and +asmania# is an e))-1ayin)# semia4$ati& mamma1 t"at "as p is n $s )1ands. Y $ m$st determine %"at spe&ies are in a )i5en area and set y $r traps spe&i!i&a11y %it" t" se anima1s in mind. TRAPS AN. • N t a1arm t"e prey by 1ea5in) si)ns ! y $r presen&e. -5en a s4$irre1 &an in!1i&t a seri $s % $nd and any bite presents a seri $s ris2 ! in!e&ti n. • /"e%ed r r$bbed 5e)etati n. + be e!!e&ti5e %it" any type ! trap r snare# y $ m$st-• . SNAR S F r an $narmed s$r5i5 r r e5ader# r %"en t"e s $nd ! a ri!1e s" t & $1d be a pr b1em# trappin) r snarin) %i1d )ame is a ) d a1ternati5e.S. M!++!%$ Mamma1s are e?&e11ent pr tein s $r&es and# ! r Ameri&ans# t"e m st tasty ! d s $r&e. Department ! t"e Army Nestin) birds present an t"er ! d s $r&e--e))s. • Feedin) and %aterin) areas. S&a5en)in) mamma1s# s$&" as t"e p ss$m# may &arry diseases. +"e am $nt ! in@$ry an anima1 &an in!1i&t is in dire&t pr p rti n t its si'e. A1s # a m t"er &an be e?treme1y a))ressi5e in de!ense ! "er y $n). Se5era1 %e11-p1a&ed traps "a5e t"e p tentia1 t &at&" m$&" m re )ame t"an a man %it" a ri!1e is 1i2e1y t s" t.e !ami1iar %it" t"e spe&ies ! anima1 y $ intend t &at&". • +ra&2s. +"ere are n &at&"a11 traps y $ &an set ! r a11 anima1s.

It is an a1arm si)na1 t t"e anima1. 3"en $sin) s$&" baits# s&atter bits ! it ar $nd t"e trap t )i5e t"e prey a &"an&e t samp1e it and de5e1 p a &ra5in) ! r it. Use it t & at y $r "ands %"en "and1in) t"e trap and t & at t"e trap %"en settin) it. . +"e anima1 %i11 t"en 5er& me s me ! its &a$ti n be! re it )ets t t"e trap. /"anne1i'ati n s" $1d be in& nspi&$ $s t a5 id a1ertin) t"e prey.ti"# (a)e :2 ! 2** .S. As t"e anima1 )ets t t"e trap# it &ann t t$rn 1e!t r ri)"t and & ntin$es int t"e trap. 3"en &at&"in) !is"# y $ m$st bait near1y a11 t"e de5i&es. Y $ n1y "a5e t ma2e it in& n5enient ! r t"e anima1 t ) 5er r t"r $)" t"e barrier. A1t" $)" birds d n t "a5e a de5e1 ped sense ! sme11# near1y a11 mamma1s depend n sme11 e5en m re t"an n si)"t.ne bait t"at % r2s %e11 n sma11 mamma1s is t"e pean$t b$tter !r m a mea1# ready-t -eat CMR-D rati n. +raps r snares p1a&ed n a trai1 r r$n s" $1d $se &"anne1i'ati n. 8ote9 0nce you have success!ully trapped an animal" you will not only gain con!idence in your ability" you also will have resupplied yoursel! with bait !or several more traps. It is e4$a11y imp rtant# " %e5er# n t t &reate a dist$rban&e t"at %i11 a1arm t"e anima1 and &a$se it t a5 id t"e trap. Fres"1y &$t 5e)etati n %i11 Jb1eedJ sap t"at "as an d r t"e prey %i11 be ab1e t sme11. A baited trap &an a&t$a11y dra% anima1s t it. Anima1s "a5e beddin) areas# %ater" 1es# and !eedin) areas %it" trai1s 1eadin) !r m ne t an t"er. A&t$a11y rem 5in) t"e s&ent !r m a trap is di!!i&$1t b$t mas2in) it is re1ati5e1y easy. D n t "and1e a trap %"i1e it is %eat"erin). +"ere! re# sm 2in) t"e trap parts is an e!!e&ti5e means t mas2 y $r s&ent. S$&&ess %it" an $nbaited trap depends n its p1a&ement in a ) d 1 &ati n. -5en t"e s1i)"test "$man s&ent n a trap %i11 a1arm t"e prey and &a$se it t a5 id t"e area. +"ere! re# i! y $ m$st di)# rem 5e a11 !res" dirt !r m t"e area. Y $ m$st rem 5e r mas2 t"e "$man s&ent n and ar $nd t"e trap y $ set. A r$n is $s$a11y sma11er and 1ess distin&t and %i11 n1y & ntain si)ns ! ne spe&ies.aitin) a trap r snare in&reases y $r &"an&es ! &at&"in) an anima1. F r an e5ader in a " sti1e en5ir nment# trap and snare & n&ea1ment is imp rtant. Department ! t"e Army ( siti n y $r traps and snares %"ere t"ere is pr ! t"at anima1s pass t"r $)". +"is bait# " %e5er# s" $1d n t be s readi1y a5ai1ab1e in t"e immediate area t"at t"e anima1 &an )et it &1 se by. Under s$&" &ir&$mstan&es it may n t ) ! r t"e bait. F r e?amp1e# baitin) a trap %it" & rn in t"e midd1e ! a & rn !ie1d % $1d n t be 1i2e1y t % r2. +"e bait s" $1d be s met"in) t"e anima1 2n %s. Y $ m$st p1a&e snares and traps ar $nd t"ese areas t be e!!e&ti5e. Sa1t is a1s a ) d bait. (repare t"e 5ari $s parts ! a trap r snare a%ay !r m t"e site# &arry t"em in# and set t"em $p. +"en set a pr per trap ! r t"at anima1# $sin) t"e same bait. It is n1y %"en a !ire is a&t$a11y b$rnin) t"at t"ey be& me a1armed. /"anne1i'ati n d es n t "a5e t be an impassab1e barrier. Y $ m$st determine i! it is a Jr$nJ r a Jtrai1. Fe% %i1d anima1s %i11 ba&2 $p# pre!errin) t !a&e t"e dire&ti n ! tra5e1. D n t $se !res"1y &$t# 1i5e 5e)etati n t & nstr$&t a trap r snare. M$d# parti&$1ar1y !r m an area %it" p1enty ! r ttin) 5e)etati n# is a1s ) d. S$&" a&ti ns ma2e it easier t a5 id dist$rbin) t"e 1 &a1 5e)etati n# t"ereby a1ertin) t"e prey. + b$i1d a &"anne1# & nstr$&t a !$nne1-s"aped barrier e?tendin) !r m t"e sides ! t"e trai1 t %ard t"e trap# %it" t"e narr %est part nearest t"e trap. T&!p !#( S#!&e C"#$t& . 3"en y $ p siti n t"e trap# &am $!1a)e it as nat$ra11y as p ssib1e t pre5ent dete&ti n by t"e enemy and t a5 id a1armin) t"e prey.J A trai1 %i11 s" % si)ns ! $se by se5era1 spe&ies and %i11 be rat"er distin&t. Maintain t"is & nstri&ti n at 1east as !ar ba&2 !r m t"e trap as t"e anima1Fs b dy 1en)t"# t"en be)in t"e %idenin) t %ard t"e m $t" ! t"e !$nne1. Use t"e !1$id !r m t"e )a11 and $rine b1adders ! pre5i $s 2i11s. D n t $se "$man $rine. I! y $ set and bait a trap ! r ne spe&ies b$t an t"er spe&ies ta2es t"e bait %it" $t bein) &a$)"t# try t determine %"at t"e anima1 %as. Li2e%ise# i! & rn is n t )r %n in t"e re)i n# a & rn-baited trap may ar $se an anima1Fs &$ri sity and 2eep it a1erted %"i1e it p nders t"e stran)e ! d. Y $ may & nstr$&t a per!e&t snare# b$t it %i11 n t &at&" anyt"in) i! "ap"a'ard1y p1a&ed in t"e % ds. F r best e!!e&t# t"e &"anne1i'ati n s" $1d red$&e t"e trai1Fs %idt" t @$st s1i)"t1y %ider t"an t"e tar)eted anima1Fs b dy. U$e "6 B!it . In near1y a11 parts ! t"e % r1d# anima1s 2n % t"e sme11 ! b$rned 5e)etati n and sm 2e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. M st anima1s %i11 instin&ti5e1y a5 id a pit!a11-type trap. I! ne ! t"e ab 5e te&"ni4$es is n t pra&ti&a1# and i! time permits# a11 % a trap t %eat"er ! r a !e% days and t"en set it.

As t"e anima1 & ntin$es t m 5e# t"e n se ti)"tens ar $nd its ne&2. Ma2e s$re t"e n se is 1ar)e en $)" t pass !ree1y 5er t"e anima1Fs "ead. +"e s$rr $ndin) 5e)etati n 4$i&21y &at&"es t"e &r ssmember and t"e anima1 be& mes entan)1ed. +"e "eart ! any trap r snare is t"e tri))er. (a)e :* ! 2** . +"e m re t"e anima1 str$))1es# t"e ti)"ter t"e n se )ets. +"is type ! snare $s$a11y d es n t 2i11 t"e anima1. +"e me&"anisms t"at pr 5ide p %er t t"e trap are a1m st a1%ays 5ery simp1e. Department ! t"e Army +raps and snares crush" choke" hang" r entangle t"e prey. Snares are traps t"at in& rp rate a n se t a&& mp1is" eit"er !$n&ti n. 3"en p1annin) a trap r snare# as2 y $rse1! " % it s" $1d a!!e&t t"e prey# %"at is t"e s $r&e ! p %er# and %"at %i11 be t"e m st e!!i&ient tri))er. I! t"e n se is s me type ! & rda)e p1a&ed $pri)"t n a )ame trai1# $se sma11 t%i)s r b1ades ! )rass t " 1d it $p. Si"ple Snare A simp1e snare CFi)$re :-9D & nsists ! a n se p1a&ed 5er a trai1 r den " 1e and atta&"ed t a !irm1y p1anted sta2e. Y $r ans%ers %i11 "e1p y $ de5ise a spe&i!i& trap ! r a spe&i!i& spe&ies. Fi1aments !r m spider %ebs are e?&e11ent ! r " 1din) n ses pen.D As t"e n se ti)"tens ar $nd t"e anima1Fs ne&2# t"e anima1 p$11s t"e &r ssmember !r m t"e ! r2ed sti&2s and dra)s it a1 n).rag Noose Use a dra) n se n an anima1 r$n CFi)$re :-6D. 3ire is t"ere! re t"e best &" i&e ! r a simp1e snare. . (1a&e ! r2ed sti&2s n eit"er side ! t"e r$n and 1ay a st$rdy &r ssmember a&r ss t"em. I! y $ $se & rda)e# it may 1 sen en $)" t s1ip !! t"e anima1Fs ne&2. +"e str$))1in) 5i&tim# t"e ! r&e ! )ra5ity# r a bent sap1in)Fs tensi n pr 5ides t"e p %er. +ie t"e n se t t"e &r ssmember and "an) it at a "ei)"t ab 5e t"e anima1Fs "ead. +raps are desi)ned t &at&" and " 1d r t &at&" and 2i11.S. CN ses desi)ned t &at&" by t"e "ead s" $1d ne5er be 1 % en $)" ! r t"e prey t step int %it" a ! t. A sin)1e trap r snare %i11 & mm n1y in& rp rate t% r m re ! t"ese prin&ip1es.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

The sap that oo*es out could glue them together. Se1e&t a "ard% d sap1in) a1 n) t"e trai1.S. Dri5e t"e 1 n) 1e) ! ne ! r2ed sti&2 !irm1y int t"e )r $nd at t"at p int. (a)e :7 ! 2** . Set t"e trap by bendin) t"e t%it&"-$p and en)a)in) t"e s" rt 1e)s ! t"e ! r2ed sti&2s. 3"en an anima1 &at&"es its "ead in t"e n se# it p$11s t"e ! r2ed sti&2s apart# a11 %in) t"e t%it&"-$p t sprin) $p and "an) t"e prey. T%itch5Up Snare A simp1e t%it&"-$p snare $ses t% ! r2ed sti&2s# ea&" %it" a 1 n) and s" rt 1e) CFi)$re :-7D. 8ote9 <o not use green sticks !or the trigger. . -ns$re t"e &$t n t"e s" rt 1e) ! t"is sti&2 is para11e1 t t"e )r $nd.end t"e t%it&"-$p and mar2 t"e trai1 be1 % it. Department ! t"e Army T%itch5Up A t%it&"-$p is a s$pp1e sap1in)# %"i&"# %"en bent 5er and se&$red %it" a tri))erin) de5i&e# %i11 pr 5ide p %er t a 5ariety ! snares. -?tend a n se 5er t"e trai1. A t%it&"-$p %i11 % r2 m$&" !aster and %it" m re ! r&e i! y $ rem 5e a11 t"e bran&"es and ! 1ia)e. /$t t"e s" rt 1e) s t"at it &at&"es n t"e s" rt 1e) ! t"e t"er ! r2ed sti&2. +ie t"e 1 n) 1e) ! t"e remainin) ! r2ed sti&2 t a pie&e ! & rda)e se&$red t t"e t%it&"-$p.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

9 &entimeters !! t"e p 1e. S4$irre1s are nat$ra11y &$ri $s. (1a&e t"e t p and b tt m %ire n ses 79 &entimeters !r m t"e t p and b tt m ! t"e p 1e t pre5ent t"e s4$irre1 !r m )ettin) its !eet n a s 1id s$r!a&e. Department ! t"e Army S!uirrel Pole A s4$irre1 p 1e is a 1 n) p 1e p1a&ed a)ainst a tree in an area s" %in) a 1 t ! s4$irre1 a&ti5ity CFi)$re ::D. ( siti n t"e n ses C9 t 6 &entimeters in diameterD ab $t 2.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ &an emp1a&e m$1tip1e p 1es t in&rease t"e &at&". .S. (1a&e se5era1 %ire n ses a1 n) t"e t p and sides ! t"e p 1e s t"at a s4$irre1 tryin) t ) $p r d %n t"e p 1e %i11 "a5e t pass t"r $)" ne r m re ! t"em. I! t"is "appens# t"e s4$irre1 %i11 &"e% t"r $)" t"e %ire. A!ter an initia1 peri d ! &a$ti n# t"ey %i11 try t ) $p r d %n t"e p 1e and %i11 )et &a$)"t in a n se. +"e str$))1in) anima1 %i11 s n !a11 !r m t"e p 1e and stran)1e. O+i6%a #ird Pole (a)e :9 ! 2** .t"er s4$irre1s %i11 s n ! 11 % and# in t"is %ay# y $ &an &at&" se5era1 s4$irre1s.

+ie a sin)1e 5er"and 2n t in t"e & rda)e and p1a&e t"e per&" a)ainst t"e " 1e. (ass t"e !ree end ! t"e & rda)e t"r $)" t"e " 1e# and tie a s1ip n se t"at & 5ers t"e per&".9 &entimeters d %n !r m t"e t p. /arry a st $t &1$b t 2i11 t"e prey. /$t a p 1e 1. +"is %and is m re a %eap n t"an a trap. 3"en t"e anima1 emer)es !r m t"e den# y $ @er2 t"e p 1e t ti)"ten t"e n se and t"$s &apt$re t"e anima1. Noosing 3and A n se sti&2 r Jn sin) %andJ is $se!$1 ! r &apt$rin) r stin) birds r sma11 mamma1s CFi)$re :-1<D. It & nsists ! a p 1e Cas 1 n) as y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y "and1eD %it" a s1ip n se ! %ire r sti!! & rda)e at t"e sma11 end. M st birds pre!er t rest n s met"in) ab 5e )r $nd and %i11 1and n t"e per&". As s n as t"e bird 1ands# t"e per&" %i11 !a11# re1easin) t"e 5er-"and 2n t and a11 %in) t"e %ei)"t t dr p. (1ant t"e 1 n) p 1e in t"e )r $nd %it" t"e p inted end $p. + &at&" an anima1# y $ s1ip t"e n se 5er t"e ne&2 ! a r stin) bird and p$11 it ti)"t. S"arpen t"e $pper end t a p int# t"en dri11 a sma11 diameter " 1e 9 t 7. + be e!!e&ti5e# p1a&e it in a re1ati5e1y pen area a%ay !r m ta11 trees. Di) a s"a11 % " 1e in t"e trai1. Se1e&t t% !air1y strai)"t sti&2s t"at span t"e t% ! r2s. Treadle Spring Snare Use a tread1e snare a)ainst sma11 )ame n a trai1 CFi)$re :-11D. +"en dri5e a ! r2ed sti&2 C! r2 d %nD int t"e )r $nd n ea&" side ! t"e " 1e n t"e same side ! t"e trai1. (1a&e se5era1 sti&2s 5er t"e " 1e in t"e trai1 by p siti nin) ne end 5er t"e 1 %er " ri' nta1 sti&2 (a)e :6 ! 2** . Department ! t"e Army An . I! t"e %ei)"t is t "ea5y# it %i11 &$t t"e birdFs !eet !!# a11 %in) it t es&ape.D. D n t $se resin $s % d s$&" as pine. A11 % t"e & rda)e t s1ip t"r $)" t"e " 1e $nti1 t"e 5er"and 2n t rests a)ainst t"e p 1e and t"e t p ! t"e per&". It re4$ires a patient perat r.S.@ib%a bird p 1e is a snare $sed by nati5e Ameri&ans ! r &ent$ries CFi)$re :-.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. /$t a sma11 sti&2 1< t 19 &entimeters 1 n) and s"ape ne end s t"at it %i11 a1m st !it int t"e " 1e. +"is is t"e per&". +"e tensi n ! t"e 5er"and 2n t a)ainst t"e p 1e and per&" %i11 " 1d t"e per&" in p siti n.: t 2. ( siti n t"ese t% sti&2s s t"at t"eir ends en)a)e t"e ! r2s. +"e n se %i11 ti)"ten ar $nd t"e birdFs !eet# &apt$rin) it. Spread t"e n se 5er t"e per&"# ens$rin) it & 5ers t"e per&" and drapes 5er n b t" sides. F r best res$1ts# pi&2 a sp t near !eedin) areas# d$stin) areas# r %aterin) " 1es. +ie a sma11 %ei)"t# ab $t e4$a1 t t"e %ei)"t ! t"e tar)eted spe&ies# t a 1en)t" ! & rda)e.1 meters 1 n) and trim a%ay a11 1imbs and ! 1ia)e. Y $ &an a1s p1a&e it 5er a den " 1e and "ide in a nearby b1ind.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. .S. Department ! t"e Army and t"e t"er n t"e )r $nd n t"e t"er side ! t"e " 1e. +"e type ! %ei)"t $sed may 5ary# b$t it s" $1d be "ea5y en $)" t 2i11 r in&apa&itate t"e prey immediate1y. Ad@$st t"e b tt m " ri' nta1 sti&2 s t"at it %i11 bare1y " 1d a)ainst t"e tri))er. A t"e anima1 p1a&es its ! t n a sti&2 a&r ss t"e " 1e# t"e b tt m " ri' nta1 sti&2 m 5es d %n# re1easin) t"e tri))er and a11 %in) t"e n se t &at&" t"e anima1 by t"e ! t. (1a&e t"e tri))er sti&2 a)ainst t"e " ri' nta1 sti&2s and r $te t"e & rda)e be"ind t"e sti&2s s t"at t"e tensi n ! t"e p %er s $r&e %i11 " 1d it in p1a&e.end t"e t%it&"-$p r raise t"e s$spended %ei)"t t determine %"ere Y $ %i11 tie a 9 &entimeter r s 1 n) tri))er. / 5er t"e " 1e %it" en $)" sti&2s s t"at t"e prey m$st step n at 1east ne ! t"em t set !! t"e snare. / nstr$&t t"e (a)e :7 ! 2** . F rm a n se %it" t"e t"er end ! t"e & rda)e. +ie ne end ! a pie&e ! & rda)e t a t%it&"$p r t a %ei)"t s$spended 5er a tree 1imb. Y $ m$st t"ere! re $se &"anne1i'ati n.e&a$se ! t"e dist$rban&e n t"e trai1# an anima1 %i11 be %ary. 'igure 7 . R $te and spread t"e n se 5er t"e t p ! t"e sti&2s 5er t"e " 1e.ead$all +"e !i)$re 7 is a tri))er $sed t dr p a %ei)"t nt a prey and &r$s" it CFi)$re :-12D. .

+"is 9-&entimeter sti&2 is t"e &at&" sti&2. (ra&ti&e ma2in) t"is tri))er be! re-"andH it re4$ires &1 se t 1eran&es and pre&ise an)1es in its & nstr$&ti n. Paiute . (a)e :: ! 2** . (1a&e t"e bait sti&2 %it" ne end a)ainst t"e dr p %ei)"t# r a pe) dri5en int t"e )r $nd# and t"e t"er a)ainst t"e &at&" sti&2.ead$all +"e (ai$te dead!a11 is simi1ar t t"e !i)$re 7 b$t $ses a pie&e ! & rda)e and a &at&" sti&2 CFi)$re :-1*D. 3"en a prey dist$rbs t"e bait sti&2# it !a11s !ree# re1easin) t"e &at&" sti&2.<-de)ree an)1e. . +ie t"e t"er end ! t"e & rda)e t an t"er sti&2 ab $t 9 &entimeters 1 n).rin) t"e & rd "a1!%ay ar $nd t"e 5erti&a1 sti&2 %it" t"e &at&" sti&2 at a . +"ese n t&"es " 1d t"e sti&2s t )et"er in a !i)$re 7 pattern %"en $nder tensi n. As t"e dia) na1 sti&2 !1ies $p# t"e %ei)"t !a11s# &r$s"in) t"e prey. +ie ne end ! a pie&e ! & rda)e t t"e 1 %er end ! t"e dia) na1 sti&2.S. Department ! t"e Army !i)$re 7 $sin) t"ree n t&"ed sti&2s. It "as t"e ad5anta)e ! bein) easier t set t"an t"e !i)$re 7.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

+ie a trip %ire r & rda)e t t"e &at&" sti&2 and r $te it ar $nd sta2es and a&r ss t"e )ame trai1 %"ere y $ tie it !! Cas in Fi)$re :-17D. + & nstr$&t t"is trap# b$i1d a b % and an&" r it t t"e )r $nd %it" pe)s. 3"en t"e prey trips t"e trip %ire# t"e b % 1 ses an arr % int it. (1a&e a &at&" sti&2 bet%een t"e t ))1e sti&2 and a sta2e dri5en int t"e )r $nd. Las" a t ))1e sti&2 t t"e tri))er sti&2. ! 2** . It is dan)er $s t man as %e11 as anima1s CFi)$re :-17D.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Ad@$st t"e aimin) p int as y $ an&" r t"e b %. A n t&" in t"e b % ser5es t "e1p aim t"e arr %. +% $pri)"t sti&2s dri5en int t"e )r $nd " 1d t"e tri))er sti&2 in p1a&e at a p int %"ere t"e t ))1e sti&2 %i11 en)a)e t"e p$11ed b % strin). Department ! t"e Army #o% Trap A b % trap is ne ! t"e dead1iest traps. *ARNIN1 +"is is a 1et"a1 trap.S. Appr a&" it %it" &a$ti n and !r m t"e rear n1yK (a)e :.

Appr a&" it %it" &a$ti nK #ottle Trap A b tt1e trap is a simp1e trap ! r mi&e and 5 1es CFi)$re :-16D. -mp1a&e ne end ! an t"er sm t" sti&2 %it"in t"e s1ip rin) and its t"er end a)ainst t"e se& nd tree. As t"e anima1 trips t"e trip %ire# t"e &at&" sti&2 p$11s t"e s1ip rin) !! t"e sm t" sti&2s# re1easin) t"e spear s"a!t t"at sprin)s a&r ss t"e trai1 and impa1es t"e prey a)ainst t"e tree. +ie a st$rdy# sm t" sti&2 t t"e t"er end ! t"e & rd.9 meters 1 n) CFi)$re :-19D. (1a&e a pie&e ! bar2 r % d 5er t"e " 1e %it" sma11 st nes $nder it t " 1d it $p 2. *ARNIN1 +"is is a 1et"a1 trap. Mi&e r 5 1es %i11 "ide $nder t"e & 5er t es&ape dan)er and !a11 int t"e " 1e. ($11 t"e sma11er end ! t"e spear s"a!t a&r ss t"e trai1 and p siti n it bet%een t"e s" rt & rd and t"e sm t" sti&2.S. (a)e .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.9 t 9 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. Di) a " 1e *< t 79 &entimeters deep t"at is %ider at t"e b tt m t"an at t"e t p. Use &a$ti n %"en &"e&2in) t"is trapH it is an e?&e11ent "idin) p1a&e ! r sna2es. At t"e sma11er end# !irm1y 1as" se5era1 sma11 sta2es. Ma2e t"e t p ! t"e " 1e as sma11 as p ssib1e. +"ey &ann t &1imb $t be&a$se ! t"e %a11Fs ba&2%ard s1 pe. Department ! t"e Army Pig Spear Sha$t + & nstr$&t t"e pi) spear s"a!t# se1e&t a st $t p 1e ab $t 2. Fr m t"e !irst tree# tie a trip %ire r & rd 1 % t t"e )r $nd# stret&" it a&r ss t"e trai1# and tie it t a &at&" sti&2. +ie a 1en)t" ! & rda)e t an t"er tree a&r ss t"e trai1.< ! 2** . -n&ir&1e t"e trip %ire and t"e sm t" sti&2 %it" t"e s1ip rin). Ma2e a s1ip rin) !r m 5ines r t"er s$itab1e materia1. Las" t"e 1ar)e end ti)"t1y t a tree a1 n) t"e )ame trai1.

3"en it 1 ses its sprin) r brea2s# y $ &an rep1a&e it. Y $ %i11 pr bab1y "a5e t strai)"ten t"e s"a!t. >ab %it" t"e spear# d n t t"r % it. + !ire "arden % d# " 1d it 5er " t & a1s# bein) &are!$1 n t t b$m r s& r&" t"e % d. /$t r !i1e t"e n t&"H d n t sp1it it. Spe!& Y $ &an ma2e a spear t 2i11 sma11 )ame and t !is". F1et&"in) Caddin) !eat"ers t t"e n t&"ed end ! an arr %D impr 5es t"e arr %Fs !1i)"t &"ara&teristi&s# b$t is n t ne&essary n a !ie1d-e?pedient arr %. Department ! t"e Army *ILLIN/ .ne ! t"e simp1est and m st e!!e&ti5e 2i11in) de5i&es is a st $t sti&2 as 1 n) as y $r arm# !r m !in)ertip t s" $1der# &a11ed a Jrabbit sti&2.S. Dead# dry % d is pre!erab1e t )reen % d..1 ! 2** . (a)e . Y $ &an & nstr$&t a s$itab1e s" rt-term b % !air1y easi1y. +"e rabbit sti&2# t"e spear# t"e b % and arr %# and t"e s1in) are s$&" de5i&es.it Sti. VIC S +"ere are se5era1 2i11in) de5i&es t"at y $ &an & nstr$&t t "e1p y $ btain sma11 )ame t "e1p y $ s$r5i5e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Se1e&t a "ard% d sti&2 ab $t ne meter 1 n) t"at is !ree ! 2n ts r 1imbs.J Y $ &an t"r % it eit"er 5er"and r sidearm and %it" & nsiderab1e ! r&e. Y $ &an ma2e arr %"eads !r m b ne# )1ass# meta1# r pie&es ! r &2. S&rape ea&" s"a!t sm t" a11 ar $nd. B"2 !#( A&&"2 A ) d b % is t"e res$1t ! many " $rs ! % r2. Y $ &an bend an arr % strai)"t by "eatin) t"e s"a!t 5er " t & a1s. +"e arr %s s" $1d be ab $t "a1! as 1 n) as t"e b %. See spear!is"in) be1 %. /are!$1 e?aminati n %i11 s" % t"e nat$ra1 &$r5e ! t"e sti&2. A1%ays s&rape !r m t"e side t"at !a&es y $# r t"e b % %i11 brea2 t"e !irst time y $ p$11 it. Y $ &an a1s s"arpen and !ire "arden t"e end ! t"e s"a!t. Se1e&t arr %s !r m t"e strai)"test dry sti&2s a5ai1ab1e. It is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame t"at st ps and !ree'es as a de!ense. /are!$11y s&rape t"e 1ar)e end d %n $nti1 it "as t"e same p$11 as t"e sma11 end. Atta&" t"e tips ! t"e b %s %it" & rda)e and n1y $se a b %strin) n ne b %. Y $ m$st n t&" t"e ends ! t"e arr %s ! r t"e b %strin). R!.) . D n t a11 % t"e s"a!t t s& r&" r b$m. 0 1d t"e s"a!t strai)"t $nti1 it & 1s. + in&rease t"e p$11# 1as" a se& nd b % t t"e !irst# !r nt t !r nt# ! rmin) an JBJ %"en 5ie%ed !r m t"e side.

VIC S Y $ &an ma2e y $r %n !is"" sit$ati n. 0 1d t"e p int in t"e n t&" and tie se&$re1y s t"at it d es n t m 5e $t ! p siti n. +ie a & rd bet%een t"em and s1i)"t1y be1 % t"e s$r!a&e. + t"r % t"e r &2# spin t"e s1in) se5era1 times in a &ir&1e and re1ease t"e & rd bet%een t"e t"$mb and ! re!in)er. + ma2e sma11er " 2s# $se sma11er materia1. (ra&ti&e t )ain pr !i&ien&y. Y $ &an a1s $se % d# b ne# & & n$t s"e11# t" rns# !1int# seas"e11# r t rt ise s"e11. +"ey s" $1d a1s n t s1ip a1 n) t"e 1 n) & rd. + ma2e a % den " 2# &$t a pie&e ! "ard% d ab $t 2.ait t"e " 2s r ) r)es. A ) r)e is a sma11 s"a!t ! % d# b ne# meta1# r t"er materia1. Department ! t"e Army S%i#0 Y $ &an ma2e a s1in) by tyin) t% pie&es ! & rda)e# ab $t si?ty &entimeters 1 n)# at pp site ends ! a pa1m-si'ed pie&e ! 1eat"er r &1 t".S. Y $ &an a1s ma2e !is"" 2s !r m any & mbinati n ! t"ese items CFi)$re :-17D. . .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.2 ! 2** . 'IS. 3"en t"e !is" s%a11 %s t"e bait# it a1s s%a11 %s t"e ) r)e. 0 1d t"e t"er & rd bet%een t"e ! re!in)er and t"$mb. +"is is a !air1y 1ar)e " 2. + & nstr$&t a sta2e $t# dri5e t% s$pp1e sap1in)s int t"e b tt m ! t"e 1a2e# p nd# r stream %it" t"eir t ps @$st be1 % t"e %ater s$r!a&e.ait t"e ) r)e by p1a&in) a pie&e ! bait n it 1en)t"%ise. +ie t% s" rt & rds %it" " 2s r ) r)es t t"is & rd# ens$rin) t"at t"ey &ann t %rap ar $nd t"e p 1es r ea&" t"er.IN/ . +"e s1in) is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame. (1a&e a r &2 in t"e &1 t" and %rap ne & rd ar $nd t"e midd1e !in)er and " 1d in y $r pa1m. (1a&e t"e p int Cpie&e ! b ne# %ire# nai1D in t"e n t&". (a)e . It is s"arp n b t" ends and n t&"ed in t"e midd1e %"ere y $ tie & rda)e. /$t a n t&" in ne end in %"i&" t p1a&e t"e p int. 2s# nets and traps and $se se5era1 met" ds t btain !is" in a s$r5i5a1 I+p&"/i$e( Fi$hh"")$ Y $ &an ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient !is"" 2s !r m pins# need1es# %ire# sma11 nai1s# r any pie&e ! meta1.9 &entimeters 1 n) and ab $t 6 mi11imeters in diameter t ! rm t"e s"an2. St!)e" t A sta2e $t is a !is"in) de5i&e y $ &an $se in a " sti1e en5ir nment CFi)$re :-1:D.

+"read a s$spensi n 1ine easin) a1 n) t"e b tt m ! t"e net t stren)t"en it. ( siti n t"e )$ide1ine n t"e pp site side ! t"e net y $ are % r2in) n. Atta&" se5era1 & re 1ines t t"e easin) by d $b1in) t"em 5er and tyin) t"em %it" pr$si2 2n ts r )irt" "it&"es. + 2eep t"e r %s e5en and t re)$1ate t"e si'e ! t"e mes"# tie a )$ide1ine t t"e trees. Startin) at ne end ! t"e easin)# tie t"e se& nd and t"e t"ird & re 1ines t )et"er $sin) an 5er"and 2n t.* ! 2** . M 5e t"e )$ide1ine d %n a!ter & mp1etin) ea&" r %. (a)e . Use t"e )i11 net as s" %n in Fi)$re :-2<. Y $ s" $1d n % "a5e a11 & re 1ines tied in pairs %it" a sin)1e & re 1ine "an)in) at ea&" end.S. +"en tie t"e ! $rt" and !i!t"# si?t" and se5ent"# and s n# $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e 1ast & re 1ine. / ntin$e tyin) r %s $nti1 t"e net is t"e desired %idt". Start t"e se& nd r % %it" t"e !irst & re 1ine# tie it t t"e se& nd# t"e t"ird t t"e ! $rt"# and s n. Department ! t"e Army 1i%% Net I! a )i11 net is n t a5ai1ab1e# y $ &an ma2e ne $sin) para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine r simi1ar materia1 CFi)$re :-1. +"e 1en)t" ! t"e desired net and t"e si'e ! t"e mes" determine t"e n$mber ! & re 1ines $sed and t"e spa&e bet%een t"em. +"e 1ines %i11 a1%ays "an) in pairs and y $ a1%ays tie a & rd !r m ne pair t a & rd !r m an ad@ inin) pair. Rem 5e t"e & re 1ines !r m t"e s$spensi n 1ine and tie t"e easin) bet%een t% trees.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.D.

Department ! t"e Army Fi$h T&!p$ Y $ may trap !is" $sin) se5era1 met" ds CFi)$re :-21D. Y $ &1 se t"e t p# 1ea5in) a " 1e 1ar)e en $)" ! r t"e !is" t s%im t"r $)".S. Fis" bas2ets are ne met" d.7 ! 2** . Y $ & nstr$&t t"em by 1as"in) se5era1 sti&2s t )et"er %it" 5ines int a !$nne1 s"ape. (a)e .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

+ spear !is"# !ind an area %"ere !is" eit"er )at"er r %"ere t"ere is a !is" r$n.S. .$i1d t"e trap as a 1 % st ne %a11 e?tendin) $t%ard int t"e %ater and ! rmin) an an)1e %it" t"e s" re. + ma2e a spear# &$t a 1 n)# strai)"t sap1in) CFi)$re :-22D. (i&2 a 1 &ati n at "i)" tide and b$i1d t"e trap at 1 % tide.n r &2y s" res# $se nat$ra1 r &2 p 1s. (1a&e t"e spear p int int t"e %ater and s1 %1y m 5e it t %ard t"e !is". .n sandy s" res# $se sandbars and t"e dit&"es t"ey en&1 se. Y $ &ann t a!! rd t 1 se a 2ni!e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Y $ &an a1s ma2e a spear by sp1ittin) t"e s"a!t a !e% in&"es d %n !r m t"e end and insertin) a pie&e ! % d t a&t as a spreader. . Spe!&6i$hi#0 I! y $ are near s"a11 % %ater Cab $t %aist deepD %"ere t"e !is" are 1ar)e and p1enti!$1# y $ &an spear t"em. +"en# %it" a s$dden p$s"# impa1e t"e !is" n t"e stream b tt m.e a1ert t t"e pr b1ems &a$sed by 1i)"t re!ra&ti n %"en 1 2in) at b@e&ts in t"e %ater. . S"arpen t"e end t a p int r atta&" a 2ni!e# @a))ed pie&e ! b ne# r s"arpened meta1.9 ! 2** . Y $ t"en s"arpen t"e t% separated "a15es t p ints. (a)e .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army Y $ &an a1s $se traps t &at&" sa1t%ater !is"# as s&" 1s re)$1ar1y appr a&" t"e s" re %it" t"e in& min) tide and !ten m 5e para11e1 t t"e s" re. D n t t"r % t"e spear# espe&ia11y i! t"e p int is a 2ni!e. . D n t try t 1i!t t"e !is" %it" t"e spear# as it %it" pr bab1y s1ip !! and y $ %i11 1 se itH " 1d t"e spear %it" ne "and and )rab and " 1d t"e !is" %it" t"e t"er.n & ra1 is1ands# $se nat$ra1 p 1s n t"e s$r!a&e ! ree!s by b1 &2in) t"e penin)s as t"e tide re&edes.

It a11 %s y $ t remain & n&ea1ed %"i1e it ta2es e!!e&t. 6rind t"e r ts int a p %der and mi? %it" %ater. +"is s"r$b )r %s in A$stra1ia and bears %"ite &1$sters ! !1 %ers and berry1i2e !r$it.6 ! 2** . Y $ &an )et 1ime !r m & mmer&ia1 s $r&es and in a)ri&$1t$ra1 areas t"at $se 1ar)e 4$antities ! it. S me p1ants t"at )r % in %arm re)i ns ! t"e % r1d & ntain r ten ne# a s$bstan&e t"at st$ns r 2i11s & 1d-b1 ded anima1s b$t d es n t "arm pers ns %" eat t"e anima1s. +"is spe&ies ! sma11 s"r$bs# %"i&" bears bean1i2e p ds# )r %s t"r $)" $t t"e tr pi&s. Y $ may pr d$&e y $r %n by b$rnin) & ra1 r seas"e11s. It bears seeds in t"ree an)1ed &aps$1es. 3"en $sin) !is" p is n# be s$re t )at"er a11 ! t"e a!!e&ted !is"# be&a$se many dead !is" !1 atin) d %nstream & $1d ar $se s$spi&i n. +"r % a 1ar)e 4$antity ! t"e mi?t$re int t"e %ater. ( is n % r2s 4$i&21y. (a)e . Tephrosia CFi)$re :-2*D.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army Ch"p Fi$hi#0 At ni)"t# in an area %it" a ) d !is" density# y $ &an $se a 1i)"t t attra&t !is". /r$s" r br$ise b$nd1es ! 1ea5es and stems and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater. It a1s enab1es y $ t &at&" se5era1 !is" at ne time. 1roton tiglium CFi)$re :-2*D. /r$s" t"e p1ants and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater. /r$s" t"e seeds and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater. +"e ! 11 %in) p1ants# $sed as indi&ated# %i11 st$n r 2i11 !is"I Anamirta cocculus CFi)$re :-2*D. +"en# armed %it" a ma&"ete r simi1ar %eap n# y $ &an )at"er !is" $sin) t"e ba&2 side ! t"e b1ade t stri2e t"em. +"e !is" rise "e1p1ess1y t t"e s$r!a&e. +"ey bear a !1es"y ne-seeded !r$it. /r$s" t"e seeds and bar2 and t"r % int t"e %ater. +"r % t"e 1ime int t"e %ater. +"is 1ar)e )en$s ! tr pi&a1 s"r$bs and % dy 5ines is t"e main s $r&e ! & mmer&ia11y pr d$&ed r ten ne. /r$s" t"e bean-s"aped seeds and t"r % t"em in t"e %ater. <erris eliptica CFi)$re :-2*D. Fi$h P"i$"# An t"er %ay t &at&" !is" is by $sin) p is n. <uboisia CFi)$re :-2*D. R ten ne % r2s 4$i&21y n !is" in %ater 21 de)rees / C7< de)rees FD r ab 5e. +"ese 1ar)e trees )r % near t"e sea in Ma1aya and parts ! ( 1ynesia. +"is % dy 5ine )r %s in s $t"ern Asia and n is1ands ! t"e S $t" (a&i!i&. • Lime. ?arringtonia CFi)$re :-2*D. +"is s"r$b r sma11 tree )r %s in %aste areas n is1ands ! t"e S $t" (a&i!i&. D n t $se t"e s"arp side as y $ %i11 &$t t"em in t% pie&es and end $p 1 sin) s me ! t"e !is". It % r2s s1 %1y in %ater 1< t 21 de)rees / C9< t 7< de)rees FD and is ine!!e&ti5e in %ater be1 % 1< de)rees / C9< de)rees FD. +"e best p1a&e t $se r ten ne# r r ten ne-pr d$&in) p1ants# is in p nds r t"e "ead%aiters ! sma11 streams & ntainin) !is".

/A0 'OR COO*IN/ AN. Si)ns ! (a)e . 2in) d es n t ens$re t"at sp i1ed !is" %i11 be edib1e. PR PARATION O' 'IS.7 ! 2** . • (e&$1iar d r.S. Impr per &1eanin) r st ra)e &an res$1t in inedib1e !is" r )ame. /r$s" )reen "$s2s !r m b$ttern$ts r b1a&2 %a1n$ts. / sp i1a)e are-• S$n2en eyes. Department ! t"e Army • 8ut husks. STORA/ Y $ m$st 2n % " % t prepare !is" and )ame ! r & 2in) and st ra)e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. +"r % t"e "$s2s int t"e %ater. AN.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Fi$h D n t eat !is" t"at appears sp i1ed.

(repare !is" ! r eatin) as s n as p ssib1e a!ter &at&"in) it. . /$t t"e sna2e int sma11 se&ti ns and b i1 r r ast it. Ind$&e 5 mitin) i! sympt ms appear. S&a1e r s2in t"e !is".FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.pen $p t"e b dy &a5ity and rem 5e its entrai1s# sa5in) t"e &ra% Cin seed-eatin) birdsD# "eart# and 1i5er. (a&2 !is" int a ba11 ! &1ay and b$ry it in t"e & a1s ! a !ire $nti1 t"e &1ay "ardens. Bi&($ A!ter 2i11in) t"e bird# rem 5e its !eat"ers by eit"er p1$&2in) r s2innin). 0 %e5er# b i1in) t"e !is" %it" t"e s2in n is t"e best %ay t )et t"e m st ! d 5a1$e. S&a1es s" $1d be a pr n $n&ed s"ade ! )ray# n t !aded.S. +"en &$t t"e s2in d %n t"e b dy 19 t 2< &entimeters CFi)$re :-27D. . Remember# s2innin) rem 5es s me ! t"e ! d 5a1$e. Y $ &an $se any ! t"e met" ds $sed t & 2 p1ant ! d t & 2 !is". C6i11s s" $1d be red t pin2. + prepare !is" ! r sm 2in)# &$t !! t"e "ead and rem 5e t"e ba&2b ne. S1imy# rat"er t"an m ist r %et b dy.n 1ar)e# b$12y sna2es it may be ne&essary t s1it t"e be11y s2in. /$t $t t"e )i11s and 1ar)e b1 d 5esse1s t"at 1ie near t"e spine. / 2 by b i1in) r r astin) 5er a spit. +"e !ats and i1 are $nder t"e s2in and# by b i1in)# y $ &an sa5e t"e @$i&es ! r br t". (a)e . Y $ &an impa1e a %" 1e !is" n a sti&2 and & 2 it 5er an pen !ire.D Dents stay in t"e !is"Fs !1es" a!ter pressin) it %it" y $r t"$mb.rea2 pen t"e &1ay ba11 t )et t t"e & 2ed !is". +"ese sympt ms appear s$dden1y# ne t si? " $rs a!ter eatin). 6$t !is" t"at is m re t"an 1< &entimeters 1 n). . (ee1 t"e s2in ba&2# t"en )rasp t"e s2in in ne "and and t"e b dy in t"e t"er and p$11 apart. / 2 sna2es in t"e same manner as sma11 )ame. Rem 5e t"e entrai1s and dis&ard. I! y $ p1an t 2eep t"e !is" ! r 1ater# sm 2e r !ry it.: ! 2** .e! re & 2in) s&a5en)er birds# b i1 t"em at 1east 2< min$tes t 2i11 parasites. S"arp r peppery taste. . Fis" sp i1s 4$i&21y a!ter deat"# espe&ia11y n a " t day. -atin) sp i1ed r r tten !is" may &a$se diarr"ea# na$sea# &ramps# 5 mitin)# it&"in)# para1ysis# r a meta11i& taste in t"e m $t". S#!)e$ + s2in a sna2e# !irst &$t !! its "ead and b$ry it. Department ! t"e Army • • • • S$spi&i $s & 1 r. /$t !! t"e !eet. Fis" is d ne %"en t"e meat !1a2es !!.

This will also prevent cutting hair and getting it on the meat. I! t"e 1i5er appears diseased# dis&ard it.. I! y $ spi11 $rine n t"e meat# %as" it t a5 id taintin) t"e meat. D n t ! r)et t"e &"est &a5ity. /$t ar $nd t"e an$s# t"en rea&" int t"e 1 %er abd mina1 &a5ity# )rasp t"e 1 %er intestine# and p$11 t rem 5e. F r 1ar)er )ame# &$t t"e )$11et a%ay !r m t"e diap"ra)m.1eed t"e anima1 by &$ttin) its t"r at.S. I! p ssib1e# &1ean t"e &ar&ass near a stream. (1a&e t"e &ar&ass be11y $p and sp1it t"e "ide !r m t"r at t tai1# &$ttin) ar $nd a11 se?$a1 r)ans CFi)$re :-29D. /$t t"e "ind4$arters !! %"ere t"ey @ in t"e b dy. /$t !! t"e "ead and !eet. First# s1i&e t"e m$s&1e tiss$e & nne&tin) t"e !r nt 1e)s t t"e b dy. Y $ m$st &$t ar $nd a 1ar)e b ne at t"e t p ! t"e 1e) and &$t (a)e . 8ote9 hen cutting the hide" insert the kni!e blade under the skin and turn the blade up so that only the hide gets cut. /$t 1ar)er )ame int mana)eab1e pie&es. Rem 5e t"e m$s2 )1ands at p ints A and . Sa5e t"e "eart and 1i5er.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army S)i##i#0 !#( B t. 0 %e5er# a diseased 1i5er d es n t indi&ate y $ &ann t eat t"e m$s&1e tiss$e. +"ere are n b nes r @ ints & nne&tin) t"e !r nt 1e)s t t"e b dy n ! $r-1e))ed anima1s. A1s inspe&t t"e 1i5erFs & 1 rH it & $1d indi&ate a diseased anima1. R 11 t"e entrai1s $t ! t"e b dy. t a5 id taintin) t"e meat. +"e 1i5erFs s$r!a&e s" $1d be sm t" and %et and its & 1 r deep red r p$rp1e. /$t t"ese pen and inspe&t ! r si)ns ! % rms r t"er parasites.he&i#0 1!+e . Rem 5e t"e entrai1s !r m sma11er )ame by sp1ittin) t"e b dy pen and p$11in) t"em $t %it" t"e !in)ers. ! 2** . Rem 5e t"e "ide by p$11in) it a%ay !r m t"e &ar&ass# &$ttin) t"e & nne&ti5e tiss$e %"ere ne&essary. /$t a1 n) ea&" 1e) !r m ab 5e t"e ! t t t"e pre5i $s1y made b dy &$t. F r sma11er mamma1s# &$t t"e "ide ar $nd t"e b dy and insert t% !in)ers $nder t"e "ide n b t" sides ! t"e &$t and p$11 b t" pie&es !! CFi)$re :-26D. Rem 5e t"e $rine b1adder by pin&"in) it !! and &$ttin) it be1 % t"e !in)ers.

Y $ &an & 2 b dy r)ans s$&" as t"e "eart# 1i5er# pan&reas# sp1een# and 2idneys $sin) t"e same met" ds as ! r m$s&1e meat.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. S+")i#0 Me!t + sm 2e meat# prepare an en&1 s$re ar $nd a !ire CFi)$re :-27D. Use "ard% ds t pr d$&e ) d sm 2e. Y $ &an ste% r b i1 sma11er pie&es# parti&$1ar1y t" se t"at remain atta&"ed t b ne a!ter t"e initia1 b$t&"erin)# as s $p r br t". Separate t"e ribs !r m t"e ba&2b ne. +"e % d s" $1d be s me%"at )reen. /$t t"e meat int t"in s1i&es# n m re t"an 6 &entimeters t"i&2# and drape t"em 5er a !rame% r2. (a)e 1<< ! 2** . +"e intent is t pr d$&e sm 2e# n t "eat. Rem 5e t"e 1ar)e m$s&1es Ct"e tender1 inD t"at 1ie n eit"er side ! t"e spine. (r per1y sm 2ed meat %i11 1 2 1i2e a dar2# &$r1ed# britt1e sti&2 and y $ &an eat it %it" $t !$rt"er & 2in). Meat sm 2ed 5erni)"t in t"is manner %i11 1ast ab $t 1 %ee2. 8eep t"e p n&" en&1 s$re ar $nd t"e meat t " 1d t"e sm 2e and 2eep a &1 se %at&" n t"e !ire. +% p n&" s snapped t )et"er %i11 % r2. Ma2e s$re n ne ! t"e meat t $&"es an t"er pie&e. +% days ! & ntin$ $s sm 2in) %i11 preser5e t"e meat ! r 2 t 7 %ee2s. /$t t"e 1i)aments ar $nd t"e @ int and bend it ba&2 t separate it. I! it is t dry# s a2 it. D n t $se resin $s % d in t"e !ire be&a$se its sm 2e %i11 r$in t"e meat. +"e !ire d es n t need t be bi) r " t. Y $ &an a1s $se a pit t sm 2e meat CFi)$re :-2:D. Department ! t"e Army t t"e ba11 and s &2et "ip @ int. +"ere is 1ess % r2 and 1ess %ear n y $r 2ni!e i! y $ brea2 t"e ribs !irst# t"en &$t t"r $)" t"e brea2s. Y $ &an a1s & 2 and eat t"e brain. D n t 1et t"e !ire )et t " t.S. /$t t"e t n)$e $t# s2in it# b i1 it $nti1 tender# and eat it. / 2 1ar)e meat pie&es 5er a spit r b i1 t"em.

Y $ &an a1s $se sa1t by itse1!. A11 % t"e meat t dry t" r $)"1y be! re eatin). 'reezing In & 1d &1imates# y $ &an !ree'e and 2eep meat inde!inite1y. +"e s 1$ti n m$st & 5er t"e meat. #rine and Salt Y $ &an preser5e meat by s a2in) it t" r $)"1y in a sa1t%ater s 1$ti n. 8eep t"e strips $t ! t"e rea&" ! anima1s and & 5er t"em t 2eep b1 %!1ies !!. Othe& P&e$e&/!ti"# Meth"($ Y $ &an a1s preser5e meats $sin) t"e !ree'in) r brine and sa1t met" ds. Y $ m$st sti11 & 2 it be! re eatin). Free'in) is n t a means ! preparin) meat. (r per1y dried meat %i11 "a5e a dry# &risp te?t$re and %i11 n t !ee1 & 1 t t"e t $&". Department ! t"e Army D&3i#0 Me!t + preser5e meat by dryin)# &$t it int 6-mi11imeter strips %it" t"e )rain.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 1<1 ! 2** .S. 3as" !! t"e sa1t be! re & 2in). 0an) t"e meat strips n a ra&2 in a s$nny 1 &ati n %it" ) d air !1 %.

M st ! t"e in! rmati n in t"is &"apter is dire&ted t %ards identi!yin) %i1d p1ants be&a$se in! rmati n re1atin) t &$1ti5ated p1ants is m re readi1y a5ai1ab1e. Cven in the most static survival situation" maintaining health through a complete and nutritious diet is essential to maintaining strength and peace o! mind. 3as" t"em t" r $)"1y. In t"is instan&e y $ may n t "a5e "ad t"e &"an&e t 1earn t"e p1ant 1i!e ! t"e re)i n in %"i&" y $ m$st s$r5i5e. -at n1y t" se p1ants y $ &an p siti5e1y identi!y and y $ 2n % are sa!e t eat. :lants can supply you with weapons and raw materials to construct shelters and build !ires. 8ote9 @ou will !ind illustrations o! the plants described in this chapter in Appendi+es ? and 1. At times y $ may !ind y $rse1! in a sit$ati n ! r %"i&" y $ & $1d n t p1an.I#ILITY O' PLANTS (1ants are 5a1$ab1e s $r&es ! ! d be&a$se t"ey are %ide1y a5ai1ab1e# easi1y pr &$red# and# in t"e pr per & mbinati ns# &an meet a11 y $r n$triti na1 needs. @ou must there!ore learn as much as possible be!orehand about the !lora o! the region where you will be operating. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER < . *ARNIN1 +"e &riti&a1 !a&t r in $sin) p1ants ! r ! d is t a5 id a&&identa1 p is nin).t eat the wrong plant. @ou must not count on being able to go !or days without !ood as some sources would suggest. In t"is &ase y $ &an $se t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est t determine %"i&" p1ants y $ &an eat and t" se t a5 id.S.SURVIVAL USE OF PLANTS A!ter having solved the problems o! !inding water" shelter" and animal !ood" you will have to consider the use o! plants you can eat. :lants can even provide you with chemicals !or poisoning !ish" preserving animal hides" and !or camou!laging yoursel! and your e)uipment. . (a)e 1<2 ! 2** . Remember t"e ! 11 %in) %"en & 11e&tin) %i1d p1ants ! r ! dI • (1ants )r %in) near " mes and &&$pied b$i1din)s r a1 n) r adsides may "a5e been sprayed %it" pesti&ides. Abs 1$te1y identi!y p1ants be! re $sin) t"em as ! d. In m re "i)"1y de5e1 ped & $ntries %it" many a$t m bi1es# a5 id r adside p1ants# i! p ssib1e# d$e t & ntaminati n !r m e?"a$st emissi ns.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. It is imp rtant t be ab1e t re& )ni'e b t" &$1ti5ated and %i1d edib1e p1ants in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. 8ature can provide you with !ood that will let you survive any ordeal" i! you don. :lants can provide you with medicines in a survival situation. In a survival situation you should always be on the lookout !or !amiliar wild !oods and live o!! the land whenever possible. ( is n "em1 &2 "as 2i11ed pe p1e %" mist 2 it ! r its re1ati5es# %i1d &arr ts and %i1d parsnips.

P%!#t I(e#ti6i. S me p1ants de5e1 p e?treme1y dan)er $s !$n)a1 t ?ins. +"ese 1ea5es may be 1an&e-s"aped# e11ipti&a1# e))-s"aped# b1 n)# %ed)e-s"aped# trian)$1ar# 1 n)p inted# r t p-s"aped CFi)$re . *ARNIN1 D n t eat m$s"r ms in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati nK +"e n1y %ay t te11 i! a m$s"r m is edib1e is by p siti5e identi!i&ati n. . S me pe p1e are m re s$s&eptib1e t )astri& distress C!r m p1antsD t"an t"ers. i1 r disin!e&t t"em.!ti"# Y $ identi!y p1ants# t"er t"an by mem ri'in) parti&$1ar 5arieties t"r $)" !ami1iarity# by $sin) s$&" !a&t rs as 1ea! s"ape and mar)in# 1ea! arran)ements# and r t str$&t$re. I! y $ are sensiti5e in t"is %ay# a5 id $n2n %n %i1d p1ants.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0 rses "a5e died !r m eatin) %i1ted %i1d &"erry 1ea5es. +"e basi& 1ea! mar)ins CFi)$re . . . A5 id any %eed# 1ea5es# r seeds %it" an a1m nd1i2e s&ent# a &"ara&teristi& ! t"e &yanide & mp $nds.?a1ates pr d$&e a s"arp b$rnin) sensati n in y $r m $t" and t"r at and dama)e t"e 2idneys.-1D are t t"ed# 1 bed# and t t"1ess r sm t".ne e?amp1e ! t"is is t"e ! 1ia)e ! t"e & mm n &" 2e&"erry. I! y $ are e?treme1y sensiti5e t p is n i5y# a5 id pr d$&ts !r m t"is !ami1y# in&1$din) any parts !r m s$ma&s# man) es# and &as"e%s. S me &" 2e&"erry p1ants "a5e "i)" & n&entrati ns ! dead1y &yanide & mp $nds %"i1e t"ers "a5e 1 % & n&entrati ns r n ne. +"e & rm Cb$1bD ! t"e @a&2-in-t"e-p$1pit is 2n %n as t"e JIndian t$rnip#J b$t y $ &an eat it n1y a!ter rem 5in) t"ese &rysta1s by s1 % ba2in) r by dryin).-2D. Many 5a1$ab1e %i1d p1ants "a5e "i)" & n&entrati ns ! ?a1ate & mp $nds# a1s 2n %n as ?a1i& a&id. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • (1ants )r %in) in & ntaminated %ater r in %ater & ntainin) >iardia lamblia and t"er parasites are & ntaminated t"emse15es. S me edib1e %i1d p1ants# s$&" as a& rns and %ater 1i1y r"i' mes# are bitter. +"ese bitter s$bstan&es# $s$a11y tannin & mp $nds# ma2e t"em $npa1atab1e. (a)e 1<* ! 2** . .S. +"ere is n r m ! r e?perimentati n. .a2in)# r astin)# r dryin) $s$a11y destr ys t"ese ?a1ate &rysta1s. (1ants ! t"e same spe&ies may di!!er in t"eir t ?i& r s$bt ?i& & mp $nds & ntent be&a$se ! )eneti& r en5ir nmenta1 !a&t rs. Sympt ms ! t"e m st dan)er $s m$s"r ms a!!e&tin) t"e &entra1 ner5 $s system may s" % $p a!ter se5era1 days "a5e passed %"en it is t 1ate t re5erse t"eir e!!e&ts. + 1essen t"e &"an&e ! a&&identa1 p is nin)# d n t eat any !r$it t"at is startin) t sp i1 r s" %in) si)ns ! mi1de% r !$n)$s. i1in) t"em in se5era1 &"an)es ! %ater %i11 $s$a11y rem 5e t"ese bitter pr perties.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e basi& types ! r t str$&t$res CFi)$re .-7D are t"e b$1b# &1 5e# tapr t# t$ber# r"i' me# & rm# and &r %n. (a)e 1<7 ! 2** . +"is &"ara&teristi& separates %i1d ni ns !r m %i1d )ar1i&.-*D are pp site# a1ternate# & mp $nd# simp1e# and basa1 r sette.S. . Department ! t"e Army +"e basi& types ! 1ea! arran)ements CFi)$re .$1bs are !ami1iar t $s as ni ns and# %"en s1i&ed in "a1!# %i11 s" % & n&entri& rin)s. /1 5es are t" se b$1b1i2e str$&t$res t"at remind $s ! )ar1i& and %i11 separate int sma11 pie&es %"en br 2en apart. +apr ts resemb1e &arr ts and may be sin)1er ted r bran&"ed# b$t $s$a11y n1y ne p1ant sta12 arises !r m ea&" r t. +$bers are 1i2e p tat es and day1i1ies and y $ %i11 !ind t"ese str$&t$res eit"er n strin)s r in &1$sters $nderneat" t"e parent p1ants.

Learn as m$&" as p ssib1e ab $t p1ants y $ intend t $se ! r ! d and t"eir $ni4$e &"ara&teristi&s.i%it3 Te$t +"ere are many p1ants t"r $)" $t t"e % r1d. +astin) r s%a11 %in) e5en a sma11 p rti n ! s me &an &a$se se5ere dis& m! rt# e?treme interna1 dis rders# and e5en deat".S. . A &r %n is t"e type ! r t str$&t$re ! $nd n p1ants s$&" as aspara)$s and 1 2s m$&" 1i2e a m p"ead $nder t"e s i1Fs s$r!a&e. / rms are simi1ar t b$1bs b$t are s 1id %"en &$t rat"er t"an p ssessin) rin)s. S me p1ants "a5e b t" edib1e and p is n $s parts. (a)e 1<9 ! 2** . +"ere! re# i! y $ "a5e t"e s1i)"test d $bt ab $t a p1antFs edibi1ity# app1y t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est CFi)$re .-9D be! re eatin) any p rti n ! it. Department ! t"e Army R"i' mes are 1ar)e &reepin) r tst &2 r $nder)r $nd stems and many p1ants arise !r m t"e JeyesJ ! t"ese r ts.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. U#i/e&$!% E(i. Many are edib1e n1y at &ertain times ! t"e year.t"ers may "a5e p is n $s re1ati5es t"at 1 2 5ery simi1ar t t"e nes y $ &an eat r $se ! r medi&ine.

S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. + a5 id p tentia11y p is n $s p1ants# stay a%ay !r m any %i1d r $n2n %n p1ants t"at "a5e-• Mi12y r dis& 1 red sap.eans# b$1bs# r seeds inside p ds. • . • Di11# &arr t# parsnip# r pars1ey1i2e ! 1ia)e. • Spines# !ine "airs# r t" rns.itter r s apy taste. Remember# eatin) 1ar)e p rti ns ! p1ant ! d n an empty st ma&" may &a$se diarr"ea# na$sea# r &ramps. D n t %aste time testin) a p1ant t"at is n t re1ati5e1y ab$ndant in t"e area. +% ) d e?amp1es ! t"is are s$&" !ami1iar ! ds as )reen app1es and %i1d ni ns. • . • JA1m ndJ s&ent in % dy parts and 1ea5es.e! re testin) a p1ant ! r edibi1ity# ma2e s$re t"ere are en $)" p1ants t ma2e t"e testin) % rt" y $r time and e!! rt. -a&" part ! a p1ant Cr ts# 1ea5es# !1 %ers# and s nD re4$ires m re t"an 27 " $rs t test. (a)e 1<6 ! 2** . Y $ &an see !r m t"e steps and time in5 15ed in testin) ! r edibi1ity @$st " % imp rtant it is t be ab1e t identi!y edib1e p1ants. -5en a!ter testin) p1ant ! d and !indin) it sa!e# eat it in m derati n. Department ! t"e Army .

An entire en&y&1 pedia ! edib1e %i1d p1ants & $1d be %ritten# b$t spa&e 1imits t"e n$mber ! p1ants presented "ere. Usin) t"e ab 5e &riteria as e1iminat rs %"en &" sin) p1ants ! r t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est %i11 &a$se y $ t a5 id s me edib1e p1ants.S.a2s CDuercus spe&iesD • (ersimm n &<iospyros virginiana' • (1antain C:lantago spe&iesD • ( 2e%eed &:hytolacca americana' • (ri&21y pear &a&t$s C0puntia spe&iesD • ($rs1ane &:ortulaca oleracea' • Sassa!ras &Sassa!ras albidum' • S"eep s rre1 &Rume+ acetosella' • Stra%berries C-ragaria spe&iesD • +"ist1e C1irsium spe&iesD • 3ater 1i1y and 1 t$s C8uphar" 8elumbo" and t"er spe&iesD • 3i1d ni n and )ar1i& CAllium spe&iesD • 3i1d r se CRosa spe&iesD • 3 d s rre1 C0+alis spe&iesD TROPICAL =ONE FOOD PLANTS • . Learn as m$&" as p ssib1e ab $t t"e p1ant 1i!e ! t"e areas %"ere y $ train re)$1ar1y and %"ere y $ e?pe&t t be tra5e1in) r % r2in).amb C?ambusa and t"er spe&iesD • . M re imp rtant# t"ese &riteria %i11 !ten "e1p y $ a5 id p1ants t"at are p tentia11y t ?i& t eat r t $&". Detai1ed des&ripti ns and p" t )rap"s ! t"ese and t"er & mm n p1ants are at Appendi? . Department ! t"e Army • • 6rain "eads %it" pin2# p$rp1is"# r b1a&2 sp$rs. +"ree-1ea5ed )r %t" pattern.$rd &2 &Arctium lappa' • /attai1 CTypha spe&iesD • /"estn$t C1astanea spe&iesD • /"i& ry &1ichorium intybus' • /"$!a &1yperus esculentus' • Dande1i n &Tara+acum o!!icinale' • Day1i1y &(emerocallis !ulva' • Nett1e CUrtica spe&iesD • .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.ee&"n$t C-agus spe&iesD • .read!r$it &Artocarpus incisa' • /as"e% n$t &Anacardium occidental' • / & n$t &1ocos nuci!era' • Man) &/angi!era indica' • (a1ms C5ari $s spe&iesD • (apaya C1arica spe&iesD • S$)ar&ane &Saccharum o!!icinarum' (a)e 1<7 ! 2** . Listed be1 % and 1ater in t"is &"apter are s me ! t"e m st & mm n edib1e and medi&ina1 p1ants. TEMPERATE =ONE FOOD PLANTS • Amarant" CAmaranthus retro!le+us and t"er spe&iesD • Arr %r t CSagittaria spe&iesD • Aspara)$s &Asparagus o!!icinalis' • .1$eberries CVaccinium spe&iesD • ..ananas C/usa spe&iesD • .1a&2berries CRubus spe&iesD • .

Lea&" a& rns in %ater# i! ne&essary# t rem 5e t"e bitterness. Department ! t"e Army • +ar C1olocasia spe&iesD DESERT =ONE FOOD PLANTS • • • • • A&a&ia &Acacia !arnesiana' A)a5e CAgave spe&iesD /a&t$s C5ari $s spe&iesD Date pa1m &:hoeni+ dactyli!era' Desert amarant" &Amaranths palmeri' Se!2ee($ . -at t"em as a 5e)etab1e r %it" t"er ! ds. Y $ &an dry t"in and tender 5arieties in t"e s$n r 5er a !ire $nti1 &risp. S me n$ts# s$&" as &"estn$ts# are ) d ra%# b$t taste better r asted. It is a ! rm ! marine a1)ae ! $nd n r near &ean s" res. . (a)e 1<: ! 2** . SEA*EEDS • • • • • • • D$1se &Rhodymenia palmata' 6reen sea%eed &Ulva lactuca' Iris" m ss &1hondrus crispus' 8e1p &Alaria esculenta' La5er C:orphyra spe&iesD M @aban &Sargassum !ulvellum' S$)ar %ra&2 &Laminaria saccharina' P&ep!&!ti"# "6 P%!#t F""( A1t" $)" s me p1ants r p1ant parts are edib1e ra%# y $ m$st & 2 t"ers t be edib1e r pa1atab1e. 3"en )at"erin) sea%eeds ! r ! d# !ind 1i5in) p1ants atta&"ed t r &2s r !1 atin) !ree. Dryin) "e1ps t rem 5e &a$sti& ?a1ates !r m s me r ts 1i2e t" se in t"e Arum !ami1y. . i1 t"i&2# 1eat"ery sea%eeds ! r a s" rt time t s !ten t"em. Many %i1d p1ants are edib1e b$t bare1y pa1atab1e. +"ere are a1s s me edib1e !res"%ater 5arieties. Sea%eed %as"ed ns" re any 1en)t" ! time may be sp i1ed r de&ayed.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Its preparati n ! r eatin) depends n t"e type ! sea%eed.S. Y $ &an eat many )rains and seeds ra% $nti1 t"ey mat$re. Sea%eed is a 5a1$ab1e s $r&e ! i dine# t"er minera1s# and 5itamin /. 3"en "ard r dry# y $ may "a5e t b i1 r )rind t"em int mea1 r !1 $r. It is a ) d idea t 1earn t identi!y# prepare# and eat %i1d ! ds. i1 1ea5es# stems# and b$ds $nti1 tender# &"an)in) t"e %ater# i! ne&essary# t rem 5e any bitterness. . Y $ &an eat s me 5arieties ra% a!ter testin) ! r edibi1ity. Lea&"in) is d ne by &r$s"in) t"e ! d C! r e?amp1e# a& rnsD# p1a&in) it in a strainer# and p $rin) b i1in) %ater t"r $)" it r immersin) it in r$nnin) %ater. Lar)e 4$antities ! sea%eed in an $na&&$st med st ma&" &an pr d$&e a se5ere 1a?ati5e e!!e&t. -dib1e means t"at a p1ant r ! d %i11 pr 5ide y $ %it" ne&essary n$trients# %"i1e pa1atab1e means t"at it a&t$a11y is p1easin) t eat.ne p1ant y $ s" $1d ne5er 5er1 2 is sea%eed. i1# ba2e# r r ast t$bers and r ts. Met" ds $sed t impr 5e t"e taste ! p1ant ! d in&1$de s a2in)# b i1in)# & 2in)# r 1ea&"in). Y $ &an dry !res"1y "ar5ested sea%eeds ! r 1ater $se. /r$s" and add t"ese t s $ps r br t"s.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Itching. • In!usion or tisane or tea. +"e name )i5en t &r$s"ed 1ea5es r t"er p1ant parts# p ssib1y "eated# t"at y $ app1y t a % $nd r s re eit"er dire&t1y r %rapped in &1 t" r paper. • -evers. Y $ &an a1s ma2e antisepti&s !r m a de& &ti n ! b$rd &2 r t# ma11 % 1ea5es r r ts# r %"ite a2 bar2. +"e e?tra&t ! a b i1ed d %n r simmered "erb 1ea! r r t. In $sin) p1ants and t"er nat$ra1 remedies# p siti5e identi!i&ati n ! t"e p1ants in5 15ed is as &riti&a1 as in $sin) t"em ! r ! d. Y $ &an a1s st p diarr"ea by eatin) %"ite &1ay r &amp!ire as"es. +reat %it" e?terna11y app1ied p $1ti&es ! d &2# p1antain# &"i&2%eed# %i11 % bar2# )ar1i&# r s rre1. 0 %e5er# $se t"em %it" &a$ti n %"en n t"in) e1se is a5ai1ab1e be&a$se ! p ssib1e ne)ati5e e!!e&ts n t"e 2idneys. Y $ &an ma2e t"em !r m t"e e?pressed @$i&e !r m %i1d ni n r )ar1i&# r e?pressed @$i&e !r m &"i&2%eed 1ea5es r t"e &r$s"ed 1ea5es ! d &2. Use t &1eanse % $nds# s res# r ras"es. Many nat$ra1 remedies % r2 s1 %er t"an t"e medi&ines y $ 2n %. A11 t"ese medi&ati ns are ! r e?terna1 $se n1y. • Antiseptics. It ta2es ab $t *9 1iters ! map1e sap t ma2e ne 1iter ! map1e syr$pK PLANTS 'OR 0 . Y $ brin) t"em t a s$stained b i1 r simmer t dra% t"eir &"emi&a1s int t"e %ater.S. • Aches" pains" and sprains. Y $ may b i1 t"ese saps d %n t a syr$p ! r s%eetenin). Y $ p1a&e a sma11 4$antity ! a "erb in a & ntainer# p $r " t %ater 5er it# and 1et it steep C& 5ered r $n& 5eredD be! re $se. Drin2 tea made !r m t"e r ts ! b1a&2berries and t"eir re1ati5es t st p diarr"ea. +"e preparati n ! medi&ina1 "erbs ! r interna1 r e?terna1 app1i&ati n. Re1ie5e t"e it&" !r m inse&t bites# s$nb$rn# r p1ant p is nin) ras"es by app1yin) a p $1ti&e ! @e%e1%eed &Impatiens bi!lora' r %it&" "a'e1 1ea5es &(amamelis virginiana'. • <ecoction. +reat t"ese i11nesses %it" a de& &ti n made !r m eit"er p1antain 1ea5es r %i11 % bar2. Y $ &an a1s $se a tea made !r m b$rd &2 r ts# ma11 % r m$11ein !1 %ers r r ts# r mint 1ea5es. +"e @e%e1%eed @$i&e %i11 "e1p %"en app1ied t p is n i5y ras"es r inse&t stin)s. +ea made !r m & %berry r &ranberry r "a'e1 1ea5es % r2s t . Re+e(ie$ +"e ! 11 %in) remedies are ! r $se n1y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# n t ! r r $tine $seI • <iarrhea. +reat a !e5er %it" a tea made !r m %i11 % bar2# an in!$si n ! e1der !1 %ers r !r$it# 1inden !1 %er tea# r e1m bar2 de& &ti n. Ma2e medi&ati ns t st p b1eedin) !r m a p $1ti&e ! t"e p$!!ba11 m$s"r m# !r m p1antain 1ea5es# r m st e!!e&ti5e1y !r m t"e 1ea5es ! t"e & mm n yarr % r % $nd% rt &Achillea mille!olium'. Te&+$ !#( De6i#iti"#$ +"e ! 11 %in) terms# and t"eir de!initi ns# are ass &iated %it" medi&ina1 p1ant $seI • :oultice. 3"ite a2 bar2 and t"er bar2s & ntainin) tannin are a1s e!!e&ti5e. ! 2** . • Antihemorrhagics. +"e a5era)e rati is ab $t 2: t 96 )rams C1 t 2 $n&esD ! "erb t <. (a)e 1<. • 1olds and sore throats. Y $ &an a1s $se sa15es made by mi?in) t"e e?pressed @$i&es ! t"ese p1ants in anima1 !at r 5e)etab1e i1s.ICIN In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n y $ %i11 "a5e t $se %"at is a5ai1ab1e. • C+pressed $uice. Spe. Y $ add "erb 1ea! r r t t %ater. +"ere! re# start %it" sma11er d ses and a11 % m re time ! r t"em t ta2e e!!e&t.i6i. Li4$ids r saps s4$ee'ed !r m p1ant materia1 and eit"er app1ied t t"e % $nd r made int an t"er medi&ine. (r per $se ! t"ese p1ants is e4$a11y imp rtant. Nat$ra11y# s me %i11 a&t m re rapid1y t"an t"ers. Department ! t"e Army +"e sap !r m many trees# s$&" as map1es# bir&"es# %a1n$ts# and sy&am res# & ntains s$)ar.9 1iter ! %ater. It % r2s n s$nb$rn as %e11 as a1 e 5era.

. -atin) ra% day1i1y !1 %ers %i11 a1s "e1p. Ma2e !ibers and & rda)e !r m p1ant !ibers. Re1ie5e & nstipati n by drin2in) de& &ti ns !r m dande1i n 1ea5es# r se "ips# r %a1n$t bar2. M st & mm n1y $sed are t"e stems !r m nett1es and mi12%eeds# y$&&a p1ants# and t"e inner bar2 ! trees 1i2e t"e 1inden.S. (a)e 11< ! 2** .ni n s2ins pr d$&e ye11 %# %a1n$t "$11s pr d$&e br %n# and p 2eberries pr 5ide a p$rp1e dye. (1ants &an be y $r a11y as 1 n) as y $ $se t"em &a$ti $s1y. (emorrhoids. Usin) m derati n# treat %it" tea made !r m tansy &Tanacetum vulgare' r !r m %i1d &arr t 1ea5es. orms or intestinal parasites. Ma2e !is" p is n by immersin) %a1n$t "$11s in a sma11 area ! 4$iet %ater. Ma2e inse&t repe11ents by app1yin) t"e e?pressed @$i&e ! %i1d )ar1i& r ni n t t"e s2in# by p1a&in) sassa!ras 1ea5es in y $r s"e1ter# r by b$rnin) r sm$d)in) &attai1 seed "air !ibers. Ma2e tinder ! r startin) !ires !r m &attai1 !1$!!# &edar bar2# 1i)"ter 2n t % trees# r "ardened sap !r m resin $s % d trees. +"is p is n ma2es it imp ssib1e ! r t"e !is" t breat"e b$t d esnFt ad5erse1y a!!e&t t"eir edibi1ity. +reat t"em %it" e?terna1 %as"es !r m e1m bar2 r a2 bar2 tea# !r m t"e e?pressed @$i&e ! p1antain 1ea5es# r !r m a S 1 m nFs sea1 r t de& &ti n. >as and cramps. The key to the sa!e use o! plants is positive identi!ication %"et"er y $ $se t"em as ! d r medi&ine r in & nstr$&tin) s"e1ters r e4$ipment. Anti!ungal washes.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. d !r m pine Ma2e ins$1ati n by !1$!!in) $p !ema1e &attai1 "eads r mi12%eed d %n. Us$a11y# y $ %i11 "a5e t b i1 t"e p1ants t )et t"e best res$1ts. Use a tea made !r m &arr t seeds as an anti!1at$1entH $se tea made !r m mint 1ea5es t sett1e t"e st ma&". MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLANTS Ma2e dyes !r m 5ari $s p1ants t & 1 r &1 t"in) r t &am $!1a)e y $r s2in. 6et "e1p in !a11in) as1eep by bre%in) a tea made !r m mint 1ea5es r passi n!1 %er 1ea5es. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • Sedatives. App1y !re4$ent1y t t"e site# a1ternatin) %it" e?p s$re t dire&t s$n1i)"t. 1onstipation. Ma2e a de& &ti n ! %a1n$t 1ea5es r a2 bar2 r a& rns t treat rin)% rm and at"1eteFs ! t.

i1in) rem 5es many p is ns# b$t n t a11. . Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1> .POISONOUS PLANTS Success!ul use o! plants in a survival situation depends on positive identi!ication. F r e?amp1e# p is n "em1 &2 appears 5ery simi1ar t %i1d &arr t. (1ant p is nin) ran)es !r m min r irritati n t deat". Anowing poisonous plants is as important to a survivor as knowing edible plants. Many p is n $s p1ants 1 2 1i2e t"eir edib1e re1ati5es r 1i2e t"er edib1e p1ants. M st ! t"e time t"is statement is tr$e# b$t s me anima1s &an eat p1ants t"at are p is n $s t "$mans.O3 PLANTS POISON (1ants )enera11y p is n by-• Ingestion. S me & mm n mis& n&epti ns ab $t p is n $s p1ants are-• atch the animals and eat what they eat. -5ery p1ant %i11 5ary in t"e am $nt ! t ?ins it & ntains d$e t di!!erent )r %in) & nditi ns and s1i)"t 5ariati ns in s$bspe&ies. ALL A#OUT PLANTS It is t y $r bene!it t 1earn as m$&" ab $t p1ants as p ssib1e. S me p1ants t"at are red are p is n $s# b$t n t a11. /ertain p1ants are sa!e t eat in &ertain seas ns r sta)es ! )r %t" and p is n $s in t"er sta)es. • Absorption or inhalation. F r e?amp1e# t"e 1ea5es ! t"e p 2e%eed are edib1e %"en it !irst starts t )r %# b$t it s n be& mes p is n $s. • ?oil the plant in water and any poisons will be removed.S. F r e?amp1e# t"e (a)e 111 ! 2** . -5ery pers n "as a di!!erent 1e5e1 ! resistan&e t t ?i& s$bstan&es.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3"en a pers n eit"er abs rbs t"e p is n t"r $)" t"e s2in r in"a1es it int t"e respirat ry system. Y $ m$st ma2e an e!! rt t 1earn as m$&" ab $t t"em as p ssib1e. S me pers ns may be m re sensiti5e t a parti&$1ar p1ant. A & mm n 4$esti n as2ed is# J0 % p is n $s is t"is p1antGJ It is di!!i&$1t t say " % p is n $s p1ants are be&a$se-• • • • S me p1ants re4$ire & nta&t %it" a 1ar)e am $nt ! t"e p1ant be! re n ti&in) any ad5erse rea&ti n %"i1e t"ers %i11 &a$se deat" %it" n1y a sma11 am $nt. • :lants with a red color are poisonous. • 1ontact. Anowing the poisonous plants will help you avoid sustaining in$uries !rom them. 3"en a pers n eats a part ! a p is n $s p1ant. Y $ &an eat s me p1ants and t"eir !r$its n1y %"en t"ey are ripe. 3"en a pers n ma2es & nta&t %it" a p is n $s p1ant t"at &a$ses any type ! s2in irritati n r dermatitis. +"e p int is t"ere is n ne r$1e t aid in identi!yin) p is n $s p1ants. .

(a)e 112 ! 2** . CONTACT . Learn t identi!y and $se p1ants be! re a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. 3"en y $ !irst & nta&t t"e p is n $s p1ants r t"e !irst sympt ms appear# try t rem 5e t"e i1 by %as"in) %it" s ap and & 1d %ater. +"e dirt may brea2 pen t"e b1isters and 1ea5e t"e b dy pen t in!e&ti n. 6at"er and &r ss-re!eren&e in! rmati n !r m as many s $r&es as p ssib1e# be&a$se many s $r&es %i11 n t & ntain a11 t"e in! rmati n needed. S me p1ants be& me t ?i& a!ter %i1tin). • ( is n i5y. 8eep a 1 ) ! a11 p1ants eaten.IN/ POISONOUS PLANTS Y $r best p 1i&y is t be ab1e t 1 2 at a p1ant and identi!y it %it" abs 1$te &ertainty and t 2n % its $ses r dan)ers. Many times t"is is n t p ssib1e. Department ! t"e Army ripe !r$it ! mayapp1e is edib1e# b$t a11 t"er parts and t"e )reen !r$it are p is n $s. Y $ &an ma2e tanni& a&id !r m a2 bar2. +"e in!e&ti n may be 1 &a1 r it may spread 5er t"e b dy. S me m$s"r ms "a5e n 2n %n antid te. S me m$s"r ms &a$se deat" 5ery 4$i&21y. • 1ontact with or touching plants unnecessarily. +"ere is a )reater dan)er ! bein) a!!e&ted %"en 5er"eated and s%eatin).S. ( is n $s p1ants t"at &a$se & nta&t dermatitis are-• / %"a)e. • ( is n s$ma&. +% )enera1 types ! m$s"r m p is nin) are )astr intestina1 and &entra1 ner5 $s system. • Ren)as tree. F r e?amp1e# %"en t"e b1a&2 &"erry starts t %i1t# "ydr &yani& a&id de5e1 ps. RUL S 'OR AVOI. D n t $se dirt i! b1isters "a5e de5e1 ped. S me p1ants & ntain b t" edib1e and p is n $s partsH p tat es and t mat es are & mm n p1ant ! ds# b$t t"eir )reen parts are p is n $s. • ( is n a2. I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# %ipe y $r s2in repeated1y %it" dirt r sand. Si)ns and sympt ms &an in&1$de b$rnin)# reddenin)# it&"in)# s%e11in)# and b1isters. Y $ &an eat t"e t"in1y s1i&ed and t" r $)"1y dried & rms Cdryin) may ta2e a yearD ! t"e @a&2-in-t"e-p$1pit# b$t t"ey are p is n $s i! n t t" r $)"1y dried. S me s $r&es ! in! rmati n ab $t p1ants are pamp"1ets# b 2s# !i1ms# nat$re trai1s# b tani&a1 )ardens# 1 &a1 mar2ets# and 1 &a1 nati5es. • +r$mpet 5ine. A!ter y $ "a5e rem 5ed t"e i1# dry t"e area. D n t eat any p1ant $n1ess y $ "a5e p siti5e1y identi!ied it !irst. +"e prin&ipa1 t ?in ! t"ese p1ants is $s$a11y an i1 t"at )ets n t"e s2in $p n & nta&t %it" t"e p1ant. Sympt ms may ta2e !r m a !e% " $rs t se5era1 days t appear. IN/ STION POISONIN/ In)esti n p is nin) &an be 5ery seri $s and & $1d 1ead t deat" 5ery 4$i&21y. +"e e!!e&ts may be persistent# spread by s&rat&"in)# and are parti&$1ar1y dan)er $s i! t"ere is & nta&t in r ar $nd t"e eyes. Spe&i!i& preparati n met" ds ma2e s me p1ants edib1e t"at are p is n $s ra%. Y $ &an %as" %it" a tanni& a&id s 1$ti n and &r$s" and r$b @e%e1%eed n t"e a!!e&ted area t treat p1ant-&a$sed ras"es. Si)ns and sympt ms ! in)esti n p is nin) &an in&1$de na$sea# 5 mitin)# diarr"ea# abd mina1 &ramps# depressed "eartbeat and respirati n# "eada&"es# "a11$&inati ns# dry m $t"# $n& ns&i $sness# & ma# and deat". M$s"r m identi!i&ati n is 5ery di!!i&$1t and m$st be pre&ise# e5en m re s t"an %it" t"er p1ants. R0ATITIS / nta&t dermatitis !r m p1ants %i11 $s$a11y &a$se t"e m st tr $b1e in t"e !ie1d.J Remember# a5 id -• All mushrooms. +"e i1 &an a1s )et n e4$ipment and t"en in!e&t %" e5er t $&"es t"e e4$ipment. Ne5er b$m a & nta&t p is n $s p1ant be&a$se t"e sm 2e may be as "arm!$1 as t"e p1ant. I! y $ "a5e 1itt1e r n 2n %1ed)e ! t"e 1 &a1 5e)etati n# $se t"e r$1es t se1e&t p1ants ! r t"e JUni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Ind$&e 5 mitin) by ti&21in) t"e ba&2 ! "is t"r at r by )i5in) "im %arm sa1t%ater# i! "e is & ns&i $s. • (an)i. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ s$spe&t p1ant p is nin)# try t rem 5e t"e p is n $s materia1 !r m t"e 5i&timFs m $t" and st ma&" as s n as p ssib1e. • R sary pea. • .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Stry&"nine tree. (a)e 11* ! 2** .S. • Man&"inee1. • ( is n and %ater "em1 &2s. • Lantana. • Deat" &amas. Di1$te t"e p is n by administerin) 1ar)e 4$antities ! %ater r mi12# i! "e is & ns&i $s. • ("ysi& n$t. • /"inaberry. +"e ! 11 %in) p1ants &an &a$se in)esti n p is nin) i! eatenI • /ast r bean. See Appendi? / ! r p" t )rap"s and des&ripti ns ! t"ese p1ants.1eander.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S Y $ re& )ni'e and identi!y inse&ts# e?&ept &entipedes and mi11ipedes# by t"eir si? 1e)s %"i1e ara&"nids "a5e ei)"t. Cven more victims die !rom allergic reactions to bee stings. 1are!ully survey the scene be!ore entering water or !orests. -or this reason" we will pay more attention to smaller and potentially more dangerous creatures. Y $ &an !ind desert s& rpi ns !r m be1 % sea 1e5e1 in Deat" Va11ey t e1e5ati ns as "i)" as *#6<< meters in t"e Andes. 0 %e5er# in a11 &ases# a5 idan&e is t"e best de!ense. S. A1s &"e&2 y $r beddin) and s"e1ter ! r t"em. Fata1ities !r m s& rpi n stin)s are rare# b$t t"ey &an &&$r in &"i1dren# t"e e1der1y# (a)e 117 ! 2** . 1ommon sense tells the survivor to avoid encounters with lions" bears" and other large or dangerous animals. Aeeping a level head and an awareness o! your surroundings will keep you alive i! you use a !ew simple sa!ety procedures. Smaller animals actually present more o! a threat to the survivor than large animals. To compensate !or their si*e" nature has given many small animals weapons such as !angs and stingers to de!end themselves. A1t" $)" t"eir 5en m &an be 4$ite pain!$1# bee# %asp# and " rnet stin)s rare1y 2i11 a s$r5i5 r $n1ess "e is a11er)i& t t"at parti&$1ar t ?in. Use &are %"en t$rnin) 5er r &2s and 1 )s. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 11 . In en5ir nments 2n %n t "a5e spiders and s& rpi ns# &"e&2 y $r ! t)ear and &1 t"in) e5ery m rnin). +"eir a5era)e si'e is ab $t 2.DAN1EROUS ANIMALS Animals rarely are as threatening to the survivor as the rest o! the environment. /ove care!ully through their environment. <o not let curiosity and carelessness kill or in$ure you. (owever" each year more victims die !rom bites by relatively small venomous snakes than by large dangerous animals. See Appendi? D ! r e?amp1es ! dan)er $s inse&ts and ara&"nids. ARAC.9 &entimeters.s !ault. <o not attract large predators by leaving !ood lying around your camp.NI. @our actions may prevent une+pected meetings. INS CTS AN. -5en t"e m st dan)er $s spiders rare1y 2i11# and t"e e!!e&ts ! ti&2-b rne diseases are 5ery s1 %-a&tin). 0 %e5er# t"ere are 2<-&entimeter )iants in t"e @$n)1es ! /entra1 Ameri&a# Ne% 6$inea# and s $t"ern A!ri&a. +"ey are m st1y n &t$rna1 in "abit.S. @ou should also avoid large gra*ing animals with horns" hooves" and great weight. Cach year" a !ew people are bitten by sharks" mauled by alligators" and attacked by bears. A11 t"ese sma11 &reat$res be& me pests %"en t"ey bite# stin)# r irritate y $."&pi"#$ Y $ !ind s& rpi ns C?uthotus spe&iesD in deserts# @$n)1es# and ! rests ! tr pi&a1# s$btr pi&a1# and %arm temperate areas ! t"e % r1d. These are the animals you are more likely to meet as you unwittingly move into their habitat" or they slip into your environment unnoticed. +ypi&a11y br %n r b1a&2 in m ist areas# t"ey may be ye11 % r 1i)"t )reen in t"e desert. /ost o! these incidents were in some way the victim.

S. +i&2s are sma11 r $nd ara&"nids %it" ei)"t 1e)s and &an "a5e eit"er a s !t r "ard b dy. Ti. S me tarant$1as &an be as 1ar)e as a dinner p1ate. . +" se %" are a11er)i& t bee 5en m "a5e se5ere rea&ti ns in&1$din) anap"y1a&ti& s" &2# & ma# and deat". +i&2s re4$ire a b1 d " st t (a)e 119 ! 2** . +"ere is ne spe&ies in -$r pe# b$t m st & me !r m tr pi&a1 Ameri&a. +"ey a11 "a5e 1ar)e !an)s ! r &apt$rin) ! d s$&" as birds# mi&e# and 1i'ards. Ce#tipe(e$ !#( Mi%%ipe(e$ /entipedes and mi11ipedes are m st1y sma11 and "arm1ess# a1t" $)" s me tr pi&a1 and desert spe&ies may rea&" 29 &entimeters. +"e main dan)er !r m bees is t"eir barbed stin)er 1 &ated n t"eir abd mens. Spi(e&$ Y $ re& )ni'e t"e br %n re&1$se r !idd1eba&2 spider ! N rt" Ameri&a &Lo+osceles reclusa' by a pr minent 5i 1in-s"aped 1i)"t sp t n t"e ba&2 ! its b dy. Y $ may !ind t"er bees# s$&" as &arpenter bees# in indi5id$a1 nest " 1es in % d# r in t"e )r $nd# 1i2e b$mb1ebees. Y $ !ind members ! t"e %id % !ami1y &Latrodectus species' % r1d%ide# t" $)" t"e b1a&2 %id % ! N rt" Ameri&a is per"aps t"e m st %e11-2n %n. +arant$1as are 1ar)e# "airy spiders CTheraphosidae and Lycosa spe&iesD best 2n %n be&a$se t"ey are !ten s 1d in pet st res. As its name s$))ests# t"is spider 1i2es t "ide in dar2 p1a&es. Bee$' *!$p$' !#( H"&#et$ 3e are a11 !ami1iar %it" bees# %asps# and " rnets.)$ +i&2s are & mm n in t"e tr pi&s and temperate re)i ns.e &are!$1 ! meat-eatin) ye11 % @a&2ets %"en &1eanin) !is" r )ame. Sympt ms ! t"eir bite are simi1ar t t" se ! t"e %id %Fs--se5ere pain a&& mpanied by s%eatin) and s"i5erin)# %ea2ness# and disab1in) epis des t"at &an 1ast a %ee2. Department ! t"e Army and i11 pers ns. +"e 1 &a1 p p$1a&e & nsiders t"em dead1y. A5 id t"em as t"ey m 5e ab $t# $s$a11y at ni)"t# in sear&" ! prey. +"ey are !ami1iar t m st ! $s. 3at&" $t ! r !1 %ers r !r$it %"ere bees may be !eedin). +"ese are "arm1ess and "a5e a tai1 1i2e a %ire r %"ip# rat"er t"an t"e @ inted tai1 and stin)er ! tr$e s& rpi ns. A !e% 5arieties ! &entipedes "a5e a p is n $s bite# b$t in!e&ti n is t"e )reatest dan)er# as t"eir s"arp &1a%s di) in and p$n&t$re t"e s2in. -?&ept ! r 2i11er bees# m st bees tend t be m re d &i1e t"an %asps# " rnets# and ye11 % @a&2ets t"at "a5e sm t" stin)ers and are &apab1e ! repeated atta&2s. +"ey & me in many 5arieties and "a5e a %ide di5ersity ! "abits and "abitats. +" $)" rare1y !ata1# its bite &a$ses e?&essi5e tiss$e de)enerati n ar $nd t"e % $nd and &an e5en 1ead t amp$tati n ! t"e di)its i! 1e!t $ntreated. S me bees# s$&" as " neybees# 1i5e in & 1 nies.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. + pre5ent s2in p$n&t$res# br$s" t"em !! in t"e dire&ti n t"ey are tra5e1in)# i! y $ !ind t"em &ra%1in) n y $r s2in. F$nne1%ebs CAtra+ spe&iesD are 1ar)e# )ray r br %n A$stra1ian spiders. Y $ re& )ni'e bees by t"eir "airy and $s$a11y t"i&2 b dy# %"i1e t"e %asps# " rnets# and ye11 % @a&2ets "a5e m re s1ender# near1y "air1ess# b dies. /"$n2y# %it" s" rt 1e)s# t"ey are ab1e t m 5e easi1y $p and d %n t"e & ne-s"aped %ebs !r m %"i&" t"ey )et t"eir name. A5 idan&e is t"e best ta&ti& ! r se1!-pr te&ti n. I! bitten by a tarant$1a# pain and b1eedin) are &ertain# and in!e&ti n is 1i2e1y. F $nd in %armer areas ! t"e % r1d# t"e %id %s are sma11# dar2 spiders %it" !ten " $r)1ass-s"aped %"ite# red# r ran)e sp ts n t"eir abd mens. S& rpi ns resemb1e sma11 1 bsters %it" raised# @ inted tai1s bearin) a stin)er in t"e tip. +"e a5era)e pers n "as a re1ati5e1y min r and temp rary rea&ti n t bee stin)s and re& 5ers in a & $p1e ! " $rs %"en t"e pain and "eada&"e ) a%ay. Nat$re mimi&s t"e s& rpi ns %it" %"ip s& rpi ns r 5ine)ar-r ns. I! anti"istamine medi&ine is n t a5ai1ab1e and y $ &ann t !ind a s$bstit$te# an a11er)y s$!!erer in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is in )ra5e dan)er. 3"en t"e bee stin)s y $# it rips its stin)er $t ! its abd men a1 n) %it" t"e 5en m sa&# and t"e bee dies. S me S $t" Ameri&an spe&ies d in@e&t a dan)er $s t ?in# b$t m st simp1y pr d$&e a pain!$1 bite. +"ey may be eit"er d mesti&ated r 1i5in) %i1d in &a5es r " 11 % trees.

L 2 &1 se1y %"en pi&2in) !r$it r m 5in) ar $nd %ater. -atin) t" r $)"1y & 2ed !1yin) ! ?es r t"er bats presents n dan)er !r m rabies and t"er diseases# b$t a)ain# t"e emp"asis is n t" r $)" & 2in). D n t tease# m 1est# r "arass sna2es. S%a11 %ed r eaten# 1ee&"es &an be a )reat "a'ard. +"$s# y $ "a5e time t t" r $)"1y inspe&t y $r b dy ! r t"eir presen&e. .e &a1m %"en y $ en& $nter serpents. (a)e 116 ! 2** . S$r5i5 rs "a5e de5e1 ped se5ere in!e&ti ns !r m % $nds inside t"e t"r at r n se %"en s res !r m s%a11 %ed 1ee&"es be&ame in!e&ted. +"ere are many bat 5arieties % r1d%ide# b$t y $ !ind t"e tr$e 5ampire bats n1y in /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a. #ATS Despite t"e 1e)ends# bats C<esmodus spe&iesD are a re1ati5e1y sma11 "a'ard t t"e s$r5i5 r. +a2in) s"e1ter in a &a5e &&$pied by bats# " %e5er# presents t"e m$&" )reater "a'ard ! in"a1in) p %dered bat d$n)# r )$an . Step nt 1 )s rat"er t"an 5er t"em be! re 1 2in) and m 5in) n. It is t"ere! re essentia1 t treat %ater !r m 4$esti nab1e s $r&es by b i1in) r $sin) &"emi&a1 %ater treatments. Use sti&2s t t$rn 1 )s and r &2s. App1y t"e ! 11 %in) sa!ety r$1es %"en tra5e1in) in areas %"ere t"ere are p is n $s sna2esI • • • • • • • • 3a12 &are!$11y and %at&" %"ere y $ step. S me sna2es# s$&" as mambas# & bras# and b$s"masters# %i11 atta&2 a))ressi5e1y %"en & rnered r )$ardin) a nest. Sna2es &ann t "ear and y $ &an &&asi na11y s$rprise t"em %"en t"ey are s1eepin) r s$nnin). Y $ %i11 &ertain1y en& $nter t"em %"en s%immin) in in!ested %aters r ma2in) e?pedient %ater &r ssin)s.at d$n) &arries many r)anisms t"at &an &a$se diseases. .S. +"ere is 1itt1e y $ &an d t treat t"ese diseases n&e & ntra&ted# b$t time is y $r a11y sin&e t"ey are s1 %-a&tin) ai1ments.e%are ! ti&2s %"en passin) t"r $)" t"e t"i&2 5e)etati n t"ey &1in) t # %"en &1eanin) " st anima1s ! r ! d# and %"en )at"erin) nat$ra1 materia1s t & nstr$&t a s"e1ter.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is ma2es t"em dan)er $s be&a$se t"ey spread diseases 1i2e Lyme disease# R &2y M $ntain sp tted !e5er# en&ep"a1itis# and t"ers t"at &an $1timate1y be disab1in) r !ata1. +"eir sa1i5a & ntains an anti& a)$1ant t"at 2eeps t"e b1 d s1 %1y !1 %in) %"i1e t"ey !eed. Department ! t"e Army s$r5i5e and repr d$&e. L C. S Lee&"es are b1 d-s$&2in) &reat$res %it" a % rm1i2e appearan&e. 3"ere sna2es are p1enti!$1 and p is n $s spe&ies are present# t"e ris2 ! t"eir bites ne)ates t"eir ! d 5a1$e. A&& rdin) t m st a$t" rities# it ta2es at 1east 6 " $rs ! atta&"ment t t"e " st ! r t"e ti&2 t transmit t"e disease r)anisms. Sna2es &ann t &1 se t"eir eyes. . Lee&"es &an &ra%1 int sma11 penin)sH t"ere! re# a5 id &ampin) in t"eir "abitats %"en p ssib1e. /are!$11y &"e&2 beddin)# s"e1ter# and &1 t"in). N rma11y# t"ey %i11 !1ee i! )i5en t"e pp rt$nity. Use e?treme &are i! y $ m$st 2i11 sna2es ! r ! d r sa!ety. 3ear pr per ! t)ear# parti&$1ar1y at ni)"t. POISONOUS SNA* S +"ere are n in!a11ib1e r$1es ! r e?pedient identi!i&ati n ! p is n $s sna2es in t"e !ie1d# be&a$se t"e )$ide1ines a11 re4$ire &1 se bser5ati n r manip$1ati n ! t"e sna2eFs b dy. A1%ays $se inse&t repe11ents# i! p ssib1e. +"ey are sma11# a)i1e !1iers t"at 1and n t"eir s1eepin) 5i&tims# m st1y & %s and " rses# t 1ap a b1 d mea1 a!ter bitin) t"eir 5i&tim.n1y a sma11 per&enta)e ! t"ese bats a&t$a11y &arry rabiesH " %e5er# a5 id any si&2 r in@$red bat. A1t" $)" it is n t & mm n# %arm# s1eepin) "$man b dies &&asi na11y attra&t sna2es. Y $ &an !ind t"em %"en passin) t"r $)" s%ampy# tr pi&a1 5e)etati n and b )s. +"ey &an &arry t"er diseases and in!e&ti ns and %i11 bite readi1y %"en "and1ed. +"e best strate)y is t 1ea5e a11 sna2es a1 ne. +"ere! re# y $ &ann t te11 i! t"ey are as1eep. Y $ !ind t"em in t"e tr pi&s and in temperate ' nes. 8eep y $r tr $sers t$&2ed in y $r b ts. Y $ &an a1s !ind t"em %"i1e &1eanin) ! d anima1s# s$&" as t$rt1es# ! $nd in !res" %ater. /"e&2 y $rse1! !re4$ent1y ! r 1ee&"es. .

1i%! M"#$te& (a)e 117 ! 2** .S. ms1an) &<ispholidus typus' • / bra &8a$a species' • 6ab n 5iper &?itis gabonica' • 6reen tree pit 5iper &Trimeresurus gramineus' • 0ab$ pit 5iper &Trimeresurus !lavoviridis' • 8rait &?ungarus caeruleus' • Ma1ayan pit 5iper &1allaselasma rhodostoma' • Mamba &<endraspis species' • ($!! adder &?itis arietans' • R"in &er s 5iper &?itis nasicornis' • R$sse11F s 5iper &Vipera russellii' • Sand 5iper &1erastes vipera' • Sa%-s&a1ed 5iper &Cchis carinatus' • 3a)1erFs pit 5iper &Trimeresurus wagleri' POISONOUS SNA7ES OF AUSTRALASIA • Deat" adder &Acanthophis antarcticus' • +aipan &0+yuranus scutellatus' • +i)er sna2e &8otechis scutatus' • Ye11 %-be11ied sea sna2e &:elamis platurus' .$s"master &Lachesis mutus' / ra1 sna2e &/icrurus !ulvius' / tt nm $t" &Agkistrodon piscivorus' Fer-de-1an&e &?othrops atro+' Ratt1esna2e &1rotalus species' POISONOUS SNA7ES OF EUROPE • / mm n adder &Vipers berus' • (a11asF 5iper &Agkistrodon halys' POISONOUS SNA7ES OF AFRICA AND ASIA • . Department ! t"e Army See Appendi? .t"er areas & nsidered t be !ree ! p is n $s sna2es are Ne% Aea1and# /$ba# 0aiti# >amai&a# ($ert Ri& # Ire1and# ( 1ynesia# and 0a%aii. S#!)e-F&ee A&e!$ +"e p 1ar re)i ns are !ree ! sna2es d$e t t"eir in" spitab1e en5ir nments. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.! r detai1ed des&ripti ns ! t"e sna2es 1isted be1 %.AN/ ROUS LI8AR.S +"e 6i1a m nster and t"e Me?i&an beaded 1i'ard are dan)er $s and p is n $s 1i'ards. POISONOUS SNA7ES OF THE AMERICAS • • • • • • Ameri&an / pper"ead &Agkistrodon contortri+' .

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e 6i1a m nster &(eloderma suspectrum' ! t"e Ameri&an s $t"%est# in&1$din) Me?i& # is a 1ar)e 1i'ard %it" dar2# "i)"1y te?t$red s2in mar2ed by pin2is" m tt1in). It a5era)es *9 t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t" and "as a t"i&2# st$mpy tai1. Un1i2e1y t bite $n1ess m 1ested# it "as a p is n $s bite.

Me5i.!# Be!(e( Liz!&(
+"e Me?i&an beaded 1i'ard &(eloderma horridum' resemb1es its re1ati5e# t"e 6i1a m nster. It "as m re $ni! rm sp ts rat"er t"an bands ! & 1 r Ct"e 6i1a m nsterD. It a1s is p is n $s and "as a d &i1e nat$re. Y $ !ind it !r m Me?i& t /entra1 Ameri&a.

7"+"(" D&!0"#
+"is )iant 1i'ard &Varanus komodoensis' )r %s t m re t"an * meters in 1en)t" and &an be dan)er $s i! y $ try t &apt$re it. +"is Ind nesian 1i'ard &an %ei)" m re t"an 1*9 2i1 )rams.

,AN/ RS IN RIV RS
/ mm n sense %i11 te11 y $ t a5 id & n!r ntati ns %it" "ipp p tami# a11i)at rs# &r & di1es# and t"er 1ar)e ri5er &reat$res. +"ere are# " %e5er# a !e% sma11er ri5er &reat$res %it" %"i&" y $ s" $1d be &a$ti $s.

E%e.t&i. Ee%
-1e&tri& ee1s &Clectrophorus electricus' may rea&" 2 meters in 1en)t" and 2< &entimeters in diameter. A5 id t"em. +"ey are &apab1e ! )eneratin) $p t 9<< 5 1ts ! e1e&tri&ity in &ertain r)ans in t"eir b dy. +"ey $se t"is s" &2 t st$n prey and enemies. N rma11y# y $ !ind t"ese ee1s in t"e .rin & and Ama' n Ri5er systems in S $t" Ameri&a. +"ey seem t pre!er s"a11 % %aters t"at are m re "i)"1y ?y)enated and pr 5ide m re ! d. +"ey are b$12ier t"an $r nati5e ee1s. +"eir $pper b dy is dar2 )ray r b1a&2# %it" a 1i)"ter-& 1 red $nderbe11y.

Pi&!#h!
(iran"as CSerrasalmo spe&iesD are an t"er "a'ard ! t"e .rin & and Ama' n Ri5er systems# as %e11 as t"e (ara)$ay Ri5er ,asin# %"ere t"ey are nati5e. +"ese !is" 5ary )reat1y in si'e and & 1 rati n# b$t $s$a11y "a5e a & mbinati n ! ran)e $ndersides and dar2 t ps. +"ey "a5e %"ite# ra' r-s"arp teet" t"at are &1ear1y 5isib1e. +"ey may be as 1 n) as 9< &entimeters. Use )reat &are %"en &r ssin) %aters %"ere t"ey 1i5e. ,1 d attra&ts t"em. +"ey are m st dan)er $s in s"a11 % %aters d$rin) t"e dry seas n.

T &t%e
,e &are!$1 %"en "and1in) and &apt$rin) 1ar)e !res"%ater t$rt1es# s$&" as t"e snappin) t$rt1es and s !ts"e11ed t$rt1es ! N rt" Ameri&a and t"e matamata and t"er t$rt1es ! S $t" Ameri&a. A11 ! t"ese t$rt1es %i11 bite in se1!-de!ense and &an amp$tate !in)ers and t es.

P%!t3p $
+"e p1atyp$s r d$&2bi11 &0rnithorhyncus anatinus' is t"e n1y member ! its !ami1y and is easi1y re& )ni'ed. It "as a 1 n) b dy & 5ered %it" )rayis"# s" rt "air# a tai1 1i2e a bea5er# and a bi11 1i2e a d$&2. 6r %in) $p t 6< &entimeters in 1en)t"# it may appear t be a ) d ! d s $r&e# b$t t"is e))-1ayin) mamma1# t"e n1y ne in t"e % r1d# is 5ery dan)er $s. +"e ma1e "as a p is n $s sp$r n ea&" "ind ! t t"at &an in!1i&t intense1y pain!$1 % $nds. Y $ !ind t"e p1atyp$s n1y in A$stra1ia# main1y a1 n) m$d ban2s n %ater%ays.
(a)e 11: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

,AN/ RS IN #AYS AN, STUARI S
In areas %"ere seas and ri5ers & me t )et"er# t"ere are dan)ers ass &iated %it" b t" !res" and sa1t %ater. In s"a11 % sa1t %aters# t"ere are many &reat$res t"at &an in!1i&t pain and &a$se in!e&ti n t de5e1 p. Steppin) n sea $r&"ins# ! r e?amp1e# &an pr d$&e pain and in!e&ti n. 3"en m 5in) ab $t in s"a11 % %ater# %ear s me ! rm ! ! t)ear and s"$!!1e y $r !eet a1 n) t"e b tt m# rat"er t"an pi&2in) $p y $r !eet and steppin). Stin)rays C<asyatidae spe&iesD are a rea1 "a'ard in s"a11 % %aters# espe&ia11y tr pi&a1 %aters. +"e type ! b tt m appears t be irre1e5ant. +"ere is a )reat 5arian&e bet%een spe&ies# b$t a11 "a5e a s"arp spi2e in t"eir tai1 t"at may be 5en m $s and &an &a$se e?treme1y pain!$1 % $nds i! stepped n. A11 rays "a5e a typi&a1 s"ape t"at resemb1es a 2ite. Y $ !ind t"em a1 n) t"e & asts ! t"e Ameri&as# A!ri&a# and A$stra1asia.

SALT3AT R ,AN/ RS
+"ere are se5era1 !is" t"at y $ s" $1d n t "and1e# t $&"# r & nta&t. +"ere are t"ers t"at y $ s" $1d n t eat.

Fi$h D!#0e&" $ t" H!#(%e' T" .h' "& C"#t!.t
+"ere are se5era1 !is" y $ s" $1d n t "and1e# t $&"# r & nta&t t"at are identi!ied be1 %. SharS"ar2s are t"e m st !eared anima1 in t"e sea. Us$a11y# s"ar2 atta&2s &ann t be a5 ided and are & nsidered a&&idents. Y $# as a s$r5i5 r# s" $1d ta2e e5ery pre&a$ti n t a5 id any & nta&t %it" s"ar2s. +"ere are many s"ar2 spe&ies# b$t in )enera1# dan)er $s s"ar2s "a5e %ide m $t"s and 5isib1e teet"# %"i1e re1ati5e1y "arm1ess nes "a5e sma11 m $t"s n t"e $nderside ! t"eir "eads. 0 %e5er# any s"ar2 &an in!1i&t pain!$1 and !ten !ata1 in@$ries# eit"er t"r $)" bites r t"r $)" abrasi ns !r m t"eir r $)" s2in. Ra66it$ish Rabbit!is" r spine! t CSiganidae spe&iesD &&$r main1y n & ra1 ree!s in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans. +"ey "a5e 5ery s"arp# p ssib1y 5en m $s spines in t"eir !ins. 0and1e t"em %it" &are# i! at a11. +"is !is"# 1i2e many t"ers ! t"e dan)er $s !is" in t"is se&ti n# is & nsidered edib1e by nati5e pe p1es %"ere t"e !is" are ! $nd# b$t deat"s &&$r !r m &are1ess "and1in). See2 t"er n np is n $s !is" t eat i! at a11 p ssib1e. Tang +an) r s$r)e n!is" CAcanthuridae spe&iesD a5era)e 2< t 29 &entimeters in 1en)t" and !ten are bea$ti!$11y & 1 red. +"ey are &a11ed s$r)e n!is" be&a$se ! t"e s&a1pe11i2e spines 1 &ated in t"e tai1. +"e % $nds in!1i&ted by t"ese spines &an brin) ab $t deat" t"r $)" in!e&ti n# en5en mati n# and 1 ss ! b1 d# %"i&" may in&identa11y attra&t s"ar2s. Toad$ish + ad!is" C,atra&" ididae spe&iesD &&$r in tr pi&a1 %aters !! t"e 6$1! / ast ! t"e United States and a1 n) b t" & asts ! /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a. +"ese d$11y & 1 red !is" a5era)e 1: t 29 &entimeters in 1en)t". +"ey typi&a11y b$ry t"emse15es in t"e sand t a%ait !is" and t"er prey. +"ey "a5e s"arp# 5ery t ?i& spines a1 n) t"eir ba&2s. Scorpion 'ish ( is n $s s& rpi n !is" r 'ebra !is" CScorpaenidae spe&iesD are m st1y ar $nd ree!s in t"e tr pi&a1 Indian and (a&i!i& &eans and &&asi na11y in t"e Mediterranean and Ae)ean seas. +"ey a5era)e *< t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t". +"eir & 1 rati n is "i)"1y 5ariab1e# !r m reddis" br %n t a1m st p$rp1e r br %nis" ye11 %. +"ey "a5e 1 n)# %a5y !ins and spines and t"eir stin) is intensi5e1y pain!$1. Less p is n $s re1ati5es 1i5e in t"e At1anti& .&ean. Stone$ish St ne!is" CSynance$a spe&iesD are in t"e (a&i!i& and Indian &eans. +"ey &an in@e&t a pain!$1 5en m !r m t"eir d rsa1 spines %"en stepped n r "and1ed &are1ess1y. +"ey are a1m st imp ssib1e t see be&a$se ! t"eir 1$mpy s"ape and drab & 1 rs. +"ey ran)e in si'e $p t 7< &entimeters. 3ee(er 'ish
(a)e 11; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

3ee5er !is" CTrachinidae spe&iesD a5era)e *< &entimeters 1 n). +"ey are "ard t see as t"ey 1ie b$ried in t"e sand !! t"e & asts ! -$r pe# A!ri&a# and t"e Mediterranean. +"eir & 1 r is $s$a11y a d$11 br %n. +"ey "a5e 5en m $s spines n t"e ba&2 and )i11s. See Appendi? F ! r m re detai1s n t"ese 5en m $s !is".

A#i+!%$ !#( Fi$h P"i$"#" $ t" E!t
S$r5i5a1 man$a1s !ten menti n t"at t"e 1i5ers ! p 1ar bears are t ?i& d$e t t"eir "i)" & n&entrati ns ! 5itamin A. F r t"is reas n# %e menti n t"e &"an&e ! deat" a!ter eatin) t"is r)an. An t"er t ?i& meat is t"e !1es" ! t"e "a%2sbi11 t$rt1e. Y $ re& )ni'e t"em by t"eir d %n-t$rned bi11 and ye11 % p 12a d ts n t"eir ne&2 and !r nt !1ippers. +"ey %ei)" m re t"an 279 2i1 )rams and are $n1i2e1y t be &apt$red. Many !is" 1i5in) in ree!s near s" re# r in 1a) ns and est$aries# are p is n $s t eat# t" $)" s me are n1y seas na11y dan)er $s. +"e ma@ rity are tr pi&a1 !is"H " %e5er# be %ary ! eatin) any $nidenti!iab1e !is" %"ere5er y $ are. S me predat ry !is"# s$&" as barra&$da and snapper# may be& me t ?i& i! t"e !is" t"ey !eed n in s"a11 % %aters are p is n $s. +"e m st p is n $s types appear t "a5e parr t1i2e bea2s and "ard s"e11-1i2e s2ins %it" spines and !ten &an in!1ate t"eir b dies 1i2e ba11 ns. 0 %e5er# at &ertain times ! t"e year# indi)en $s p p$1ati ns & nsider t"e p$!!er a de1i&a&y. #lo%$ish ,1 %!is" r p$!!er CTetraodontidae spe&iesD are m re t 1erant ! & 1d %ater. Y $ !ind t"em a1 n) tr pi&a1 and temperate & asts % r1d%ide# e5en in s me ! t"e ri5ers ! S $t"east Asia and A!ri&a. St $t-b died and r $nd# many ! t"ese !is" "a5e s" rt spines and &an in!1ate t"emse15es int a ba11 %"en a1armed r a)itated. +"eir b1 d# 1i5er# and ) nads are s t ?i& t"at as 1itt1e as 2: mi11i)rams C1 $n&eD &an be !ata1. +"ese !is" 5ary in & 1 r and si'e# )r %in) $p t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t". Trigger$ish +"e tri))er!is" C?alistidae spe&iesD &&$r in )reat 5ariety# m st1y in tr pi&a1 seas. +"ey are deep-b died and & mpressed# resemb1in) a sea) in) pan&a2e $p t 6< &entimeters in 1en)t"# %it" 1ar)e and s"arp d rsa1 spines. A5 id t"em a11# as many "a5e p is n $s !1es". #arracuda A1t" $)" m st pe p1e a5 id t"em be&a$se ! t"eir !er &ity# t"ey &&asi na11y eat barra&$da &Sphyraena barracuda'. +"ese predat rs ! m st1y tr pi&a1 seas &an rea&" a1m st 1.9 meters in 1en)t" and "a5e atta&2ed "$mans %it" $t pr 5 &ati n. +"ey &&asi na11y &arry t"e p is n &i)$atera in t"eir !1es"# ma2in) t"em dead1y i! & ns$med. See Appendi? F ! r m re detai1s n t ?i& !is" and t ?i& m 11$s2s.

Othe& D!#0e&" $ Se! C&e!t &e$
+"e b1$e-rin)ed &t p$s# @e11y!is"# and t"e & ne and a$)er s"e11s are t"er dan)er $s sea &reat$res. #lue5Ringed Octopus M st &t pi are e?&e11ent %"en pr per1y prepared. 0 %e5er# t"e b1$erin)ed &t p$s &(apalochlaena lunulata' &an in!1i&t a dead1y bite !r m its parr t1i2e bea2. F rt$nate1y# it is restri&ted t t"e 6reat ,arrier Ree! ! A$stra1ia and is 5ery sma11. It is easi1y re& )ni'ed by its )rayis" %"ite 5era11 & 1 r and irides&ent b1$e rin)s. A$t" rities %arn t"at a11 tr pi&a1 &t p$s spe&ies s" $1d be treated %it" &a$ti n# sin&e many "a5e p is n $s bites# a1t" $)" t"e !1es" is edib1e. 2elly$ish >e11y!is"-re1ated deat"s are rare# b$t t"e stin) t"ey in!1i&t is e?treme1y pain!$1. +"e ( rt$)$ese man- !%ar resemb1es a 1ar)e pin2 r p$rp1e ba11 n !1 atin) n t"e sea. It "as p is n $s tenta&1es "an)in) $p t 12 meters be1 % its b dy. +"e "$)e tenta&1es are a&t$a11y & 1 nies ! stin)in) &e11s. M st 2n %n deat"s !r m @e11y!is" are attrib$ted t t"e man- !-%ar. .t"er @e11y!is" &an in!1i&t 5ery pain!$1 stin)s as %e11. A5 id t"e 1 n) tenta&1es ! any @e11y!is"# e5en t" se %as"ed $p n t"e bea&" and apparent1y dead. Cone Shell +"e s$btr pi&a1 and tr pi&a1 & ne s"e11s C1onidae spe&iesD "a5e a 5en m $s "arp n1i2e barb. A11 are & ne-s"aped and "a5e a !ine net1i2e pattern n t"e s"e11. A membrane may p ssib1y bs&$re t"is & 1 rati n. +"ere are s me 5ery p is n $s & ne s"e11s# e5en s me 1et"a1 nes in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans. A5 id any s"e11 s"aped 1i2e an i&e &ream & ne.
(a)e 12< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Auger Shell +"e a$)er s"e11 r terebra CTerebridae spe&iesD are m$&" 1 n)er and t"inner t"an t"e & ne s"e11s# b$t &an be near1y as dead1y as t"e & ne s"e11s. +"ey are ! $nd in temperate and tr pi&a1 seas. +" se in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans "a5e a m re t ?i& 5en m in t"eir stin)in) barb. D n t eat t"ese snai1s# as t"eir !1es" may be p is n $s.

(a)e 121 ! 2**

@ou must always keep it sharp and ready to use. Si+p%e C% . Its diameter s" $1d !it & m! rtab1y in y $r pa1m# b$t it s" $1d n t be s t"in as t a11 % t"e &1$b t brea2 easi1y $p n impa&t. It &an# " %e5er# e?tend y $r area ! de!ense bey nd y $r !in)ertips. A kni!e is your most valuable tool in a survival situation. eapons serve a dual purpose.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A %ei)"ted &1$b is any simp1e &1$b %it" a %ei)"t n ne end. @ou might even be without a kni!e. Imagine being in a survival situation without any weapons" tools" or e)uipment e+cept your kni!e. A weapon can also give you a !eeling o! security and provide you with the ability to hunt on the move. A strai)"t-)rained "ard% d is best i! y $ &an !ind it. @ou would probably !eel helpless" but with the proper knowledge and skills" you can easily improvise needed items.S. This is especially true o! your kni!e. CLU#S Y $ " 1d &1$bs# y $ d n t t"r % t"em. In survival situations" you may have to !ashion any number and type o! !ield%e+pedient tools and e)uipment to survive. +"ey are t"e simp1e# %ei)"ted# and s1in) &1$b.FIELD-E?PEDIENT *EAPONS' TOOLS' AND E@UIPMENT As a soldier you know the importance o! proper care and use o! your weapons" tools" and e)uipment. @ou use them to obtain and prepare !ood and to provide sel!%de!ense. A simp1e &1$b is a sta!! r bran&". It m$st be s" rt en $)" ! r y $ t s%in) easi1y# b$t 1 n) en $)" and str n) en $)" ! r y $ t dama)e %"ate5er y $ "it. *ei0hte( C% .y repeated1y rappin) t"e &1$b st ne %it" a sma11er "ard st ne# y $ &an )et t"e desired s"ape. As a !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n# t"e &1$b d es n t pr te&t y $ !r m enemy s 1diers. I! y $ &ann t !ind a s$itab1y s"aped st ne# y $ m$st !as"i n a )r 5e r &"anne1 int t"e st ne by a te&"ni4$e 2n %n as pe&2in). A st ne %it" a s1i)"t " $r)1ass s"ape % r2s %e11. It could happen. + ma2e a %ei)"ted &1$b# !irst !ind a st ne t"at "as a s"ape t"at %i11 a11 % y $ t 1as" it se&$re1y t t"e &1$b. +"e %ei)"t may be a nat$ra1 %ei)"t# s$&" as a 2n t n t"e % d# r s met"in) added# s$&" as a st ne 1as"ed t t"e &1$b. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 12 . It a1s ser5es t in&rease t"e ! r&e ! a b1 % %it" $t in@$rin) y $rse1!. . C+amples o! tools and e)uipment that could make your li!e much easier are ropes" rucksacks" clothes" nets" and so on. (a)e 122 ! 2** . +"ere are t"ree basi& types ! &1$bs.

A strai)"t-)rained "ard% d is best. +"ere are t"ree te&"ni4$es ! r 1as"in) t"e st ne t t"e "and1eI sp1it "and1e# ! r2ed bran&"# and %rapped "and1e. (a)e 12* ! 2** . A %ei)"t "an)s : t 1< &entimeters !r m t"e "and1e by a str n)# !1e?ib1e 1as"in) CFi)$re 12-2D.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e 1en)t" ! t"e % d s" $1d !ee1 & m! rtab1e in re1ati n t t"e %ei)"t ! t"e st ne. Department ! t"e Army Ne?t# !ind a pie&e ! % d t"at is t"e ri)"t 1en)t" ! r y $. Fina11y# 1as" t"e st ne t t"e "and1e.S. See Fi)$re 12-1. A s1in) &1$b is an t"er type ! %ei)"ted &1$b. +"e te&"ni4$e y $ $se %i11 depend n t"e type ! "and1e y $ &" se. +"is type ! &1$b b t" e?tends t"e $serFs rea&" and m$1tip1ies t"e ! r&e ! t"e b1 %. S%i#0 C% .

It &an p$n&t$re# s1as" r &" p# and &$t. A &"ippin) t 1 is a 1i)"t# b1$nt-ed)ed t 1 $sed t brea2 !! sma11 pie&es ! st ne. Y $ &an ma2e a &"ippin) t 1 !r m % d# b ne# r meta1# and a !1a2in) t 1 !r m b ne# ant1er tines# r s !t ir n CFi)$re 12-*D. +"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"s %i11 dis&$ss t"e ma2in) ! s$&" %eap ns./ .S. Department ! t"e Army . (a)e 127 ! 2** . A !1a2in) t 1 is a p inted t 1 $sed t brea2 !! t"in# !1attened pie&es ! st ne. A 2ni!e is a1s an in5a1$ab1e t 1 $sed t & nstr$&t t"er s$r5i5a1 items. Y $ may !ind y $rse1! %it" $t a 2ni!e r y $ may need an t"er type 2ni!e r a spear. + impr 5ise y $ &an $se st ne# b ne# % d# r meta1 t ma2e a 2ni!e r spear b1ade. 7#i/e$ A 2ni!e "as t"ree basi& !$n&ti ns. 3 APONS 8ni5es# spear b1ades# and arr % p ints !a11 $nder t"e &ate) ry ! ed)ed %eap ns.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Stone + ma2e a st ne 2ni!e# y $ %i11 need a s"arp-ed)ed pie&e ! st ne# a &"ippin) t 1# and a !1a2in) t 1.

+"e 1ar)er b nes# s$&" as t"e 1e) b ne ! a deer r an t"er medi$m-si'ed anima1# are best. Y $ &an !$rt"er s"ape and s"arpen t"is sp1inter by r$bbin) it n a r $)"-s$r!a&ed r &2. Department ! t"e Army Start ma2in) t"e 2ni!e by r $)"in) $t t"e desired s"ape n y $r s"arp pie&e ! st ne# $sin) t"e &"ippin) t 1. #one Y $ &an a1s $se b ne as an e!!e&ti5e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap n. +"is a&ti n %i11 &a$se !1a2es t & me !! t"e pp site side ! t"e ed)e# 1ea5in) a ra' r s"arp ed)e. Las" t"e b1ade t s me type ! "i1t CFi)$re 12-*D. Se1e&t a s$itab1e pie&e ! "ard% d ! r a "and1e and 1as" t"e b ne sp1inter se&$re1y t it. -5ent$a11y# y $ %i11 "a5e a 5ery s"arp &$ttin) ed)e t"at y $ &an $se as a 2ni!e.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 8ote9 Use the bone kni!e only to puncture. Some stones such as chert or !lint can have very !ine edges. (a)e 129 ! 2** . I! t"e pie&e is t sma11 t "and1e# y $ &an sti11 $se it by addin) a "and1e t it. Lay t"e b ne $p n an t"er "ard b@e&t. S"atter t"e b ne by "ittin) it %it" a "ea5y b@e&t# s$&" as a r &2. First# y $ %i11 need t se1e&t a s$itab1e b ne. It will not hold an edge and it may !lake or break i! used di!!erently. 8ote9 Stone will make an e+cellent puncturing tool and a good chopping tool but will not hold a !ine edge. +"en# $sin) t"e !1a2in) t 1# press it a)ainst t"e ed)es. +ry t ma2e t"e 2ni!e !air1y t"in. Fr m t"e pie&es# se1e&t a s$itab1e p inted sp1inter. Use t"e !1a2in) t 1 a1 n) t"e entire 1en)t" ! t"e ed)e y $ need t s"arpen.

3"en &"arrin) bamb 5er a !ire# &"ar n1y t"e inside % dH d n t &"ar t"e $tside. Meta1# %"en pr per1y desi)ned# &an !$1!i11 a 2ni!eFs t"ree $ses--p$n&t$re# s1i&e r &" p# and &$t. +"en se1e&t a s"a!t Ca strai)"t sap1in)D 1.9 meters 1 n). A&&"2 P"i#t$ (a)e 126 ! 2** . Se1e&t a 1. 61ass "as a nat$ra1 ed)e b$t is 1ess d$rab1e ! r "ea5y % r2. +"e pre!erred met" d is t sp1it t"e "and1e# insert t"e b1ade# t"en %rap r 1as" it ti)"t1y.t"er Materia1s Y $ &an $se t"er materia1s t pr d$&e ed)ed %eap ns. I! p ssib1e# !ire "arden t"e p int. Use a s$itab1e !1at# "ard s$r!a&e as an an5i1 and a sma11er# "arder b@e&t ! st ne r meta1 as a "ammer t "ammer $t t"e ed)e. +"e 1en)t" s" $1d a11 % y $ t "and1e t"e spear easi1y and e!!e&ti5e1y. Ma2e a 2ni!e "and1e !r m % d# b ne# r t"er materia1 t"at %i11 pr te&t y $r "and. + ma2e a 2ni!e $sin) % d# !irst se1e&t a strai)"t-)rained pie&e ! "ard% d t"at is ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n) and 2.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. D n t $se t"e & re r pit"# as it % $1d ma2e a %ea2 p int.btain a s$itab1e pie&e in t"e same manner as des&ribed ! r b ne.2 t 1. 61ass is a ) d a1ternati5e t an ed)ed %eap n r t 1# i! n t"er materia1 is a5ai1ab1e. I! t"e meta1 is s !t en $)"# y $ &an "ammer $t ne ed)e %"i1e t"e meta1 is & 1d.2 t 1.amb is t"e n1y % d t"at %i11 " 1d a s$itab1e ed)e. 8eep as m$&" ! t"is 1ayer as p ssib1e t ens$re t"e "ardest b1ade p ssib1e. Startin) : t 1< &entimeters ba&2 !r m t"e end $sed as t"e p int# s"a5e d %n t"e end at a 79-de)ree an)1e CFi)$re 12-7D. Fas"i n t"e b1ade ab $t 19 &entimeters 1 n). .9-meter 1 n) strai)"t "ard% d s"a!t and s"a5e ne end t a p int. Y $ &an $se t"er materia1s %it" $t addin) a b1ade. Use t"ese n1y t p$n&t$re. Spe!& B%!(e$ + ma2e spears# $se t"e same pr &ed$res t ma2e t"e b1ade t"at y $ $sed t ma2e a 2ni!e b1ade. Department ! t"e Army 3ood Y $ &an ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap ns !r m % d. . +"e drier t"e % d# t"e "arder t"e p int.9 &entimeters in diameter. First# se1e&t a s$itab1e pie&e ! meta1# ne t"at m st resemb1es t"e desired end pr d$&t. Remember# t s"arpen t"e ed)es# s"a5e n1y t"e inner p rti n. Rem 5a1 is d ne t"is %ay be&a$se bamb Fs "ardest part is its $ter 1ayer. I! a !ire is p ssib1e# dry t"e b1ade p rti n 5er t"e !ire s1 %1y $nti1 1i)"t1y &"arred. S"a5e it d %n t a p int. . Y $ &an a1s s"arpen p1asti&--i! it is t"i&2 en $)" r "ard en $)"--int a d$rab1e p int ! r p$n&t$rin). Use n1y t"e strai)"t-)rained p rti ns ! t"e % d. Meta1 Meta1 is t"e best materia1 t ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap ns.2-t 1. I! $sin) bamb and a!ter !as"i nin) t"e b1ade# rem 5e any t"er % d t ma2e t"e b1ade t"inner !r m t"e inside p rti n ! t"e bamb .9 meters 1 n). 0arden t"e p int by a pr &ess 2n %n as !ire "ardenin). . Dependin) n t"e si'e and ri)ina1 s"ape# y $ &an btain a p int and &$ttin) ed)e by r$bbin) t"e meta1 n a r $)"-s$r!a&ed st ne. A!ter 1i)"t1y &"arrin) t"e b1ade p rti n# s"arpen it n a & arse st ne. Se1e&t a pie&e 1. Atta&" t"e spear b1ade t t"e s"a!t $sin) 1as"in).S.amb a1s ma2es an e?&e11ent spear.

(a)e 127 ! 2** . S1 %1y and repeated1y raise t"e t"r %in) arm $p and ba&2 $nti1 t"e t"r %in) sti&2 &r sses t"e ba&2 at ab $t a 79-de)ree an)1e r is in 1ine %it" t"e n nt"r %in) "ip. Y $ &an ma2e an e!!i&ient arr % p int $sin) br 2en )1ass. . (ra&ti&e s1 %1y and repeated1y t attain a&&$ra&y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.I NT 3 APONS Y $ &an ma2e t"er !ie1d-e?pedient %eap ns s$&" as t"e t"r %in) sti&2# ar&"ery e4$ipment# and t"e b 1a. Y $ &an !as"i n b ne 1i2e st ne--by !1a2in). A&.S. R 9P . Y $ m$st pra&ti&e t"e t"r %in) te&"ni4$e ! r a&&$ra&y and speed. Th&"2i#0 Sti. Se1e&t a sti&2 %it" t"e desired an)1e !r m "ea5y "ard% d s$&" as a2. +"is %i11 be t"e t"r %in) sti&2Fs re1ease p int.rin) t"e t"r %in) arm ! r%ard $nti1 it is @$st s1i)"t1y ab 5e and para11e1 t t"e n nt"r %in) arm. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e an arr % p int# $se t"e same pr &ed$res ! r ma2in) a st ne 2ni!e b1ade. +"e rabbit sti&2 itse1! is a b1$nt sti&2# nat$ra11y &$r5ed at ab $t a 79-de)ree an)1e. + ma2e a b %# $se t"e pr &ed$re des&ribed $nder 8i11in) De5i&es in /"apter :. First# a1i)n t"e tar)et by e?tendin) t"e n nt"r %in) arm in 1ine %it" t"e mid t 1 %er se&ti n ! t"e tar)et.ip+e#t Y $ &an ma2e a b % and arr % CFi)$re 12-6D !r m materia1s a5ai1ab1e in y $r s$r5i5a1 area. OT.he&3 E.) +"e t"r %in) sti&2# & mm n1y 2n %n as t"e rabbit sti&2# is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame Cs4$irre1s# &"ipm$n2s# and rabbitsD. /"ert# !1int# and s"e11type st nes are best ! r arr % p ints. S"a5e !! t% pp site sides s t"at t"e sti&2 is !1at 1i2e a b meran) CFi)$re 12-9D.

A1s # a !ie1d-e?pedient b % %i11 n t 1ast 5ery 1 n) be! re y $ "a5e t ma2e a ne% ne. +"ese & rds %i11 %rap ar $nd and imm bi1i'e t"e ! %1 r anima1 t"at y $ "it. Department ! t"e Army 3"i1e it may be re1ati5e1y simp1e t ma2e a b % and arr %# it is n t easy t $se ne. 3"en y $ re1ease t"e b 1a# t"e %ei)"ted & rds %i11 separate. B"%! +"e b 1a is an t"er !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n t"at is easy t ma2e CFi)$re 12-7D.S. Re1ease t"e 2n t s t"at t"e b 1a !1ies t %ard y $r tar)et. F r t"e time and e!! rt in5 15ed# y $ may %e11 de&ide t $se an t"er type ! !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e $sin) it a 1 n) time t be reas nab1y s$re t"at y $ %i11 "it y $r tar)et. + $se t"e b 1a# " 1d it by t"e &enter 2n t and t%ir1 it ab 5e y $r "ead.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 12: ! 2** . It is espe&ia11y e!!e&ti5e ! r &apt$rin) r$nnin) )ame r 1 %-!1yin) ! %1 in a !1 &2.

M isten t"e !ibers and t%ist t"em int a & ntin$ $s strand. Ma2e &$ts ab $t 6 mi11imeters %ide.e! re ma2in) & rda)e# t"ere are a !e% simp1e tests y $ &an d t determine y $ materia1Fs s$itabi1ity.A/ Many materia1s are str n) en $)" ! r $se as 1as"in) and & rda)e. F r e?amp1e# y $ &an ma2e a & tt n %eb be1t m$&" m re $se!$1 by $nra5e1in) it. Y $ &an ma2e t"ese materia1s str n)er by braidin) se5era1 strands t )et"er. ! 2** . I! y $ need str n)er 1as"in) materia1# y $ &an braid t"e strands. 3"en y $ $se sine% ! r sma11 1as"in)s# y $ d n t need 2n ts as t"e m istened sine% is sti&2y and it "ardens %"en dry. +"ere are se5era1 & nstr$&ti n te&"ni4$es ! r r$&2sa&2s. Ma2e ra%"ide !r m t"e s2ins ! medi$m r 1ar)e )ame. I! it %it"stands t"is "and1in) and d es n t snap apart# tie an 5er"and 2n t %it" t"e !ibers and )ent1y ti)"ten. First# p$11 n a 1en)t" ! t"e materia1 t test ! r stren)t". A n$mber ! nat$ra1 and man-made materia1s are a5ai1ab1e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Rem 5e t"e tend ns !r m t"e )ame and dry t"em & mp1ete1y. I! t"e 2n t d es n t brea2# t"e materia1 is $sab1e. Use it %et# stret&"in) it as m$&" as p ssib1e %"i1e app1yin) it. Y $ &an $se ra%"ide ! r 1ar)er 1as"in) @ bs. S a2 t"e ra%"ide ! r 2 t 7 " $rs r $nti1 it is s !t. Y $ &an ma2e sine% !r m t"e tend ns ! 1ar)e )ame# s$&" as deer. Ne?t# t%ist it bet%een y $r !in)ers and r 11 t"e !ibers t )et"er. Department ! t"e Army LAS. Y $ &an $se % d# bamb # r pe# p1ant !iber# &1 t"in)# anima1 s2ins# &an5as# and many t"er materia1s t ma2e a pa&2. N!t &!% C"&(!0e Se%e. /$t t"e s2in %"i1e it is dry. It %i11 be str n) and d$rab1e %"en it dries. Y $ &an $se t"e 1inden# e1m# "i&2 ry# %"ite a2# m$1berry# &"estn$t# and red and %"ite &edar trees.S. COR. A!ter s2innin) t"e anima1# rem 5e any e?&ess !at and any pie&es ! meat !r m t"e s2in.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. L!$hi#0 M!te&i!% +"e best nat$ra1 materia1 ! r 1as"in) sma11 b@e&ts is sine%. Fi)$re 12-: s" %s 5ari $s met" ds ! ma2in) & rda)e. Y $ d n t "a5e t rem 5e t"e "air !r m t"e s2in. Dry t"e s2in & mp1ete1y. Y $ &an s"red and braid p1ant !ibers !r m t"e inner bar2 ! s me trees t ma2e & rd.IN/ AN. Many are 5ery e1ab rate# b$t t" se t"at are simp1e and easy are !ten t"e m st readi1y made in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. RUC*SAC* CONSTRUCTION +"e materia1s ! r & nstr$&tin) a r$&2sa&2 r pa&2 are a1m st 1imit1ess. Y $ d n t need t stret&" it as 1 n) as t"ere are n ! 1ds t trap m ist$re. Smas" t"e dried tend ns s t"at t"ey separate int !ibers.ti"# . A!ter y $ ma2e t"e & rd# test it t be s$re it is str n) en $)" ! r y $r p$rp se. Y $ &an t"en $se t"e strin) ! r t"er p$rp ses C!is"in) 1ine# t"read ! r se%in)# and 1as"in)D. (a)e 12. Start !r m t"e &enter ! t"e "ide and ma2e ne & ntin$ $s &ir&$1ar &$t# % r2in) &1 &2%ise t t"e "ideFs $ter ed)e.

Y $ &an drape t"e pa&2 5er ne s" $1der %it" a 1ine & nne&tin) t"e t% ends CFi)$re 12-.D. + ma2e t"is pa&2# & nstr$&t a s4$are !rame !r m bamb # 1imbs# r sti&2s.t"er%ise# y $ m$st !irst ma2e & rda)e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.) +"is pa&2 is simp1e t ma2e and $se and re1ati5e1y & m! rtab1e t &arry 5er ne s" $1der. (ad t"e "ard items. Si'e %i11 5ary ! r ea&" pers n and t"e am $nt ! e4$ipment &arried CFi)$re 12-1<D.) +"is pa&2 is easy t & nstr$&t i! r pe r & rda)e is a5ai1ab1e. S. Lay items n ne ed)e ! t"e materia1. Department ! t"e Army H"&$e$h"e P!. R 11 t"e materia1 C%it" t"e itemsD t %ard t"e pp site ed)e and tie b t" ends se&$re1y. (a)e 1*< ! 2** .!&e P!. .S. Add e?tra ties a1 n) t"e 1en)t" ! t"e b$nd1e. Lay a5ai1ab1e s4$are-s"aped materia1# s$&" as p n&" # b1an2et# r &an5as# !1at n t"e )r $nd.

%3 / nsider t"e entire para&"$te assemb1y as a res $r&e. . F r e?amp1e# & nsider s"e1ter re4$irements# need ! r a r$&2sa&2# and s n# in additi n t &1 t"in) r ins$1ati n needs. Use e5ery pie&e ! materia1 and "ard%are# t in&1$de t"e &an py# s$spensi n 1ines# & nne&t r snaps# and para&"$te "arness. INSULATION Y $ &an $se many materia1s ! r &1 t"in) and ins$1ati n.e! re disassemb1in) t"e para&"$te# & nsider a11 ! y $r s$r5i5a1 re4$irements and p1an t $se di!!erent p rti ns ! t"e para&"$te a&& rdin)1y. ATIN/ UT NSILS Many materia1s may be $sed t ma2e e4$ipment ! r t"e & 2in)# eatin)# and st rin) ! ! d. (a)e 1*1 ! 2** . Rem 5e t"e r &2s as t"ey & 1 and add m re " t r &2s $nti1 y $r ! d is & 2ed. A#i+!% S)i#$ +"e se1e&ti n ! anima1 s2ins in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %i11 m st !ten be 1imited t %"at y $ mana)e t trap r "$nt. COO*IN/ AN. P%!#t Fi. 3ear t"e "ide %it" t"e !$r t t"e inside ! r its ins$1atin) !a&t r. A se&ti n ! bamb % r2s 5ery %e11# i! y $ &$t $t a se&ti n bet%een t% sea1ed @ ints CFi)$re 12-11D.e&$ Se5era1 p1ants are s $r&es ! ins$1ati n !r m & 1d. D n t $se t"e s2ins ! in!e&ted r diseased anima1s i! at a11 p ssib1e. CAUTION D n t $se r &2s %it" air p &2ets# s$&" as 1imest ne and sandst ne. . +"e "$s2 !ibers !r m & & n$ts are 5ery ) d ! r %ea5in) r pes and# %"en dried# ma2e e?&e11ent tinder and ins$1ati n. + ma2e % den b %1s# $se a " 11 %ed $t pie&e ! % d t"at %i11 " 1d y $r ! d and en $)" %ater t & 2 it in. +"e !$'' n t"e t ps ! t"e sta12s ! rms dead air spa&es and ma2es a ) d d %n-1i2e ins$1ati n %"en p1a&ed bet%een t% pie&es ! materia1. Y $ &an a1s $se t"is met" d %it" & ntainers made ! bar2 r 1ea5es. 0 %e5er# i! t"ere is an ab$ndan&e ! %i1d1i!e# se1e&t t"e "ides ! 1ar)er anima1s %it" "ea5ier & ats and 1ar)e !at & ntent. P!&!. Department ! t"e Army CLOT.S.IN/ AN. t" man-made materia1s# s$&" as para&"$tes# and nat$ra1 materia1s# s$&" as s2ins and p1ant materia1s# are a5ai1ab1e and !!er si)ni!i&ant pr te&ti n. 0an) t"e % den & ntainer 5er t"e !ire and add " t r &2s t t"e %ater and ! d. Use t"e "ind 4$arter @ int areas t ma2e s" es and mittens r s &2s. . Mi12%eed "as p 11en1i2e seeds t"at a&t as ) d ins$1ati n. As %it" ra%"ide# 1ay $t t"e s2in# and rem 5e a11 !at and meat. 0 %e5er# t"ese & ntainers %i11 b$rn ab 5e t"e %ater1ine $n1ess y $ 2eep t"em m ist r 2eep t"e !ire 1 %. +"ey may e?p1 de %"i1e "eatin) in t"e !ire. B"2%$ Use % d# b ne# " rn# bar2# r t"er simi1ar materia1 t ma2e b %1s. Sin&e t"ey 1i5e in t"e %i1d# anima1s are &arriers ! pests s$&" as ti&2s# 1i&e# and !1eas.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# at 1east s"a2e $t t"e s2in t" r $)"1y. /attai1 is a mars"1and p1ant ! $nd a1 n) 1a2es# p nds# and t"e ba&2%aters ! ri5ers.h te A$$e+.e&a$se ! t"ese pests# $se %ater t t" r $)"1y &1ean any s2in btained !r m any anima1. Dry t"e s2in & mp1ete1y.

(a)e 1*2 ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. + $se t$rt1e s"e11s# !irst t" r $)"1y b i1 t"e $pper p rti n ! t"e s"e11. F"&)$' 7#i/e$' !#( Sp""#$ /ar5e ! r2s# 2ni5es# and sp ns !r m n nresin $s % ds s t"at y $ d n t )et a % d resin a!tertaste r d n t taint t"e ! d. Lea5e t"e t p pen# %it" s me means ! !astenin) it &1 sed. As des&ribed %it" b %1s# $sin) " t r &2s in a " 11 %ed $t pie&e ! % d is 5ery e!!e&ti5e.S. *!te& B"tt%e$ Ma2e %ater b tt1es !r m t"e st ma&"s ! 1ar)er anima1s. Department ! t"e Army CAUTION A sea1ed se&ti n ! bamb %i11 e?p1 de i! "eated be&a$se ! trapped air and %ater in t"e se&ti n. . P"t$ Y $ &an ma2e p ts !r m t$rt1e s"e11s r % d. +"en $se it t "eat ! d and %ater 5er a !1ame CFi)$re 12-11D. 8ote9 <o not use those trees that secrete a syrup or resinlike li)uid on the bark or when cut. +" r $)"1y !1$s" t"e st ma&" $t %it" %ater# t"en tie !! t"e b tt m.amb is t"e best % d ! r ma2in) & 2in) & ntainers. N nresin $s % ds in&1$de a2# bir&"# and t"er "ard% d trees.

3ater rapid1y e5ap rates# 1ea5in) t"e 1and as barren as be! re# a1t" $)" t"ere may be s" rt-1i5ed 5e)etati n. M st ! t"ese 1a2es "a5e a "i)" sa1t & ntent. • . @ou must determine your e)uipment needs" the tactics you will use" and how the environment will a!!ect you and your tactics. I! en $)" %ater enters t"e basin t & mpensate ! r t"e rate ! e5ap rati n# s"a11 % 1a2es may de5e1 p# s$&" as t"e 6reat Sa1t La2e in Uta"# r t"e Dead Sea. Desert terrain ma2es m 5ement di!!i&$1t and demandin).S. +"ere may be steep-%a11ed# er ded 5a11eys# 2n %n as %adis in t"e Midd1e -ast and arr y s r &any ns in t"e United States and Me?i& .)3 P%!te! De$e&t$ R &2y p1atea$ deserts "a5e re1ati5e1y s1i)"t re1ie! interspersed %it" e?tensi5e !1at areas %it" 4$antities ! s 1id r br 2en r &2 at r near t"e s$r!a&e. T RRAIN M st arid areas "a5e se5era1 types ! terrain. R".FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 18 . (a)e 1** ! 2** .DESERT SURVIVAL To survive and evade in arid or desert areas" you must understand and prepare !or the environment you will !ace. +"e !i5e basi& desert terrain types are-• M $ntain $s C0i)" A1tit$deD. M st ! t"e in!re4$ent rain!a11 &&$rs n "i)" )r $nd and r$ns !! rapid1y in t"e ! rm ! !1as" !1 ds. / 5er and & n&ea1ment may be 5ery 1imitedH t"ere! re# t"e t"reat ! e?p s$re t t"e enemy remains & nstant. Land na5i)ati n %i11 be e?treme1y di!!i&$1t as t"ere may be 5ery !e% 1andmar2s. +"e 6 1an 0ei)"ts is an e?amp1e ! a r &2y p1atea$ desert. @our survival will depend upon your knowledge o! the terrain" basic climatic elements" your ability to cope with these elements" and your will to survive. +"ese !1 d%aters er de deep )$11ies and ra5ines and dep sit sand and )ra5e1 ar $nd t"e ed)es ! t"e basins. • R &2y p1atea$. 0i)" )r $nd may rise )rad$a11y r abr$pt1y !r m !1at areas t se5era1 t" $sand meters ab 5e sea 1e5e1.r 2en# disse&ted terrain CJ)ebe1J r J%adiJD. A1t" $)" t"eir !1at b tt ms may be s$per!i&ia11y attra&ti5e as assemb1y areas# t"e narr %er 5a11eys &an be e?treme1y dan)er $s t men and materia1 d$e t !1as" !1 din) a!ter rains. M" #t!i# De$e&t$ S&attered ran)es r areas ! barren "i11s r m $ntains separated by dry# !1at basins &"ara&teri'e m $ntain deserts. • Sa1t mars"es. • Sand d$nes.

+"e dire&ti n it ta2es 5aries as m$&" as its %idt" and dept". JF1atJ is a re1ati5e term# as s me areas may & ntain sand d$nes t"at are 5er *<< meters "i)" and 16 t 27 2i1 meters 1 n). In a desert s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ m$st !irst & nsider J0 % m$&" %ater d I "a5eGJ and J3"ere are t"er %ater s $r&esGJ I#te#$e S #%i0ht !#( He!t Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat are present in a11 arid areas. • 3ide temperat$re ran)e. L"2 R!i#6!%% L % rain!a11 is t"e m st b5i $s en5ir nmenta1 !a&t r in an arid area. Air temperat$re &an rise as "i)" as 6< de)rees / C17< de)rees FD d$rin) t"e day. Rainst rms t"at er de s !t sand and &ar5e $t &any ns ! rm t"is terrain. • 0i)" minera1 & ntent near )r $nd s$r!a&e. B&")e# Te&&!i# A11 arid areas & ntain br 2en r "i)"1y disse&ted terrain. • Sandst rms. -?amp1es ! t"is type ! desert in&1$de t"e ed)es ! t"e Sa"ara# t"e empty 4$arter ! t"e Arabian Desert# areas ! /a1i! rnia and Ne% Me?i& # and t"e 8a1a"ari in S $t" A!ri&a. A %adi %i11 )i5e y $ ) d & 5er and & n&ea1ment# b$t d n t try t m 5e t"r $)" it be&a$se it is 5ery di!!i&$1t terrain t ne) tiate. S me desert areas re&ei5e 1ess t"an 1< &entimeters ! rain ann$a11y# and t"is rain & mes in brie! t rrents t"at 4$i&21y r$n !! t"e )r $nd s$r!a&e. It t%ists and t$rns and ! rms a ma'e1i2e pattern. S!%t M!&$he$ Sa1t mars"es are !1at# des 1ate areas# s metimes st$dded %it" &1$mps ! )rass b$t de5 id ! t"er 5e)etati n. Y $ &ann t s$r5i5e 1 n) %it" $t %ater in "i)" desert temperat$res. +ra!!i&abi1ity in s$&" terrain %i11 depend n t"e %ind%ard r 1ee%ard s1 pe ! t"e d$nes and t"e te?t$re ! t"e sand.9 t *< &entimeters t"i&2 ! rms 5er t"e sa1t%ater. In a desert area t"ere are se5en en5ir nmenta1 !a&t rs t"at y $ m$st & nsider-• L % rain!a11. A %adi may ran)e !r m * meters %ide and 2 meters deep t se5era1 "$ndred meters %ide and deep. (1ant 1i!e may 5ary !r m n ne t s&r$b 5er 2 meters "i)". • Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat.S. . • Mira)es. +"is type ! terrain is "i)"1y & rr si5e t b ts# &1 t"in)# and s2in. Determine %"at e4$ipment y $ %i11 need# t"e ta&ti&s y $ %i11 $se# and t"e en5ir nmentFs impa&t n t"em and y $. +"ey &&$r in arid areas %"ere rain%ater "as & 11e&ted# e5ap rated# and 1e!t 1ar)e dep sits ! a12a1i sa1ts and %ater %it" a "i)" sa1t & n&entrati n. • Sparse 5e)etati n. NVIRON0 NTAL 'ACTORS S$r5i5in) and e5adin) t"e enemy in an arid area depends n %"at y $ 2n % and " % prepared y $ are ! r t"e en5ir nmenta1 & nditi ns y $ %i11 !a&e.t"er areas# " %e5er# may be !1at ! r *#<<< meters and m re. A &r$st t"at may be 2. Department ! t"e Army S!#(3 "& D #e De$e&t$ Sandy r d$ne deserts are e?tensi5e !1at areas & 5ered %it" sand r )ra5e1. +"ese areas $s$a11y s$pp rt many inse&ts# m st ! %"i&" bite. A ) d e?amp1e is t"e S"at-e1-Arab %ater%ay a1 n) t"e Iran-Ira4 b rder. In arid areas t"ere are sa1t mars"es "$ndreds ! 2i1 meters s4$are.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A5 id sa1t mars"es. 0eat )ain res$1ts !r m dire&t s$n1i)"t# " t b1 %in) %inds# re!1e&ti5e "eat (a)e 1*7 ! 2** . +"e %ater is s sa1ty it is $ndrin2ab1e.

(a)e 1*9 ! 2** . Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat in&rease t"e b dyFs need ! r %ater. +"e dr p in temperat$re at ni)"t &&$rs rapid1y and %i11 &"i11 a pers n %" 1a&2s %arm &1 t"in) and is $nab1e t m 5e ab $t. Department ! t"e Army Ct"e s$nFs rays b $n&in) !! t"e sandD# and & nd$&ti5e "eat !r m dire&t & nta&t %it" t"e desert sand and r &2 CFi)$re 1*-1D. Sp!&$e Ve0et!ti"# Ve)etati n is sparse in arid areas. F r instan&e# %"en t"e air temperat$re is 7* de)rees / C11< de)rees FD# t"e sand temperat$re may be 6< de)rees / C17< de)rees FD. +"e temperat$re ! desert sand and r &2 a5era)es 16 t 22 de)rees / C*< t 7< de)rees FD m re t"an t"at ! t"e air. Y $ %i11 t"ere! re "a5e tr $b1e !indin) s"e1ter and &am $!1a)in) y $r m 5ements. +"e & 1 e5enin)s and ni)"ts are t"e best times t % r2 r tra5e1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. *i(e Te+pe&!t &e R!#0e +emperat$res in arid areas may )et as "i)" as 99 de)rees / d$rin) t"e day and as 1 % as 1< de)rees / d$rin) t"e ni)"t. I! y $r p1an is t rest at ni)"t# y $ %i11 !ind a % 1 s%eater# 1 n) $nder%ear# and a % 1 st &2in) &ap e?treme1y "e1p!$1.S. + & nser5e y $r b dy !1$ids and ener)y# y $ %i11 need a s"e1ter t red$&e y $r e?p s$re t t"e "eat ! t"e day. Radi s and sensiti5e items ! e4$ipment e?p sed t dire&t intense s$n1i)"t %i11 ma1!$n&ti n. D$rin) day1i)"t " $rs 1ar)e areas ! terrain are 5isib1e and easi1y & ntr 11ed by a sma11 pp sin) ! r&e. +ra5e1 at ni)"t t 1essen y $r $se ! %ater.

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! tra5e1in) in " sti1e territ ry# ! 11 % t"e prin&ip1es ! desert &am $!1a)e-• 0ide r see2 s"e1ter in dry %as"es C%adisD %it" t"i&2er )r %t"s ! 5e)etati n and & 5er !r m b1i4$e bser5ati n. • Use t"e s"ad %s &ast !r m br$s"# r &2s# r $t&r ppin). +"e temperat$re in s"aded areas %i11 be 11 t 17 de)rees / & 1er t"an t"e air temperat$re. • / 5er b@e&ts t"at %i11 re!1e&t t"e 1i)"t !r m t"e s$n. ,e! re m 5in)# s$r5ey t"e area ! r sites t"at pr 5ide & 5er and & n&ea1ment. Y $ %i11 "a5e tr $b1e estimatin) distan&e. +"e emptiness ! desert terrain &a$ses m st pe p1e t $nderestimate distan&e by a !a&t r ! t"reeI 3"at appears t be 1 2i1 meter a%ay is rea11y * 2i1 meters a%ay.

Hi0h Mi#e&!% C"#te#t
A11 arid re)i ns "a5e areas %"ere t"e s$r!a&e s i1 "as a "i)" minera1 & ntent Cb ra?# sa1t# a12a1i# and 1imeD. Materia1 in & nta&t %it" t"is s i1 %ears $t 4$i&21y# and %ater in t"ese areas is e?treme1y "ard and $ndrin2ab1e. 3ettin) y $r $ni! rm in s$&" %ater t & 1 !! may &a$se a s2in ras". +"e 6reat Sa1t La2e area in Uta" is an e?amp1e ! t"is type ! minera1-1aden %ater and s i1. +"ere is 1itt1e r n p1ant 1i!eH t"ere-! re# s"e1ter is "ard t !ind. A5 id t"ese areas i! p ssib1e.

S!#($t"&+$
Sandst rms Csand-1aden %indsD &&$r !re4$ent1y in m st deserts. +"e JSeistanJ desert %ind in Iran and A!)"anistan b1 %s & nstant1y ! r $p t 12< days. 3it"in Sa$di Arabia# %inds a5era)e *.2 t 7.: 2i1 meters per " $r C2p"D and &an rea&" 112 t 12: 2p" in ear1y a!tern n. -?pe&t ma@ r sandst rms and d$st st rms at 1east n&e a %ee2. +"e )reatest dan)er is )ettin) 1 st in a s%ir1in) %a11 ! sand. 3ear ) ))1es and & 5er y $r m $t" and n se %it" &1 t". I! nat$ra1 s"e1ter is $na5ai1ab1e# mar2 y $r dire&ti n ! tra5e1# 1ie d %n# and sit $t t"e st rm. D$st and %ind-b1 %n sand inter!ere %it" radi transmissi ns. +"ere! re# be ready t $se t"er means ! r si)na1in)# s$&" as pyr te&"ni&s# si)na1 mirr rs# r mar2er pane1s# i! a5ai1ab1e.

Mi&!0e$
Mira)es are pti&a1 p"en mena &a$sed by t"e re!ra&ti n ! 1i)"t t"r $)" "eated air risin) !r m a sandy r st ny s$r!a&e. +"ey &&$r in t"e interi r ! t"e desert ab $t 1< 2i1 meters !r m t"e & ast. +"ey ma2e b@e&ts t"at are 1.9 2i1 meters r m re a%ay appear t m 5e. +"is mira)e e!!e&t ma2es it di!!i&$1t ! r y $ t identi!y an b@e&t !r m a distan&e. It a1s b1$rs distant ran)e & nt $rs s m$&" t"at y $ !ee1 s$rr $nded by a s"eet ! %ater !r m %"i&" e1e5ati ns stand $t as Jis1ands.J +"e mira)e e!!e&t ma2es it "ard ! r a pers n t identi!y tar)ets# estimate ran)e# and see b@e&ts &1ear1y. 0 %e5er# i! y $ &an )et t "i)" )r $nd C* meters r m re ab 5e t"e desert !1 rD# y $ &an )et ab 5e t"e s$per"eated air &1 se t t"e )r $nd and 5er& me t"e mira)e e!!e&t. Mira)es ma2e 1and na5i)ati n di!!i&$1t be&a$se t"ey bs&$re nat$ra1 !eat$res. Y $ &an s$r5ey t"e area at da%n# d$s2# r by m n1i)"t %"en t"ere is 1itt1e 1i2e1i" d ! mira)e. Li)"t 1e5e1s in desert areas are m re intense t"an in t"er )e )rap"i& areas. M n1it ni)"ts are $s$a11y &rysta1 &1ear# %inds die d %n# "a'e and )1are disappear# and 5isibi1ity is e?&e11ent. Y $ &an see 1i)"ts# red !1as"-1i)"ts# and b1a&2 $t 1i)"ts at )reat distan&es. S $nd &arries 5ery !ar. / n5erse1y# d$rin) ni)"ts %it" 1itt1e m n1i)"t# 5isibi1ity is e?treme1y p r. +ra5e1in) is e?treme1y "a'ard $s. Y $ m$st a5 id )ettin) 1 st# !a11in) int ra5ines# r st$mb1in) int enemy p siti ns. M 5ement d$rin) s$&" a ni)"t is pra&ti&a1 n1y i! y $ "a5e a & mpass and "a5e spent t"e day in a s"e1ter# restin)# bser5in) and mem ri'in) t"e terrain# and se1e&tin) y $r r $te.

(a)e 1*6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

N

, 'OR 3AT R

+"e s$b@e&t ! man and %ater in t"e desert "as )enerated & nsiderab1e interest and & n!$si n sin&e t"e ear1y days ! 3 r1d 3ar II %"en t"e U. S. Army %as preparin) t !i)"t in N rt" A!ri&a. At ne time t"e U. S. Army t" $)"t it & $1d & nditi n men t d %it" 1ess %ater by pr )ressi5e1y red$&in) t"eir %ater s$pp1ies d$rin) trainin). +"ey &a11ed it %ater dis&ip1ine. It &a$sed "$ndreds ! "eat &as$a1ties. A 2ey !a&t r in desert s$r5i5a1 is $nderstandin) t"e re1ati ns"ip bet%een p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity# air temperat$re# and %ater & ns$mpti n. +"e b dy re4$ires a &ertain am $nt ! %ater ! r a &ertain 1e5e1 ! a&ti5ity at a &ertain temperat$re. F r e?amp1e# a pers n per! rmin) "ard % r2 in t"e s$n at 7* de)rees / re4$ires 1; 1iters ! %ater dai1y. La&2 ! t"e re4$ired am $nt ! %ater &a$ses a rapid de&1ine in an indi5id$a1Fs abi1ity t ma2e de&isi ns and t per! rm tas2s e!!i&ient1y. Y $r b dyFs n rma1 temperat$re is *6.; de)rees / C;:.6 de)rees FD. Y $r b dy )ets rid ! e?&ess "eat C& 1s !!D by s%eatin). +"e %armer y $r b dy be& mes--%"et"er &a$sed by % r2# e?er&ise# r air temperat$re--t"e m re y $ s%eat. +"e m re y $ s%eat# t"e m re m ist$re y $ 1 se. S%eatin) is t"e prin&ipa1 &a$se ! %ater 1 ss. I! a pers n st ps s%eatin) d$rin) peri ds ! "i)" air temperat$re and "ea5y % r2 r e?er&ise# "e %i11 4$i&21y de5e1 p "eat str 2e. +"is is an emer)en&y t"at re4$ires immediate medi&a1 attenti n. Fi)$re 1*-2 s" %s dai1y %ater re4$irements ! r 5ari $s 1e5e1s ! % r2. Understandin) " % t"e air temperat$re and y $r p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity a!!e&t y $r %ater re4$irements a11 %s y $ t ta2e meas$res t )et t"e m st !r m y $r %ater s$pp1y. +"ese meas$res are-• Find s"adeK 6et $t ! t"e s$nK • (1a&e s met"in) bet%een y $ and t"e " t )r $nd. • Limit y $r m 5ementsK • / nser5e y $r s%eat. 3ear y $r & mp1ete $ni! rm t in&1$de +-s"irt. R 11 t"e s1ee5es d %n# & 5er y $r "ead# and pr te&t y $r ne&2 %it" a s&ar! r simi1ar item. +"ese steps %i11 pr te&t y $r b dy !r m " t-b1 %in) %inds and t"e dire&t rays ! t"e s$n. Y $r &1 t"in) %i11 abs rb y $r s%eat# 2eepin) it a)ainst y $r s2in s t"at y $ )ain its !$11 & 1in) e!!e&t. ,y stayin) in t"e s"ade 4$iet1y# !$11y &1 t"ed# n t ta12in)# 2eepin) y $r m $t" &1 sed# and breat"in) t"r $)" y $r n se# y $r %ater re4$irement ! r s$r5i5a1 dr ps dramati&a11y. • I! %ater is s&ar&e# d n t eat. F d re4$ires %ater ! r di)esti nH t"ere! re# eatin) ! d %i11 $se %ater t"at y $ need ! r & 1in).

(a)e 1*7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Thirst is not a reliable guide !or your need !or water. A pers n %" $ses t"irst as a )$ide %i11 drin2 n1y t% -t"irds ! "is dai1y %ater re4$irement. + pre5ent t"is J5 1$ntaryJ de"ydrati n# $se t"e ! 11 %in) )$ideI • At temperat$res be1 % *: de)rees /# drin2 <.9 1iter ! %ater e5ery " $r. • At temperat$res ab 5e *: de)rees /# drin2 1 1iter ! %ater e5ery " $r. Drin2in) %ater at re)$1ar inter5a1s "e1ps y $r b dy remain & 1 and de&reases s%eatin). -5en %"en y $r %ater s$pp1y is 1 %# sippin) %ater & nstant1y %i11 2eep y $r b dy & 1er and red$&e %ater 1 ss t"r $)" s%eatin). / nser5e y $r !1$ids by red$&in) a&ti5ity d$rin) t"e "eat ! day. D" #"t rati n y $r %aterK I! y $ try t rati n %ater# y $ stand a ) d &"an&e ! be& min) a "eat &as$a1ty.

. AT CASUALTI S
Y $r &"an&es ! be& min) a "eat &as$a1ty as a s$r5i5 r are )reat# d$e t in@$ry# stress# and 1a&2 ! &riti&a1 items ! e4$ipment. F 11 %in) are t"e ma@ r types ! "eat &as$a1ties and t"eir treatment when little water and no medical help are available.
(a)e 1*: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

He!t C&!+p$
+"e 1 ss ! sa1t d$e t e?&essi5e s%eatin) &a$ses "eat &ramps. Sympt ms are m derate t se5ere m$s&1e &ramps in 1e)s# arms# r abd men. +"ese sympt ms may start as a mi1d m$s&$1ar dis& m! rt. Y $ s" $1d n % st p a11 a&ti5ity# )et in t"e s"ade# and drin2 %ater. I! y $ !ai1 t re& )ni'e t"e ear1y sympt ms and & ntin$e y $r p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity# y $ %i11 "a5e se5ere m$s&1e &ramps and pain. +reat as ! r "eat e?"a$sti n# be1 %.

He!t E5h! $ti"#
A 1ar)e 1 ss ! b dy %ater and sa1t &a$ses "eat e?"a$sti n. Sympt ms are "eada&"e# menta1 & n!$si n# irritabi1ity# e?&essi5e s%eatin)# %ea2ness# di''iness# &ramps# and pa1e# m ist# & 1d C&1ammyD s2in. Immediate1y )et t"e patient $nder s"ade. Ma2e "im 1ie n a stret&"er r simi1ar item ab $t 79 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. L sen "is &1 t"in). Sprin21e "im %it" %ater and !an "im. 0a5e "im drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater e5ery * min$tes. -ns$re "e stays 4$iet and rests.

He!t St&")e
A se5ere "eat in@$ry &a$sed by e?treme 1 ss ! %ater and sa1t and t"e b dyFs inabi1ity t & 1 itse1!. +"e patient may die i! n t & 1ed immediate1y. Sympt ms are t"e 1a&2 ! s%eat# " t and dry s2in# "eada&"e# di''iness# !ast p$1se# na$sea and 5 mitin)# and menta1 & n!$si n 1eadin) t $n& ns&i $sness. Immediate1y )et t"e pers n t s"ade. Lay "im n a stret&"er r simi1ar item ab $t 79 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. L sen "is &1 t"in). ( $r %ater n "im Cit d es n t matter i! t"e %ater is p 11$ted r bra&2is"D and !an "im. Massa)e "is arms# 1e)s# and b dy. I! "e re)ains & ns&i $sness# 1et "im drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater e5ery * min$tes.

PR CAUTIONS
In a desert s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n# it is $n1i2e1y t"at y $ %i11 "a5e a medi& r medi&a1 s$pp1ies %it" y $ t treat "eat in@$ries. +"ere! re# ta2e e?tra &are t a5 id "eat in@$ries. Rest d$rin) t"e day. 3 r2 d$rin) t"e & 1 e5enin)s and ni)"ts. Use a b$ddy system t %at&" ! r "eat in@$ry# and bser5e t"e ! 11 %in) )$ide1inesI • Ma2e s$re y $ te11 s me ne %"ere y $ are ) in) and %"en y $ %i11 ret$rn. • 3at&" ! r si)ns ! "eat in@$ry. I! s me ne & mp1ains ! tiredness r %anders a%ay !r m t"e )r $p# "e may be a "eat &as$a1ty. • Drin2 %ater at 1east n&e an " $r. • 6et in t"e s"ade %"en restin)H d n t 1ie dire&t1y n t"e )r $nd. • D n t ta2e !! y $r s"irt and % r2 d$rin) t"e day. • /"e&2 t"e & 1 r ! y $r $rine. A 1i)"t & 1 r means y $ are drin2in) en $)" %ater# a dar2 & 1 r means y $ need t drin2 m re.

, S RT .A8AR,S
+"ere are se5era1 "a'ards $ni4$e t desert s$r5i5a1. +"ese in&1$de inse&ts# sna2es# t" rned p1ants and &a&ti# & ntaminated %ater# s$nb$rn# eye irritati n# and &1imati& stress. Inse&ts ! a1m st e5ery type ab $nd in t"e desert. Man# as a s $r&e ! %ater and ! d# attra&ts 1i&e# mites# %asps# and !1ies. +"ey are e?treme1y $np1easant and may &arry diseases. .1d b$i1din)s# r$ins# and &a5es are !a5 rite "abitats ! spiders# s& rpi ns# &entipedes# 1i&e# and mites. +"ese areas pr 5ide pr te&ti n !r m t"e e1ements and a1s attra&t t"er %i1d-1i!e. +"ere! re# ta2e e?tra &are %"en stayin) in t"ese areas. 3ear )1 5es at a11 times in t"e desert. D n t p1a&e y $r "ands any%"ere %it" $t !irst 1 2in) t see %"at is t"ere. Vis$a11y inspe&t an area be! re sittin) r 1yin) d %n. 3"en y $ )et $p# s"a2e $t and inspe&t y $r b ts and &1 t"in). A11 desert areas "a5e sna2es. +"ey in"abit r$ins# nati5e 5i11a)es# )arba)e d$mps# &a5es# and nat$ra1 r &2 $t&r ppin) t"at !!er s"ade. Ne5er ) bare! t r %a12 t"r $)" t"ese areas %it" $t &are!$11y inspe&tin) t"em ! r sna2es. (ay attenti n t %"ere y $ p1a&e y $r
(a)e 1*; ! 2**

S. . A5 id t"em. M st sna2ebites res$1t !r m steppin) n r "and1in) sna2es.n&e y $ see a sna2e# )i5e it a %ide bert". Department ! t"e Army !eet and "ands. (a)e 17< ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Indigenous peoples have lived !or millennia by hunting and gathering. +r pi&a1 day and ni)"t are ! e4$a1 1en)t". >$st as s$dden1y# t"e rain st ps. Actually" over hal! o! the land in the tropics is cultivated in some way. Vi 1ent st rms may &&$r# $s$a11y t %ard t"e end ! t"e s$mmer m nt"s. Cverything in the $ungle thrives" including disease germs and parasites that breed at an alarming rate. +"e tr pi&a1 area may be any ! t"e ! 11 %in)I • Rain ! rests. At a1tit$des 5er 1#9<< meters# i&e !ten ! rms at ni)"t. 8ature will provide water" !ood" and plenty o! materials to build shelters. S$dden rain beats n t"e tree &an py# t$rnin) tri&21es int ra)in) t rrents and &a$sin) ri5ers t rise. (owever" it will take an outsider some time to get used to the conditions and the nonstop activity o! tropical survival. (re5ai1in) %inds 5ary bet%een %inter and s$mmer. • Semie5er)reen seas na1 and m ns n ! rests. +"e dry seas n "as rain n&e a day and t"e m ns n "as & ntin$ $s rain. A knowledge o! !ield skills" the ability to improvise" and the application o! the principles o! survival will increase the prospects o! survival. Dar2ness !a11s 4$i&21y and daybrea2 is @$st as s$dden. In &" sin) &ampsites# ma2e s$re y $ are ab 5e any p tentia1 !1 din).S. :anic will lead to e+haustion and decrease your chance o! survival. 2UN/L TYP S +"ere is n standard @$n)1e. TROPICAL 3 AT.TROPICAL SURVIVAL /ost people think o! the tropics as a huge and !orbidding tropical rain !orest through which every step taken must be hacked out" and where every inch o! the way is crawling with danger. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 19 . • S&r$b and t" rn ! rests. <o not be a!raid o! being alone in the $ungle# !ear will lead to panic.&ean brin) t"e m ns n# b$t it is dry %"en t"e %ind b1 %s !r m t"e 1andmass ! /"ina. 0$rri&anes# &y&1 nes# and typ" ns de5e1 p 5er t"e sea and r$s" in1and# &a$sin) tida1 %a5es and de5astati n as" re. R 0i)" temperat$res# "ea5y rain!a11# and ppressi5e "$midity &"ara&teri'e e4$at ria1 and s$btr pi&a1 re)i ns# e?&ept at "i)" a1tit$des. (a)e 171 ! 2** . +"e rain "as a & 1in) e!!e&t# b$t %"en it st ps# t"e temperat$re s ars. In S $t"east Asia# %inds !r m t"e Indian . • Se& ndary @$n)1es. At 1 % a1tit$des# temperat$re 5ariati n is se1d m 1ess t"an 1< de)rees / and is !ten m re t"an *9 de)rees /. Rain!a11 is "ea5y# !ten %it" t"$nder and 1i)"tnin).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

.9 meter.9 meters ! rain !a11 e5en1y t"r $)" $t t"e year. S$&" )r %t" "appens main1y a1 n) ri5er ban2s# n @$n)1e !rin)es# and %"ere man "as &1eared rain ! rest.e1 % t"em# sma11er trees pr d$&e a &an py s t"i&2 t"at 1itt1e 1i)"t rea&"es t"e @$n)1e !1 r. Se+ie/e&0&ee# Se!$"#!% !#( M"#$""# F"&e$t$ +"e &"ara&teristi&s ! t"e Ameri&an and A!ri&an semie5er)reen seas na1 ! rests & rresp nd %it" t" se ! t"e Asian m ns n ! rests. (a)e 172 ! 2** . Y $ !ind t"ese ! rests a&r ss t"e e4$at r in t"e Ama' n and / n) basins# parts ! Ind nesia# and se5era1 (a&i!i& is1ands. -?&ept ! r t"e sa) # nipa# and & & n$t pa1ms# t"e same edib1e p1ants )r % in t"ese areas as in t"e tr pi&a1 rain ! rests. • +"eir 1ea5es !a11 d$rin) a seas na1 dr $)"t. +"ere are !i5e 1ayers ! 5e)etati n in t"is @$n)1e CFi)$re 17-1D. Ferns# m sses# and "erba&e $s p1ants p$s" t"r $)" a t"i&2 &arpet ! 1ea5es# and a )reat 5ariety ! !$n)i )r % n 1ea5es and !a11en tree tr$n2s. Sa1t%ater s%amps. +emperat$res ran)e !r m ab $t *2 de)rees / in t"e day t 21 de)rees / at ni)"t. Fres"%ater s%amps. • +"e diameter ! t"e trees a5era)es <.e&a$se ! t"e 1a&2 ! 1i)"t n t"e @$n)1e !1 r# t"ere is 1itt1e $nder)r %t" t "amper m 5ement# b$t dense )r %t" 1imits 5isibi1ity t ab $t 9< meters. 3"en aband ned# tan)1ed masses ! 5e)etati n 4$i&21y re&1aim t"ese &$1ti5ated areas. Se. +" se in t"e $pper st ry a5era)e 1: t 27 metersH t" se in t"e 1 %er st ry a5era)e 7 t 1* meters. . Department ! t"e Army • • • Sa5annas. +"ese &"ara&teristi&s are-• +"eir trees !a11 int t% st ries ! tree strata. (r 1i!i& )r %t"# %"ere s$n1i)"t penetrates t t"e @$n)1e !1 r# typi!ies t"is type ! ! rest."#(!&3 A #0%e$ Se& ndary @$n)1e is 5ery simi1ar t rain ! rest. 3"ere $nt $&"ed by man# @$n)1e trees rise !r m b$ttress r ts t "ei)"ts ! 6< meters.!% R!i# F"&e$t$ +"e &1imate 5aries 1itt1e in rain ! rests.S. Y $ &an !ten !ind &$1ti5ated ! d p1ants am n) t"is 5e)etati n. Y $ &an easi1y 1 se y $r sense ! dire&ti n in t"is @$n)1e# and it is e?treme1y "ard ! r air&ra!t t see y $. Seed1in)s str$))1e beneat" t"em t rea&" 1i)"t# and masses ! 5ines and 1ianas t%ine $p t t"e s$n. Up t *.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. T&"pi.

A5 id t"e dan)er $s anima1s in t"is s%amp.ra'i1# and t"e 6$ianas in S $t" Ameri&a.!% S!/!##!$ 6enera1 &"ara&teristi&s ! t"e sa5anna are-• It is ! $nd %it"in t"e tr pi&a1 ' nes in S $t" Ameri&a and A!ri&a. • +rees are 1ea!1ess d$rin) t"e dry seas n. Man)r 5e trees t"ri5e in t"ese s%amps. T&"pi. Visibi1ity in t"is type ! s%amp is p r# and m 5ement is e?treme1y di!!i&$1t. Department ! t"e Army Y $ !ind t"ese ! rests in p rti ns ! / 1$mbia and Vene'$e1a and t"e Ama' n basin in S $t" Ameri&aH in p rti ns ! s $t"east & asta1 8enya# +an'ania# and M 'ambi4$e in A!ri&aH in N rt"eastern India# m$&" ! . In A!ri&a# y $ !ind t"em in t"e s $t"ern Sa"ara Cn rt"-&entra1 /amer n and 6ab n and s $t"ern S$danD# . F&e$h2!te& S2!+p$ Y $ !ind !res"%ater s%amps in 1 %-1yin) in1and areas.S.$rma# +"ai1and# Ind &"ina# >a5a# and parts ! t"er Ind nesian is1ands in Asia. • (1ants %it" t" rns pred minate. +"eir &"ara&teristi&s are masses ! t" rny $nder)r %t"# reeds# )rasses# and &&asi na1 s" rt pa1ms t"at red$&e 5isibi1ity and ma2e tra5e1 di!!i&$1t. S!%t2!te& S2!+p$ Sa1t%ater s%amps are & mm n in & asta1 areas s$b@e&t t tida1 !1 din). D$rin) t"e rainy seas n# p1ants are & nsiderab1y m re ab$ndant. A5 id t"is s%amp a1t )et"er i! y $ &an. S metimes# streams t"at y $ &an ra!t ! rm &"anne1s# b$t y $ $s$a11y m$st tra5e1 n ! t t"r $)" t"is s%amp. 3it"in t"e tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rest areas# y $ %i11 !ind it "ard t btain ! d p1ants d$rin) t"e dry seas n. !#( Th"&# F"&e$t$ +"e &"ie! &"ara&teristi&s ! tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rests are-• +"ere is a de!inite dry seas n.& .enin# + ) # m st ! Ni)eria# n rt"eastern Aaire# n rt"ern U)anda# %estern 8enya# part ! Ma1a%i# part ! +an'ania# s $t"ern Aimbab%e# M 'ambi4$e# and %estern Mada)as&ar.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! t"ere are %ater &"anne1s t"r $)" it# y $ may be ab1e t $se a ra!t t es&ape.rin & and Ama' n ri5ers and ri5ers ! 6$yana & nsist ! m$d and trees t"at !!er 1itt1e s"ade. Y $ !ind tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rests n t"e %est & ast ! Me?i& # Y$&atan penins$1a# Vene'$e1a# . +"e s%amps at t"e m $t"s ! t"e . T&"pi. Man)r 5e trees &an rea&" "ei)"ts ! 12 meters# and t"eir tan)1ed r ts are an bsta&1e t m 5ement. Y $ !ind sa5annas in parts ! Vene'$e1a# . • It !re4$ent1y "as red s i1. • Fires &&$r !re4$ent1y. (a)e 17* ! 2** . Y $ !ind sa1t%ater s%amps in 3est A!ri&a# Mada)as&ar# Ma1aysia# t"e (a&i!i& is1ands# /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a# and at t"e m $t" ! t"e 6an)es Ri5er in India. +ides in sa1t%ater s%amps &an 5ary as m$&" as 12 meters. • It )r %s s&attered trees t"at $s$a11y appear st$nted and )nar1ed 1i2e app1e trees.ra'i1H n t"e n rt"%est & ast and &entra1 parts ! A!ri&aH and in Asia# in +$r2estan and India. -5eryt"in) in a sa1t%ater s%amp may appear " sti1e t y $# !r m 1ee&"es and inse&ts t &r & di1es and &aimans. (a1ms a1s &&$r n sa5annas. • +"e )r $nd is bare e?&ept ! r a !e% t$!ted p1ants in b$n&"esH )rasses are $n& mm n. • It 1 2s 1i2e a br ad# )rassy mead %# %it" trees spa&ed at %ide inter5a1s.!% S.

Use t"ese trai1s i! t"ey 1ead in y $r desired dire&ti n ! tra5e1. I! y $ are t"e 5i&tim ! an air&ra!t &ras"# t"e m st imp rtant items t ta2e %it" y $ !r m t"e &ras" site are a ma&"ete# a & mpass# a !irst aid 2it# and a para&"$te r t"er materia1 ! r $se as m s4$it nettin) and s"e1ter. 2UN/L AR AS 3it" pra&ti&e# m 5ement t"r $)" t"i&2 $nder)r %t" and @$n)1e &an be d ne e!!i&ient1y.ROU/. (r mpt1y treat any % $nd# n matter " % min r. I! $sin) a ma&"ete# str 2e $p%ard %"en &$ttin) 5ines t red$&e n ise be&a$se s $nd &arries 1 n) distan&es in t"e @$n)1e. In t"e tr pi&s# e5en t"e sma11est s&rat&" &an 4$i&21y be& me dan)er $s1y in!e&ted. St p and st p d %n &&asi na11y t 1 2 a1 n) t"e @$n)1e !1 r. +$rn y $r s" $1ders# s"i!t y $r "ips# bend y $r b dy# and s" rten r 1en)t"en y $r stride as ne&essary t s1ide bet%een t"e $nder)r %t". 8n % %"at dire&ti n y $ are ta2in).IAT CONSI. +"ese trai1s %ind and &r ss# b$t !re4$ent1y 1ead t %ater r &1earin)s. +a2e s"e1ter !r m tr pi&a1 rain# s$n# and inse&ts. (a)e 177 ! 2** . A1%ays %ear 1 n) s1ee5es t a5 id &$ts and s&rat&"es. L 2 through t"e @$n)1e# n t at it. Many @$n)1e and ! rest anima1s ! 11 % )ame trai1s. In enemy territ ry# t"ey may be )$arded. Use a ma&"ete t &$t t"r $)" dense 5e)etati n# b$t d n t &$t $nne&essari1y r y $ %i11 4$i&21y %ear y $rse1! $t. I00 .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3"en tra5e1in) a1 n) t"ese 1ines# be &are!$1 as y $ appr a&" trans! rmer and re1ay stati ns. A5 id bsta&1es. +"is a&ti n may re5ea1 )ame trai1s t"at y $ &an ! 11 %.S. Use y $r & mpass. + m 5e easi1y# y $ m$st de5e1 p J@$n)1e eye#J t"at is# y $ s" $1d n t & n&entrate n t"e pattern ! b$s"es and trees t y $r immediate !r nt. Stay a1ert and m 5e s1 %1y and steadi1y t"r $)" dense ! rest r @$n)1e. D n t b1$nder t"r $)" it sin&e y $ %i11 )et many &$ts and s&rat&"es. I! y $ d n t "a5e a & mpass# $se a !ie1d-e?pedient dire&ti n !indin) met" d. Ma1aria-&arryin) m s4$it es and t"er inse&ts are immediate dan)ers# s pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst bites. M 5e in ne dire&ti n# b$t n t ne&essari1y in a strai)"t 1ine. Y $ m$st ! &$s n t"e @$n)1e !$rt"er $t and !ind nat$ra1 brea2s in t"e ! 1ia)e.!-%ay is &1ear en $)" t a11 % easy tra5e1. In many & $ntries# e1e&tri& and te1ep" ne 1ines r$n ! r mi1es t"r $)" sparse1y in"abited areas. Us$a11y# t"e ri)"t. Usin) a sti&2 %i11 a1s "e1p dis1 d)e bitin) ants# spiders# r sna2es. St p peri di&a11y t 1isten and ta2e y $r bearin)s. In enemy territ ry# ta2e ad5anta)e ! nat$ra1 & 5er and & n&ea1ment. +a2e st &2 ! %ater s$pp1ies and e4$ipment. Use a sti&2 t part t"e 5e)etati n. TRAV L T. 3i1d1i!e is ab$ndant in t"ese s%amps. Y $ %i11 pr bab1y "a5e t tra5e1 t rea&" sa!ety. D n t 1ea5e t"e &ras" area %it" $t &are!$11y b1a'in) r mar2in) y $r r $te. Department ! t"e Army +"ere are !ten is1ands t"at d t t"ese s%amps# a11 %in) y $ t )et $t ! t"e %ater. TRAVEL TIPS (inp int y $r initia1 1 &ati n as a&&$rate1y as p ssib1e t determine a )enera1 1ine ! tra5e1 t sa!ety. M 5e sm t"1y t"r $)" t"e @$n)1e. RATIONS +"ere is 1ess 1i2e1i" d ! y $r res&$e !r m beneat" a dense @$n)1e &an py t"an in t"er s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. D" #"t )rasp at br$s" r 5ines %"en &1imbin) s1 pesH t"ey may "a5e irritatin) spines r s"arp t" rns.

S me ! t"e many s $r&es are 5ines# r ts# pa1m trees# and & ndensati n. A & 1$mn ! ants mar&"in) $p a tree is ) in) t a sma11 reser5 ir ! trapped %ater. . 6ra'in) anima1s s$&" as deer# are $s$a11y ne5er !ar !r m %ater and $s$a11y drin2 at da%n and d$s2. /arni5 res Cmeat eatersD are n t re1iab1e indi&at rs ! %ater. 6rain eaters# s$&" as !in&"es and pi)e ns# are ne5er !ar !r m %ater. / n5er)in) )ame trai1s !ten 1ead t %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Use t"e pr &ed$re des&ribed in /"apter 6 t btain %ater !r m a 5ine. (re!erab1y# $se s me type ! & ntainer. Ants need %ater. 0$man tra&2s %i11 $s$a11y 1ead t a %e11# b re " 1e# r s a2. 3"en t"ey !1y strai)"t and 1 %# t"ey are "eadin) ! r %ater. M st anima1s re4$ire %ater re)$1ar1y. 3ater %i11 seep int t"e " 1e.!ten y $ &an )et near1y &1ear %ater !r m m$ddy streams r 1a2es by di))in) a " 1e in sandy s i1 ab $t 1 meter !r m t"e ban2. 0a%2s# ea)1es# and t"er birds ! prey )et 1i4$ids !r m t"eir 5i&timsH y $ &ann t $se t"em as a %ater indi&at r. A#i+!%$ !$ Si0#$ "6 *!te& Anima1s &an !ten 1ead y $ t %ater. .irds &an s metimes a1s 1ead y $ t %ater. N np is n $s 5ines %i11 )i5e a &1ear !1$id. Inse&ts &an be ) d indi&at rs ! %ater# espe&ia11y bees. +"ey !1y 1 n) distan&es %it" $t st ppin). *!te& F&"+ P%!#t$ (1ants s$&" as 5ines# r ts# and pa1m trees are ) d s $r&es ! %ater. Department ! t"e Army 3AT R PROCUR 0 NT -5en t" $)" %ater is ab$ndant in m st tr pi&a1 en5ir nments# y $ may# as a s$r5i5 r# "a5e tr $b1e !indin) it. Y $ &an s metimes ! 11 % anima1s t %ater. +"ey drin2 at da%n and d$s2. (ry t"ese r ts $t ! t"e )r $nd and &$t t"em int *<-&entimeter 1en)t"s. Vines Vines %it" r $)" bar2 and s" ts ab $t 9 &entimeters t"i&2 &an be a $se!$1 s $r&e ! %ater. S me may e5en "a5e a p is n $s sap. Y $ !ind s$&" reser5 irs e5en in arid areas.n )r %n trees ! t"er spe&ies# y $ may "a5e t &1imb t"em t rea&" a !1 %erin) sta12.S. M st !1ies stay %it"in 1<< meters ! %ater# espe&ia11y t"e -$r pean mas n !1y# easi1y re& )ni'ed by its irides&ent )reen b dy. Nipa pa1m s" ts )r % !r m t"e base# s t"at y $ &an % r2 at )r $nd 1e5e1. Mi12 !r m & & n$ts "as a 1ar)e %ater & ntent# b$t may (a)e 179 ! 2** . . +"ey $s$a11y %i11 "a5e a %ater s $r&e in t"is ran)e. Y $ m$st 1earn by e?perien&e %"i&" are t"e %ater-bearin) 5ines# be&a$se n t a11 "a5e drin2ab1e %ater. Rem 5e t"e bar2 and s$&2 $t t"e m ist$re# r s"a5e t"e r t t a p$1p and s4$ee'e it 5er y $r m $t". + btain t"e 1i4$id# bend a !1 %erin) sta12 ! ne ! t"ese pa1ms d %n%ard# and &$t !! its tip. S&r$b r r &2s may & 5er it t red$&e e5ap rati n. Roots In A$stra1ia# t"e %ater tree# desert a2# and b1 d% d "a5e r ts near t"e s$r!a&e.ees se1d m ran)e m re t"an 6 2i1 meters !r m t"eir nests r "i5es. +"ey )et m ist$re !r m t"e anima1s t"ey eat and &an ) %it" $t %ater ! r 1 n) peri ds. Pal" Trees +"e b$ri# & & n$t# and nipa pa1ms a11 & ntain a s$)ary !1$id t"at is 5ery ) d t drin2. I! y $ &$t a t"in s1i&e !! t"e sta12 e5ery 12 " $rs# t"e !1 % %i11 rene%# ma2in) it p ssib1e t & 11e&t $p t a 1iter per day. 3"en ret$rnin) !r m %ater# t"ey are !$11 and %i11 !1y !r m tree t tree# restin) !re4$ent1y. Rep1a&e t"e & 5er a!ter $se. I! y $ d !ind %ater# it may n t be sa!e t drin2. +"e p is n $s nes yie1d a sti&2y# mi12y sap %"en &$t. D n t re1y n %ater birds t 1ead y $ t %ater. Y $ m$st p$ri!y any %ater btained in t"is manner. . S me 5ines &a$se a s2in irritati n n & nta&tH t"ere! re 1et t"e 1i4$id drip int y $r m $t"# rat"er t"an p$t y $r m $t" t t"e 5ine.

3"ere5er t"e s$n penetrates t"e @$n)1e# t"ere %i11 be a mass ! 5e)etati n# b$t ri5er ban2s may be t"e m st a&&essib1e areas. +"e best p1a&es t ! ra)e are t"e ban2s ! streams and ri5ers. Un1ess y $ &an p siti5e1y identi!y t"ese p1ants# it may be sa!er at !irst t be)in %it" pa1ms# bamb s# and & mm n !r$its. + btain anima1 ! d# $se t"e pr &ed$res $t1ined in /"apter :. m$&" ! t"is mi12 may &a$se y $ t 1 se m re !1$id *!te& F&"+ C"#(e#$!ti"# .S. +yin) a &1ear p1asti& ba) ar $nd a )reen 1ea!y bran&" %i11 &a$se %ater in t"e 1ea5es t e5ap rate and & ndense in t"e ba). I! y $ are %ea2# d n t e?pend ener)y &1imbin) r !e11in) a tree ! r ! d.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. It may be easier t 1et a p1ant pr d$&e %ater ! r y $ in t"e ! rm ! & ndensati n.!ten it re4$ires t m$&" e!! rt t di) ! r r ts & ntainin) %ater..anana r p1antain C/usa spe&iesD • .read!r$it &Artrocarpus incisa' • / & n$t pa1m &1ocos nuci!era' • Fis"tai1 pa1m &1aryota urens' • 0 rseradis" tree &/oringa pterygosperma' • L t$s C8elumbo spe&iesD • Man) &/angi!era indica' • Mani & &/anihot utillissima' • Nipa pa1m &8ipa !ruticans' • (apaya &1arica papaya' • (ersimm n &<iospyros virginiana' • Rattan pa1m C1alamus spe&iesD • Sa) pa1m &/etro+ylon sagu' • Ster&$1ia &Sterculia !oetida' • S$)ar&ane &Saccharum o!!icinarum' • S$)ar pa1m &Arenga pinnata' • S%eets p &Annona s)uamosa' • +ar C1olocasia and Alocasia spe&iesD • 3ater 1i1y &8ymphaea odorata' • 3i1d !i) C-icus spe&iesD • 3i1d ri&e &Ei*ania a)uatica' • Yam C<ioscorea spe&iesD (a)e 176 ! 2** .i)nay &Antidesma bunius' • . +"e 1ist be1 % identi!ies s me ! t"e m st & mm n ! ds. Department ! t"e Army & ntain a str n) 1a?ati5e in ripe n$ts. F d sp i1s rapid1y in tr pi&a1 & nditi ns. +"ere are an a1m st $n1imited n$mber ! edib1e p1ants !r m %"i&" t &" se.ae1 !r$it &Aegle marmelos' • . +"ere are m re easi1y btained s $r&es ! ! d nearer t"e )r $nd. TROPICAL =ONE FOOD PLANTS • . +"is is a s 1ar sti11 Csee /"apter 6D. Lea5e ! d n t"e )r %in) p1ant $nti1 y $ need it# and eat it !res". D n t pi&2 m re ! d t"an y $ need. In additi n t anima1 ! d# y $ %i11 "a5e t s$pp1ement y $r diet %it" edib1e p1ants. Detai1ed des&ripti ns and p" t )rap"s are at Appendi? . Drin2in) t t"an y $ drin2. (1a&in) &$t 5e)etati n in a p1asti& ba) %i11 a1s pr d$&e & ndensati n. 'OO. F d is $s$a11y ab$ndant in a tr pi&a1 s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n.amb C5ari $s spe&iesD • .

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. See Appendi? /.S. Department ! t"e Army POISONOUS PLANTS +"e pr p rti n ! p is n $s p1ants in tr pi&a1 re)i ns is n )reater t"an in any t"er area ! t"e % r1d. 0 %e5er# it may appear t"at m st p1ants in t"e tr pi&s are p is n $s be&a$se ! t"e )reat density ! p1ant )r %t" in s me tr pi&a1 areas. (a)e 177 ! 2** .

/"ara&teristi&s ! t"is & nditi n are !ree'in) d$rin) t"e & 1der ni)"t " $rs and t"a%in) d$rin) t"e day. 8n %in) in %"i&" en5ir nment y $r area ! perati ns !a11s %i11 a!!e&t p1annin) and e?e&$ti n ! a & 1d %eat"er perati n. Cvery time you venture into the cold" you are pitting yoursel! against the elements.&ean &$rrents a!!e&t & 1d %eat"er and &a$se 1ar)e areas n rma11y in&1$ded in t"e temperate ' ne t !a11 %it"in t"e & 1d re)i ns d$rin) %inter peri ds. 1old makes it very easy to !orget your ultimate goal%%to survive. -5en t" $)" t"e temperat$res in t"is & nditi n are m$&" 1 %er t"an n rma1# y $ d n t "a5e t & ntend %it" t"e !ree'in) and t"a%in). It decreases your ability to think and weakens your will to do anything e+cept to get warm. :repare yoursel! to adapt to bli**ard conditions even during sunny and clear weather. As you remove one or more o! these !actors" survival becomes increasingly di!!icult. 1old is an insidious enemy# as it numbs the mind and body" it subdues the will to survive. Y $ m$st & n&entrate n pr te&tin) y $rse1! !r m t"e %et )r $nd and !r m !ree'in) rain r %et sn %. *et C"%( *e!the& E#/i&"#+e#t$ 3et & 1d %eat"er & nditi ns e?ist %"en t"e a5era)e temperat$re in a 27-" $r peri d is -1< de)rees / r ab 5e. 3it"in t"e & 1d %eat"er re)i ns# y $ may !a&e t% types ! & 1d %eat"er en5ir nments--%et r dry. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1: . Remember" winter weather is highly variable.COLD *EATHER SURVIVAL 0ne o! the most di!!icult survival situations is a cold weather scenario. D&3 C"%( *e!the& E#/i&"#+e#t$ Dry & 1d %eat"er & nditi ns e?ist %"en t"e a5era)e temperat$re in a 27-" $r peri d remains be1 % -1< de)rees /. LOCATIONS / 1d re)i ns in&1$de ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& areas and areas immediate1y ad@ inin) t"em.S. . 1old is a !ar greater threat to survival than it appears. -1e5ati n a1s "as a mar2ed e!!e&t n de!inin) & 1d re)i ns. In t"ese & nditi ns# y $ need m re 1ayers ! inner &1 t"in) t (a)e 17: ! 2** . ith a little knowledge o! the environment" proper plans" and appropriate e)uipment" you can overcome the elements. Remember" cold weather is an adversary that can be as dangerous as an enemy soldier. R /IONS AN.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ &an &1assi!y ab $t 7: per&ent ! t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ereFs t ta1 1andmass as a & 1d re)i n d$e t t"e in!1$en&e and e?tent ! air temperat$res. COL. -5en t" $)" t"e temperat$res are %armer d$rin) t"is & nditi n# t"e terrain is $s$a11y 5ery s1 ppy d$e t s1$s" and m$d.

! 2** .:-2p" C19-2n tD %ind and a temperat$re ! -1< de)rees /# t"e e4$i5a1ent %ind&"i11 temperat$re is -2* de)rees /.C. Remember# e5en %"en t"ere is n %ind# y $ %i11 &reate t"e e4$i5a1ent %ind by s2iin)# r$nnin)# bein) t %ed n s2is be"ind a 5e"i&1e# % r2in) ar $nd air&ra!t t"at pr d$&e %ind b1asts. 3IN.ILL 3ind&"i11 in&reases t"e "a'ards in & 1d re)i ns. 3ind&"i11 is t"e e!!e&t ! m 5in) air n e?p sed !1es". Department ! t"e Army pr te&t y $ !r m temperat$res as 1 % as -6< de)rees /.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Fi)$re 19-1 )i5es t"e %ind&"i11 !a&t rs ! r 5ari $s temperat$res and %ind speeds.S. -?treme1y "a'ard $s & nditi ns e?ist %"en %ind and 1 % temperat$re & mbine. (a)e 17. F r instan&e# %it" a 27.

Despite t"e pre&a$ti ns y $ ta2e# t"ere %i11 be times %"en y $ &ann t 2eep !r m )ettin) %et.S. Army t day. Spe&ia1i'ed $nits may "a5e a&&ess t ne%er# 1i)"t%ei)"t )ear s$&" as p 1ypr py1ene $nder%ear# 6. +"is prin&ip1e is a1%ays imp rtant ! r sanitati n and & m! rt. -5en i! y $ "a5e t"e basi& re4$irements# y $ m$st a1s "a5e ade4$ate pr te&ti5e &1 t"in) and t"e %i11 t s$r5i5e. . I! n t# t"en y $r &1 t"in) s" $1d be entire1y % 1# %it" t"e p ssib1e e?&epti n ! a %indbrea2er. It %i11 s"ed m st ! t"e %ater & 11e&ted !r m me1tin) sn % and !r st. At s$&" times# dryin) y $r &1 t"in) may be& me a ma@ r pr b1em. / n5erse1y# t"is %i11 "as s$stained indi5id$a1s 1ess %e11trained and e4$ipped. Y $ may e5en be ab1e t dry ea&" item by " 1din) it be! re an pen !ire. DAeep clothing dry. 3earin) ti)"t &1 t"in) and ! t)ear restri&ts b1 d &ir&$1ati n and in5ites & 1d in@$ry. Department ! t"e Army #ASIC PRINCIPL S O' COL. D . L .R-+-B $ter%ear and b ts# and t"er spe&ia1 e4$ipment. Lear your clothing loose and in layers.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In a &ampsite# "an) damp &1 t"in) inside t"e s"e1ter near t"e t p# $sin) dryin) 1ines r impr 5ised ra&2s. . Se5era1 1ayers ! 1i)"t%ei)"t &1 t"in) are better t"an ne e4$a11y t"i&2 1ayer ! &1 t"in)# be&a$se t"e 1ayers "a5e dead-air spa&e bet%een t"em. +"e brain is 5ery s$s&eptib1e t & 1d and &an stand t"e 1east am $nt ! & 1in). /1 t"es matted %it" dirt and )rease 1 se m$&" ! t"eir ins$1ati n 5a1$e. +"is a!!e&ts y $r %armt" in t% %aysI dampness de&reases t"e ins$1ati n 4$a1ity ! &1 t"in)# and as s%eat e5ap rates# y $r b dy & 1s. +"ese areas ! t"e b dy are ) d radiat rs ! "eat and "a5e 5ery 1itt1e ins$1atin) !at. Y $ &an 1 se 7< t 79 per&ent ! b dy "eat !r m an $npr te&ted "ead and e5en m re !r m t"e $npr te&ted ne&2# %rist# and an21es.LD-/ . R SURVIVAL It is m re di!!i&$1t ! r y $ t satis!y y $r basi& %ater# ! d# and s"e1ter needs in a & 1d en5ir nment t"an in a %arm en5ir nment. Dry 1eat"er items s1 %1y.A5 id overheating. 0eat &an es&ape m re easi1y !r m t"e b dy t"r $)" t"e &1 t"in)Fs &r$s"ed r !i11ed $p air p &2ets. S metimes in !ree'in) temperat$res# t"e %ind and s$n %i11 dry t"is &1 t"in).8eep &1 t"in) dry. +"e %i11 t s$r5i5e is as imp rtant as t"e basi& needs. I! n t"er means are (a)e 19< ! 2** .e! re enterin) a "eated s"e1ter# br$s" !! t"e sn % and !r st. +"e "ead and "ands a&t as e!!i&ient "eat dissipaters %"en 5er"eated. Ad@$st y $r &1 t"in) s t"at y $ d n t s%eat.e&a$se t"ere is m$&" b1 d &ir&$1ati n in t"e "ead# m st ! %"i&" is n t"e s$r!a&e# y $ &an 1 se "eat 4$i&21y i! y $ d n t & 5er y $r "ead. +"e dead-air spa&e pr 5ides e?tra ins$1ati n. .3ear &1 t"es loose and in layers.n t"e mar&"# "an) y $r damp mittens and s &2s n y $r r$&2sa&2. D t"is by partia11y penin) y $r par2a r @a&2et# by rem 5in) an inner 1ayer ! &1 t"in)# by rem 5in) "ea5y $ter mittens# r by t"r %in) ba&2 y $r par2a " d r &"an)in) t 1i)"ter "ead)ear. +"ere are many di!!erent items ! & 1d %eat"er e4$ipment and &1 t"in) iss$ed by t"e U. Y $ &an a1s p1a&e damp s &2s r mittens# $n! 1ded# near y $r b dy s t"at y $r b dy "eat &an dry t"em. +"ere "a5e been in&idents %"en trained and %e11-e4$ipped indi5id$a1s "a5e n t s$r5i5ed & 1d %eat"er sit$ati ns be&a$se t"ey 1a&2ed t"e %i11 t 1i5e. An easy %ay t remember t"ese basi& prin&ip1es is t $se t"e % rd /. It a1s de&reases t"e 5 1$me ! air trapped bet%een t"e 1ayers# red$&in) its ins$1atin) 5a1$e. .Avoid overheating. Y $ m$st n t n1y "a5e en $)" &1 t"in) t pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d# y $ m$st a1s 2n % " % t ma?imi'e t"e %armt" y $ )et !r m it.S. In & 1d temperat$res# y $r inner 1ayers ! &1 t"in) &an be& me %et !r m s%eat and y $r $ter 1ayer# i! n t %ater repe11ent# &an be& me %et !r m sn % and !r st me1ted by b dy "eat. /Aeep clothing clean. 3ear %ater repe11ent $ter &1 t"in)# i! a5ai1ab1e. I! t"e ne%er types ! &1 t"in) are a5ai1ab1e# $se t"em. F r e?amp1e# a1%ays 2eep y $r "ead & 5ered. +"ere are ! $r basi& prin&ip1es t ! 11 % t 2eep %arm. 3"en y $ )et t " t# y $ s%eat and y $r &1 t"in) abs rbs t"e m ist$re.8eep &1 t"in) clean. . Remember# " %e5er# t"e 1der )ear %i11 2eep y $ %arm as 1 n) as y $ app1y a !e% & 1d %eat"er prin&ip1es. A1s # 1ayers ! &1 t"in) a11 % y $ t ta2e !! r add &1 t"in) 1ayers t pre5ent e?&essi5e s%eatin) r t in&rease %armt". . 3 AT. In %inter# it is a1s imp rtant !r m t"e standp int ! %armt".

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.ICAL ASP CTS 3"en y $ are "ea1t"y# y $r inner & re temperat$re Ct rs temperat$reD remains a1m st & nstant at *7 de)rees / C. .n&e y $ "a5e se1e&ted items t"at are essentia1 ! r y $r s$r5i5a1# d n t 1 se t"em a!ter y $ enter a & 1d %eat"er en5ir nment. Sin&e y $r 1imbs and "ead "a5e 1ess pr te&ti5e b dy tiss$e t"an y $r t rs # t"eir temperat$res 5ary and may n t rea&" & re temperat$re. + %it"stand rea11y & 1d & nditi ns ! r any 1en)t" ! time# " %e5er# "e %i11 "a5e t be& me a&ti5e r s"i5er. S%eatin) "e1ps t & ntr 1 t"e "eat ba1an&e. +"is %i11 "e1p )et rid ! t"e 1i&e# b$t n t t"e e))s.t"er%ise# "an) y $r &1 t"es in t"e & 1d# t"en beat and br$s" t"em. +"is %i11 )i5e y $r s2in a &"an&e t re& 5er be! re e?p sin) it t t"e e1ements.Y/I N A1t" $)" %as"in) y $rse1! may be impra&ti&a1 and $n& m! rtab1e in a & 1d en5ir nment# y $ m$st d s . 3as"in) "e1ps pre5ent s2in ras"es t"at &an de5e1 p int m re seri $s pr b1ems. Department ! t"e Army a5ai1ab1e ! r dryin) y $r b ts# p$t t"em bet%een y $r s1eepin) ba) s"e11 and 1iner. I! y $ are $sin) a pre5i $s1y $sed s"e1ter# &"e&2 y $r b dy and &1 t"in) ! r 1i&e ea&" ni)"t. 6i5e a ) d dea1 ! t" $)"t t se1e&tin) t"e ri)"t e4$ipment ! r s$r5i5a1 in t"e & 1d. (1a&e t"e dry materia1 bet%een t% 1ayers ! t"e materia1.S. It "as been &a1&$1ated t"at a na2ed man e?p sed t sti11 air at r ab $t < de)rees / &an maintain a "eat ba1an&e i! "e s"i5ers as "ard as "e &an. S"i5erin) &a$ses t"e b dy t pr d$&e "eat. H3p"the&+i! (a)e 191 ! 2** . Y $r b dy &an )et rid ! "eat better t"an it &an pr d$&e it. It "as a1s been &a1&$1ated t"at a man at rest %earin) t"e ma?im$m ar&ti& &1 t"in) in a & 1d en5ir nment &an 2eep "is interna1 "eat ba1an&e d$rin) temperat$res %e11 be1 % !ree'in). A "ea5y# d %n-1ined s1eepin) ba) is a 5a1$ab1e pie&e ! s$r5i5a1 )ear in & 1d %eat"er. Ma?im$m s%eatin) %i11 )et rid ! "eat ab $t as !ast as ma?im$m e?erti n pr d$&es it. Y $r b dy "as a & ntr 1 system t"at 1ets it rea&t t temperat$re e?tremes t maintain a temperat$re ba1an&e. It a1s &a$ses !ati)$e t"at# in t$rn# 1eads t a dr p in b dy temperat$re. I! p ssib1e# %as" y $r !eet dai1y and p$t n &1ean# dry s &2s. +"e 2n %1ed)e ! si)ns and sympt ms and t"e $se ! t"e b$ddy system are &riti&a1 in maintainin) "ea1t". I! %et# it 1 ses a 1 t ! its ins$1ati n 5a1$e. Y $r b dy "eat %i11 "e1p t dry t"e 1eat"er. +a2e a "and!$1 ! sn % and %as" y $r b dy %"ere s%eat and m ist$re a&&$m$1ate# s$&" as $nder t"e arms and bet%een t"e 1e)s# and t"en %ipe y $rse1! dry. I! y $r &1 t"in) "as be& me in!ested# $se inse&ti&ide p %der i! y $ "a5e any.t"er imp rtant s$r5i5a1 items are a 2ni!eH %aterpr ! mat&"es in a %aterpr ! & ntainer# pre!erab1y ne %it" a !1int atta&"edH a d$rab1e & mpassH mapH %at&"H %aterpr ! )r $nd &1 t" and & 5erH !1as"1i)"tH bin &$1arsH dar2 )1assesH !atty emer)en&y ! dsH ! d )at"erin) )earH and si)na1in) items. COL. I! y $ are $nab1e t %as" y $r $nder%ear# ta2e it !!# s"a2e it# and 1et it air $t ! r an " $r r t% . -ns$re t"e d %n remains dry. /"an)e y $r $nder%ear at 1east t%i&e a %ee2.6 de)rees FD. Remember# a & 1d %eat"er en5ir nment &an be 5ery "ars". 0 . In s me sit$ati ns# y $ may be ab1e t ta2e a sn % bat". I! y $ s"a5e# try t d s be! re ) in) t bed.:. F 11 %in) are & 1d in@$ries t"at &an &&$r. Air m 5ement ar $nd y $r b dy a!!e&ts "eat 1 ss. I! $ns$re ! an item y $ "a5e ne5er $sed# test it in an J 5erni)"t ba&2yardJ en5ir nment be! re 5ent$rin) !$rt"er. +"ere are t"ree main !a&t rs t"at a!!e&t t"is temperat$re ba1an&e--"eat pr d$&ti n# "eat 1 ss# and e5ap rati n. IN2URI S +"e best %ay t dea1 %it" in@$ries and si&2nesses is t ta2e meas$res t pre5ent t"em !r m "appenin) in t"e !irst p1a&e. . . 0 %e5er# "e &anFt s"i5er ! re5er. +"e di!!eren&e bet%een t"e b dyFs & re temperat$re and t"e en5ir nmentFs temperat$re ) 5erns t"e "eat pr d$&ti n rate. I! y $ d n t "a5e a s1eepin) ba)# y $ &an ma2e ne $t ! para&"$te &1 t" r simi1ar materia1 and nat$ra1 dry materia1# s$&" as 1ea5es# pine need1es# r m ss. +reat any in@$ry r si&2ness t"at &&$rs as s n as p ssib1e t pre5ent it !r m % rsenin). .

Department ! t"e Army 0yp t"ermia is t"e 1 %erin) ! t"e b dy temperat$re at a rate !aster t"an t"e b dy &an pr d$&e "eat.ne ! t"e 4$i&2est %ays t )et "eat t t"e inner & re is t )i5e %arm %ater enemas. 3i))1e and m 5e y $r ears. S$&" an a&ti n# " %e5er# may n t be p ssib1e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n.S. +"is be)ins %"en t"e b dyFs & re Cre&ta1D temperat$re !a11s t ab $t *9. Immersin) t"e t rs in a %arm bat"# i! p ssib1e# is t"e best treatment. . I! y $ are a1 ne# peri di&a11y & 5er y $r n se and 1 %er part ! y $r !a&e %it" y $r mittened "and. • Cars. +"e initia1 sympt m is s"i5erin). +"e ! 11 %in) p inters %i11 aid y $ in 2eepin) %arm and pre5entin) !r stbite %"en it is e?treme1y & 1d r %"en y $ "a5e 1ess t"an ade4$ate &1 t"in)I • -ace. M 5e y $r "ands inside y $r )1 5es. I! t"e pers n is & ns&i $s# )i5e "im " t# s%eetened !1$ids. . • -eet. M 5e y $r !eet and %i))1e y $r t es inside y $r b ts.J Re%armin) t rapid1y &an &a$se t"e 5i&tim t "a5e &ir&$1at ry pr b1ems# res$1tin) in "eart !ai1$re. / re temperat$res ! *2 t *< de)rees / C.* de)rees / C1<< t 11< de)rees FD. Deep !r stbite e?tends t a dept" be1 % t"e s2in. +"e tiss$es be& me s 1id and imm 5ab1e. An t"er met" d is t %rap t"e 5i&tim in a %armed s1eepin) ba) %it" an t"er pers n %" is a1ready %armH b t" s" $1d be na2ed. /"e&2 y $r b$ddyFs !a&e !ten and ma2e s$re t"at "e &"e&2s y $rs.7 t 7*. +"is s"i5erin) may pr )ress t t"e p int t"at it is $n& ntr 11ab1e and inter!eres %it" an indi5id$a1Fs abi1ity t &are ! r "imse1!. + treat "yp t"ermia# re%arm t"e entire b dy. I! t"ere are means a5ai1ab1e# re%arm t"e pers n by !irst immersin) t"e tr$n2 area n1y in %arm %ater ! *7. CAUTION Re%armin) t"e t ta1 b dy in a %arm %ater bat" s" $1d be d ne n1y in a " spita1 en5ir nment be&a$se ! t"e in&reased ris2 ! &ardia& arrest and re%armin) s" &2.< de)rees FD# s1$))is" t"in2in)# irrati na1 reas nin)# and a !a1se !ee1in) ! %armt" may &&$r.ite +"is in@$ry is t"e res$1t ! !r 'en tiss$es. Y $r !eet# "ands# and e?p sed !a&ia1 areas are parti&$1ar1y 5$1nerab1e t !r stbite. CAUTION +"e indi5id$a1 p1a&ed in t"e s1eepin) ba) %it" 5i&tim & $1d a1s be& me a "yp t"ermia 5i&tim i! 1e!t in t"e ba) t 1 n).9 de)rees / C.< t :6 de)rees FD and be1 % res$1t in m$s&1e ri)idity# $n& ns&i $sness# and bare1y dete&tab1e si)ns ! 1i!e. /a$ses ! "yp t"ermia may be )enera1 e?p s$re r t"e s$dden %ettin) ! t"e b dy by !a11in) int a 1a2e r sprayin) %it" !$e1 r t"er 1i4$ids. 3arm %it" y $r "ands. (a)e 192 ! 2** . Li)"t !r stbite in5 15es n1y t"e s2in t"at ta2es n a d$11 %"itis" pa11 r.ne ! t"e best s $r&es ! &a1 ries is " ney r de?tr seH i! $na5ai1ab1e# $se s$)ar# & & a# r a simi1ar s 1$b1e s%eetener. +"ere are t% dan)ers in treatin) "yp t"ermia--re%armin) t rapid1y and Ja!ter dr p. Maintain &ir&$1ati n by t%it&"in) and %rin21in) t"e s2in n y $r !a&e ma2in) !a&es. • (ands. / n&entratin) n %armin) t"e & re area and stim$1atin) perip"era1 &ir&$1ati n %i11 1essen t"e e!!e&ts ! a!ter dr p. A!ter dr p is t"e s"arp b dy & re temperat$re dr p t"at &&$rs %"en ta2in) t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e %arm %ater. 3arm by p1a&in) y $r "ands &1 se t y $r b dy. 3arm %it" y $r "ands. CAUTION D n t ! r&e an $n& ns&i $s pers n t drin2.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3"en t"e & re temperat$re rea&"es *9 t *2 de)rees / C. Its pr bab1e m$se is t"e ret$rn ! pre5i $s1y sta)nant 1imb b1 d t t"e & re Cinner t rs D area as re&ir&$1ati n &&$rs. +"e best !r stbite pre5enti n# %"en y $ are %it" t"ers# is t $se t"e b$ddy system. F&"$t.9 t . I! t"e 5i&timFs & re temperat$re !a11s be1 % 29 de)rees / C77 de)rees FD# deat" is a1m st &ertain.6 de)rees FD.

. App1y s$nb$rn &ream r 1ip sa15e t y $r !a&e %"en in t"e s$n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e ner5es and m$s&1es s$stain t"e main dama)e# b$t )an)rene &an &&$r. (1a&e y $r "ands $nder y $r armpits. +"e sympt ms are a sensati n ! pins and need1es# tin)1in)# n$mbness# and t"en pain. -?p s$re t t"e s$n res$1ts in s$nb$rn m re 4$i&21y at "i)" a1tit$des t"an at 1 % a1tit$des. &# -?p sed s2in &an be& me s$nb$rned e5en %"en t"e air temperat$re is be1 % !ree'in).t"er%ise# ass$me t"e !r stbite is deep. 3a12in) be& mes di!!i&$1t and t"e !eet !ee1 "ea5y and n$mb. +"e s$nFs rays re!1e&t at a11 an)1es !r m sn %# i&e# and %ater# "ittin) sensiti5e areas ! s2in--1ips# n stri1s# and eye1ids. I! y $r $rine ma2es t"e sn % dar2 ye11 %# y $ are be& min) de"ydrated and need t rep1a&e b dy !1$ids. +"e best pre5enti n is t 2eep y $r !eet dry. Y $r need ! r %ater is as )reat in a & 1d en5ir nment as it is in a %arm en5ir nment C/"apter 1*D. Department ! t"e Army A 1 ss ! !ee1in) in y $r "ands and !eet is a si)n ! !r stbite. It a1s de&reases b dy !1$ids t"at y $ m$st rep1a&e. + re%arm a 1i)"t !r stbite# $se y $r "ands r mittens t %arm y $r !a&e and ears. Fi)$re 19-2 1ists s me d Fs and d nFts re)ardin) !r stbite. Y $r "ea5y &1 t"in) abs rbs t"e m ist$re t"at e5ap rates in t"e air.ne %ay t te11 i! y $ are be& min) de"ydrated is t &"e&2 t"e & 1 r ! y $r $rine n sn %. I! it ma2es t"e sn % 1i)"t ye11 % t n & 1 r# y $r b dy !1$ids "a5e a m re n rma1 ba1an&e. S#"2 B%i#(#e$$ (a)e 19* ! 2** . In e?treme &ases# t"e !1es" dies and it may be& me ne&essary t "a5e t"e ! t r 1e) amp$tated. S #.S. Y $ m$st drin2 %ater t rep1a&e t"is 1 ss ! !1$id. As it pr )resses and dama)e appears# t"e s2in %i11 ta2e n a red and t"en a b1$is" r b1a&2 dis& 1 rati n. Y $ &an dry %et s &2s a)ainst y $r t rs Cba&2 r &"estD. Deh3(&!ti"# 3"en b$nd1ed $p in many 1ayers ! &1 t"in) d$rin) & 1d %eat"er# y $ may be $na%are t"at y $ are 1 sin) b dy m ist$re. 3as" y $r !eet and p$t n dry s &2s dai1y. A deep !r stbite in@$ry# i! t"a%ed and re!r 'en# %i11 &a$se m re dama)e t"an a n nmedi&a11y trained pers n &an "and1e. . I! y $ "a5e 1 st !ee1in) ! r n1y a s" rt time# t"e !r stbite is pr bab1y 1i)"t. (1a&e y $r !eet ne?t t y $r b$ddyFs st ma&". C"%( Di &e$i$ -?p s$re t & 1d in&reases $rine $tp$t.h F""t !#( I++e&$i"# F""t +"ese & nditi ns res$1t !r m many " $rs r days ! e?p s$re t %et r damp & nditi ns at a temperat$re @$st ab 5e !ree'in). T&e#. /arry e?tra s &2s %it" y $ in a %aterpr ! pa&2et. +"e s2in %i11 initia11y appear %et# s ))y# %"ite# and s"ri5e1ed. +"e !eet be& me & 1d# s% 11en# and "a5e a %a?y appearan&e.

3 ded areas pr 5ide timber ! r s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n# % d ! r !ire# & n&ea1ment !r m bser5ati n# and pr te&ti n !r m t"e %ind. I! y $ d nFt "a5e s$n)1asses# impr 5ise. / nstr$&t a s"e1ter n 1ar)er t"an needed. De1ayin) re1ie5in) y $rse1! be&a$se ! t"e & 1d# eatin) de"ydrated ! ds# drin2in) t 1itt1e 1i4$id# and irre)$1ar eatin) "abits &an &a$se y $ t be& me & nstipated.e s$re t 5enti1ate an en&1 sed s"e1ter# espe&ia11y i! y $ intend t b$i1d a !ire in it.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . + pre5ent inse&t bites# $se inse&t repe11ent# nettin)# and %ear pr per &1 t"in). Y $ &an b$i1d s"e1ters in % ded areas# pen & $ntry# and barren areas. +"is %i11 red$&e t"e am $nt ! spa&e t "eat.S. (r 1 n)ed e?p s$re t t"ese rays &an res$1t in permanent eye dama)e. (a)e 197 ! 2** . A !ata1 err r in & 1d %eat"er s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n is ma2in) t"e s"e1ter s 1ar)e t"at it stea1s b dy "eat rat"er t"an sa5in) it. Department ! t"e Army +"e re!1e&ti n ! t"e s$nFs $1tra5i 1et rays !! a sn %-& 5ered area &a$ses t"is & nditi n. S"e1ters made !r m i&e r sn % $s$a11y re4$ire t 1s s$&" as i&e a?es r sa%s. A1t" $)" n t disab1in)# & nstipati n &an &a$se s me dis& m! rt. C"#$tip!ti"# It is 5ery imp rtant t re1ie5e y $rse1! %"en needed.t Bite$ Inse&t bites &an be& me in!e&ted t"r $)" & nstant s&rat&"in). The metal will conduct away !rom the shelter what little heat you can generate. S. + treat sn % b1indness# banda)e y $r eyes $nti1 t"e sympt ms disappear. F1ies &an &arry 5ari $s disease-pr d$&in) )erms. ($ttin) s t $nder y $r eyes %i11 "e1p red$&e s"ine and )1are. Use a r$&2sa&2 r sn % b1 &2. A1%ays b1 &2 a s"e1terFs entran&e# i! p ssib1e# t 2eep t"e "eat in and t"e %ind $t. I#$e. 8ote9 In e+treme cold" do not use metal" such as an aircra!t !uselage" !or shelter. In&rease y $r !1$id inta2e t at 1east 2 1iters ab 5e y $r n rma1 2 t * 1iters dai1y inta2e and# i! a5ai1ab1e# eat !r$it and t"er ! ds t"at %i11 1 sen t"e st 1. Y $ m$st a1s e?pend m$&" time and ener)y t b$i1d s$&" a s"e1ter. /$t s1its in a pie&e ! &ardb ard# t"in % d# tree bar2# r t"er a5ai1ab1e materia1 CFi)$re 19-*D. LT RS Y $r en5ir nment and t"e e4$ipment y $ &arry %it" y $ %i11 determine t"e type ! s"e1ter y $ &an b$i1d. +"e sympt ms ! sn % b1indness are a sensati n ! )rit in t"e eyes# pain in and 5er t"e eyes t"at in&reases %it" eyeba11 m 5ement# red and teary eyes# and a "eada&"e t"at intensi!ies %it" & ntin$ed e?p s$re t 1i)"t. Y $ &an pre5ent sn % b1indness by %earin) s$n)1asses. 8eep s"e1ter spa&e sma11. D n t de1ay be&a$se ! t"e & 1d & nditi n. 3 ded areas $s$a11y pr 5ide t"e best 1 &ati n# %"i1e barren areas "a5e n1y sn % as b$i1din) materia1. See /"apter 11 ! r in! rmati n n inse&t bites and /"apter 7 ! r treatment.

. A1%ays &"e&2 y $r 5enti1ati n. First# y $ need t !ind a dri!t ab $t * meters deep int %"i&" y $ &an di). Department ! t"e Army Ne5er s1eep dire&t1y n t"e )r $nd. +"e %a11s and &ei1in) s" $1d be at 1east *< &entimeters t"i&2. (a)e 199 ! 2** . S#"2 C!/e She%te& +"e sn % &a5e s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D is a m st e!!e&ti5e s"e1ter be&a$se ! t"e ins$1atin) 4$a1ities ! sn %. Remember t"at it ta2es time and ener)y t b$i1d and t"at y $ %i11 )et %et %"i1e b$i1din) it. S metimes# " %e5er# press$re at t"e temp1es# b$rnin) ! t"e eyes# "eada&"e# p $ndin) p$1se# dr %siness# r na$sea may &&$r. It is & 1 r1ess and d r1ess. Insta11 a 5enti1ati n s"a!t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. -5en in a 5enti1ated s"e1ter# in& mp1ete & mb$sti n &an &a$se &arb n m n ?ide p is nin). +"e ne &"ara&teristi&# 5isib1e si)n ! &arb n m n ?ide p is nin) is a &"erry red & 1 rin) in t"e tiss$es ! t"e 1ips# m $t"# and inside ! t"e eye1ids. 3"i1e b$i1din) t"is s"e1ter# 2eep t"e r ! ar&"ed ! r stren)t" and t a11 % me1ted sn % t drain d %n t"e sides. -ns$re t"e r ! is "i)" en $)" s t"at y $ &an sit $p n t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm. 6et int !res" air at n&e i! y $ "a5e any ! t"ese sympt ms. Separate t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm !r m t"e sn % &a5eFs %a11s r di) a sma11 tren&" bet%een t"e p1at! rm and t"e %a11. . Us$a11y# t"ere are n sympt ms. Many $se sn % ! r ins$1ati n. +"is p1at! rm %i11 pre5ent t"e me1tin) sn % !r m %ettin) y $ and y $r e4$ipment.1 &2 t"e entran&e %it" a sn % b1 &2 r t"er materia1 and $se t"e 1 %er entran&e area ! r & 2in).$i1d t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm "i)"er t"an t"e entran&e. I! y $ d n t "a5e a dri!t 1ar)e en $)" t b$i1d a sn % &a5e# y $ &an ma2e a 5ariati n ! it by pi1in) sn % int a m $nd 1ar)e en $)" t di) $t. Un& ns&i $sness and deat" &an &&$r %it" $t %arnin). /arb n m n ?ide p is nin) &an res$1t !r m a !ire b$rnin) in an $n5enti1ated s"e1ter. +"is & nstr$&ti n is espe&ia11y imp rtant i! y $ "a5e a ) d s $r&e ! "eat in t"e sn % &a5e. +"ere are se5era1 types ! !ie1d-e?pedient s"e1ters y $ &an 4$i&21y b$i1d r emp1 y.S. Any time y $ "a5e an pen !1ame# it may )enerate &arb n m n ?ide. Lay d %n s me pine b $)"s# )rass# r t"er ins$1atin) materia1 t 2eep t"e )r $nd !r m abs rbin) y $r b dy "eat. /arb n m n ?ide is a )reat dan)er. Ne5er !a11 as1eep %it" $t t$rnin) $t y $r st 5e r 1amp.

I! n t# y $ &an $se a p n&" r t"er materia1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army S#"2 T&e#. I! y $ are in an area ! & mpa&ted sn %# &$t sn % b1 &2s and $se t"em as 5er"ead & 5er.h te She%te& Use sn % b1 &2s ! r t"e sides and para&"$te materia1 ! r 5er"ead & 5er CFi)$re 19-7D. I! sn %!a11 is "ea5y# y $ %i11 "a5e t &1ear sn % !r m t"e t p at re)$1ar inter5a1s t pre5ent t"e & 11apse ! t"e para&"$te materia1.$i1d n1y ne entran&e and $se a sn % b1 &2 r r$&2sa&2 as a d r. (a)e 196 ! 2** .) !#( P!&!.S. .h She%te& +"e idea be"ind t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D is t )et y $ be1 % t"e sn % and %ind 1e5e1 and $se t"e sn %Fs ins$1atin) 4$a1ities. S#"2 B%".

A1s # y $ m$st be in an area t"at is s$itab1e ! r &$ttin) sn % b1 &2s and "a5e t"e e4$ipment t &$t t"em Csn % sa% r 2ni!eD.S. Le!#-T" She%te& / nstr$&t t"is s"e1ter in t"e same manner as ! r t"er en5ir nmentsH " %e5er# pi1e sn % ar $nd t"e sides ! r ins$1ati n CFi)$re 19-9D. +"ey are e!!i&ient s"e1ters b$t re4$ire s me pra&ti&e t ma2e t"em pr per1y. F!%%e# T&ee She%te& + b$i1d t"is s"e1ter# !ind a !a11en tree and di) $t t"e sn % $nderneat" it CFi)$re 19-6D. Department ! t"e Army S#"2 H" $e "& I0%"" In &ertain areas# t"e nati5es !re4$ent1y $se t"is type ! s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D as "$ntin) and !is"in) s"e1ters. +"e sn % %i11 n t be deep $nder t"e tree. T&ee-Pit She%te& (a)e 197 ! 2** . I! y $ m$st rem 5e bran&"es !r m t"e inside# $se t"em t 1ine t"e !1 r.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

0 %e5er# it b$rns a1m st sm 2e-!ree in 1ate !a11 and %inter. Y $ may !ind s me )rasses and m ss# b$t 5ery 1itt1e. It is t"e n1y tree ! t"e pine !ami1y t"at 1 ses its need1es in t"e !a11.n sea i&e# !$e1s are seemin)1y n ne?istent. I! p1a&ed in an pen area# it a1s ser5es as a ) d si)na1 t 5er"ead air&ra!t. It a1s pr 5ides y $ %it" a si)ni!i&ant psy&" 1 )i&a1 b st by ma2in) y $ !ee1 a 1itt1e m re se&$re in y $r sit$ati n. CAUTION D n t e?p se !1es" t petr 1e$m# i1# and 1$bri&ants in e?treme1y & 1d temperat$res. D n t 1et 1ar)e am $nts ! sn % b$i1d $p n t"e 5er"ead pr te&ti n. . Dri!t% d r !ats may be t"e n1y !$e1s a5ai1ab1e t a s$r5i5 r n t"e barren & ast1ines in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns. 3"en b$rnin)# tamara&2 % d ma2es a 1 t ! sm 2e and is e?&e11ent ! r si)na1in) p$rp ses. S& p $p t"e !$e1 as y $ need it. I! !$e1 r i1 is a5ai1ab1e !r m a %re&2ed 5e"i&1e r d %ned air&ra!t# $se it ! r !$e1. I! b$i1t pr per1y# y $ &an "a5e *6<-de)ree 5isibi1ity CFi)$re 9-12# /"apter 9D. Air F r&e air&ra!t. +"ere are !e% materia1s t $se ! r !$e1 in t"e "i)" m $ntain $s re)i ns ! t"e ar&ti&. I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# &$t 1 % tree b $)"s rat"er t"an t"e entire tree ! r !ire% d. It %i11 n t be as deep near t"e base ! t"e tree. Use t"e &$t bran&"es t 1ine t"e s"e1ter. 3it" $t its need1es# it 1 2s 1i2e a dead spr$&e# b$t it "as many 2n bby b$ds and & nes n its bare bran&"es. Dried m ss# )rass# and s&r$b %i11 % are t"er materia1s y $ &an $se ! r !$e1. • 3i11 % and a1der )r % in ar&ti& re)i ns# n rma11y in mars" areas r near 1a2es and streams. +"ese % ds b$rn " t and !ast %it" $t m$&" sm 2e. Lea5e t"e !$e1 in t"e tan2 ! r st ra)e# dra%in) n t"e s$pp1y n1y as y $ need it. . Y $ may !ind s me s&r$b %i11 % and sma11# st$nted spr$&e trees ab 5e t"e tree 1ine. Y $ &an $se it as a s"e1ter. +"e 1i4$id state ! (a)e 19: ! 2** . It n t n1y pr 5ides a means t prepare ! d# b$t a1s t )et %arm and t me1t sn % r i&e ! r %ater. I! y $ "a5e n & ntainer# 1et t"e i1 drain nt t"e sn % r i&e. I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# remember t"at t"e sm 2e# sme11# and 1i)"t !r m y $r !ire may re5ea1 y $r 1 &ati n. A11 % d %i11 b$rn# b$t s me types ! % d &reate m re sm 2e t"an t"ers.S. 2>-M!# Li6e R!6t +"is ra!t is t"e standard 5er%ater ra!t n U.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.y b$nd1in) r t%istin) )rasses r t"er s&r$b 5e)etati n t ! rm a 1ar)e# s 1id mass# y $ %i11 "a5e a s1 %er b$rnin)# m re pr d$&ti5e !$e1. As a & ni!er# spr$&e ma2es a 1 t ! sm 2e %"en b$rned in t"e sprin) and s$mmer m nt"s. +"ese are $s$a11y p1enti!$1 near streams in t$ndras C pen# tree1ess p1ainsD. .ir&" trees are de&id$ $s and t"e % d b$rns " t and !ast# as i! s a2ed %it" i1 r 2er sene. F r instan&e# & ni!er $s trees t"at & ntain resin and tar &reate m re and dar2er sm 2e t"an de&id$ $s trees. M st bir&"es )r % near streams and 1a2es# b$t &&asi na11y y $ %i11 !ind a !e% n "i)"er )r $nd and a%ay !r m %ater. Use t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter 7 t b$i1d and 1i)"t y $r !ire. Li)"t re!1e&ts !r m s$rr $ndin) trees r r &2s# ma2in) e5en indire&t 1i)"t a s $r&e ! dan)er. +"e 1 %er t"e e1e5ati n# t"e m re !$e1 a5ai1ab1e. In %armer %eat"er# espe&ia11y in a % ded area# sm 2e tends t "$) t"e )r $nd# ma2in) it 1ess 5isib1e in t"e day# b$t ma2in) its d r spread. Use a )r $nd s"eet as 5er"ead & 5er t pre5ent sn % !r m !a11in) !! t"e tree int t"e s"e1ter. Ab$ndant !$e1s %it"in t"e tree 1ine are-• Spr$&e trees are & mm n in t"e interi r re)i ns.i1 & n)ea1s in e?treme1y & 1d temperat$res# t"ere! re# drain it !r m t"e 5e"i&1e r air&ra!t %"i1e sti11 %arm i! t"ere is n dan)er ! e?p1 si n r !ire. • +"e tamara&2 tree is a1s a & ni!er. 'IR Fire is espe&ia11y imp rtant in & 1d %eat"er. • . Department ! t"e Army Di) sn % $t !r m $nder a s$itab1e 1ar)e tree. Fa11en trees are easi1y seen !r m t"e air. Sm 2e tends t ) strai)"t $p in & 1d# &a1m %eat"er# ma2in) it a bea& n d$rin) t"e day# b$t "e1pin) t & n&ea1 t"e sme11 at ni)"t.S.

• A pers n tryin) t )et %arm r t dry &1 t"es may be& me &are1ess and b$rn r s& r&" "is &1 t"in) and e4$ipment. Y $r 1 &ati n and t"e seas n ! t"e year %i11 determine %"ere and " % y $ btain %ater. • Me1tin) 5er"ead sn % may )et y $ %et# b$ry y $ and y $r e4$ipment# and p ssib1y e?tin)$is" y $r !ire. +"ere! re# d n t b$i1d a !ire t &1 se t a s"e1ter. 3ater s $r&es in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns are m re sanitary t"an in t"er re)i ns d$e t t"e &1imati& and en5ir nmenta1 & nditi ns. A simp1e &rane pr pped n a ! r2ed sti&2 %i11 " 1d a & 2in) & ntainer 5er a !ire. It is easy t ma2e $t ! a tin &an# and it & nser5es !$e1. F r e?amp1e# a p1asti& sp n %i11 b$rn ! r ab $t 1< min$tes. S me p1asti& pr d$&ts# s$&" as MR. Department ! t"e Army t"ese pr d$&ts is de&epti5e in t"at it &an &a$se !r stbite. D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s# t"e best nat$ra1 s $r&es ! %ater are !res"%ater 1a2es# streams# p nds# ri5ers# and sprin)s. ! 2** . 3AT R +"ere are many s $r&es ! %ater in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti&. (a)e 19. In & 1d %eat"er re)i ns# t"ere are s me "a'ards in $sin) !ires# %"et"er t 2eep %arm r t & 2. • In sn % s"e1ters# e?&essi5e "eat %i11 me1t t"e ins$1atin) 1ayer ! sn % t"at may a1s be y $r &am $!1a)e. +"ey %i11 a1s b$rn 1 n) en $)" t "e1p start a !ire. • A !ire inside a s"e1ter 1a&2in) ade4$ate 5enti1ati n &an res$1t in &arb n m n ?ide p is nin).sp ns# "e1met 5is rs# 5is r " $sin)s# aid ! am r$bber %i11 i)nite 4$i&21y !r m a b$rnin) mat&".S. F r e?amp1e-• Fires "a5e been 2n %n t b$rn $nder)r $nd# res$r!a&in) nearby.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A " b st 5e CFi)$re 19-7D is parti&$1ar1y s$itab1e t t"e ar&ti&. / a1s !r m a &riss&r ss !ire %i11 sett1e $ni! rm1y. R$nnin) %ater in streams# ri5ers# and b$bb1in) sprin)s is $s$a11y !res" and s$itab1e ! r drin2in). 0 %e5er# always puri!y t"e %ater be! re drin2in) it. A sma11 !ire ab $t t"e si'e ! a manFs "and is idea1 ! r $se in enemy territ ry. A bed ! " t & a1s pr 5ides t"e best & 2in) "eat. It re4$ires 5ery 1itt1e !$e1# yet it )enerates & nsiderab1e %armt" and is " t en $)" t %arm 1i4$ids. In )enera1# a sma11 !ire and s me type ! st 5e is t"e best & mbinati n ! r & 2in) p$rp ses. F r "eatin) p$rp ses# a sin)1e &and1e pr 5ides en $)" "eat t %arm an en&1 sed s"e1ter. Ma2e t"is type ! !ire by &riss&r ssin) t"e !ire% d. 3ater !r m p nds r 1a2es may be s1i)"t1y sta)nant# b$t sti11 $sab1e.

8ote9 <o not waste !uel to melt ice or snow when drinkable water is available !rom other sources. Y $ &an $se b dy "eat t me1t sn %. 8e1p# t"e 1 n) ribb n1i2e sea%eed# and t"er sma11er sea%eed t"at )r % am n) !!s" re r &2s are a1s edib1e. Fi$h D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s# y $ &an easi1y )et !is" and t"er %ater 1i!e !r m & asta1 %aters# streams# ri5ers# and 1a2es. 0 %e5er# y $ may "a5e t !i1ter t"e %ater be! re p$ri!yin) it. . +"e e))s are bri)"t ye11 % in & 1 r. M st n rt"ern !is" and !is" e))s are edib1e.e)in %it" a sma11 am $nt ! i&e r sn % in t"e & ntainer and# as it t$rns t %ater# add m re i&e r sn %.e A#i+!%$ (a)e 16< ! 2** . .ne &$p ! i&e yie1ds m re %ater t"an ne &$p ! sn %. 'OO. . L 2 in tida1 p 1s and n !!s" re ree!s. (1a&e a & ntainer $nder t"e ba) t &at&" t"e %ater. +"e sea &$&$mber is an t"er edib1e sea anima1. Inside its b dy are !i5e 1 n) %"ite m$s&1es t"at taste m$&" 1i2e &1am meat. Di) in t"e sand n t"e tida1 !1ats. S metimes y $ &an s& p t"em $p %it" y $r "ands. Se! I. In areas %"ere t"ere is a sma11 di!!eren&e bet%een t"e "i)". Use t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter : t &at&" !is". +"ere are se5era1 s $r&es ! ! d in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns. +"is is a s1 % pr &ess# b$t y $ &an $se it n t"e m 5e r %"en y $ "a5e n !ire. A11 %in) t"e %ater t s1 s" ar $nd %i11 "e1p 2eep it !r m !ree'in). I! n r near pa&2 i&e in t"e sea# y $ &an $se 1d sea i&e t me1t ! r %ater. +"e type ! ! d--!is"# anima1# ! %1# r p1ant--and t"e ease in btainin) it depend n t"e time ! t"e year and y $r 1 &ati n. 3"en i&e is a5ai1ab1e# me1t it# rat"er t"an sn %. +ryin) t me1t i&e r sn % in y $r m $t" ta2es a%ay b dy "eat and may &a$se interna1 & 1d in@$ries.n&e y $ "a5e %ater# 2eep it ne?t t y $ t pre5ent re!ree'in). Department ! t"e Army +"e br %nis" s$r!a&e %ater ! $nd in a t$ndra d$rin) t"e s$mmer is a ) d s $r&e ! %ater. -?&epti ns are t"e meat ! t"e ar&ti& s"ar2 and t"e e))s ! t"e s&$1pins. A1s # d n t !i11 y $r &anteen & mp1ete1y. In time# sea i&e 1 ses its sa1inity. In areas %"ere t"ere is a )reat di!!eren&e bet%een t"e "i)" and 1 % tide %ater 1e5e1s# y $ &an easi1y !ind s"e11!is" at 1 % tide. An t"er %ay t me1t i&e r sn % is by p$ttin) it in a ba) made !r m p r $s materia1 and s$spendin) t"e ba) near t"e !ire. +"e bi5a15es# s$&" as &1ams and m$sse1s# are $s$a11y m re pa1atab1e t"an spira1-s"e11ed sea! d# s$&" as snai1s.S. *ARNIN1 +"e b1a&2 m$sse1# a & mm n m 11$s2 ! t"e !ar n rt"# may be p is n $s in any seas n. + ?ins s metimes ! $nd in t"e m$sse1Fs tiss$e are as dan)er $s as stry&"nine. I&e a1s ta2es 1ess time t me1t. +"e e))s ! t"e spiny sea $r&"in t"at 1i5es in t"e %aters ar $nd t"e A1e$tian Is1ands and s $t"ern A1as2a are e?&e11ent ! d. +"e N rt" At1anti& and N rt" (a&i!i& & asta1 %aters are ri&" in sea! d.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . Y $ &an easi1y !ind &ra%!is"# snai1s# &1ams# ysters# and 2in) &rab. In ear1y s$mmer# sme1t spa%n in t"e bea&" s$r!. (1a&e t"e sn % in a %ater ba) and p1a&e t"e ba) bet%een y $r 1ayers ! &1 t"in). Y $ &an !ten !ind "errin) e))s n t"e sea%eed in mids$mmer. Y $ &an me1t i&e r sn % in a %ater ba)# MR.rea2 t"e s"e11 by p1a&in) it bet%een t% st nes. Y $ &an me1t !res"%ater i&e and sn % ! r %ater. Y $ &an identi!y t"is i&e by its r $nded & rners and b1$is" & 1 r.rati n ba)# tin &an# r impr 5ised & ntainer by p1a&in) t"e & ntainer near a !ire. /ra%1in) $t ! a %arm s1eepin) ba) at ni)"t t re1ie5e y $rse1! means 1ess rest and m re e?p s$re t t"e & 1d.and 1 %-tide %ater 1e5e1s# st rm %a5es !ten %as" s"e11!is" nt t"e bea&"es. L 2 ! r t"e sea $r&"ins in tida1 p 1s. / mp1ete1y me1t b t" be! re p$ttin) t"em in y $r m $t". D$rin) & 1d %eat"er# a5 id drin2in) a 1 t ! 1i4$id be! re ) in) t bed.

8eep t"e sea1 b1$bber and s2in !r m & min) int & nta&t %it" any s&rat&" r br 2en s2in y $ may "a5e. ARCTIC FOOD PLANTS • Ar&ti& raspberry and b1$eberry • Ar&ti& %i11 % • . A1%ays & 2 p 1ar bear meat be! re eatin) it. Appr a&" t"e sea1 %it" y $r b dy side-%ays t it and y $r arms &1 se t y $r b dy s t"at y $ 1 2 as m$&" 1i2e an t"er sea1 as p ssib1e. I! y $ m$st 2i11 ne ! r ! d# appr a&" it &a$ti $s1y. F r instan&e# t"e ar&ti& %i11 % and bir&" are s"r$bs rat"er t"an trees. 3i11 % ptarmi)ans 1i5e am n) %i11 % &1$mps in b tt m-1ands. +ry t rea&" t"e sea1 be! re it s1ips int t"e %ater. CAUTION D n t eat p 1ar bear 1i5er as it & ntains a t ?i& & n&entrati n ! 5itamin A. +"ey are s&ar&e n rt" ! t"e tree 1ine. +"ey )at"er in 1ar)e !1 &2s and y $ &an easi1y snare t"em. Y $ &an !ind p r&$pines in s $t"ern s$bar&ti& re)i ns %"ere t"ere are trees. D$rin) t"e s$mmer# y $ &an st re it in $nder)r $nd i&e " 1es. Aim ! r t"e brainH a b$11et e1se%"ere %i11 rare1y 2i11 ne.S. (tarmi)ans and %1s are as ) d ! r ! d as any )ame bird. + appr a&" a sea1# d as t"e -s2im s d --stay d %n%ind !r m it# &a$ti $s1y m 5in) &1 ser %"i1e it s1eeps. Ra5ens are t t"in t be % rt" t"e e!! rt it ta2es t &at&" t"em. In sprin)# sea1s !ten bas2 n t"e i&e beside t"eir breat"in) " 1es. Use ne ! t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter : t &at&" t"em. Y $ & $1d )et Jspe22-!in)er#J t"at is# a rea&ti n t"at &a$ses t"e "ands t be& me bad1y s% 11en. (tarmi)ans# %1s# /anadian @ays# )r $se# and ra5ens are t"e n1y birds t"at remain in t"e ar&ti& d$rin) t"e %inter. (tarmi)ans# %"i&" &"an)e & 1 r t b1end %it" t"eir s$rr $ndin)s# are "ard t sp t. Department ! t"e Army Y $ !ind p 1ar bears in pra&ti&a11y a11 ar&ti& & asta1 re)i ns# b$t rare1y in1and. ( r&$pines !eed n bar2H i! y $ !ind tree 1imbs stripped bare# y $ are 1i2e1y t !ind p r&$pines in t"e area.t *-%ee2 m 1tin) peri d d$rin) %"i&" t"ey &ann t !1y and are easy t &at&". I! time a11 %s# &$t t"e meat int $sab1e pie&es and !ree'e ea&" separate1y s t"at y $ &an $se t"e pie&es as needed. +"e ! 11 %in) is a 1ist ! s me p1ant ! ds ! $nd in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns Csee Appendi? . -ar1ess sea1 meat is s me ! t"e best meat a5ai1ab1e. R &2 ptarmi)ans tra5e1 in pairs and y $ &an easi1y appr a&" t"em. P%!#t$ A1t" $)" t$ndras s$pp rt a 5ariety ! p1ants d$rin) t"e %arm m nt"s# a11 are sma11# " %e5er# %"en & mpared t p1ants in %armer &1imates. +"e i&e at t"e ed)e ! t"e breat"in) " 1e is $s$a11y sm t" and at an in&1ine# s t"e 1east m 5ement ! t"e sea1 may &a$se it t s1ide int t"e %ater. I! it m 5es# st p and imitate its m 5ements by 1yin) !1at n t"e i&e# raisin) y $r "ead $p and d %n# and %ri))1in) y $r b dy s1i)"t1y. ! r des&ripti nsD. D$rin) t"e %inter# )ame !ree'es 4$i&21y i! 1e!t in t"e pen. 8eep in mind t"at %"ere t"ere are sea1s# t"ere are $s$a11y p 1ar bears# and p 1ar bears "a5e sta12ed and 2i11ed sea1 "$nters. I! y $ d n t "a5e time t s2in t"e )ame# at 1east rem 5e its entrai1s# m$s2 )1ands# and )enita1s be! re st rin).earberry • /ranberry • /r %berry • Dande1i n • -s2im p tat • Fire%eed (a)e 161 ! 2** . +"ey are tire1ess# &1e5er "$nters %it" ) d si)"t and an e?tra rdinary sense ! sme11.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s a11 ar&ti& birds "a5e a 2. +"ey raise t"eir "eads ab $t e5ery *< se& nds# " %e5er# t 1 2 ! r t"eir enemy# t"e p 1ar bear. Lea5e t"e !at n a11 anima1s e?&ept sea1s. S2in and b$t&"er )ame Csee /"apter :D %"i1e it is sti11 %arm. In %inter# a dead sea1 %i11 $s$a11y !1 at# b$t it is di!!i&$1t t retrie5e !r m t"e %ater. Y $ need & nsiderab1e s2i11# " %e5er# t )et &1 se en $)" t an ear1ess sea1 t 2i11 it. +"ey are t"e m st dan)er $s ! a11 bears. A5 id t"em i! p ssib1e. +"ere! re# try t )et %it"in 22 t 79 meters ! t"e sea1 and 2i11 it instant1y Caim ! r t"e brainD.

3"en in d $bt# ! 11 % t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est in /"apter . TRAV L As a s$r5i5 r r an e5ader in an ar&ti& r s$bar&ti& re)i n# y $ %i11 !a&e many bsta&1es. • +a2e &are %"en &r ssin) t"in i&e. +ra5e1 in t"e ear1y m rnin) in areas %"ere t"ere is dan)er ! a5a1an&"es. Y $ m re !re4$ent1y $nderestimate t"an 5erestimate distan&es. C%" ($ (a)e 162 ! 2** . I! y $ d n t "a5e sn %s" es# ma2e a pair $sin) %i11 %# strips ! &1 t"# 1eat"er# r t"er s$itab1e materia1. / nsider t"is 5ariati n in %ater 1e5e1 %"en se1e&tin) a &ampsite near a stream. N rma1 !ree'in) and t"a%in) a&ti n may &a$se a stream 1e5e1 t 5ary as m$&" as 2 t 2. +"ese !ten e?tend !ar $t !r m t"e rid)e and may brea2 1 se i! stepped n. • /r ss streams %"en t"e %ater 1e5e1 is 1 %est. Y $r 1 &ati n and t"e time ! t"e year %i11 determine t"e types ! bsta&1es and t"e in"erent dan)ers. 0 %e5er# s me ri5ers t"at appear !r 'en may "a5e s !t# pen areas t"at ma2e tra5e1 5ery di!!i&$1t r may n t a11 % %a12in)# s2iin)# r s1eddin). Department ! t"e Army • • • • • I&e1and m ss Mars" mari) 1d Reindeer m ss R &2 tripe Spatterd &2 +"ere are s me p1ants )r %in) in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns t"at are p is n $s i! eaten Csee Appendi? /D. 3 AT. +"e 1a&2 ! & ntrastin) & 1 rs ma2es it imp ssib1e t @$d)e t"e nat$re ! t"e terrain. I! y $ m$st tra5e1 in deep sn %# a5 id sn %-& 5ered streams.n&e y $ determine t"e %ind dire&ti n# y $ &an predi&t t"e type ! %eat"er t"at is imminent. • D n t tra5e1 in J%"ite $tJ & nditi ns. • / nsider t"e &1ear ar&ti& air. In "i11y terrain# a5 id areas %"ere a5a1an&"es appear p ssib1e. . Rapid1y s"i!tin) %inds indi&ate an $nsett1ed atm sp"ere and a 1i2e1y &"an)e in t"e %eat"er.# Fi)$re . +"e sn %# %"i&" a&ts as an ins$1at r# may "a5e pre5ented i&e !r m ! rmin) 5er t"e %ater.n rid)es# sn % )at"ers n t"e 1ee side in 5er"an)in) pi1es &a11ed & rni&es. It is a1m st imp ssib1e t tra5e1 in deep sn % %it" $t sn %s" es r s2is. *i#( Y $ &an determine %ind dire&ti n by dr ppin) a !e% 1ea5es r )rass r by %at&"in) t"e treet ps. +ra5e1in) by ! t 1ea5es a %e11mar2ed trai1 ! r any p$rs$ers t ! 11 %. Use t"e p1ants t"at y $ 2n % are edib1e. Find t"e str n)est part ! t"e brid)e by p 2in) a"ead ! y $ %it" a p 1e r i&e a?e. Sn % *< r m re &entimeters deep ma2es tra5e1in) di!!i&$1t. Y $ s" $1d-• A5 id tra5e1in) d$rin) a b1i''ard.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Ma2e &amp ear1y s t"at y $ "a5e p1enty ! time t b$i1d a s"e1ter. It ma2es estimatin) distan&e di!!i&$1t. . Distrib$te y $r %ei)"t by 1yin) !1at and &ra%1in). • Use sn %s" es i! y $ are tra5e1in) 5er sn %-& 5ered terrain. +"is 5arian&e may &&$r any time d$rin) t"e day# dependin) n t"e distan&e !r m a )1a&ier# t"e temperat$re# and t"e terrain.9 meters per day. • A1%ays &r ss a sn % brid)e at ri)"t an)1es t t"e bsta&1e it &r sses. Distrib$te y $r %ei)"t by &ra%1in) r by %earin) sn %s" es r s2is. • / nsider !r 'en r $n!r 'en ri5ers as a5en$es ! tra5e1.S.-9. R SI/NS +"ere are se5era1 ) d indi&at rs ! &1imati& &"an)es.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.irds and inse&ts !1y 1 %er t t"e )r $nd t"an n rma1 in "ea5y# m ist$re-1aden air. +"e s1$))is"# "$mid air ma2es %i1derness d rs m re pr n $n&ed t"an d$rin) "i)"-press$re & nditi ns. M st inse&t a&ti5ity in&reases be! re a st rm# b$t bee a&ti5ity in&reases be! re !air %eat"er.S. S$&" !1i)"t indi&ates t"at rain is 1i2e1y. S+")e Sm 2e risin) in a t"in 5erti&a1 & 1$mn indi&ates !air %eat"er. L % risin) r J!1attened $tJ sm 2e indi&ates st rmy %eat"er. (a)e 16* ! 2** . Bi&($ !#( I#$e. Y $ &an Jsme11J and J"earJ t"is !r nt. Department ! t"e Army /1 $ds & me in a 5ariety ! s"apes and patterns. See Appendi? 6 ! r detai1s. In additi n# s $nds are s"arper and &arry !art"er in 1 %-press$re t"an "i)"-press$re & nditi ns. S$&" a !r nt pr mises bad %eat"er t"at %i11 pr bab1y 1in)er ! r se5era1 days. A )enera1 2n %1ed)e ! &1 $ds and t"e atm sp"eri& & nditi ns t"ey indi&ate &an "e1p y $ predi&t t"e %eat"er.t$ . L"2-P&e$$ &e F&"#t S1 %-m 5in) r imper&eptib1e %inds and "ea5y# "$mid air !ten indi&ate a 1 %-press$re !r nt.

OP N S A As a s$r5i5 r n t"e pen sea# y $ %i11 !a&e %a5es and %ind. Y $ may a1s !a&e e?treme "eat r & 1d. 0 %e5er# y $ m$st 2n % " % t treat "ea1t" pr b1ems t"at may res$1t !r m y $r sit$ati n. 3"en y $ b ard a s"ip r air&ra!t# !ind $t %"at s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment is n b ard# %"ere it is st %ed# and %"at it & ntains. F r instan&e# " % many 1i!e preser5ers and 1i!eb ats r ra!ts are n b ardG 3"ere are t"ey 1 &atedG 3"at type ! s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment d t"ey "a5eG 0 % m$&" ! d# %ater# and medi&ine d t"ey & ntainG 0 % many pe p1e are t"ey desi)ned t s$pp rtG I! y $ are resp nsib1e ! r t"er pers nne1 n b ard# ma2e s$re y $ 2n % %"ere t"ey are and t"ey 2n % %"ere y $ are. There is always the chance that the plane or ship you are on will become crippled by such ha*ards as storms" collision" !ire" or war. (r te&tin) y $rse1! !r m t"e e1ements meets n1y ne ! y $r basi& needs. @ou must be resource!ul to survive.s sur!ace" with about F. T. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 16 . • 6et &1ear ! !$e1-& 5ered %ater in &ase t"e !$e1 i)nites. Short%or long%term survival depends upon rations and e)uipment available and your ingenuity. percent being oceans and seas. @ou can assume that you will sometime cross vast e+panses o! water.S. (a)e 167 ! 2** . P&e. D"2# !t Se! I! y $ are in an air&ra!t t"at ) es d %n at sea# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) a&ti ns n&e y $ &1ear t"e air&ra!t. + 2eep t"ese en5ir nmenta1 "a'ards !r m be& min) seri $s pr b1ems# ta2e pre&a$ti nary meas$res as s n as p ssib1e.! ti"#!&3 Me!$ &e$ Y $r s$r5i5a1 at sea depends $p n-• Y $r 2n %1ed)e ! and abi1ity t $se t"e a5ai1ab1e s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment. Y $ m$st a1s be ab1e t btain %ater and ! d. Use t"e a5ai1ab1e res $r&es t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m t"e e1ements and !r m "eat r e?treme & 1d and "$midity. • Y $r spe&ia1 s2i11s and abi1ity t app1y t"em t & pe %it" t"e "a'ards y $ !a&e. ater covers about F6 percent o! the earth.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Y $r %i11 t 1i5e. 3"et"er y $ are in t"e %ater r in a ra!t -• 6et &1ear and $p%ind ! t"e air&ra!t as s n as p ssib1e# b$t stay in t"e 5i&inity $nti1 t"e air&ra!t sin2s. Satis!yin) t"ese t"ree basi& needs %i11 "e1p pre5ent seri $s p"ysi&a1 and psy&" 1 )i&a1 pr b1ems.SEA SURVIVAL :erhaps the most di!!icult survival situation to be in is sea survival.

A res&$er s" $1d n t $nderestimate t"e stren)t" ! a pani&-stri&2en pers n in t"e %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is de5i&e %i11 "e1p & nser5e a res&$erFs ener)y %"i1e re& 5erin) t"e s$r5i5 r. A sear&" ! r s$r5i5 rs $s$a11y ta2es p1a&e ar $nd t"e entire area ! and near t"e &ras" site. Missin) pers nne1 may be $n& ns&i $s and !1 atin) 1 % in t"e %ater. Department ! t"e Army • +ry t !ind t"er s$r5i5 rs. +"e res&$er s%ims t a p int dire&t1y be"ind t"e s$r5i5 r and )rasps t"e 1i!e preser5erFs ba&2strap.S. (a)e 169 ! 2** . +"e res&$er $ses t"e sidestr 2e t dra) t"e s$r5i5 r t t"e ra!t. An t"er is t send a s%immer Cres&$erD !r m t"e ra!t %it" a 1ine atta&"ed t a !1 tati n de5i&e t"at %i11 s$pp rt t"e res&$erFs %ei)"t. In a11 &ases# t"e res&$er %ears a 1i!e preser5er. Fi)$re 16-1 i11$strates res&$e pr &ed$res. A &are!$1 appr a&" &an pre5ent in@$ry t t"e res&$er. +"e best te&"ni4$e ! r res&$in) pers nne1 !r m t"e %ater is t t"r % t"em a 1i!e preser5er atta&"ed t a 1ine. +"e 1east a&&eptab1e te&"ni4$e is t send an atta&"ed s%immer %it" $t !1 tati n de5i&es t retrie5e a s$r5i5 r. 3"en t"e res&$er appr a&"es a s$r5i5 r in tr $b1e !r m be"ind# t"ere is 1itt1e dan)er t"e s$r5i5 r %i11 2i&2# s&rat&"# r )rab "im.

S%im $nder%ater as !ar as p ssib1e be! re s$r!a&in) t breat"e. 8ote9 I! you have an unin!lated li!e preserver" keep it. +"e b dyFs nat$ra1 b$ yan&y %i11 2eep at 1east t"e t p ! t"e "ead ab 5e %ater# b$t s me m 5ement is needed t 2eep t"e !a&e ab 5e %ater.e! re s$r!a&in) t breat"e and %"i1e sti11 $nder%ater# $se y $r "ands t p$s" b$rnin) !1$id a%ay !r m t"e area %"ere y $ %is" t s$r!a&e. S$bmer)e !eet !irst and & ntin$e as ab 5e $nti1 &1ear ! t"e !1ames. I! y $ are in an area %"ere s$r!a&e i1 is b$rnin)-• Dis&ard y $r s" es and b$ yant 1i!e preser5er. +"is str 2e is e?&e11ent %"en &1 t"ed r %earin) a 1i!e @a&2et. I! y $ &ann t !1 at n y $r ba&2 r i! t"e sea is t r $)"# !1 at !a&ed %n in t"e %ater as s" %n in Fi)$re 16-2. (a)e 166 ! 2** . Use it i! an $nder%ater e?p1 si n is 1i2e1y. • ?ackstroke. It re1ie5es t"e m$s&1es t"at y $ $se ! r t"er str 2es. Lie n y $r ba&2 in t"e %ater# spread y $r arms and 1e)s# and ar&" y $r ba&2. +ry t !a&e d %n%ind be! re in"a1in).n&e an area is &1ear ! b$rnin) 1i4$id# y $ &an s$r!a&e and ta2e a !e% breat"s. Use t"is str 2e t s%im $nder%ater# t"r $)" i1 r debris# r in r $)" seas. A1t" $)" s1 % in speed# it re4$ires 5ery 1itt1e ener)y. It is a ) d re1ie! str 2e be&a$se y $ $se n1y ne arm t maintain m ment$m and b$ yan&y. F1 atin) n y $r ba&2 ta2es t"e 1east ener)y.S. • ?reaststroke. Re1a?H a pers n %" 2n %s " % t re1a? in &ean %ater is in 5ery 1itt1e dan)er ! dr %nin). . +"e ! 11 %in) are t"e best s%immin) str 2es d$rin) a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati nI • <og paddle.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.y & ntr 11in) y $r breat"in) in and $t# y $r !a&e %i11 a1%ays be $t ! t"e %ater and y $ may e5en s1eep in t"is p siti n ! r s" rt peri ds. Y $r "ead %i11 be partia11y s$bmer)ed# b$t y $r !a&e %i11 be ab 5e %ater. It is pr bab1y t"e best str 2e ! r 1 n)-ran)e s%immin)I it a11 %s y $ t & nser5e y $r ener)y and maintain a reas nab1e speed. I! n ra!ts are a5ai1ab1e# try t !ind a 1ar)e pie&e ! !1 atin) debris t &1in) t . +"is str 2e is a1s an e?&e11ent re1ie! str 2e. . • • • • / 5er y $r n se# m $t"# and eyes and 4$i&21y ) $nder%ater. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ are in t"e %ater# ma2e y $r %ay t a ra!t. . • Sidestroke.

In t"is &ase# $se t"e J0-L(J b dy p siti nI 0eat -s&apin) Lessenin) ( st$re C0-L(D.9 meters apart. I! y $ are in a ra!t-• /"e&2 t"e p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! a11 n b ard.peratin) instr$&ti ns are n it. 6i5e !irst aid i! ne&essary. F r e?amp1e# raise a !1a) r re!1e&tin) materia1 n an ar as "i)" as p ssib1e t attra&t attenti n. Fi)$re 16-* i11$strates t"e 0-L( p siti n. 0 %e5er# i! y $r sit$ati n is desperate# y $ may "a5e t si)na1 t"e enemy ! r res&$e i! y $ are t s$r5i5e. Use t"e emer)en&y trans&ei5er n1y %"en !riend1y air&ra!t are 1i2e1y t be in t"e area. +"ere are a1s s$pp sit ries r in@e&ti ns a)ainst seasi&2ness. It is easier ! r an air&re% t sp t ra!ts t"at are &1 se t )et"er rat"er t"an s&attered. +"e best %ay t ta2e t"ese pi11s is t p1a&e t"em $nder t"e t n)$e and 1et t"em diss 15e. I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# a5 id $sin) a si)na1in) de5i&e t"at %i11 a1ert t"e enemy.e ready t dra% t"em &1 ser t )et"er i! y $ see r "ear an air&ra!t. • I! t"ere are t"er ra!ts# 1as" t"e ra!ts t )et"er s t"ey are ab $t 7. .S. I! y $ "a5e a 1i!e preser5er# y $ &an stay a!1 at ! r an inde!inite peri d. Use a11 a5ai1ab1e 5is$a1 r e1e&tr ni& si)na1in) de5i&es t si)na1 and ma2e & nta&t %it" res&$ers. • Remember# res&$e at sea is a & perati5e e!! rt. • 0a5e t"er si)na1in) de5i&es ready ! r instant $se. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ are in i1-& 5ered %ater t"at is !ree ! !ire# " 1d y $r "ead "i)" t 2eep t"e i1 $t ! y $r eyes. Atta&" y $r 1i!e preser5er t y $r %rist and t"en $se it as a ra!t. • +ry t sa15a)e a11 !1 atin) e4$ipment--rati nsH &anteens# t"erm s @$)s# and t"er & ntainersH &1 t"in)H seat &$s"i nsH para&"$tesH and anyt"in) e1se t"at %i11 be $se!$1 t y $. Ma2e s$re t"e items "a5e n s"arp ed)es t"at &an p$n&t$re t"e ra!t. Se&$re t"e sa15a)ed items in r t y $r ra!t. +"ere! re# 2eep y $r "ead $t ! t"e %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Remain sti11 and ass$me t"e !eta1 p siti n t "e1p y $ retain b dy "eat. (a)e 167 ! 2** . +a2e seasi&2ness pi11s i! a5ai1ab1e. Y $ 1 se ab $t 9< per&ent ! y $r b dy "eat t"r $)" y $r "ead. V mitin)# %"et"er !r m seasi&2ness r t"er &a$ses# in&reases t"e dan)er ! de"ydrati n.t"er areas ! "i)" "eat 1 ss are t"e ne&2# t"e sides# and t"e )r in. • L &ate t"e emer)en&y radi and )et it int perati n. . .

(a)e 16: ! 2** . (etr 1e$m %i11 %ea2en its s$r!a&es and brea2 d %n its )1$ed @ ints. Department ! t"e Army /"e&2 t"e ra!t ! r in!1ati n# 1ea2s# and p ints ! p ssib1e &"a!in). • De& ntaminate t"e ra!t ! a11 !$e1. Ma2e s$re t"e main b$ yan&y &"ambers are !irm C%e11 r $ndedD b$t n t 5er1y ti)"t CFi)$re 16-7D. /"e&2 in!1ati n re)$1ar1y. Y $ &an ad@$st t"e sea an&" r t a&t as a dra) t s1 % d %n t"e rate ! tra5e1 %it" t"e &$rrent# r as a means t tra5e1 %it" t"e &$rrent. 3it" $t a sea an&" r# y $r ra!t may dri!t 5er 16< 2i1 meters in a day# ma2in) it m$&" "arder t !ind y $. 3"en &1 sed# it ! rms a p &2et ! r t"e &$rrent t stri2e and pr pe1s t"e ra!t in t"e &$rrentFs dire&ti n. A sea an&" r "e1ps y $ stay &1 se t y $r dit&"in) site# ma2in) it easier ! r sear&"ers t !ind y $ i! y $ "a5e re1ayed y $r 1 &ati n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Y $ ma2e t"is ad@$stment by penin) r &1 sin) t"e sea an&" rFs ape?. 3"en pen# t"e sea an&" r CFi)$re 16-9D a&ts as a dra) t"at 2eeps y $ in t"e )enera1 area. Air e?pands %it" "eatH t"ere! re# n " t days# re1ease s me air and add air %"en t"e %eat"er & 1s. +"r % $t t"e sea an&" r# r impr 5ise a dra) !r m t"e ra!tFs &ase# bai1in) b$&2et# r a r 11 ! &1 t"in).

• In st rmy %ater# ri) t"e spray and %inds"ie1d at n&e. In a 2<-man ra!t# 2eep t"e &an py ere&ted at a11 times. I! t"e enemy dete&ts y $ and y $ are &1 se t &apt$re# destr y t"e 1 ) b 2# radi # na5i)ati n e4$ipment# maps# si)na1in) e4$ipment# and !irearms. +"r % $t t"e sea an&" r and %ait ! r ni)"t!a11 be! re padd1in) r " istin) sai1. I! y $ are d %n in $n!riend1y %aters# ta2e spe&ia1 se&$rity meas$res t a5 id dete&ti n. • 3rap t"e sea an&" r r pe %it" &1 t" t pre5ent its &"a!in) t"e ra!t. >$mp 5erb ard and s$bmer)e i! t"e enemy starts stra!in). In5ent ry a11 e4$ipment# ! d# and %ater. • • • 8eep a 1 ). • /a1m1y & nsider a11 aspe&ts ! y $r sit$ati n and determine %"at y $ and y $r & mpani ns m$st d t s$r5i5e. 8eep it pr per1y ba1an&ed. As2 y $rse1!# J0 % m$&" in! rmati n %as si)na1ed be! re t"e a&&identG Is y $r p siti n 2n %n t res&$ersG D y $ 2n % it y $rse1!G Is t"e %eat"er !a5 rab1e ! r a sear&"G Are t"er s"ips r air&ra!t 1i2e1y t pass y $r present p siti nG 0 % many days s$pp1y ! ! d and %ater d y $ "a5eGJ C"%( *e!the& C"#$i(e&!ti"#$ I! y $ are in a & 1d &1imate-- (a)e 16.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . Re& rd t"e na5i)at rFs 1ast !i?# t"e time ! dit&"in)# t"e names and p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! pers nne1# and t"e rati n s&"ed$1e. Aeep in mind and remind others that cooperation is one o! the keys to survival. • Assi)n a d$ty p siti n t ea&" pers nI ! r e?amp1e# %ater & 11e&t r# ! d & 11e&t r# 1 2 $t# radi perat r# si)na1er# and %ater bai1ers. ! 2** . A1s re& rd t"e %inds# %eat"er# dire&ti n ! s%e11s# times ! s$nrise and s$nset# and t"er na5i)ati na1 data. De&ide %"et"er t stay in p siti n r t tra5e1. 8eep y $r ra!t as dry as p ssib1e. Rati n ! d and %ater. 8ote9 Lookout duty should not e+ceed 3 hours. D n t tra5e1 in t"e daytime. 3aterpr ! items t"at sa1t %ater may a!!e&t. 8eep 1 % in t"e ra!tH stay & 5ered %it" t"e b1$e side ! t"e &am $!1a)e &1 t" $p.S. +"ese in&1$de & mpasses# %at&"es# se?tant# mat&"es# and 1i)"ters. Department ! t"e Army Additi na11y# ad@$st t"e sea an&" r s t"at %"en t"e ra!t is n t"e %a5eFs &rest# t"e sea an&" r is in t"e %a5eFs tr $)" CFi)$re 16-6D. +"e an&" r a1s "e1ps t 2eep t"e ra!t "eaded int t"e %ind and %a5es. A11 pers nne1 s" $1d stay seated# t"e "ea5iest ne in t"e &enter.e s$re a passin) s"ip r air&ra!t is !riend1y r ne$tra1 be-! re tryin) t attra&t its attenti n.

Fi)$re 16-7 1ists 1i!e e?pe&tan&y times ! r immersi n in %ater. S. H"t *e!the& C"#$i(e&!ti"#$ I! y $ are in a " t &1imate-• Ri) a s$ns"ade r &an py. Remember# 2eep y $r "ead and ne&2 $t ! t"e %ater and %e11 ins$1ated !r m t"e & 1d %aterFs e!!e&ts %"en t"e temperat$re is be1 % 1. Ri) a %indbrea2# spray s"ie1d# and &an py. Army and Air F r&e in5ent ries &an satis!y t"e needs ! r pers na1 pr te&ti n# m de ! tra5e1# and e5asi n and &am $!1a)e. Use s$nb$rn &ream# i! a5ai1ab1e# n a11 e?p sed s2in. 3earin) 1i!e preser5ers in&reases t"e predi&ted s$r5i5a1 time as b dy p siti n in t"e %ater in&reases t"e &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1. 8ote9 ?e!ore boarding any ra!t" remove and tether &attach' your li!e preserver to yoursel! or the ra!t. +ry t 2eep t"e !1 r ! t"e ra!t dry. Y $r best pr te&ti n a)ainst t"e e!!e&ts ! & 1d %ater is t )et int t"e 1i!e ra!t# stay dry# and ins$1ate y $r b dy !r m t"e & 1d s$r!a&e ! t"e b tt m ! t"e ra!t. R!6t P&". Lea5e en $)" spa&e ! r 5enti1ati n. 0$dd1e %it" t"ers t 2eep %arm# m 5in) en $)" t 2eep t"e b1 d &ir&$1atin). 3"en y $ are immersed in & 1d %ater# "yp t"ermia &&$rs rapid1y d$e t t"e de&reased ins$1atin) 4$a1ity ! %et &1 t"in) and t"e res$1t ! %ater disp1a&in) t"e 1ayer ! sti11 air t"at n rma11y s$rr $nds t"e b dy. +"e )reatest pr b1em y $ !a&e %"en s$bmer)ed in & 1d %ater is deat" d$e t "yp t"ermia.S. Spread an e?tra tarpa$1in# sai1# r para&"$te 5er t"e )r $p. 6i5e e?tra rati ns# i! a5ai1ab1e# t men s$!!erin) !r m e?p s$re t & 1d. I! t"ese a&ti ns are n t p ssib1e# %earin) an antie?p s$re s$it %i11 e?tend y $r 1i!e e?pe&tan&y & nsiderab1y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A!ter boarding the ra!t" don your li!e preserver again. • / 5er y $r s2in# %"ere p ssib1e# t pr te&t it !r m s$nb$rn. 8eep &1 t"es 1 se and & m! rtab1e. One50an Ra$t (a)e 17< ! 2** . Y $r eye1ids# t"e ba&2 ! y $r ears# and t"e s2in $nder y $r &"in s$nb$rn easi1y. 8eep t"e repair 2it %"ere y $ &an readi1y rea&" it. +a2e &are n t t sna) t"e ra!t %it" s" es r s"arp b@e&ts.e( &e$ M st ! t"e ra!ts in t"e U. de)rees /. / 5er it %it" &an5as r &1 t" ! r ins$1ati n. Cnsure there are no other metallic or sharp ob$ects on your clothing or e)uipment that could damage the ra!t. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • ($t n an antie?p s$re s$it. +"e rate ! "eat e?&"an)e in %ater is ab $t 29 times )reater t"an it is in air ! t"e same temperat$re. I! $na5ai1ab1e# p$t n any e?tra &1 t"in) a5ai1ab1e.

+"e ra!t may "it t"e %ater $pside d %n# b$t y $ &an ri)"t it by appr a&"in) t"e side t %"i&" t"e b tt1e is atta&"ed and !1ippin) t"e ra!t 5er. Department ! t"e Army +"e ne-man ra!t "as a main &e11 in!1ati n. Y $ &an $se t"e spray s"ie1d as a sai1 %"ite t"e ba11ast b$&2ets ser5e t in&rease dra) in t"e %ater. +"ese ra!ts b1end %it" t"e seaFs ba&2)r $nd. In s me &ases# t"is s"ie1d ser5es as ins$1ati n. A 1anyard & nne&ts t"e ne-man ra!t t a para&"$tist Cs$r5i5 rD 1andin) in t"e %ater. Y $ &an tra5e1 m re e!!e&ti5e1y by in!1atin) r de!1atin) t"e ra!t t ta2e ad5anta)e ! t"e %ind r &$rrent. F 11 % t"e steps $t1ined in t"e n te $nder ra!t pr &ed$res ab 5e %"en b ardin) t"e ra!t CFi)$re 16-. Y $ may $se t"e sea an&" r t & ntr 1 t"e ra!tFs speed and dire&ti n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ "a5e an arm in@$ry# t"e best %ay t b ard is by t$rnin) y $r ba&2 t t"e sma11 end ! t"e ra!t# p$s"in) t"e ra!t $nder y $r b$tt &2s# and 1yin) ba&2. +"e spray s"ie1d m$st be in t"e ra!t t e?p se t"e b ardin) "and1es. +"ere are ra!ts de5e1 ped ! r $se in ta&ti&a1 areas t"at are b1a&2. (a)e 171 ! 2** .D.2 b tt1e s" $1d ma1!$n&ti n r i! t"e ra!t de5e1 ps a 1ea2# y $ &an in!1ate it by m $t". Y $ Ct"e s$r5i5 rD in!1ate it $p n 1andin).S. Y $ &an !$rt"er m di!y t"ese ra!ts ! r e5asi n by partia11y de!1atin) t"em t btain a 1 %er pr !i1e. +"e spray s"ie1d a&ts as a s"e1ter !r m t"e & 1d# %ind# and %ater. I! t"e /. Y $ d n t s%im t t"e ra!t# b$t p$11 it t y $ 5ia t"e 1anyard. An t"er %ay t b ard t"e ra!t is t p$s" d %n n its sma11 end $nti1 ne 2nee is inside and 1ie ! r%ard CFi)$re 16-1<D. +"e ra!tFs ins$1ated b tt m 1imits t"e & nd$&ti n ! & 1d t"ereby pr te&tin) y $ !r m "yp t"ermia CFi)$re 16-:D.

Department ! t"e Army In r $)" seas# it may be easier ! r y $ t )rasp t"e sma11 end ! t"e ra!t and# in a pr ne p siti n# t 2i&2 and p$11 y $rse1! int t"e ra!t. Fa&in) int t"e %ind# t"e %ind pr 5ides additi na1 "e1p in ri)"tin) t"e ra!t. A1%ays % r2 !r m t"e b tt1e side t pre5ent in@$ry i! t"e ra!t t$rns 5er. It is a & mp nent ! t"e s$r5i5a1 dr p 2it CFi)$re 1612D.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 172 ! 2** . Use t"e "and1es n t"e inside b tt m ! t"e ra!t ! r b ardin) CFi)$re 16-1*D. +"is ra!t may in!1ate $pside d %n and re4$ire y $ t ri)"t t"e ra!t be! re b ardin). 3"en y $ are 1yin) !a&e d %n in t"e ra!t# dep1 y and ad@$st t"e sea an&" r. Se5en-Man Ra!t S me m$1tip1a&e air&ra!t &arry t"e se5en-man ra!t. + sit $pri)"t# y $ may "a5e t dis& nne&t ne side ! t"e seat 2it and r 11 t t"at side. +"en y $ ad@$st t"e spray s"ie1d. +"ere are t% 5ariati ns ! t"e ne-man ra!tH t"e impr 5ed m de1 in& rp rates an in!1atab1e spray s"ie1d and !1 r t"at pr 5ide additi na1 ins$1ati n. +"e spray s"ie1d "e1ps 2eep y $ dry and %arm in & 1d &eans and pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e s$n in t"e " t &1imates CFi)$re 16-11D.

F 11 % t"e steps $t1ined in t"e n te $nder ra!t pr &ed$res ab 5e. I! y $ are %ea2 r in@$red# y $ may partia11y de!1ate t"e ra!t t ma2e b ardin) easier CFi)$re 16-17D. (a)e 17* ! 2** .S. +"en )rasp an ar1 &2 and b ardin) "and1e# 2i&2 y $r 1e)s t )et y $r b dy pr ne n t"e %ater# and t"en 2i&2 and p$11 y $rse1! int t"e ra!t. I! y $ d nFt "a5e "e1p# a)ain % r2 !r m t"e b tt1e side %it" t"e %ind at y $r ba&2 t "e1p " 1d d %n t"e ra!t. Department ! t"e Army Use t"e b ardin) ramp i! s me ne " 1ds d %n t"e ra!tFs pp site side.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

+%enty. (a)e 177 ! 2** . • Rem 5e y $r 1i!e preser5er and tet"er it t y $rse1! s t"at it trai1s be"ind y $. A 1anyard & nne&ts t"e a&&ess ry 2it t t"e ra!t and y $ retrie5e t"e 2it by "and. Ne5er 5erin!1ate t"e ra!t. Y $ %i11 !ind t"em in a&&essib1e areas ! t"e !$se1a)e r in ra!t & mpartments. • 6rasp t"e b ardin) "and1es and 2i&2 y $r 1e)s t )et y $r b dy int a pr ne p siti n n t"e %aterFs s$r!a&eH t"en 2i&2 and p$11 $nti1 y $ are inside t"e ra!t. N matter " % t"e ra!t 1ands in t"e %ater# it is ready ! r b ardin). I! n t# b ard in t"e ! 11 %in) mannerI • Appr a&" t"e 1 %er b ardin) ramp. S me may be a$t mati&a11y dep1 yed !r m t"e & &2-pit# %"i1e t"ers may need man$a1 dep1 yment.r 29-man ra!t !r m t"e air&ra!t# i! p ssib1e.S.r +%enty-Fi5e-Man Ra!ts Y $ may !ind 2<. Y $ m$st man$a11y in!1ate t"e &enter &"amber %it" t"e "and p$mp. ard t"e 2<. Department ! t"e Army Use t"e "and p$mp t 2eep t"e b$ yan&y &"ambers and &r ss seat !irm. .r 29-man ra!ts in m$1tip1a&e air&ra!t CFi)$res 16-19 and 16-16D.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Department ! t"e Army (a)e 179 ! 2** .S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Y $ &an s$&&ess!$11y sai1 m$1tip1a&e Ce?&ept 2<. (a)e 176 ! 2** .t 29-manD ra!ts 1< de)rees !! !r m t"e dire&ti n ! t"e %ind. Immediate1y ti)"ten t"e e4$a1i'er &1amp $p n enterin) t"e ra!t t pre5ent de!1atin) t"e entire ra!t in &ase ! a p$n&t$re CFi)$re 16-1:D.S. Appr a&" t"e interse&ti n ! t"e ra!t and ramp# )rasp t"e $pper b ardin) "and1e# and s%in) ne 1e) nt t"e &enter ! t"e ramp# as in m $ntin) a " rse CFi)$re 16-17D. D n t try t sai1 t"e ra!t $n1ess 1and is near. S!i%i#0 R!6t$ Ra!ts d n t "a5e 2ee1s# t"ere! re# y $ &anFt sai1 t"em int t"e %ind. Use t"e p$mp t 2eep t"ese ra!tsF &"ambers and &enter rin) !irm. Department ! t"e Army An in& mp1ete1y in!1ated ra!t %i11 ma2e b ardin) easier. +"ey s" $1d be %e11 r $nded b$t n t 5er1y ti)"t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ de&ide t sai1 and t"e %ind is b1 %in) t %ard a desired destinati n# !$11y in!1ate t"e ra!t# sit "i)"# ta2e in t"e sea an&" r# ri) a sai1# and $se an ar as a r$dder. 0 %e5er# any ne &an sai1 a ra!t d %n%ind.

D. (r te&t !res"%ater s$pp1ies !r m sea%ater & ntaminati n. 0 1d t"e 1ines atta&"ed t t"e & mers %it" y $r "ands s t"at a )$st ! %ind %i11 n t rip t"e sai1# brea2 t"e mast# r &apsi'e t"e ra!t. Y $ may $se a %aterpr ! tarpa$1in r para&"$te materia1 ! r t"e sai1. 3it" it a1 ne# y $ &an 1i5e ! r ten days r 1 n)er# dependin) n y $r %i11 t 1i5e.S. Short 3ater Rations 3"en y $ "a5e a 1imited %ater s$pp1y and y $ &anFt rep1a&e it by &"emi&a1 r me&"ani&a1 means# $se t"e %ater e!!i&ient1y. 3"en drin2in) %ater# m isten y $r 1ips# t n)$e# and t"r at be! re s%a11 %in). 3"en t"e sea an&" r is n t in $se# tie it t t"e ra!t and st % it in s$&" a manner t"at it %i11 " 1d immediate1y i! t"e ra!t &apsi'es. 0a5e t"e passen)ers sit 1 % in t"e ra!t# %it" t"eir %ei)"t distrib$ted t " 1d t"e $p%ind side d %n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 8eep y $r b dy %e11 (a)e 177 ! 2** . I! t"e ra!t "as n re)$1ar mast s &2et and step# ere&t t"e mast by tyin) it se&$re1y t t"e !r nt &r ss seat $sin) bra&es. +a2e e5ery pre&a$ti n t pre5ent t"e ra!t !r m t$rnin) 5er. In r $)" %eat"er# 2eep t"e sea an&" r a%ay !r m t"e b %. (ad t"e b tt m ! t"e mast t pre5ent it !r m &"a!in) r p$n&"in) a " 1e t"r $)" t"e !1 r# %"et"er r n t t"ere is a s &2et. + pre5ent !a11in) $t# t"ey s" $1d a1s a5 id sittin) n t"e sides ! t"e ra!t r standin) $p. D n t se&$re t"e & mers ! t"e 1 %er ed)e ! t"e sai1. *!te& 3ater is y $r m st imp rtant need. Department ! t"e Army In a m$1tip1a&e Ce?&ept 2<. A5 id s$dden m 5ements %it" $t %arnin) t"e t"er passen)ers.t 29-manD ra!t# ere&t a s4$are sai1 in t"e b % $sin) t"e ars and t"eir e?tensi ns as t"e mast and &r ssbar CFi)$re 16-1. +"e "ee1 ! a s" e# %it" t"e t e %ed)ed $nder t"e seat# ma2es a ) d impr 5ised mast step.

Re1a? and s1eep %"en p ssib1e. +"is type ! s 1ar sti11 n1y % r2s n !1at# &a1m seas. +"ere are s me p is n $s and dan)er $s &ean !is"# b$t# in )enera1# %"en $t ! si)"t ! 1and# !is" are sa!e t eat. It is a1s p ssib1e t & 11e&t de% a1 n) t"e sides ! t"e ra!t $sin) a sp n)e r &1 t". Nearer t"e s" re t"ere are !is" t"at are b t" dan)er $s and p is n $s t eat. Se&$re s 1ar sti11s t t"e ra!t %it" &are.S. +"is is a trade.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. N rma11y# a sma11 am $nt ! sea%ater mi?ed %it" rain %i11 "ard1y be n ti&eab1e and %i11 n t &a$se any p"ysi&a1 rea&ti n. D n t e?ert y $rse1!. D" #"t eat# $n1ess %ater is a5ai1ab1e. I! y $ d nFt "a5e %ater# d nFt eat. . Rela+ is t"e 2ey % rd--at 1east try t re1a?. 3ater 'ro" 'ish Drin2 t"e a4$e $s !1$id ! $nd a1 n) t"e spine and in t"e eyes ! 1ar)e !is".!! bet%een & 1in) and sa1t%ater b i1s and ras"es t"at %i11 res$1t. I! y $ eat %"en na$seated# y $ may 1 se y $r ! d immediate1y. At ni)"t# se&$re t"e tarpa$1in 1i2e a s$ns"ade# and t$rn $p its ed)es t & 11e&t de%. In any e5ent# 2eep desa1tin) 2its and emer)en&y %ater st res ! r peri ds %"en y $ &ann t $se s 1ar sti11s r &at&" rain%ater. Ne% i&e is )ray# mi12y# "ard# and sa1ty. 8eep t"e tarpa$1in "andy ! r &at&"in) %ater. + red$&e y $r 1 ss ! %ater t"r $)" perspirati n# s a2 y $r &1 t"es in t"e sea and %rin) t"em $t be! re p$ttin) t"em n a)ain. A11 % 5enti1ati n ! airH dampen y $r &1 t"es d$rin) t"e " ttest part ! t"e day. Use as many sti11s as p ssib1e# dependin) n t"e n$mber ! men in t"e ra!t and t"e am $nt ! s$n1i)"t a5ai1ab1e. 0 %e5er# ma2e s$re t"at y $ "a5e en $)" s"ade %"en nappin) d$rin) t"e day. Solar Still 3"en s 1ar sti11s are a5ai1ab1e# read t"e instr$&ti ns and set t"em $p immediate1y. I! y $ are s s" rt ! %ater t"at y $ need t d t"is# t"en (" #"t drin2 any ! t"e t"er b dy !1$ids.e &are!$1 n t t )et t"e b tt m ! t"e ra!t %et. In r $)" seas y $ &ann t )et $n& ntaminated !res" %ater. I! it is en&r$sted %it" dried sa1t# %as" it in sea%ater. Fi? y $r dai1y %ater rati n a!ter & nsiderin) t"e am $nt ! %ater y $ "a5e# t"e $tp$t ! s 1ar sti11s and desa1tin) 2it# and t"e n$mber and p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! y $r party. D nFt 5erd t"is d$rin) " t days %"en n &an py r s$n s"ie1d is a5ai1ab1e. +"ese t"er !1$ids are ri&" in pr tein and !at and %i11 $se $p m re ! y $r reser5e %ater in di)esti n t"an t"ey s$pp1y. /are!$11y &$t t"e !is" in "a1! t )et t"e !1$id a1 n) t"e spine and s$&2 t"e eye. I! y $r %ater rati n is t% 1iters r m re per day# eat any part ! y $r rati n r any additi na1 ! d t"at y $ may &at&"# s$&" as birds# !is"# s"rimp. +"is i&e is b1$is"# "as r $nded & mers# and sp1inters easi1y. I! na$seated# rest and re1a? as m$&" as y $ &an# and ta2e n1y %ater. +"e 1i!e ra!tFs m ti n and an?iety may &a$se na$sea. REMEMBERB D" #"t drin2 sea%ater. 3"en it rains# drin2 as m$&" as y $ &an " 1d. . D" #"t drin2 a1& " 1. Sea Ice In ar&ti& %aters# $se 1d sea i&e ! r %ater. I! t"e sea is r $)"# tie y $rse1! t t"e ra!t# &1 se any & 5er# and ride $t t"e st rm as best y $ &an. 3ater !r m i&eber)s is !res"# b$t i&eber)s are dan)er $s t appr a&". F""( P&". +"ere are s me !is"# s$&" as t"e red snapper and barra&$da# t"at are n rma11y edib1e b$t p is n $s %"en ta2en !r m t"e %aters ! at 11s and ree!s.esalting *its 3"en desa1tin) 2its are a5ai1ab1e in additi n t s 1ar sti11s# $se t"em n1y ! r immediate %ater needs r d$rin) 1 n) 5er&ast peri ds %"en y $ &ann t $se s 1ar sti11s. D" #"t drin2 $rine. 3at&" t"e &1 $ds and be ready ! r any &"an&e ! s" %ers. S1eep and rest are t"e best %ays ! end$rin) peri ds ! red$&ed %ater and ! d inta2e. Use t"em as a s $r&e ! %ater n1y in emer)en&ies. It is near1y !ree ! sa1t. Department ! t"e Army s"aded# b t" !r m 5er"ead s$n and !r m re!1e&ti n !! t"e sea s$r!a&e. D" #"t sm 2e. F1yin) !is" %i11 e5en @$mp int y $r ra!tK (a)e 17: ! 2** . &e+e#t In t"e pen sea# !is" %i11 be t"e main ! d s $r&e.

elp$ul 'ishing . A1s edib1e are t"e part1y di)ested sma11er !is" t"at y $ may !ind in t"e st ma&"s ! 1ar)e !is". / 2 t"e intestines. ! 2** . • ?ait. N s$r5i5 r at sea s" $1d be %it" $t !is"in) e4$ipment b$t i! y $ are# impr 5ise " 2s as s" %n in /"apter :. Ne5er eat !is" t"at "a5e pa1e# s"iny )i11s# s$n2en eyes# !1abby s2in and !1es"# r an $np1easant d r. Y $ may !ind t"em $nder y $r ra!t. • Impr 5ise a spear by tyin) a 2ni!e t an ar b1ade. S" e1a&es and para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine a1s % r2 %e11. Impr 5ise )rapp1es !r m % d. 3"en $sin) bait# try t 2eep it m 5in) in t"e %ater t )i5e it t"e appearan&e ! bein) a1i5e. Y $ may s"a2e &rabs# s"rimp# r sma11 !is" $t ! t"e sea%eed.e e?treme1y &are!$1 %it" !is" t"at "a5e teet" and spines. In additi n# sea t$rt1es are edib1e. +"e 1i)"t attra&ts !is". • 3at&" ! r s&" 1s ! !is"H try t m 5e &1 se t t"ese s&" 1s. S"ar2 meat sp i1s 5ery rapid1y d$e t t"e "i)" & n&entrati n ! $rea in t"e b1 d# t"ere! re# b1eed it immediate1y and s a2 it in se5era1 &"an)es ! %ater. • A1%ays ta2e &are ! y $r !is"in) e4$ipment. Department ! t"e Army 'ish 3"en !is"in)# d n t "and1e t"e !is"in) 1ine %it" bare "ands and ne5er %rap it ar $nd y $r "ands r tie it t a 1i!e ra!t. • In t"e daytime# s"ade attra&ts s me !is". /$t !is" t"at y $ d n t eat immediate1y int t"in# narr % strips and "an) t"em t dry.S. Fis" %it" dar2 meat are 5ery pr ne t de& mp siti n. • -ish lures. Use a "ea5y pie&e ! % d as t"e main s"a!t# and 1as" t"ree sma11er pie&es t t"e s"a!t as )rapp1es. +"is spear &an "e1p y $ &at&" 1ar)er !is"# b$t y $ m$st )et t"em int t"e ra!t 4$i&21y r t"ey %i11 s1ip !! t"e b1ade. Unra5e1 t"e t"reads and tie t"em t )et"er in s" rt 1en)t"s in )r $ps ! t"ree r m re t"reads. 3ear )1 5es# i! t"ey are a5ai1ab1e# r $se a &1 t" t "and1e !is" and t a5 id in@$ry !r m s"arp !ins and )i11 & 5ers. S& p t"e sma11 !is" $p %it" a net.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Use )rapp1es t " 2 sea%eed. Use t"e 1e!t 5ers ! r bait. +"e sa1t t"at ad"eres t it &an ma2e it a s"arp &$ttin) ed)e# an ed)e dan)er $s b t" t t"e ra!t and y $r "ands. .ints Y $r !is"in) s" $1d be s$&&ess!$1 i! y $ remember t"e ! 11 %in) imp rtant "intsI • . • >rapple. I! y $ d nFt "a5e a net# ma2e ne !r m &1 t" ! s me type. • -ish hooks. / nsider t"em a11 edib1e e?&ept t"e 6reen1and s"ar2 %" se !1es" & ntains "i)" 4$antities ! 5itamin A. 6 d !is" s" % t"e pp site &"ara&teristi&s. 0 1d t"e net $nder t"e %ater and s& p $p%ard. • D n t !is" %"en 1ar)e s"ar2s are in t"e area. Y $ &an !as"i n 1$res by atta&"in) a d $b1e " 2 t any s"iny pie&e ! meta1. A %e11-dried !is" stays edib1e ! r se5era1 days. t" ee1s and sea sna2es are edib1e# b$t y $ m$st "and1e t"e 1atter %it" &are be&a$se ! t"eir p is n $s bites. Y $ may eat sea%eed itse1!# b$t n1y %"en y $ "a5e p1enty ! drin2in) %ater. In %arm re)i ns# )$t and b1eed !is" immediate1y a!ter &at&"in) t"em. 'ishing Aids Y $ &an $se di!!erent materia1s t ma2e !is"in) aids as des&ribed in t"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"sI • -ishing line. . Y $ &an $se sma11 !is" as bait ! r 1ar)er nes. (a)e 17. D n t eat t"e 1i5ers# d$e t "i)" 5itamin A & ntent. I! y $ d n t eat t"em a11 immediate1y# d n t eat any ! t"e 1e!t 5ers. • /$t a 1ar)e !is" 1 se rat"er t"an ris2 &apsi'in) t"e ra!t. A1s # tie t"e 2ni!e 5ery se&$re1y r y $ may 1 se it. Use pie&es ! tarpa$1in r &an5as. • Fis" at ni)"t $sin) a 1i)"t. Dry y $r !is"in) 1ines# &1ean and s"arpen t"e " 2s# and d n t a11 % t"e " 2s t sti&2 int t"e !is"in) 1ines. • D n t p$n&t$re y $r ra!t %it" " 2s r t"er s"arp instr$ments. S"ar2 meat is a ) d s $r&e ! ! d %"et"er ra%# dried# r & 2ed. +"ese y $ may eat r $se ! r bait. Sea !is" "a5e a sa1t%ater r &1ean !is"y d r. +"e "eart# b1 d# intestina1 %a11# and 1i5er ! m st !is" are edib1e. Use a11 t"e )$ts !r m birds and !is" ! r bait. +ry t &at&" sma11 rat"er t"an 1ar)e !is". Fis" n t &1eaned and dried may sp i1 in "a1! a day. D n t & n!$se ee1s %it" sea sna2es t"at "a5e an b5i $s1y s&a1y b dy and str n)1y & mpressed# padd1es"aped tai1. (e p1e pre!er s me s"ar2 spe&ies 5er t"ers.

Immersi n R t# Fr stbite# and 0yp t"ermia +"ese pr b1ems are simi1ar t t" se en& $ntered in & 1d %eat"er en5ir nments. I! t"e )1are !r m t"e s2y and %ater &a$ses y $r eyes t be& me b1 ds" t and in!1amed# banda)e t"em 1i)"t1y. • 8eep t"e patient !r m eatin) ! d $nti1 "is na$sea is ) ne.i!te( *ith Se! S &/i/!% At sea# y $ may be& me seasi&2# )et sa1t%ater s res# r !a&e s me ! t"e same medi&a1 pr b1ems t"at &&$r n 1and# s$&" as de"ydrati n r s$nb$rn. D n t pen r drain. • L ss ! t"e %i11 t s$r5i5e.%e+$ A$$". I! a bird 1ands %it"in y $r rea&"# y $ may be ab1e t &at&" it. It is best n t t treat it# as it & $1d &a$se !$rt"er de"ydrati n. • Un&1ean & nditi ns. S$nb$rn (a)e 1:< ! 2** . I! t"e patient is $nab1e t ta2e t"e pi11s ra11y# insert t"em re&ta11y ! r abs rpti n by t"e b dy. Di!!i&$1t Urinati n +"is pr b1em is n t $n$s$a1 and is d$e main1y t de"ydrati n. It &an res$1t in-• -?treme !1$id 1 ss and e?"a$sti n. . I! t"e birds d n t 1and &1 se en $)" r 1and n t"e t"er end ! t"e ra!t# y $ may be ab1e t &at&" t"em %it" a bird n se. App1y an antisepti&# i! a5ai1ab1e. -?er&ise as m$&" as p ssib1e and drin2 an ade4$ate am $nt ! %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e.ait t"e &enter ! t"e n se and %ait ! r t"e bird t 1and.!% P&". +"e s res may ! rm s&abs and p$s. App1y intment# i! a5ai1ab1e. 0thers have said that swimming alongside the ra!t !or short periods helped" but e+treme care must be taken i! swimming. Me(i.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is %i11 brin) t"e bird %it"in s" tin) ran)e# pr 5ided y $ "a5e a !irearm. . Impr 5ise s$n)1asses i! ne&essary. • .1indnessE0eada&"e I! !1ame# sm 2e# r t"er & ntaminants )et in t"e eyes# !1$s" t"em immediate1y %it" sa1t %ater# t"en %it" !res" %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e. +"ese pr b1ems &an be& me &riti&a1 i! 1e!t $ntreated. 3"en t"e birdFs !eet are in t"e &enter ! t"e n se# p$11 it ti)"t. Sympt ms and treatment are t"e same as & 5ered in /"apter 19. -at any birds y $ &an &at&". / nstipati n +"is & nditi n is a & mm n pr b1em n a ra!t. Y $ may be ab1e t attra&t s me birds by t %in) a bri)"t pie&e ! meta1 be"ind t"e ra!t. Use t"e !eat"ers ! r ins$1ati n# t"e entrai1s and !eet ! r bait# and s n. • Attra&ti n ! s"ar2s t t"e ra!t.anda)e b t" eyes 1: t 27 " $rs# r 1 n)er i! dama)e is se5ere. Use a11 parts ! t"e bird. • 0a5e t"e patient 1ie d %n and rest.t"ers be& min) seasi&2. Salt%ater Sores +"ese s res res$1t !r m a brea2 in s2in e?p sed t sa1t%ater ! r an e?tended peri d. + treat seasi&2ness-• 3as" b t" t"e patient and t"e ra!t t rem 5e t"e si)"t and d r ! 5 mit. S metimes birds may 1and n y $r ra!t# b$t $s$a11y t"ey are &a$ti $s.S. Use y $r ima)inati n. Seasic-ness Seasi&2ness is t"e na$sea and 5 mitin) &a$sed by t"e m ti n ! t"e ra!t. D n t ta2e a 1a?ati5e# as t"is %i11 &a$se !$rt"er de"ydrati n. 8ote9 Some survivors have said that erecting a canopy or using the hori*on as a !ocal point helped overcome seasickness. • 6i5e t"e patient seasi&2ness pi11s i! a5ai1ab1e. F1$s" t"e s res %it" !res" %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e# and a11 % t dry. +ry t pre5ent t"is pr b1em by %earin) s$n)1asses. . Department ! t"e Army #irds As stated in /"apter :# a11 birds are edib1e.

Sh!&)$ 3"et"er y $ are in t"e %ater r in a b at r ra!t# y $ may see many types ! sea 1i!e ar $nd y $. / nsider any s"ar2 1 n)er t"an 1 meter dan)er $s.S. Remember# re!1e&ti n !r m t"e %ater a1s &a$ses s$nb$rn. 8eep a11 y $r &1 t"in) n# t in&1$de y $r s" es. 3"en y $ are in a ra!t and see s"ar2s-• D n t !is". +"e s"ar2s 1i5in) near t"e s$r!a&e are t"e nes y $ %i11 m st 1i2e1y see.t"er s"ar2s 2n %n t atta&2 man in&1$de t"e )ray# b1$e# 1em n# sand# n$rse# b$11# and &eani& %"ite tip s"ar2s. • D n t 1et y $r arms# 1e)s# r e4$ipment "an) in t"e %ater. +"e str$))1es ! a % $nded anima1 r s%immer# $nder%ater e?p1 si ns# r e5en a !is" str$))1in) n a !is"1ine %i11 attra&t a s"ar2. S"ar2s in t"e tr pi&a1 and s$btr pi&a1 seas are !ar m re a))ressi5e t"an t" se in temperate %aters. (a)e 1:1 ! 2** . I! t"ere are many s"ar2s in t"e area# & nd$&t t"e b$ria1 at ni)"t. S metimes ye11in) $nder%ater r s1appin) t"e %ater repeated1y %i11 s&are t"e s"ar2 a%ay. +"e m st dan)er $s are t"e )reat %"ite s"ar2# t"e "ammer"ead# t"e ma2 # and t"e ti)er s"ar2. A )r $p &an eit"er !ri)"ten r !i)"t !! s"ar2s better t"an ne man. I! y $ "a5e " 2ed a !is"# 1et it ) .t"er anima1s s$&" as %"a1es# p rp ises# and stin)rays may 1 2 dan)er $s# b$t rea11y p se 1itt1e t"reat in t"e pen sea. +"e @a%s ! s me ! t"e 1ar)er s"ar2s are s !ar ! r%ard t"at t"ey &an bite !1 atin) b@e&ts easi1y %it" $t t%istin) t t"e side. +ry t pre5ent s$nb$rn by stayin) in s"ade and 2eepin) y $r "ead and s2in & 5ered. +"e sma11er s"ar2s tend t tra5e1 in s&" 1s and atta&2 in mass. S"ar2s !eed at a11 " $rs ! t"e day and ni)"t. D n t &1ean !is" in t"e %ater. S"ar2s may "$nt a1 ne# b$t m st rep rts ! atta&2s &ite m re t"an ne s"ar2 present. • 8eep 4$iet and d n t m 5e ar $nd. +"eir n rma1 diet is 1i5e anima1s ! any type# and t"ey %i11 stri2e at in@$red r "e1p1ess anima1s. A11 s"ar2s are basi&a11y eatin) ma&"ines.! t"e many "$ndreds ! s"ar2 spe&ies# n1y ab $t 2< spe&ies are 2n %n t atta&2 man. S me may be m re dan)er $s t"an t"ers. S"ar2s &an bite !r m a1m st any p siti nH t"ey d n t "a5e t t$rn n t"eir side t bite. /1 t"in) a1s pr te&ts a)ainst abrasi ns s" $1d t"e s"ar2 br$s" a)ainst y $. S me ! t"e meas$res t"at y $ &an ta2e t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst s"ar2s %"en y $ are in t"e %ater are-• Stay with other swimmers. 6enera11y# s"ar2s are t"e )reatest dan)er t y $. D t"e same i! y $ m$st 5 mit. +"ere are s"ar2s in a11 &eans and seas ! t"e % r1d. Department ! t"e Army S$nb$rn is a seri $s pr b1em in sea s$r5i5a1. Let it dissipate bet%een dis&"ar)es. +"ey are a1s 5ery sensiti5e t any abn rma1 5ibrati ns in t"e %ater. I! a s"ar2 atta&2 is imminent %"i1e y $ are in t"e %ater# sp1as" and ye11 @$st en $)" t 2eep t"e s"ar2 at bay. • Avoid urinating. I! atta&2ed# 2i&2 and stri2e t"e s"ar2. . Use &ream r /"ap Sti&2 !r m y $r !irst aid 2it. Si)"t# sme11# r s $nd may )$ide t"em t t"eir prey. 3"ene5er ne ! t"e s"ar2s !inds a 5i&tim# t"e t"er s"ar2s %i11 4$i&21y @ in it. / nser5e y $r stren)t" ! r !i)"tin) in &ase t"e s"ar2 atta&2s. M st rep rted s"ar2 & nta&ts and atta&2s %ere d$rin) day1i)"t# and many ! t"ese "a5e been in t"e 1ate a!tern n. I! y $ m$st de!e&ate# d s in sma11 am $nts and t"r % it as !ar a%ay !r m y $ as p ssib1e. S"ar2s %i11 eat a % $nded s"ar2 as 4$i&21y as t"eir prey. . • D n t t"r % )arba)e 5erb ard. +"eir d rsa1 !ins !re4$ent1y pr @e&t ab 5e t"e %ater. I! y $ m$st# n1y d s in sma11 am $nts. I! y $ "it t"e s"ar2 n t"e n se# y $ may in@$re y $r "and i! it )1an&es !! and "its its teet". A )r $p &an maintain a *6<-de)ree %at&". 3"i1e many 1i5e and !eed in t"e dept"s ! t"e sea# t"ers "$nt near t"e s$r!a&e. 0ist ri&a11y# s"ar2s "a5e atta&2ed t"e $n&1 t"ed men in )r $ps !irst# main1y in t"e !eet.$ry a11 dead as s n as p ssib1e. 0it t"e s"ar2 n t"e )i11s r eyes i! p ssib1e. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Always watch !or sharks. S"ar2s "a5e an a&$te sense ! sme11 and t"e sme11 ! b1 d in t"e %ater e?&ites t"em. • .

+ry n t t 1and %"en t"e s$n is 1 % and strai)"t in !r nt ! y $. Deep %ater is dar2 )reen r dar2 b1$e. +"ese re!1e&ti ns are 4$ite di!!erent !r m t"e dar2 )ray nes &a$sed by pen %ater. -it"er si)na1 as" re ! r "e1p r sai1 ar $nd and 1 2 ! r a s1 pin) bea&" %"ere t"e s$r! is )ent1e. + ra!t as" re# y $ &an $s$a11y $se t"e ne-man ra!t %it" $t dan)er. Y $ %i11 d m re dama)e t y $r "ands t"an t"e s"ar2. .e$ . 8eep y $r eyes pen ! r )aps in t"e s$r! 1ine# and "ead ! r t"em. (a)e 1:2 ! 2** . D$rin) t"e day# birds are sear&"in) ! r ! d and t"e dire&ti n ! !1i)"t "as n si)ni!i&an&e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In t"e ar&ti&# 1i)"t-& 1 red re!1e&ti ns n &1 $ds !ten indi&ate i&e !ie1ds r sn %-& 5ered 1and. Dete. In t"e tr pi&s# t"e re!1e&ti n ! s$n1i)"t !r m s"a11 % 1a) ns r s"e15es ! & ra1 ree!s !ten &a$ses a )reenis" tint in t"e s2y. Mira)es &&$r at any 1atit$de# b$t t"ey are m re 1i2e1y in t"e tr pi&s# espe&ia11y d$rin) t"e midd1e ! t"e day.S. +"e & ntin$ed &ries ! seabirds & min) !r m ne dire&ti n indi&ate t"eir r stin) p1a&e n nearby 1and. I! y $ stri2e %it" an ar# be &are!$1 n t t 1 se r brea2 it. +"e m$sty d r ! man)r 5e s%amps and m$d !1ats &arry a 1 n) %ay. +"e dire&ti n !r m %"i&" !1 &2s !1y at da%n and t %"i&" t"ey !1y at d$s2 may indi&ate t"e dire&ti n ! 1and. +"ere are n & ra1 ree!s near t"e m $t"s ! !res"%ater streams. 0 %e5er# ) in) as" re in a str n) s$r! is dan)er $s. Se1e&t y $r 1andin) p int &are!$11y.n&e y $ "a5e ! $nd 1and# y $ m$st )et as" re sa!e1y. +"ere are many indi&at rs t"at 1and is near. Y $ "ear t"e r ar ! s$r! 1 n) be! re y $ see t"e s$r!. R!6ti#0 "& Be!.ti#0 L!#( Y $ s" $1d %at&" &are!$11y ! r any si)ns ! 1and. A !i?ed &$m$1$s &1 $d in a &1ear s2y r in a s2y %"ere a11 t"er &1 $ds are m 5in) !ten " 5ers 5er r s1i)"t1y d %n%ind !r m an is1and.e &are!$1 n t t mista2e a mira)e ! r nearby 1and. A mira)e disappears r its appearan&e and e1e5ati n &"an)e %"en 5ie%ed !r m s1i)"t1y di!!erent "ei)"ts. +"ere $s$a11y are m re birds near 1and t"an 5er t"e pen sea.y tra5e1in) %it" t"e %a5es and para11e1 t t"e s1i)"t1y t$rb$1ent area mar2ed JBJ n t"e i11$strati n# y $ s" $1d rea&" 1and. +a2e y $r time. Department ! t"e Army 3"en y $ are in a ra!t and a s"ar2 atta&2 is imminent# "it t"e s"ar2 %it" anyt"in) y $ "a5e# e?&ept y $r "ands. Y $ may be ab1e t dete&t 1and by t"e pattern ! t"e %a5es Cre!ra&tedD as t"ey appr a&" 1and CFi)$re 162<D. +ry t 1and n t"e 1ee side ! an is1and r n a p int ! 1and @$ttin) $t int t"e %ater. . A5 id & ra1 ree!s and r &2y &1i!!s.hi#0 Te. A5 id rip &$rrents r str n) tida1 &$rrents t"at may &arry y $ !ar $t t sea. At ni)"t# r in ! )# mist# r rain# y $ may dete&t 1and by d rs and s $nds. Li)"ter & 1 r indi&ates s"a11 % %ater# %"i&" may mean 1and is near.h#i.

Y $ %i11 need y $r stren)t" t " 1d n t t"e r &2s. I! y $ "a5e reas n t be1ie5e t"at pe p1e 1i5e n t"e s" re# 1ay a%ay !r m t"e bea&"# si)na1# and %ait ! r t"e in"abitants t & me $t and brin) y $ in. A)ainst a str n) %ind and "ea5y s$r!# t"e ra!t m$st "a5e a11 p ssib1e speed t pass rapid1y t"r $)" t"e n& min) &rest t a5 id bein) t$rned br adside r t"r %n end 5er end. A!ter se&$rin) a11 items# p$t n y $r "e1met# i! a5ai1ab1e. +a2e ad5anta)e ! s$&" )r %t". Use t"e ars r padd1es t "e1p ride in n t"e sea%ard side ! a 1ar)e %a5e. +a2e t"e ra!t $t ! t"e %ater and st re it %e11 ba&2 !r m t"e !1 eFs ed)e. A!ter it passes# % r2 t %ard s" re in t"e ne?t tr $)".n si)"tin) res&$e &ra!t appr a&"in) ! r pi&2$p Cb at# s"ip# & n5enti na1 air&ra!t# r "e1i& pterD# 4$i&21y &1ear any 1ines C!is"in) 1ines# desa1tin) 2it 1inesD r t"er )ear t"at & $1d &a$se entan)1ement d$rin) res&$e. Use ars and "ands t 2eep t"e ra!t !r m r$bbin) n t"e ed)e ! t"e i&e. Remain in t"e ra!t# (a)e 1:* ! 2** . Ad@$st and in!1ate y $r 1i!e 5est. +rai1 t"e sea an&" r 5er t"e stem $sin) as m$&" 1ine as y $ "a5e. Di5e t a s"a11 % dept" t end t"e ride @$st be! re t"e %a5e brea2s. I! y $ d n t rea&" s" re be"ind t"e %a5e y $ pi&2ed# s%im %it" y $r "ands n1y. 3"en t"e sea%ard %a5e appr a&"es# !a&e it and s$bmer)e. Se&$re a11 1 se items in t"e ra!t. Any !1 e may brea2 $p %it" $t %arnin).< &entimeters C2 r * !eetD 1 %er t"an y $r "ead. Fa&e t %ard s" re and ta2e a sittin) p siti n %it" y $r !eet in !r nt# 6< t . /r ss a r &2y r & ra1 ree! as y $ % $1d 1and n a r &2y s" re. Use t"e ars r padd1es and & nstant1y ad@$st t"e sea an&" r t 2eep a strain n t"e an&" r 1ine. A5 id p1a&es %"ere t"e %a5es e?p1 de %it" a "i)"# %"ite spray. Pi. A ) d met" d ! )ettin) t"r $)" t"e s$r! is t "a5e "a1! t"e men sit n ne side ! t"e ra!t# "a1! n t"e t"er# !a&in) a%ay !r m ea&" t"er. D n t @$mp $t ! t"e ra!t $nti1 it "as )r $nded# t"en 4$i&21y )et $t and bea&" it. Y $ s" $1d be !$11y &1 t"ed and %ear s" es t red$&e in@$ry. I! t"e ra!t t$rns 5er in t"e s$r!# try t )rab " 1d ! it and ride it in. e .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 8eep t"e ra!t in!1ated and ready ! r $se. S%im s1 %1y %"en ma2in) y $r appr a&". +"e s$r! may be irre)$1ar and 5e1 &ity may 5ary# s m di!y y $r pr &ed$re as & nditi ns demand. 8eep y $r &1 t"es and s" es n t a5 id se5ere &$ts. I! p ssib1e# a5 id meetin) a 1ar)e %a5e at t"e m ment it brea2s. As t"e ne?t %a5e appr a&"es# ta2e a sittin) p siti n %it" y $r !eet ! r%ard. Repeat t"e pr &ed$re $nti1 y $ 1and. I! y $ "a5e a &" i&e# d n t 1and at ni)"t. +"ese a&ti ns %i11 2eep t"e ra!t p inted t %ard s" re and pre5ent t"e sea !r m t"r %in) t"e stern ar $nd and &apsi'in) y $. A!ter se1e&tin) y $r 1andin) p int# ad5an&e be"ind a 1ar)e %a5e int t"e brea2ers. I! y $ en& $nter sea i&e# 1and n1y n 1ar)e# stab1e !1 es. +"is p siti n %i11 1et y $r !eet abs rb t"e s" &2 %"en y $ 1and r stri2e s$b-mer)ed b $1ders r ree!s. I! in a medi$m s$r! %it" n %ind r !!s" re %ind# 2eep t"e ra!t !r m passin) 5er a %a5e s rapid1y t"at it dr ps s$dden1y a!ter t ppin) t"e &rest. Y $ may be ab1e t $se it ! r s"e1ter. As t"e ra!t nears t"e bea&"# ride in n t"e &rest ! a 1ar)e %a5e. A5 id i&eber)s t"at may &apsi'e and sma11 !1 es r t" se b5i $s1y disinte)ratin). 8eep y $r !eet &1 se t )et"er and y $r 2nees s1i)"t1y bent in a re1a?ed sittin) p st$re t &$s"i n t"e b1 %s a)ainst t"e & ra1. Use t"e sidestr 2e r breaststr 2e t & nser5e stren)t". In "i)" s$r!# s%im t %ard s" re in t"e tr $)" bet%een %a5es. I! y $ m$st 1and n a r &2y s" re# 1 2 ! r a p1a&e %"ere t"e %a5es r$s" $p nt t"e r &2s.S. 3ater is 4$ieter in t"e 1ee ! a "ea5y )r %t" ! sea%eed. F$11y in!1ate y $r 1i!e preser5er. S2i++i#0 A$h"&e I! ra!tin) as" re is n t p ssib1e and y $ "a5e t s%im# %ear y $r s" es and at 1east ne t"i&2ness ! &1 t"in). 3"en a "ea5y sea bears d %n# "a1! s" $1d r % Cp$11D t %ard t"e sea $nti1 t"e &rest passesH t"en t"e t"er "a1! s" $1d r % Cp$11D t %ard t"e s" re $nti1 t"e ne?t "ea5y sea & mes a1 n). Department ! t"e Army I! y $ "a5e t ) t"r $)" t"e s$r! t rea&" s" re# ta2e d %n t"e mast. I! t"e s$r! is m derate# ride in n t"e ba&2 ! a sma11 %a5e by s%immin) ! r%ard %it" it. I! &a$)"t in t"e $ndert % ! a 1ar)e %a5e# p$s" !! t"e b tt m r s%im t t"e s$r!a&e and pr &eed t %ard s" re as ab 5e. +a2e d %n &an pies and sai1s t ens$re a sa!er pi&2$p. (add1e r r % "ard and ride in t t"e bea&" as !ar as y $ &an.) p "& Re$. D n t s%im t"r $)" t"e sea%eedH &ra%1 5er t"e t p by )raspin) t"e 5e)etati n %it" 5er"and m 5ements.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. D n t $se i dine t disin!e&t any & ra1 &$ts. In time ! %ar# remember t"at t"e enemy patr 1s m st & ast1ines. Poisonous 'ish Many ree! !is" "a5e t ?i& !1es". +"ere! re# d n t t"in2 t"at be&a$se a bird &an eat a !is"# it is a sa!e spe&ies ! r y $ t eat. A5 id a11 & nta&t %it" t"er "$mans# and ma2e e5ery e!! rt t & 5er a11 tra&2s y $ 1ea5e n t"e s" re. Many stin)rays "a5e a p is n $s barb in t"eir tai1. • Dep1 y t"e sea an&" r# stabi1ity ba)s# and a&&ess ry ba). . F d and %ater are m re ab$ndant and s"e1ter is b5i $s1y easier t 1 &ate and & nstr$&t.i!% He!%th H!z!&($ / ra1# p is n $s and a))ressi5e !is"# &r & di1es# sea $r&"ins# sea bis&$its# sp n)es# anem nes# and tides and $ndert % p se spe&ia1 "ea1t" "a'ards. I! p ssib1e# y $ %i11 re&ei5e "e1p !r m res&$e pers nne1 1 %ered int t"e %ater. +"ere %i11 pr bab1y a1s be na$sea# 5 mitin)# 1 ss ! spee&"# di''iness# and a para1ysis t"at e5ent$a11y brin)s deat".S. See /"apter 11 and Appendi? F ! r detai1s n parti&$1ar1y dan)er $s !is" ! t"e sea and seas" re. F r s me spe&ies# t"e !1es" is a1%ays p is n $s# ! r t"er spe&ies# n1y at &ertain times ! t"e year. / 1d items appear " t and " t items & 1d. /1ean a11 & ra1 &$ts t" r $)"1y. +"e 5en m !r m t"ese spines &a$ses a b$rnin) sensati n r e5en an a) ni'in) pain t"at is $t ! pr p rti n t t"e apparent se5erity ! t"e % $nd. • M $nt t"e re& 5ery de5i&e# a5 idin) entan)1ement %it" t"e ra!t. +"ere are "$ndreds ! %ater "a'ards t"at &an &a$se deep p$n&t$re % $nds# se5ere b1eedin)# and t"e dan)er ! in!e&ti n.OR S Sear&" p1anes r s"ips d n t a1%ays sp t a dri!tin) ra!t r s%immer. • Maintain t"e "and" 1d $nti1 t"e re& 5ery de5i&e is in y $r t"er "and. Y $ may "a5e t 1and a1 n) t"e & ast be! re bein) res&$ed. • Unsnap t"e s$r5i5a1 2it & ntainer !r m t"e para&"$te "arness. • A11 % t"e re& 5ery de5i&e r t"e &ab1e t )r $nd $t n t"e %aterFs s$r!a&e. S me ree! !is"# s$&" as st ne!is" and t ad!is"# "a5e 5en m $s spines t"at &an &a$se 5ery pain!$1 a1t" $)" se1d m !ata1 in@$ries. >e11y!is"# %"i1e n t $s$a11y !ata1# &an in!1i&t a 5ery pain!$1 stin) i! it t $&"es y $ %it" its tenta&1es. In additi n t !is" %it" p is n $s !1es"# t"ere are t" se t"at are dan)er $s t t $&". +"ere are a1s spe&ies t"at &an de1i5er an e1e&tri& s" &2. +"e p is ns are present in a11 parts ! t"e !is"# b$t espe&ia11y in t"e 1i5er# intestines# and e))s.irds are 1east s$s&eptib1e t t"e p is ns. Aggressi(e 'ish (a)e 1:7 ! 2** . • (artia11y de!1ate t"e ra!t and !i11 it %it" %ater. • 6rasp t"e ra!t "and" 1d and r 11 $t ! t"e ra!t. D n t 1ea5e t"e & ast e?&ept t a5 id bsta&1es Cs%amps and &1i!!sD r $n1ess y $ !ind a trai1 t"at y $ 2n % 1eads t "$man "abitati n. I! t"e "e1i& pter re& 5ery is $nassisted# d t"e ! 11 %in) be! re pi&2$pI • Se&$re a11 t"e 1 se e4$ipment in t"e ra!t# a&&ess ry ba)# r in p &2ets. Remember# ! 11 % a11 instr$&ti ns )i5en by t"e res&$e pers nne1. S AS. Department ! t"e Army $n1ess t"er%ise instr$&ted# and rem 5e a11 e4$ipment e?&ept t"e preser5ers. Y $ %i11 "a5e e?treme1y 1imited tra5e1 pti ns in t"is sit$ati n. Coral / ra1# dead r a1i5e# &an in!1i&t pain!$1 &$ts. S$r5i5in) a1 n) t"e seas" re is di!!erent !r m pen sea s$r5i5a1. +"ese patr 1s may &a$se pr b1ems ! r y $ i! y $ 1and n a " sti1e s" re. S me & ra1 p 1yps !eed n i dine and may )r % inside y $r !1es" i! y $ $se i dine. I! y $ are in !riend1y territ ry and de&ide t tra5e1# it is better t m 5e a1 n) t"e & ast t"an t ) in1and. +"e t ?ins %i11 pr d$&e a n$mbness ! t"e 1ips# t n)$e# t es# and tips ! t"e !in)ers# se5ere it&"in)# and a &1ear re5ersa1 ! temperat$re sensati ns. Spe. Fis" t ?ins are %ater s 1$b1e--n am $nt ! & 2in) %i11 ne$tra1i'e t"em. +"ey are taste1ess# t"ere! re t"e standard edibi1ity tests are $se-1ess. • Si)na1 t"e " ist perat r ! r pi&2$p.

Arr %% rms# a1ias amp"i ?$s# are n t tr$e % rms. +"e pin&ers ! 1ar)er &rabs r 1 bsters &an &r$s" a manFs !in)er. +"ey are $n1i2e1y t bite $n1ess pr 5 2ed. I! stepped n# t"ey s1ip !ine need1es ! 1ime r si1i&a int t"e s2in# %"ere t"ey brea2 !! and !ester. Sea Cucu"6ers +"is anima1 is an imp rtant ! d s $r&e in t"e Ind -(a&i!i& re)i ns. Cra6s& Lo6sters& and #arnacles +"ese anima1s are se1d m dan)er $s t man and are an e?&e11ent ! d s $r&e. Department ! t"e Army Y $ s" $1d a1s a5 id s me !er &i $s !is". F""( . Y $ & mm n1y !ind &r & di1es in t"e rem te areas ! t"e -ast Indies and S $t"east Asia.btainin) ! d a1 n) a seas" re s" $1d n t present a pr b1em. Fe% remain near in"abited areas. +"ey are a1s a ) d s $r&e ! ! d. It may &"ar)e 1i)"ts r s"iny b@e&ts at ni)"t. +"e t"er anima1s menti ned in!1i&t in@$ry simi1ar1y. 0ollus-s M$sse1s# 1impets# &1ams# sea snai1s# &t p$ses# s4$ids# and sea s1$)s are a11 edib1e. -at t"em sm 2ed# pi&21ed# r & 2ed. Y $ !ind t"em in t"e sand and are e?&e11ent eit"er !res" r dried. Sea Urchins +"ese are & mm n and &an &a$se pain!$1 in@$ries %"en stepped n r t $&"ed. . Many spe&ies "a5e spines n t"eir s"e11s# ma2in) it pre!erab1e t %ear )1 5es %"en &at&"in) t"em.9 meters# &an a1s be a))ressi5e i! dist$rbed. I! &a$)"t in a 1ar)e %a5eFs $ndert %# p$s" !! t"e b tt m r s%im t t"e s$r!a&e and pr &eed s" re%ard in a tr $)" bet%een %a5es. 0and1e t"em %it" )1 5es# and rem 5e a11 spines.S. Crocodiles /r & di1es in"abit tr pi&a1 sa1t%ater bays and man)r 5e-b rdered est$aries and ran)e $p t 69 2i1 meters int t"e pen sea. D n t !i)"t a)ainst t"e p$11 ! t"e $ndert %. ! r a dis&$ssi n ! t"ese p1ants. +"ere are many types ! sea%eed and t"er p1ants y $ &an easi1y !ind and eat. A1s be%are ! Jred tidesJ t"at ma2e m 11$s2s p is n $s. Tides and Underto% +"ese are an t"er "a'ard t & ntend %it". A5 id t"e b1$e-rin)ed &t p$s and & ne s"e11s Cdes&ribed in /"apter 11 and Appendi? FD. +"e b 1d and in4$isiti5e barra&$da "as atta&2ed men %earin) s"iny b@e&ts. Use t"em %" 1e a!ter e5is&erati n r rem 5e t"e !i5e m$s&$1ar strips t"at r$n t"e 1en)t" ! its b dy. Us$a11y ! $nd in tr pi&a1 s"a11 % %ater near & ra1 ! rmati ns# sea $r&"ins resemb1e sma11# r $nd p r&$pines. S"e11!is" %i11 $s$a11y s$pp1y m st ! t"e pr tein eaten by & asta1 s$r5i5 rs. / nsider spe&imens 5er 1 meter 1 n) dan)er $s# espe&ia11y !ema1es )$ardin) t"eir nests.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. App1y t"e edibi1ity test n ea&" spe&ies be! re eatin). +"ere is a )reat 5ariety ! anima1 1i!e t"at &an s$pp1y y $r need ! r ! d in t"is type ! s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Sea Sna-es Sea sna2es are 5en m $s and s metimes ! $nd in mid &ean. +"e sea bass# %"i&" &an )r % t 1. +"e m ray ee1# %"i&" "as many s"arp teet" and )r %s t 1. A1s a5 id t$be% rms t"at "a5e s"arp-ed)ed t$bes. See /"apter . and Appendi? . (a)e 1:9 ! 2** . A5 id brist1e % rms t"at 1 2 1i2e !$''y &aterpi11ars. S%im %it" it r perpendi&$1ar t it $nti1 it 1 ses stren)t"# t"en s%im ! r s" re. A/"i( t"em.arna&1es &an &a$se s&rapes r &$ts and are di!!i&$1t t deta&" !r m t"eir an&" r# b$t t"e 1ar)er spe&ies are an e?&e11ent ! d s $r&e. /r & di1e meat is an e?&e11ent s $r&e ! ! d %"en a5ai1ab1e. I! p ssib1e# rem 5e t"e spines and treat t"e in@$ry ! r in!e&ti n. Sea Urchins& Sea #iscuits& Sponges& and Ane"ones +"ese anima1s &an &a$se e?treme# t" $)" se1d m !ata1# pain. 3or"s / asta1 % rms are )enera11y edib1e# b$t it is better t $se t"em ! r !is" bait.7 meters# is an t"er !is" t a5 id.

(a)e 1:6 ! 2** . +"ey may be s"a11 % r deep# s1 % r !ast m 5in)# narr % r %ide. +"e ! 11 %in) areas p ssess p tentia1 "a'ardsH a5 id t"em# i! p ssib1eI • 0bstacles on the opposite side o! the river that might hinder your travel. • A & $rse a&r ss t"e ri5er t"at 1eads d %nstream s t"at y $ %i11 &r ss t"e &$rrent at ab $t a 79de)ree an)1e. Fr m t"is p1a&e# y $ &an 1 2 ! r a p1a&e t &r ss. 6 d &r ssin) 1 &ati ns in&1$de-• A 1e5e1 stret&" %"ere it brea2s int se5era1 &"anne1s. Cven in the desert" !lash !loods occur" making streams an obstacle. RIV RS AN. 6 ba&2 $pstream t an easier &r ssin) site. • Cddies. +"is !ten indi&ates dan)er $s rapids r &any ns. An est$ary is n rma11y %ide# "as str n) &$rrents# and is s$b@e&t t tides. Y $r !irst step is t 1 2 ! r a "i)" p1a&e !r m %"i&" y $ &an )et a ) d 5ie% ! t"e ri5er r stream. I! p ssib1e# se1e&t a p int $pstream !r m t"e ban2 r sandbar s t"at t"e &$rrent %i11 &arry y $ t it i! y $ 1 se y $r ! tin). • Rocky places. Y $ may s$stain seri $s in@$ries !r m s1ippin) r !a11in) n r &2s. hatever it is" you need to know how to cross it sa!ely. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • A deep or rapid water!all or a deep channel. • A s"a11 % ban2 r sandbar. STR A0S Y $ &an app1y a1m st e5ery des&ripti n t ri5ers and streams. +ry t ma2e a ra!t ! s me type. +ry t se1e&t t"e sp t !r m %"i&" tra5e1 %i11 be t"e sa!est and easiest. +"is s%im & $1d be !ata1.E?PEDIENT *ATER CROSSIN1S In a survival situation" you may have to cross a water obstacle. An eddy &an pr d$&e a p %er!$1 ba&2%ard p$11 d %nstream ! t"e bstr$&ti n &a$sin) t"e eddy and p$11 y $ $nder t"e s$r!a&e. 3ade a&r ss i! y $ &an )et n1y y $r !eet %et.e! re y $ try t &r ss a ri5er r stream# de5e1 p a ) d p1an. Y $ m$st n t try t s%im r %ade a&r ss a stream r ri5er %"en t"e %ater is at 5ery 1 % temperat$res. It may be in the !orm o! a river" a stream" a lake" a bog" )uicksand" )uagmire" or muskeg. I! t"ere is n "i)" p1a&e# &1imb a tree. Us$a11y# s$bmer)ed r &2s are 5ery s1i&2# ma2in) ba1an&e e?treme1y di!!i&$1t. +"ese tides &an in!1$en&e s me ri5ers many 2i1 meters !r m t"eir m $t"s. Dry t"em 5i) r $s1y as s n as y $ rea&" t"e t"er ban2. In !a&t# deep %ater s metimes r$ns m re s1 %1y and is t"ere! re sa!er t"an !ast-m 5in) s"a11 % %ater. • An estuary o! a river. An &&asi na1 r &2 t"at brea2s t"e &$rrent# " %e5er# may "e1p y $. Y $ &an a1%ays dry y $r &1 t"es 1ater# r i! ne&essary# y $ &an ma2e a ra!t t &arry y $r &1 t"in) and e4$ipment a&r ss t"e ri5er. +"e dept" ! a ! rdab1e ri5er r stream is n deterrent i! y $ &an 2eep y $r ! tin). Ne5er try t ! rd a stream dire&t1y ab 5e r e5en &1 se t s$&" "a'ards. • A ledge o! rocks that crosses the river. +% r t"ree narr % &"anne1s are $s$a11y easier t &r ss t"an a %ide ri5er. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 17 .S.

• +ie y $r pants and t"er arti&1es t t"e t p ! y $r r$&2sa&2 r in a b$nd1e# i! y $ "a5e n pa&2. Usin) t"is met" d# y $ &an sa!e1y &r ss &$rrents $s$a11y t str n) ! r ne pers n t stand a)ainst. In $sin) t"is met" d# t"e $pstream pers n brea2s t"e &$rrent# and t" se be1 % &an m 5e %it" re1ati5e ease in t"e eddy ! rmed by t"e $pstream pers n. -ns$re t"at e5ery ne "as prepared t"eir pa&2 and &1 t"in) as $t1ined ab 5e.7 meters 1 n) t "e1p y $ ! rd t"e stream.S I! ne&essary# y $ &an sa!e1y &r ss a deep# s%i!t ri5er r rapids. 8eep y $r ! t)ear n t pr te&t y $r !eet and an21es !r m r &2s. N t bein) ab1e t )et a pa&2 !! 4$i&21y en $)" &an dra) e5en t"e str n)est s%immers $nder. In !ast# s"a11 % rapids# 1ie n y $r ba&2# !eet p intin) d %nstream# !innin) y $r "ands a1 n)side y $r "ips. +"is %i11 red$&e t"e dan)er ! bein) p$11ed $nder. +"is a&ti n %i11 in&rease b$ yan&y and "e1p y $ steer a%ay !r m bsta&1es. In deep rapids# 1ie n y $r st ma&"# "ead d %nstream# an)1in) t %ard t"e s" re %"ene5er y $ &an. 8eep y $r !eet $p t a5 id )ettin) t"em br$ised r &a$)"t by r &2s. (a)e 1:7 ! 2** . • /arry y $r pa&2 %e11 $p n y $r s" $1ders and be s$re y $ &an easi1y rem 5e it# i! ne&essary. I! t"ere are t"er pe p1e %it" y $# &r ss t"e stream t )et"er.9 &entimeters in diameter and 2. 6rasp t"e p 1e and p1ant it !irm1y n y $r $pstream side t brea2 t"e &$rrent.S. (1ant y $r !eet !irm1y %it" ea&" step# and m 5e t"e p 1e ! r%ard a 1itt1e d %nstream !r m its pre5i $s p siti n# b$t sti11 $pstream !r m y $. D n t & n&ern y $rse1! ab $t y $r pa&2Fs %ei)"t# as t"e %ei)"t %i11 "e1p rat"er t"an "inder y $ in ! rdin) t"e stream. • /r ss t"e stream s t"at y $ %i11 &r ss t"e d %nstream &$rrent at a 79-de)ree an)1e. + s%im a&r ss a deep# s%i!t ri5er# s%im %it" t"e &$rrent# ne5er !i)"t it. +ry t 2eep y $r b dy " ri' nta1 t t"e %ater. It %i11 a1s pr 5ide y $ %it" !irmer ! tin). +"is %ay# i! y $ "a5e t re1ease y $r e4$ipment# a11 y $r arti&1es %i11 be t )et"er. Find a str n) p 1e ab $t 7. 8eep t"e p 1e %e11 s1anted s t"at t"e ! r&e ! t"e &$rrent 2eeps t"e p 1e a)ainst y $r s" $1der CFi)$re 17-1D. I! t"e $pstream pers n )ets temp rari1y s%ept !! "is !eet# t"e t"ers &an " 1d steady %"i1e "e re)ains "is ! tin) CFi)$re 17-2D. ( siti n t"e "ea5iest pers n n t"e d %nstream end ! t"e p 1e and t"e 1i)"test n t"e $pstream end. / n5er)in) &$rrents &&$r %"ere ne% %ater& $rses enter t"e ri5er r %"ere %ater "as been di5erted ar $nd 1ar)e bsta&1es s$&" as sma11 is1ands. + ! rd a s%i!t# trea&"er $s stream# app1y t"e ! 11 %in) stepsI • Rem 5e y $r pants and s"irt t 1essen t"e %aterFs p$11 n y $. 3at&" ! r bsta&1es and be &are!$1 ! ba&2%ater eddies and & n5er)in) &$rrents# as t"ey !ten & ntain dan)er $s s%ir1s.1 t 2. It is easier t !ind ne 1ar)e pa&2 t"an t !ind se5era1 sma11 items. 3it" y $r ne?t step# p1a&e y $r ! t be1 % t"e p 1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army RAPI.

Department ! t"e Army I! y $ "a5e t"ree r m re pe p1e and a r pe a5ai1ab1e# y $ &an $se t"e te&"ni4$e s" %n in Fi)$re 17-* t &r ss t"e stream.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e 1en)t" ! t"e r pe m$st be t"ree times t"e %idt" ! t"e stream. (a)e 1:: ! 2** .S.

+ & nstr$&t it# $se p n&" s# !res" )reen br$s"# t% sma11 sap1in)s# and r pe r 5ine as ! 11 %s CFi)$re 17-7DI • ($s" t"e " d ! ea&" p n&" t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2s $sin) t"e dra%strin)s. 3it" eit"er ! t"ese ra!ts# y $ &an sa!e1y !1 at y $r e4$ipment a&r ss a s1 %-m 5in) stream r ri5er.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. ($11 t"e dra%strin) $p t"r $)" t"e &enter ! t"e br$s" sta&2. • Spread ne p n&" n t"e )r $nd %it" t"e inner side $p. Department ! t"e Army RA'TS I! y $ "a5e t% p n&" s# y $ &an & nstr$&t a br$s" ra!t r an A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t. (i1e !res"# )reen br$s" Cn t"i&2 bran&"esD n t"e p n&" $nti1 t"e br$s" sta&2 is ab $t 79 &entimeters "i)". • Atta&" t"e r pes r 5ines at t"e & rner and side )r mmets ! ea&" p n&" .S. • (i1e an t"er 79 &entimeters ! br$s" n t p ! t"e B-!rame# t"en & mpress t"e br$s" s1i)"t1y. Ma2e s$re t"ey are 1 n) en $)" t &r ss t and tie %it" t"e t"ers atta&"ed at t"e pp site & rner r side. +ie t"e B-!rame se&$re1y in p1a&e %it" t"e p n&" dra%strin). ! 2** . • Ma2e an B-!rame !r m t% sma11 sap1in)s and p1a&e it n t p ! t"e br$s" sta&2. B& $h R!6t +"e br$s" ra!t# i! pr per1y & nstr$&ted# %i11 s$pp rt ab $t 119 2i1 )rams. (a)e 1:.

(1a&e and &enter t"e t% 1. Spread t"e se& nd p n&" # inner side $p# ne?t t t"e br$s" b$nd1e. Ma2e s$re y $ r 11 t"e !$11 %idt" ! t"e p n&" .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is ra!t# a1t" $)" m re %aterpr ! t"an t"e p n&" br$s" ra!t# %i11 n1y !1 at ab $t *9 2i1 )rams ! e4$ipment.< ! 2** . F 1d t"e pi)tai1s 5er t"e b$nd1e and tie t"em se&$re1y in p1a&e $sin) r pes# b t1a&es# r 5ines. • Use y $r b$ddyFs "e1p t & mp1ete t"e ra!t. • +ie r pes# b t1a&es# 5ines# r t"er bindin) materia1 ar $nd t"e ra!t ab $t *< &entimeters !r m t"e end ! ea&" pi)tai1. Department ! t"e Army • • • • ($11 t"e p n&" sides $p ar $nd t"e br$s" and# $sin) t"e r pes r 5ines atta&"ed t t"e & mer r side )r mmets# tie t"em dia) na11y !r m & mer t & rner and !r m side t side.2-meter p 1es n t"e p n&" ab $t 79 &entimeters apart. I! y $ need m re b$ yan&y# p1a&e s me !res" )reen br$s" n t"is p n&" . (1a&e it in t"e %ater %it" t"e tied side ! t"e se& nd p n&" !a&in) $p.h" R!6t I! y $ d n t "a5e time t )at"er br$s" ! r a br$s" ra!t# y $ &an ma2e an A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t. 0 1d t"e snapped p rti n ! t"e p n&" in t"e air and r 11 it ti)"t1y d %n t t"e e4$ipment. +ie t"e se& nd p n&" ar $nd t"e br$s" b$nd1e in t"e same manner as y $ tied t"e !irst p n&" ar $nd t"e br$s". • (1a&e y $r r$&2sa&2s r pa&2s r t"er e4$ipment bet%een t"e p 1es. • Spread ne p n&" n t"e )r $nd %it" t"e inner side $p. • Spread t"e se& nd p n&" n t"e )r $nd# inner side $p. + & nstr$&t t"is ra!t# $se t% p n&" s# t% r$&2sa&2s# t% 1. Snap t"e p n&" sides t )et"er.S. A $t&!%i!# P"#. 3rap t"e se& nd p n&" ar $nd t"e e4$ipment b$nd1e ! 11 %in) t"e same pr &ed$re y $ $sed ! r %rappin) t"e e4$ipment in t"e !irst p n&" . +"is %i11 "e1p y $ t t % t"e ra!t.2-meter p 1es r bran&"es# and r pes# 5ines# b t1a&es# r & mparab1e materia1 as ! 11 %s CFi)$re 17-9DI • ($s" t"e " d ! ea&" p n&" t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2s $sin) t"e dra%strin)s. • (1a&e t"e e4$ipment b$nd1e# tied side d %n# n t"e &enter ! t"e se& nd p n&" . • +ie ne end ! a r pe t an empty &anteen and t"e t"er end t t"e ra!t. • +%ist t"e ends ! t"e r 11 t ! rm pi)tai1s in pp site dire&ti ns. A1s p1a&e t"er items t"at y $ %ant t 2eep dry bet%een t"e p 1es. R 11 t"e br$s" b$nd1e nt t"e se& nd p n&" s t"at t"e tied side is d %n. (1a&e and se&$re %eap ns n t p ! t"e ra!t. (a)e 1.

1 ! 2** . Use t"em as a !1 at t )et y $ and y $r e4$ipment sa!e1y a&r ss t"e ri5er r stream. (1a&e t"e d n$t rin) n t"e &enter ! t"e p n&" .h" D"# t R!6t An t"er type ! ra!t is t"e p n&" d n$t ra!t.e s$re t &"e&2 t"e %ater temperat$re be! re tryin) t &r ss a ri5er r %ater bsta&1e. + & nstr$&t it# $se ne p n&" # sma11 sap1in)s# %i11 % r 5ines# and r pe# b t1a&es# r t"er bindin) materia1 CFi)$re 17-6D as ! 11 %sI • Ma2e a !rame% r2 &ir&1e by p1a&in) se5era1 sta2es in t"e )r $nd t"at r $)"1y $t1ine an inner and $ter &ir&1e. 3rap t"e p n&" $p and 5er t"e d n$t rin) and tie !! ea&" )r mmet n t"e p n&" t t"e rin). +"is r pe %i11 "e1p y $ t t % t"e ra!t. It ta2es m re time t & nstr$&t t"an t"e br$s" ra!t r A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t# b$t it is e!!e&ti5e. • Usin) y $n) sap1in)s# %i11 %# r 5ines# & nstr$&t a d n$t rin) %it"in t"e &ir&1es ! sta2es.e! re y $ start t &r ss t"e ri5er r stream# 1et t"e ra!t 1ay n t"e %ater a !e% min$tes t ens$re t"at it !1 ats. • ($s" t"e p n&" Fs " d t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2 $sin) t"e dra%strin). I! t"e %ater is e?treme1y & 1d and y $ are $nab1e t !ind a s"a11 % ! rdin) p1a&e in t"e ri5er# d n t try t ! rd it. 3"en 1a$n&"in) any ! t"e ab 5e ra!ts# ta2e &are n t t p$n&t$re r tear it by dra))in) it n t"e )r $nd.S. • (1a&e t"e p n&" n t"e )r $nd# inner side $p. I! t"e ri5er is t deep t ! rd# p$s" t"e ra!t in !r nt ! y $ %"i1e y $ are s%immin). . De5ise (a)e 1. . • 3rap se5era1 pie&es ! & rda)e ar $nd t"e d n$t rin) ab $t *< t 6< &entimeters apart and tie t"em se&$re1y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • +ie ne end ! a r pe t an empty &anteen and t"e t"er end t t"e ra!t. Department ! t"e Army P"#. +"e desi)n ! t"e ab 5e ra!ts d es n t a11 % t"em t &arry a pers nFs !$11 b dy %ei)"t.

. F r t"is# " %e5er# y $ %i11 need an a?e# a 2ni!e# a r pe r 5ines# and time.e s$re t test t"e 1 ) be! re startin) t &r ss. +"e many air &e11s in ea&" sta12 &a$se a sta12 t !1 at $nti1 it r ts. 'LOTATION . Fi11 t% r m re p1asti& ba)s %it" air and se&$re t"em t )et"er at t"e penin). Sit bet%een t"e 1 )s %it" y $r ba&2 a)ainst ne and y $r 1e)s 5er t"e t"er CFi)$re 17-:D. Use t"is type ! !1 tati n de5i&e n1y in a s1 %-m 5in) ri5er r stream. (a)e 1. Department ! t"e Army t"er means ! r &r ssin). =$i&21y press t"e sides ! t"e %aistband t )et"er and " 1d it $nder%ater s t"at t"e air %i11 n t es&ape. Y $ n % "a5e %ater %in)s t 2eep y $ a!1 at as y $ &r ss t"e b dy ! %ater. F r instan&e# y $ mi)"t impr 5ise a brid)e by !e11in) a tree 5er t"e ri5er. . VIC S I! t"e %ater is %arm en $)" ! r s%immin) and y $ d n t "a5e t"e time r materia1s t & nstr$&t ne ! t"e p n&" -type ra!ts# y $ &an $se 5ari $s !1 tati n de5i&es t ne) tiate t"e %ater bsta&1e. Use t"em as %ater %in)s. 8ote9 et the trousers be!ore in!lating to trap the air better @ou may have to rein!late the trousers several times when crossing a large body o! water.2 ! 2** . An t"er met" d is t tie t% 1 )s ab $t 6< &entimeters apart. S me tree 1 )s# pa1m ! r e?amp1e# %i11 sin2 e5en %"en t"e % d is dead. +ie t"e ends ! t"e r 11 se&$re1y. +est t"e &attai1 b$nd1e t be s$re it %i11 s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t be! re tryin) t &r ss a b dy ! %ater. :lastic bags and ponchos. S me items y $ &an $se ! r !1 tati n de5i&es are-• Trousers. Use y $r p n&" and r 11 )reen 5e)etati n ti)"t1y inside it s t"at y $ "a5e a r 11 at 1east 2< &entimeters in diameter. 8n t ea&" tr $ser 1e) at t"e b tt m and &1 se t"e !1y. 3it" b t" "ands# )rasp t"e %aistband at t"e sides and s%in) t"e tr $sers in t"e air t trap air in ea&" 1e). A simp1e met" d ! r ma2in) a ra!t is t $se press$re bars 1as"ed se&$re1y at ea&" end ! t"e ra!t t " 1d t"e 1 )s t )et"er CFi)$re 17-7D. Las" t )et"er "er empty )as &ans# %ater @$)s# amm &ans# b ?es# r t"er items t"at %i11 trap r " 1d air. 6at"er sta12s ! &attai1s and tie t"em in a b$nd1e 29 &entimeters r m re in diameter. Use a stranded dri!t 1 ) i! ne is a5ai1ab1e# r !ind a 1 ) near t"e %ater t $se as a !1 at. 0 %e5er# spr$&e trees ! $nd in p 1ar and s$bp 1ar re)i ns ma2e t"e best ra!ts. Y $ &an %ear it ar $nd y $r %aist r a&r ss ne s" $1der and $nder t"e pp site arm.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. L"0 R!6t Y $ &an ma2e a ra!t $sin) any dry# dead# standin) trees ! r 1 )s. • • Cmpty containers. • 1attails. Logs.S.r y $ mi)"t b$i1d a ra!t 1ar)e en $)" t &arry y $ and y $r e4$ipment.

S%im r p$11 y $r %ay a&r ss m 5in) s1 %1y and tryin) t 2eep y $r b dy " ri' nta1. (a)e 1. 0 %e5er# y $ &an s%im t"r $)" re1ati5e1y dense 5e)etati n i! y $ remain &a1m and d n t t"ras" ab $t. D n t try t %a12 a&r ss t"ese. Rem 5e t"e p1ants ar $nd y $ as y $ % $1d &1 t"in). In s%amps# t"e areas t"at "a5e 5e)etati n are $s$a11y !irm en $)" t s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t. It 5aries in dept" and is $s$a11y 1 &a1i'ed. 0 %e5er# 5e)etati n %i11 $s$a11y n t be present in pen m$d r %ater areas. A %ay t &r ss a b ) is t 1ie !a&e d %n# %it" y $r arms and 1e)s spread.* ! 2** . +ry t bypass t"ese bsta&1es. I! y $ are $nab1e t bypass t"em# y $ may be ab1e t brid)e t"em $sin) 1 )s# bran&"es# r ! 1ia)e. A1t" $)" 4$i&2sand "as m re s$&ti n t"an m$d r m$&2# y $ &an &r ss it @$st as y $ % $1d &r ss a b ). I! y $ are $n&ertain %"et"er a sandy area is 4$i&2sand# t ss a sma11 st ne n it. OT.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ are n t"e in1and side# 1 2 ! r a narr % )r 5e ! trees and % r2 y $r %ay sea%ard t"r $)" t"ese. Man)r 5e trees r s"r$bs t"r % $t many pr p r ts t"at ! rm dense masses. 3"en y $ )et tired# !1 at r s%im n y $r ba&2 $nti1 y $ "a5e rested en $)" t & ntin$e %it" t"e breaststr 2e. +ryin) t 1i!t y $r !eet %"i1e standin) $pri)"t %i11 ma2e y $ sin2 deeper. + )et t"r $)" a man)r 5e s%amp# %ait ! r 1 % tide. I! t"ere are any near y $# 1ea5e t"e %ater and s&ramb1e 5er t"e man)r 5e r ts. Y $ &an a1s try t !ind t"e bed ! a %ater%ay r &ree2 t"r $)" t"e trees and ! 11 % it t t"e sea. +"e man)r 5e s%amp is an t"er type ! bsta&1e t"at &&$rs a1 n) tr pi&a1 & ast1ines. =$i&2sand & mm n1y &&$rs n !1at s" res# in si1t-&" 2ed ri5ers %it" s"i!tin) %ater& $rses# and near t"e m $t"s ! 1ar)e ri5ers. 3"i1e &r ssin) a man)r 5e s%amp# it is p ssib1e t )at"er ! d !r m tida1 p 1s r tree r ts. R 3AT R O#STACL S . . >$st ma2e s$re t test t"e de5i&e be! re tryin) t $se it. It yie1ds easi1y t press$re and s$&2s d %n and en)$1!s b@e&ts restin) n its s$r!a&e. V / TATION O#STACL S S me %ater areas y $ m$st &r ss may "a5e $nder%ater and !1 atin) p1ants t"at %i11 ma2e s%immin) di!!i&$1t. + &r ss a 1ar)e s%amp area# & nstr$&t s me type ! ra!t. Department ! t"e Army +"ere are many t"er !1 tati n de5i&es t"at y $ &an de5ise by $sin) s me ima)inati n. I! y $ are n t"e sea%ard side# % r2 in1and a1 n) streams r &"anne1s. Lie !a&e d %n# spread y $r arms and 1e)s# and m 5e s1 %1y a&r ss. +"e st ne %i11 sin2 in 4$i&2sand. =$i&2sand is a mi?t$re ! sand and %ater t"at ! rms a s"i!tin) mass. Use a !1 tati n de5i&e r ! rm p &2ets ! air in y $r &1 t"in).t"er %ater bsta&1es t"at y $ may !a&e are b )s# 4$a)mire# m$s2e)# r 4$i&2sand. Stay as near t"e s$r!a&e as p ssib1e and $se t"e breaststr 2e %it" s"a11 % 1e) and arm m ti n.e n t"e 1 2 $t ! r &r & di1es t"at y $ !ind a1 n) &"anne1s and in s"a11 % %ater. I! y $ are an a5era)e s%immer# " %e5er# y $ s" $1d "a5e n pr b1em s%immin)# &ra%1in)# r p$11in) y $r %ay t"r $)" mi1es ! b ) r s%amp.

This knowledge o! the terrain together with using the methods e+plained below will let you come up with !airly true directions to help you navigate. +"e s$n a1%ays rises in t"e east and sets in t"e %est# b$t n t e?a&t1y d$e east r d$e %est. +"e s"ad % met" ds $sed ! r dire&ti n !indin) are t"e s"ad %-tip and %at&" met" ds. In t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere# t"is same n nday s$n %i11 mar2 d$e n rt". • Step 4. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# t"e s$n %i11 be d$e s $t" %"en at its "i)"est p int in t"e s2y# r %"en an b@e&t &asts n appre&iab1e s"ad %. I! you do have these two pieces o! e)uipment" you will most likely be able to move toward help. @ou must learn all you can about the terrain o! the country or territory to which you or your unit may be sent" especially any prominent !eatures or landmarks. There are several methods by which you can determine direction by using the sun and the stars. Stand %it" t"e !irst mar2 C%estD t y $r 1e!t and t"e se& nd mar2 t y $r ri)"t--y $ are n % !a&in) n rt". I! you are not pro!icient in using a map and compass" you must take the steps to gain this skill. These methods" however" will give you only a general direction.FIELD-E?PEDIENT DIRECTION FINDIN1 In a survival situation" you will be e+tremely !ortunate i! you happen to have a map and compass. +"is !a&t is tr$e e/e&32he&e n eart". Mar2 t"e s"ad % tipFs ne% p siti n in t"e same %ay as t"e !irst. USIN/ T. SUN AN.A. Mar2 t"e s"ad %Fs tip %it" a st ne# t%i)# r t"er means. An a1ternate met" d is m re a&&$rate b$t re4$ires m re time. 3ait 1< t 19 min$tes $nti1 t"e s"ad % tip m 5es a !e% &entimeters. +"ere is a1s s me seas na1 5ariati n. (1a&e t"e sti&2 r bran&" int t"e )r $nd at a 1e5e1 sp t %"ere it %i11 &ast a distin&ti5e s"ad %. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# s"ad %s %i11 m 5e &1 &2%ise. . Use a pie&e ! strin) t dra% a &1ean ar& t"r $)" t"is mar2 and ar $nd t"e (a)e 1. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1.7 ! 2** . @ou can come up with a more nearly true direction i! you know the terrain o! the territory or country.O3S +"e eart"Fs re1ati ns"ip t t"e s$n &an "e1p y $ t determine dire&ti n n eart". • Step 5. S. 3it" pra&ti&e# y $ &an $se s"ad %s t determine b t" dire&ti n and time ! day.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Sh!("2-Tip Meth"($ In t"e !irst s"ad %-tip met" d# !ind a strai)"t sti&2 1 meter 1 n)# and a 1e5e1 sp t !ree ! br$s" n %"i&" t"e sti&2 %i11 &ast a de!inite s"ad %. +"is met" d is simp1e and a&&$rate and & nsists ! ! $r stepsI • Step 2. • Step 3. +"is !irst s"ad % mar2 is a1%ays %est--e/e&32he&e n eart". Dra% a strai)"t 1ine t"r $)" t"e t% mar2s t btain an appr ?imate east-%est 1ine. S"ad %s %i11 m 5e & $nter&1 &2%ise in t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere.S. Set $p y $r s"ad % sti&2 and mar2 t"e !irst s"ad % in t"e m rnin).

I! t"ere is any d $bt as t %"i&" end ! t"e 1ine is n rt"# remember t"at t"e s$n rises in t"e east# sets in t"e %est# and is d$e s $t" at n n. (a)e 1.S. In t"e a!tern n# it %i11 1en)t"en a)ain and at t"e p int %"ere it t $&"es t"e ar&# ma2e a se& nd mar2. Remember# t"e !$rt"er y $ are !r m t"e e4$at r# t"e m re a&&$rate t"is met" d %i11 be.ise&t t"e an)1e bet%een t"e " $r "and and t"e 12 F&1 &2 mar2 t )et t"e n rt"-s $t" 1ine CFi)$re 1:-2D.h Meth"( Y $ &an a1s determine dire&ti n $sin) a & mm n r ana1 ) %at&"-. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# " 1d t"e %at&" " ri' nta1 and p int t"e " $r "and at t"e s$n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ n1y "a5e a di)ita1 %at&"# y $ &an 5er& me t"is bsta&1e. =$i&21y dra% a %at&" n a &ir&1e ! paper %it" t"e & rre&t time n it and $se it t determine y $r dire&ti n at t"at time. 8ote9 I! your watch is set on daylight savings time" use the midway point between the hour hand and 2 o. . Department ! t"e Army sti&2. The *!t. Dra% a 1ine t"r $)" t"e t% mar2s t )et an a&&$rate east-%est 1ine Csee Fi)$re 1:-1D. +"e s$n is in t"e east be! re n n and in t"e %est a!ter n n. +"e dire&ti n %i11 be a&&$rate i! y $ are $sin) tr$e 1 &a1 time# %it" $t any &"an)es ! r day1i)"t sa5in)s time.9 ! 2** .clock to determine the north%south line. At midday# t"e s"ad % %i11 s"rin2 and disappear.ne t"at "as "ands.

STARS Y $r 1 &ati n in t"e N rt"ern r S $t"ern 0emisp"ere determines %"i&" & nste11ati n y $ $se t determine y $r n rt" r s $t" dire&ti n. Use t"em t 1 &ate ( 1aris# a1s 2n %n as t"e p 1estar r t"e N rt" Star.e&a$se t"e m n "as n 1i)"t ! its %n# %e &an n1y see it %"en it re!1e&ts t"e s$nFs 1i)"t. +"is b5i $s dis& 5ery pr 5ides $s %it" a r $)" east-%est re!eren&e d$rin) t"e ni)"t. 3e say t"ere is a ne% m n r n m n %"en it is n t"e pp site side ! t"e eart" !r m t"e s$n. t"er and r tate & $nter&1 &2%ise ar $nd ( 1aris# %it" ( 1aris in t"e &enter. 0OON .6 ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. The N"&the&# S)3 +"e main & nste11ati ns t 1earn are t"e Ursa Ma@ r# a1s 2n %n as t"e .i) Dipper.i) DipperFs b$&2et. +"e . Department ! t"e Army In t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere# p int t"e %at&"Fs 12 F&1 &2 mar2 t %ard t"e s$n and a midp int "a1!%ay bet%een 12 and t"e " $r "and %i11 )i5e y $ t"e n rt"-s $t" 1ine CFi)$re 1:-2D.i) Dipper r t"e (1 %# and /assi peia CFi)$re 1:-*D. +"e N rt" Star ! rms part ! t"e Litt1e Dipper "and1e and &an be & n!$sed %it" t"e .i) Dipper and /assi peia are a1%ays dire&t1y pp site ea&". Neit"er ! t"ese & nste11ati ns e5er sets. USIN/ T. Y $ &an $se t"is in! rmati n t identi!y dire&ti n. I! t"e m n rises a!ter midni)"t# t"e i11$minated side %i11 be t"e east. +"e . +"en# as it m 5es a%ay !r m t"e eart"Fs s"ad %# it be)ins t re!1e&t 1i)"t !r m its ri)"t side and %a?es t be& me a !$11 m n be! re %anin)# r 1 sin) s"ape# t appear as a s1i5er n t"e 1e!t side. Menta11y dra% a 1ine !r m t"e $ter b tt m star t t"e $ter t p star ! t"e . +"ey are a1%ays 5isib1e n a &1ear ni)"t. USIN/ T. I! t"e m n rises be! re t"e s$n "as set# t"e i11$minated side %i11 be t"e %est.i) Dipper is a se5en star & nste11ati n in t"e s"ape ! a dipper. Y $ %i11 !ind t"e N rt" Star a1 n) t"is 1ine.i) Dipper and /assi peia t )et"er. -?tend t"is 1ine ab $t !i5e times t"e distan&e bet%een t"e p inter stars. As it rbits t"e eart" n its 2:-day &ir&$it# t"e s"ape ! t"e re!1e&ted 1i)"t 5aries a&& rdin) t its p siti n. (re5ent & n!$si n by $sin) b t" t"e . (a)e 1.S. +"e t% stars ! rmin) t"e $ter 1ip ! t"is dipper are t"e Jp inter starsJ be&a$se t"ey p int t t"e N rt" Star.

+"e t% stars t"at ma2e $p t"e &r ssFs 1 n) a?is are t"e p inter stars.7 ! 2** . The S" the&# S)3 . A!ter 1 &atin) t"e N rt" Star# 1 &ate t"e N rt" ( 1e r tr$e n rt" by dra%in) an ima)inary 1ine dire&t1y t t"e eart". Department ! t"e Army /assi peia "as !i5e stars t"at ! rm a s"ape 1i2e a J3J n its side. (a)e 1. Its ! $r bri)"test stars ! rm a &r ss t"at ti1ts t ne side. L 2 d %n t t"e " ri' n !r m t"is ima)inary p int and se1e&t a 1andmar2 t steer by.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In a stati& s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ &an !i? t"is 1 &ati n in day1i)"t i! y $ dri5e sta2es in t"e )r $nd at ni)"t t p int t"e %ay.S. +"e S $t"ern /r ss r /r$? "as !i5e stars. +"e N rt" Star is strai)"t $t !r m /assi peiaFs &enter star. + determine s $t"# ima)ine a distan&e !i5e times t"e distan&e bet%een +"ese stars and t"e p int %"ere t"is ima)inary 1ine ends is in t"e )enera1 dire&ti n ! s $t".e&a$se t"ere is n star bri)"t en $)" t be easi1y re& )ni'ed near t"e s $t" &e1estia1 p 1e# a & nste11ati n 2n %n as t"e S $t"ern /r ss is $sed as a si)np st t t"e S $t" CFi)$re 1:-7D.

Department ! t"e Army 0A*IN/ I0PROVIS . Y $ &an a1s p 1ari'e meta1 by str 2in) it repeated1y at ne end %it" a ma)net. 3"en s$spended !r m a pie&e ! n nmeta11i& strin)# r !1 ated n a sma11 pie&e ! % d in %ater# it %i11 a1i)n itse1! %it" a n rt"-s $t" 1ine.n t"e t"er "and# t"e tree )r %t" rin)s %i11 be &1 ser t )et"er n t"e side t %ard t"e p 1es. 3ind dire&ti n may be "e1p!$1 in s me instan&es %"ere t"ere are pre5ai1in) dire&ti ns and y $ 2n % %"at t"ey are. I! t"ere are se5era1 !e11ed trees ar $nd ! r & mparis n# 1 2 at t"e st$mps.S.ne "a1! %i11 ! rm y $r dire&ti n p inter and t"e t"er %i11 a&t as t"e pi5 t p int. + & nstr$&t t"is & mpass# ta2e an rdinary se%in) need1e and brea2 in "a1!. CO0PASS S Y $ &an & nstr$&t impr 5ised & mpasses $sin) a pie&e ! !err $s meta1 t"at &an be need1e s"aped r a !1at d $b1e-ed)ed ra' r b1ade and a pie&e ! n nmeta11i& strin) r 1 n) "air !r m %"i&" t s$spend it. +"e %ire s" $1d be ins$1ated. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# n rt"-!a&in) s1 pes re&ei5e 1ess s$n t"an (a)e 1. A1%ays r$b in ne dire&ti n n1y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. F rm a & i1 %it" t"e e1e&tri& %ire and t $&" its ends t t"e batteryFs termina1s. I! n t ins$1ated# %rap t"e meta1 b@e&t in a sin)1e# t"in strip ! paper t pre5ent & nta&t. A&t$a11y# )r %t" is m re 1$s" n t"e side ! t"e tree !a&in) t"e s $t" in t"e N rt"ern 0emisp"ere and 5i&e 5ersa in t"e S $t"ern 0emisp"ere. I! y $ "a5e a battery and s me e1e&tri& %ire# y $ &an p 1ari'e t"e meta1 e1e&tri&a11y. . Y $ &an & nstr$&t a m re e1ab rate impr 5ised & mpass $sin) a se%in) need1e r t"in meta11i& b@e&t# a n nmeta11i& & ntainer C! r e?amp1e# a p1asti& dip & ntainerD# its 1id %it" t"e &enter &$t $t and %aterpr !ed# and t"e si15er tip !r m a pen.and s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes &an aid in determinin) dire&ti n. +"e battery m$st be a minim$m ! 2 5 1ts.IR CTION +"e 1d sayin) ab $t $sin) m ss n a tree t indi&ate n rt" is n t a&&$rate be&a$se m ss )r %s & mp1ete1y ar $nd s me trees. R 0 ANS O' . Ma)neti'e ne end ! t"e p inter and rest it n t"e pi5 t p int. OT.: ! 2** . Repeated1y insert ne end ! t"e meta1 b@e&t in and $t ! t"e & i1. ($s" t"e p rti n $sed as t"e pi5 t p int t"r $)" t"e b tt m &enter ! y $r & ntainerH t"is p rti n s" $1d be !1$s" n t"e b tt m and n t inter!ere %it" t"e 1id. Y $ &an ma)neti'e r p 1ari'e t"e meta1 by s1 %1y str 2in) it in ne dire&ti n n a pie&e ! si12 r &are!$11y t"r $)" y $r "air $sin) de1iberate str 2es. T R0ININ/ . . Re& )ni'in) t"e di!!eren&es bet%een 5e)etati n and m ist$re patterns n n rt". Atta&" t"e &enter ! t"e t"er p rti n Ct"e p interD ! t"e need1e n t"e penFs si15er tip $sin) )1$e# tree sap# r me1ted p1asti&. +"e need1e %i11 be& me an e1e&tr ma)net. 6r %t" is m re 5i) r $s n t"e side t %ard t"e e4$at r and t"e tree )r %t" rin)s %i11 be m re %ide1y spa&ed.

Department ! t"e Army s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes and are t"ere! re & 1er and damper. In t"e %inter# t"e trees and pen areas n s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes are t"e !irst t 1 se t"eir sn %# and )r $nd sn %pa&2 is s"a11 %er. In t"e s$mmer# n rt"-!a&in) s1 pes retain pat&"es ! sn %.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. ! 2** . (a)e 1..S.

+ry t "a5e a "i11 r t"er b@e&t bet%een t"e si)na1 site and t"e enemy t mas2 y $r si)na1 !r m t"e enemy.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (i&2 an area t"at is 5isib1e !r m t"e air# b$t ens$re t"ere are "idin) p1a&es nearby. Some attention%getters are man%made geometric patterns such as straight lines" circles" triangles" or G. . (er! rm a t" r $)" re& nnaissan&e ! t"e area t ens$re t"ere are n enemy ! r&es nearby. I! p ssib1e# a5 id $sin) si)na1s r si)na1in) te&"ni4$es t"at &an p"ysi&a11y endan)er y $.n t"e t"er "and# y $ %i11 "a5e t be m re dis&reet in & mbat sit$ati ns.SI1NALIN1 TECHNI@UES 0ne o! your !irst concerns when you !ind yoursel! in a survival situation is to communicate with your !riends or allies. Learn " % t $se t"em. +"e means y $ $se %i11 depend n y $r sit$ati n and t"e materia1 y $ "a5e a5ai1ab1e. Learn " % t perate t"em and " % t send and re&ei5e messa)es. >enerally" communication is the giving and receiving o! in!ormation. . Vi$ !% Si0#!%$ +"ese si)na1s are materia1s r e4$ipment y $ $se t ma2e y $r presen&e 2n %n t res&$ers. APPLICATION I! in a n n& mbat sit$ati n# y $ need t !ind t"e 1ar)est a5ai1ab1e &1ear and !1at area on the highest possible terrain. 3"ate5er t"e means# a1%ays "a5e 5is$a1 and a$di si)na1s ready ! r $se. As a survivor" you must get your rescuer. (1anned# prearran)ed si)na1in) te&"ni4$es may impr 5e y $r &"an&e ! res&$e. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1< . Use as b5i $s a si)na1 as y $ &an &reate.S.e& me !ami1iar %it" t"e radi s in y $r $nit. 8eep in mind t"at si)na1s t y $r 6&ie#($ may a1ert t"e enemy ! y $r presen&e and 1 &ati n. +"in2 ! %ays in %"i&" y $ &an adapt r &"an)e t"em ! r di!!erent en5ir nments.s attention !irst" and second" send a message your rescuer understands. Y $ %i11 !ind des&ripti ns ! t"er si)na1in) te&"ni4$es# de5i&es# and arti&1es y $ &an $se. 3"ate5er si)na1in) te&"ni4$e r de5i&e y $ p1an t $se# 2n % " % t $se it and be ready t p$t it int perati n n s" rt n ti&e. (ra&ti&e $sin) t"ese si)na1in) te&"ni4$es# de5i&es# and arti&1es be! re y $ need t"em. A radi is pr bab1y t"e s$rest and 4$i&2est %ay t 1et t"ers 2n % %"ere y $ are and t 1et y $ re&ei5e t"eir messa)es.s displayed in uninhabited areas# a large !ire or !lash o! light# a large" bright ob$ect moving slowly# or contrast" whether !rom color or shadows. 0 ANS 'OR SI/NALIN/ +"ere are t% main %ays t )et attenti n r t & mm$ni&ate--5is$a1 and a$di .e! re si)na1in)# &are!$11y %ei)" y $r res&$e &"an&es by 6&ie#($ a)ainst t"e dan)er ! &apt$re by t"e enemy. Y $ d n t %ant t si)na1 and attra&t t"e enemy. 'ire (a)e 2<< ! 2** . The type o! signal used will depend on your environment and the enemy situation. .

+"e internati na1 distress si)na1 is t"ree & 1$mns ! sm 2e. Department ! t"e Army D$rin) dar2ness# !ire is t"e m st e!!e&ti5e 5is$a1 means ! r si)na1in). +ry t &reate a & 1 r ! sm 2e t"at & ntrasts %it" t"e ba&2)r $ndH dar2 sm 2e a)ainst a 1i)"t ba&2)r $nd and 5i&e 5ersa. A b$rnin) tree Ctree t r&"D is an t"er %ay t attra&t attenti n CFi)$re 1. I! in a sn %-& 5ered area# y $ may "a5e t &1ear t"e )r $nd ! sn % r ma2e a p1at! rm n %"i&" t b$i1d t"e !ire s t"at me1tin) sn % %i11 n t e?tin)$is" it. Y $ &an )et t"er types ! trees t b$rn by p1a&in) dry % d in t"e 1 %er bran&"es and i)nitin) it s t"at t"e !1ames !1are $p and i)nite t"e ! 1ia)e. I! y $ are a1 ne# maintainin) t"ree !ires may be di!!i&$1t. I! in a @$n)1e# !ind a nat$ra1 &1earin) r t"e ed)e ! a stream %"ere y $ &an b$i1d !ires t"at t"e @$n)1e ! 1ia)e %i11 n t "ide. S"o-e D$rin) day1i)"t# b$i1d a sm 2e )enerat r and $se sm 2e t )ain attenti n CFi)$re 1.-1D.e! re t"e primary tree is & ns$med# &$t and add m re sma11 )reen trees t t"e !ire t pr d$&e m re sm 2e. A1%ays se1e&t an is 1ated tree s t"at y $ d n t start a ! rest !ire and endan)er y $rse1!.$i1d t"ree !ires in a trian)1e Ct"e internati na1 distress si)na1D r in a strai)"t 1ine %it" ab $t 29 meters bet%een t"e !ires.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ add r$bber r i1s a2ed ra)s t a !ire# y $ %i11 )et b1a&2 sm 2e.$i1d t"em as s n as time and t"e sit$ati n permit and pr te&t t"em $nti1 y $ need t"em. I! y $ pra&ti&a11y sm t"er a 1ar)e !ire %it" )reen 1ea5es# m ss# r a 1itt1e %ater# t"e !ire %i11 pr d$&e %"ite sm 2e.S. . . 3"en & nstr$&tin) si)na1 !ires# & nsider y $r )e )rap"i& 1 &ati n. I! s # maintain ne si)na1 !ire. Y $ &an set pit&"-bearin) trees a!ire# e5en %"en )reen.-2D. (a)e 2<1 ! 2** . . Y $ may e5en "a5e t &1ear an area.

Star Clusters Red is t"e internati na1 distress & 1 rH t"ere! re# $se a red star &1$ster %"ene5er p ssib1e. As %it" pen !1ares# be ready t ta2e & 5er i! t"e pi1 t mista2es y $r tra&ers ! r enemy !ire. D" #"t !ire t"e amm$niti n in !r nt ! t"e air&ra!t. + "a5e t"e pen !1are ready ! r immediate $se# ta2e it $t ! its %rapper# atta&" t"e !1are# 1ea5e t"e )$n $n& &2ed# and %ear it n a & rd r &"ain ar $nd y $r ne&2. S"o-e /renades I! y $ "a5e sm 2e )renades %it" y $# $se t"em in t"e same pattern as des&ribed ! r !ires. +a2e &are n t t i)nite t"e 5e)etati n in t"e area %"en y $ $se t"em.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e de5i&e & nsists ! a pen-s"aped )$n %it" a !1are atta&"ed by a ny1 n & rd. Sm 2e si)na1s are e!!e&ti5e n1y n & mparati5e1y &a1m# &1ear days. 0i)" %inds# rain# r sn % disperse sm 2e# 1essenin) its &"an&es ! bein) seen. 8eep t"em dry s t"at t"ey %i11 % r2 %"en y $ need t"em. Star &1$sters rea&" a "ei)"t ! 2<< t 219 meters# b$rn an a5era)e ! 6 t 1< se& nds# and des&end at a rate ! 17 meters per se& nd. 3"en !ired# t"e pen !1are s $nds 1i2e a pist 1 s" t and !ires t"e !1are ab $t 19< meters "i)". Department ! t"e Army In a desert en5ir nment# sm 2e "an)s &1 se t t"e )r $nd# b$t a pi1 t &an sp t it in pen desert terrain. Pen 'lares +"ese !1ares are part ! an a5iat rFs s$r5i5a1 5est. Tracer A""unition Y $ may $se ri!1e r pist 1 tra&er amm$niti n t si)na1 sear&" air&ra!t. . Any & 1 r# " %e5er# %i11 1et y $r res&$ers 2n % %"ere y $ are. Star Parachute 'lares (a)e 2<2 ! 2** . It is ab $t * &entimeters in diameter.e ready t !ire it in !r nt ! sear&" air&ra!t and be ready %it" a se& ndary si)na1. A1s # be ready t ta2e & 5er in &ase t"e pi1 t mista2es t"e !1are ! r enemy !ire.S.

I! y $ d nFt "a5e a mirr r# p 1is" y $r &anteen &$p# y $r be1t b$&21e# r a simi1ar b@e&t t"at %i11 re!1e&t t"e s$nFs rays. 0irrors or Shiny O6+ects . Fi)$res 1. 0 %e5er# be s$re t"e )1ass side is a)ainst y $r b dy s t"at it %i11 n t !1as"H t"e enemy &an see t"e !1as".-7 and 1. D n t dire&t t"e beam in t"e air&ra!tFs & &2pit ! r m re t"an a !e% se& nds as it may b1ind t"e pi1 t. S # i! p ssib1e# )et t t"e "i)"est p int in y $r area %"en si)na1in). CAUTION D n t !1as" a si)na1 mirr r rapid1y be&a$se a pi1 t may mista2e t"e !1as"es ! r enemy !ire.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3ear t"e si)na1 mirr r n a & rd r &"ain ar $nd y $r ne&2 s t"at it is ready ! r immediate $se.-*D. I! y $ "a5e an M8-* si)na1 mirr r# ! 11 % t"e instr$&ti ns n its ba&2 CFi)$re 1. I! y $ &anFt determine t"e air&ra!tFs 1 &ati n# !1as" y $r si)na1 in t"e dire&ti n ! t"e air&ra!t n ise. (a)e 2<* ! 2** . (ra&ti&e $sin) a mirr r r s"iny b@e&t ! r si)na1in) now# d n t %ait $nti1 y $ need it.S.-9 s" % met" ds ! aimin) a si)na1 mirr r ! r si)na1in). 8ote9 :ilots have reported seeing mirror !lashes up to 27. kilometers away under ideal conditions.n a s$nny day# a mirr r is y $r best si)na1in) de5i&e. Dire&t t"e !1as"es in ne area s t"at t"ey are se&$re !r m enemy bser5ati n.1 meters per se& nd. 0a'e# )r $nd ! )# and mira)es may ma2e it "ard ! r a pi1 t t sp t si)na1s !r m a !1as"in) b@e&t. Department ! t"e Army +"ese !1ares rea&" a "ei)"t ! 2<< t 219 meters and des&end at a rate ! 2. At ni)"t y $ &an see t"ese !1ares at 7: t 96 2i1 meters. +"e M126 CredD b$rns ab $t 9< se& nds and t"e M127 C%"iteD ab $t 29 se& nds.

. 3"en $sin) a str be 1i)"t# ta2e &are t pre5ent t"e pi1 t !r m mista2in) it ! r in& min) )r $nd !ire. Department ! t"e Army 'lashlight or Stro6e Light At ni)"t y $ &an $se a !1as"1i)"t r a str be 1i)"t t send an S. In br$s"-& 5ered areas# &$t $t patterns in t"e 5e)etati n r sear t"e )r $nd. Arran)e t"em in a 1ar)e )e metri& pattern t ma2e t"em m re 1i2e1y t attra&t attenti n. F1as"in) t"e pane1 %i11 ma2e it easier ! r t"e air&re% t sp t. In t$ndra# di) tren&"es r t$rn t"e s d $pside d %n. In sn %-& 5ered areas# tramp t"e sn % t ! rm 1etters r symb 1s and !i11 t"e depressi n %it" & ntrastin) materia1 Ct%i)s r bran&"esD. Se1e&t arti&1es %" se & 1 r %i11 & ntrast %it" t"e nat$ra1 s$rr $ndin)s.S t an air&ra!t. +"e str be 1i)"t !1as"es 6< times per min$te. Sea .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (1a&e t"e ran)e side $p as it is easier t see !r m t"e air t"an t"e 5i 1et side. Clothing Spreadin) &1 t"in) n t"e )r $nd r in t"e t p ! a tree is an t"er %ay t si)na1.ye 0ar-ers (a)e 2<7 ! 2** . .1$e !1as" & 11imat rs are a1s a5ai1ab1e ! r str be 1i)"ts. In sand# $se b $1ders# 5e)etati n# r sea%eed t ! rm a symb 1 r messa)e. Natural 0aterial I! y $ 1a&2 t"er means# y $ &an $se nat$ra1 materia1s t ! rm a symb 1 r messa)e t"at &an be seen !r m t"e air. S me str be 1i)"ts "a5e in!rared & 5ers and 1enses.$i1d m $nds t"at &ast s"ad %sH y $ &an $se br$s"# ! 1ia)e ! any type# r &2s# r sn % b1 &2s. Panel D$rin) day1i)"t y $ &an $se a VS-17 pane1 t si)na1. VS5:.S. In any terrain# $se & ntrastin) materia1s t"at %i11 ma2e t"e symb 1s 5isib1e t t"e air&re%s. Y $ &an $se any bri)"t ran)e r 5i 1et &1 t" as a s$bstit$te ! r t"e VS-17.

<. +"e enemy %i11 s$re1y & me t in5esti)ate s" ts.!-si)"t & mm$ni&ati ns de5i&es# any terrain bet%een t"e radi and t"e re&ei5er %i11 b1 &2 t"e si)na1. Man$!a&t$red %"ist1es "a5e m re ran)e t"an a "$man %"ist1e.S--t"ree d ts# t"ree das"es# t"ree d ts. S$&" & nta&t )reat1y red$&es t"e ran)e ! t"e si)na1.S is t"e internati na11y re& )ni'ed distress si)na1 in radi M rse & de. I! t"e radi "as t ne &apabi1ity# p1a&e it $pri)"t n a !1at# e1e5ated s$r!a&e s t"at y $ &an per! rm t"er s$r5i5a1 tas2s. In s me d &$mented &ases# t"ey "a5e been "eard $p t 1. +$rn t"e radi !! %"en y $ are n t $sin) it. / nser5e battery p %er. 3histles 3"ist1es pr 5ide an e?&e11ent %ay ! r &1 se $p si)na1in). 8eep repeatin) t"e si)na1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. SI/NALS N % t"at y $ 2n % " % t 1et pe p1e 2n % %"ere y $ are# y $ need t 2n % " % t )i5e t"em m re in! rmati n. D n t e?p se t"e battery t e?treme "eat s$&" as desert s$n. Use t"em n1y %"en y $ "ear r si)"t an air&ra!t. +"e ran)es ! t"e di!!erent radi s 5ary dependin) n t"e a1tit$de ! t"e re&ei5in) air&ra!t# terrain# 5e)etati n density# %eat"er# battery stren)t"# type ! radi # and inter!eren&e. . Department ! t"e Army A11 Army air&ra!t in5 15ed in perati ns near r 5er %ater %i11 n rma11y &arry a %ater s$r5i5a1 2it t"at & ntains sea dye mar2ers. +"ere is n si)na1 !r m t"e tip ! t"e antenna. I! y $ are in a %ater s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# $se sea dye mar2ers d$rin) day1i)"t t indi&ate y $r 1 &ati n. A (i" Si0#!%$ Radi s# %"ist1es# and )$ns" ts are s me ! t"e met" ds y $ &an $se t si)na1 y $r presen&e t res&$ers. In " sti1e territ ry# 2eep transmissi ns s" rt t a5 id enemy radi dire&ti n !indin). +"e S. In & 1d %eat"er# 2eep t"e battery inside y $r &1 t"in) %"en n t $sin) t"e radi . Radio !uip"ent +"e ANE(R/-. 3"en $sin) !1a)s# " 1d !1a)s n t"e 1e!t side ! r das"es and n t"e ri)"t side ! r d ts. CO. +"ese sp ts ! dye stay & nspi&$ $s ! r ab $t * " $rs# e?&ept in 5ery r $)" seas. (a)e 2<9 ! 2** . 8eep t"e antenna at ri)"t an)1es t t"e res&$in) air&ra!t. Any t"er type ! Army radi &an d t"e same. Sin&e radi s are 1ine. D n t $se t"is te&"ni4$e in enemy territ ry.< s$r5i5a1 radi is a part ! t"e Army a5iat rFs s$r5i5a1 5est.6 2i1 meters a%ay.S. A d t is a s" rt# s"arp p$1seH a das" is a 1 n)er p$1se. 0i)" "eat may &a$se t"e battery t e?p1 de. Ne5er 1et t"e antenna t $&" y $r &1 t"in)# b dy# ! 1ia)e# r t"e )r $nd. SOS Y $ &an $se 1i)"ts r !1a)s t send an S. +"e ANE(R/-112 %i11 e5ent$a11y rep1a&e t"e ANE(R/-. D n t transmit r re&ei5e & nstant1y. Use t"em n1y i! y $ are in a !riend1y area. Sea dye mar2ers are a1s 5ery e!!e&ti5e n sn %& 5ered )r $ndH $se t"em t %rite distress & de 1etters. 6$ns" ts In s me sit$ati ns y $ &an $se !irearms ! r si)na1in). +"ree s" ts !ired at distin&t inter5a1s $s$a11y indi&ate a distress si)na1. +"ere! re# 1earn t"e & des and symb 1s t"at a11 air&ra!t pi1 ts $nderstand. t" radi s &an transmit eit"er t ne r 5 i&e. 8eep t"e mar2ers %rapped $nti1 y $ are ready t $se t"em. It is easier t ! rm ne symb 1 t"an t spe11 $t an entire messa)e. / 1d 4$i&21y drains t"e batteryFs p %er. + btain ma?im$m per! rman&e !r m radi s# $se t"e ! 11 %in) pr &ed$resI • • • • • • +ry t transmit n1y in &1ear# $n bstr$&ted terrain. +ry t 2eep t"e radi and battery as dry as p ssib1e# as %ater may destr y t"e &ir&$itry. S AN.

(a)e 2<6 ! 2** . P!#e% Si0#!%$ I! y $ "a5e a 1i!e ra!t & 5er r sai1# r a s$itab1e s$bstit$te# $se t"e symb 1s s" %n in Fi)$re 1.S. Ma2e t"ese symb 1s a minim$m ! 1 meter %ide and 6 meters 1 n). (1a&e it in an pen area easi1y sp tted !r m t"e air.-: t & n5ey a messa)e. I! y $ ma2e t"em 1ar)er# 2eep t"e same 1I 6 rati . -ns$re t"e si)na1 & ntrasts )reat1y %it" t"e )r $nd it is n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.-6D is a&t$a11y !i5e de!inite# meanin)!$1 symb 1s. Department ! t"e Army 1&" #(-t"-Ai& E+e&0e#. B"(3 Si0#!%$ 3"en an air&ra!t is &1 se en $)" ! r t"e pi1 t t see y $ &1ear1y# $se b dy m 5ements r p siti ns CFi)$re 1.3 C"(e +"is & de CFi)$re 1.-7D t & n5ey a messa)e.

I! n radi is a5ai1ab1e# $se t"e & des & 5ered in t"e pre5i $s para)rap"s.. . Use a radi # i! p ssib1e# t re1ay !$rt"er messa)es.e ready t re1ay t"er messa)es t t"e pi1 t n&e "e a&2n %1ed)es t"at "e re&ei5ed and $nderst d y $r !irst messa)e. (a)e 2<7 ! 2** .-.n&e t"e pi1 t ! a !i?ed-%in) air&ra!t "as si)"ted y $# "e %i11 n rma11y indi&ate "e "as seen y $ by !1yin) 1 %# m 5in) t"e p1ane# and !1as"in) 1i)"ts as s" %n in Fi)$re 1.S.)#"2%e(0+e#t$ . Department ! t"e Army Ai&.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.&!6t A.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.UR S I! y $ &an & nta&t a !riend1y air&ra!t %it" a radi # )$ide t"e pi1 t t y $r 1 &ati n. • /a11 si)n Ci! anyD.S. Department ! t"e Army AIRCRA'T V CTORIN/ PROC . Use t"e ! 11 %in) )enera1 ! rmat t )$ide t"e pi1 tI • Mayday# Mayday. • A5ai1ab1e 1andin) sites. • N$mber ! s$r5i5 rs. Simp1y be&a$se y $ "a5e made & nta&t %it" res&$ers d es n t mean y $ are sa!e. (a)e 2<: ! 2** . • Any remar2s s$&" as medi&a1 aid r t"er spe&i!i& types ! "e1p needed immediate1y. • Name. F 11 % instr$&ti ns and & ntin$e t $se s $nd s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n te&"ni4$es $nti1 y $ are a&t$a11y res&$ed. • L &ati n.

+ & mp1ete para)rap" 1# 2n % y $r $nitFs assi)ned area r & n&entrate n p tentia1 missi n areas ! t"e % r1d. (1annin) starts in y $r dai1y trainin). Start preparin) e5en be! re pre-missi n p1annin). Appendi? 0 & ntains t"e /(A ! rmat. P. (repare y $r /(A in t"ree p"ases. +"e st$dy and resear&" needed t de5e1 p t"e /(A %i11 ma2e y $ a%are ! t"e &$rrent sit$ati n in y $r missi n area. Many parts ! t"e /(A are S. :reparation and training can improve the chances o! success. It a1s indi&ates %"at p rti n ! t"e /(A y $ &an ta2e %it" y $. / ntin)en&y p1ans m$st be prepared in & n@$n&ti n %it" $nit standin) peratin) pr &ed$res CS. Cach situation and the available resources determine the type o! recovery possible. 0ur potential adversaries have made great progress in air de!ense measures and radio direction !inding &R<-' techni)ues.3 P%!# "6 A. Soldiers may have to move !or e+tended times and distances to places less threatening to the recovery !orces.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S.(sD. / $rses ! a&ti n y $ r y $r $nit %i11 ta2e m$st a1s be & nsidered.Cs$r5i5a1# e5asi n# resistan&e# and es&apeD & ntin)en&y )$ides# t"reat brie!in)s# &$rrent inte11i)en&e rep rts# and &$rrent & nta&t and a$t"enti&ati n pr &ed$res.pen s $r&es may in&1$de ne%spapers# ma)a'ines# & $ntry r area "andb 2s# area st$dies# te1e5isi n# radi # pers ns !ami1iar %it" t"e area# and 1ibraries.AS S O' PLANNIN/ (reparati n is a re4$irement ! r a11 missi ns. Many pen r &1 sed s $r&es & ntain t"e in! rmati n y $ need t & mp1ete a /(A. C"#ti#0e#.( ! r y $r $nit. A!ter dep1 yment int an area# & ntin$a11y $pdate y $r /(A based n missi n &"an)es and inte11i)en&e $pdates. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 2> . /1 sed s $r&es may in&1$de area st$dies# area assessments# S-R. +"e /(A is y $r entire p1an ! r y $r ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. e must assume that U. Y $r /(A %i11 1et re& 5ery ! r&es 2n % y $r pr bab1e a&ti ns s" $1d y $ "a5e t m 5e t a5 id &apt$re. In&1$de t"e /(A in y $r trainin). A & mpre"ensi5e /(A is a 5a1$ab1e asset t t"e s 1dier trapped be"ind enemy 1ines %" m$st try t a5 id &apt$re. (repare para)rap"s 2# *# 7# and 9 d$rin) y $r pre-missi n p1annin). The soldier will not likely know the type o! recovery to e+pect. ! 2** . (a)e 2<. 3"en p1annin)# y $ m$st & nsider " % t a5 id &apt$re and ret$rn t y $r $nit. (re-missi n preparati n in&1$des t"e & mp1eti n ! a /(A. military !orces trapped behind enemy lines in !uture con!licts may not e+perience )uick recovery by !riendly elements. Since no one can be absolutely sure until the recovery e!!ort begins" soldiers !acing a potential cuto!! !rom !riendly !orces should be !amiliar with all the possible types o! recovery" their related problems" and their responsibilities to the recovery e!!ort.S. It & nsists ! !i5e para)rap"s %ritten in t"e perati n rder ! rmat. .ti"# CCPAD Inte11i)en&e se&ti ns &an "e1p prepare pers nne1 ! r & ntin)en&y a&ti ns t"r $)" in! rmati n s$pp1ied in area st$dies# S-R.SURVIVAL MOVEMENT IN HOSTILE AREAS The =rescue at any cost= philosophy o! previous con!licts is not likely to be possible in !uture con!licts.& ntin)en&y )$ides# 5ari $s &1assi!ied !ie1d man$a1s# and inte11i)en&e rep rts. Y $ &an ta2e m st ! para)rap" 1# Sit$ati n# %it" y $ n t"e missi n. D$rin) y $r n rma1 trainin)# prepare para)rap" 1# Sit$ati n.

N ti!y "i)"er "ead4$arters# i! p ssib1e. 9 CUTION Up n n ti!i&ati n t a5 id &apt$re# a11 m 5ement team members %i11 try t 1in2 $p at t"e initia1 m 5ement p int. • Ra11y p ints. St!#(i#0 Ope&!ti#0 P&". +"e & mmander ! an is 1ated $nit !a&es t"er 4$esti ns. 0e bases "is de&isi n n many !a&t rs# in&1$din) t"e missi n# rati ns and amm$niti n n "and# &as$a1ties# t"e &"an&e ! re1ie! by !riend1y ! r&es# and t"e ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n. I! s$&" a&ti ns are n t p ssib1e# t"e & mmander may de&ide t "a5e t"e $nit try t m 5e t a5 id &apt$re and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1.e( &e$ Unit S. M 5ement team 1eaders re&ei5e t"eir n ti!i&ati n t"r $)" prebrie!ed si)na1s. Rat"er# "e may ad pt t"ese & $rses ! a&ti n a!ter & mp1etin) "is missi n %"en "is $nit &ann t & mp1ete its assi)ned missi n Cbe&a$se ! & mbat p %er 1 ssesD r %"en "e re&ei5es rders t e?tra&t "is $nit !r m its &$rrent p siti n. I! t"e $nit & mmander 1 ses & nta&t %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# "e m$st ma2e t"e de&isi n t m 5e r %ait. Many ! t"e te&"ni4$es $sed d$rin) sma11 $nit m 5ement &an be &arried 5er t !it re4$irements ! r m 5in) and ret$rnin) t !riend1y & ntr 1. Y $ may add r de1ete &ertain p rti ns based n t"e missi n. .( s2i11s and a1s pr 5ide pp rt$nities ! r e5a1$ati n and impr 5ement.!ti"# t" M"/e !#( A/"i( C!pt &e An is 1ated $nit "as se5era1 )enera1 & $rses ! a&ti n it &an ta2e t a5 id t"e &apt$re ! t"e )r $p r indi5id$a1s. • Si)na1in) te&"ni4$es.(s are 5a1$ab1e t 1s y $r $nit "as t"at %i11 "e1p y $r p1annin). N"ti6i. 3"at & $rse ! a&ti n %i11 in!1i&t ma?im$m dama)e n t"e enemyG 3"at & $rse ! a&ti n %i11 assist in & mp1etin) t"e "i)"er "ead4$artersF 5era11 missi nG M 5ement teams & nd$&t t"e e?e&$ti n p rti n ! t"e p1an %"en n ti!ied by "i)"er "ead4$arters r# i! t"ere is n & nta&t %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# %"en t"e "i)"est ran2in) s$r5i5 r de&ides t"at t"e sit$ati n re4$ires t"e $nit t try t es&ape &apt$re r destr$&ti n. / mmand and & ntr 1 is n % at t"e m 5ement team r indi5id$a1 1e5e1 and is ret$rned t "i)"er r)ani'ati na1 & ntr 1 n1y a!ter rea&"in) !riend1y 1ines. 0e &ann t arbitrari1y aband n t"e assi)ned missi n. +"ese & $rses ! a&ti n are n t & $rses t"e & mmander &an &" se instead ! "is ri)ina1 missi n. • +eam & mm$ni&ati ns Cte&"ni&a1 and n nte&"ni&a1D. • Lin2$p pr &ed$res. +"is p int is %"ere team members ra11y and a&t$a11y be)in t"eir m 5ement.( s" $1d in&1$de# b$t are n t 1imited t -• M 5ement team si'e Ct"ree t ! $r pers ns per teamD. 3"en !a&ed %it" a dan)er $s sit$ati n re4$irin) immediate a&ti n# it is n t t"e time t dis&$ss pti nsH it is t"e time t a&t. +entati5e1y se1e&t t"e initia1 m 5ement p int d$rin) y $r p1annin) p"ase t"r $)" a map re& n. • 0e1i& pter re& 5ery de5i&es and pr &ed$res. • A&ti ns at dan)er areas. I! $nab1e t & mm$ni&ate %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# 1eaders m$st re& )ni'e t"at r)ani'ed resistan&e "as ended# and t"at r)ani'ati na1 & ntr 1 "as &eased.n&e t"e si)na1 t try t a5 id &apt$re is )i5en# it m$st be passed rapid1y t a11 pers nne1. +"e /(A may be a re& 5ery ! r&eFs n1y means ! determinin) y $r 1 &ati n and intenti ns a!ter y $ start t m 5e.n&e n t"e )r $nd# t"e team (a)e 21< ! 2** . • -ssentia1 e4$ipment.S. It is an essentia1 t 1 ! r y $r s$r5i5a1 and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army +"e /(A is a )$ide. • Immediate a&ti n dri11s. • Se&$rity pr &ed$res d$rin) m 5ement and at "ide sites. In eit"er &ase# as 1 n) as t"ere is & mm$ni&ati n %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# t"at "ead4$arters %i11 ma2e t"e de&isi n. Re"earsa1s % r2 e!!e&ti5e1y ! r rein! r&in) t"ese S. Items !r m t"e S. .

Hi(e Site A. • In5ent ry its e4$ipment Cde&ide %"at t aband n# destr y# r ta2e a1 n)D.Se&1$ded. +"e idea1 e1ement s" $1d "a5e t% t t"ree membersH " %e5er# it & $1d in&1$de m re dependin) n team e4$ipment and e?perien&e. M 5ement in enemy-"e1d territ ry is a 5ery s1 % and de1iberate pr &ess.LISS. .Irre)$1ar in s"ape. . I! y $ b$i1d a s"e1ter# ! 11 % t"e .ti/itie$ A!ter y $ "a5e 1 &ated y $r "ide site# d n t m 5e strai)"t int it.LISS ! rm$1a. +"e m 5ement p rti n ! ret$rnin) t !riend1y & ntr 1 is t"e m st dan)er $s as y $ are n % m st 5$1nerab1e. -?&epti ns t s$&" m 5ement % $1d be %"en m 5in) t"r $)" "a'ard $s terrain r dense 5e)etati n C! r e?amp1e# @$n)1e r m $ntain $s terrainD. I . Ma2e !re4$ent 1istenin) "a1ts. A11 team members m$st 2n % its 1 &ati n.. L . • -ns$re e5ery ne 2n %s t"e primary and a1ternate r $tes and ra11y p ints en r $te t t"e "ide 1 &ati ns. A5 id t"e $se ! e?istin) b$i1din)s r s"e1ters. • A1%ays maintain se&$rity. • 3ater%ays and brid)es. Use y $r eyes and ears t dete&t pe p1e be! re t"ey dete&t y $. • App1y &am $!1a)e. Y $r best se&$rity %i11 be $sin) y $r senses. • Nat$ra1 1ines ! dri!t. +"e initia1 m 5ement p int s" $1d be easy t 1 &ate and &&$py ! r a minim$m am $nt ! time. Us$a11y# y $r best pti n %i11 be t &ra%1 int t"e t"i&2est 5e)etati n y $ &an !ind.L % in si1" $ette. +a2e t"is a&ti n s t"at e5ery ne is a%are ! t"e dan)er and ready t rea&t. Department ! t"e Army 5eri!ies t"is 1 &ati n r se1e&ts a better ne.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 8eep t"e ! 11 %in) ! rm$1a in mind %"en se1e&tin) a "ide siteI . .Sma11 in si'e. +"e distan&e y $ tra5e1 be! re y $ "ide %i11 depend n t"e enemy sit$ati n# y $r "ea1t"# t"e terrain# t"e a5ai1abi1ity ! & 5er and & n&ea1ment ! r "idin)# and t"e am $nt ! dar2ness 1e!t. . / nd$&t a 1istenin) "a1t be! re m 5in) indi5id$a11y int t"e "ide site. In day1i)"t# bser5e a se&ti n ! y $r r $te be! re y $ m 5e a1 n) it. • In"abited areas. 3"en m 5in)# a5 id t"e ! 11 %in) e5en i! it ta2es m re time and ener)y t bypassI • . S .n&e y $ "a5e m 5ed int t"e area in %"i&" y $ %ant t "ide C"ide areaD# se1e&t a "ide site. Maintain y $r se&$rity t"r $)" 5is$a1 s&annin) and 1istenin). • Ma2e s$re e5ery ne 2n %s t"e tentati5e "ide 1 &ati ns.n&e y $ "a5e &&$pied t"e "ide site# 1imit y $r a&ti5ities t maintainin) se&$rity# restin)# &am $!1a)in)# and p1annin) y $r ne?t m 5es. (a)e 211 ! 2** . Up n dete&ti n ! t"e enemy# t"e se&$rity pers nne1 a1ert a11 pers nne1# e5en i! t"e teamFs p1an is t stay "idden and n t m 5e $p n si)"tin) t"e enemy. Use a b$tt n " 2 r t"er de&epti5e te&"ni4$e t m 5e t a p siti n $tside ! t"e "ide site. +"e s1 %er y $ m 5e and t"e m re &are!$1 y $ are# t"e better. • R ads and trai1s. • Sp1it t"e team int sma11er e1ements.1ends in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin)s. .n&e t"e team "as ra11ied at t"e initia1 m 5ement p int# it m$st-• 6i5e !irst aid.e &are!$1 n t t dist$rb r &$t any 5e)etati n. / nstr$&t any type ! s"e1ter %it"in t"e "ide area n1y in & 1d %eat"er and desert en5ir nments.S.bsta&1es and barriers. It is $s$a11y better t m 5e at ni)"t be&a$se ! t"e & n&ea1ment dar2ness !!ers. • Man-made str$&t$res. . S . • A11 &i5i1ian and mi1itary pers nne1.

• Re& nn iterin) t"e area ! r res $r&es and p tentia1 & n&ea1ed m 5ement r $tes t t"e a1ternate "ide site. /" se t"e ne?t "ide area !irst. H"%e-Up A&e!$ A!ter m 5in) and "idin) ! r se5era1 days# $s$a11y t"ree r ! $r# y $ r t"e m 5ement team %i11 "a5e t m 5e int a " 1e-$p area. Sm 2e and ! d d rs %i11 re5ea1 y $r 1 &ati n.t"er p1annin) & nsiderati ns may !a11 $nder %"at t"e team a1ready "as in t"e team S. A&ti ns in t"e " 1e-$p area are t"e same as in "ide site# e?&ept t"at y $ &an m 5e a%ay !r m t"e " 1e-$p area t )et and prepare ! d.n&e in t"e "ide site# restri&t a11 m 5ement t 1ess t"an 79 &entimeters ab 5e t"e )r $nd. L ss ! y $r "ea1t" %i11 mean 1 ss ! y $r abi1ity t & ntin$e t a5 id &apt$re. (a)e 212 ! 2** . +"en &" se a primary and an a1ternate r $te t t"e "ide area. A1%ays $se a b$ddy system t ens$re t"at &am $!1a)e is & mp1ete.S. Y $ t"en "a5e a p1a&e t )et %ater# t p1a&e !is"in) de5i&es# and t trap )ame. -ns$re t"at team members b1end %it" t"e "ide site. -?amp1es are immediate a&ti n dri11s# a&ti ns n si)"tin) t"e enemy# and "and-and-arm si)na1s. +reat a11 in@$ries# n matter " % min r. In m st sit$ati ns# "ide d$rin) t"e day and m 5e at ni)"t.n&e p1annin) is & mp1ete# ens$re e5ery ne 2n %s and mem ri'es t"e entire p1an. In &" sin) t"e r $tes# d n t $se strai)"t 1ines. • Settin) &1andestine !is"in) de5i&es# s$&" as sta2e $ts# be1 % t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e %ater t a5 id dete&ti n. /am $!1a)e is an imp rtant aspe&t ! b t" m 5in) and se&$rin) a "ide site. (1annin) t"e teamFs m 5ement be)ins %it" a map re& n. D n t &&$py a "ide site ! r m re t"an 27 " $rs. M 5in) n "ard r &2s r 1 )s a1 n) t"e ban2s t )et %ater %i11 red$&e t"e si)ns y $ 1ea5e. +a2e e5ery pp rt$nity t rest# b$t d n t sa&ri!i&e se&$rity. Use ne r t% radi&a1 &"an)es in dire&ti n. 3"en m 5in) ar $nd t"e area ! r ! d# maintain se&$rity and a5 id 1ea5in) tra&2s r t"er si)ns. +"e team members s" $1d 2n % t"e distan&es and a'im$t"s ! r t"e entire r $te t t"e ne?t "ide area. +"e " 1e-$p area s" $1d !!er p1enty ! & 5er and & n&ea1ment ! r m 5ement in and ar $nd t"e area. D n t b$i1d !ires r prepare ! d. 3"en settin) traps and snares# 2eep t"em %e11&am $!1a)ed and in areas %"ere pe p1e are n t 1i2e1y t dis& 5er t"em. +a2e s$&" steps espe&ia11y %"en a re& n team r a % r2 party is $t ! t"e " 1e-$p r "ide site. Department ! t"e Army I! any team member 1ea5es t"e team# )i5e "im a !i5e-p int & ntin)en&y p1an. /" se an area near a %ater s $r&e. Start y $r p1annin) pr &ess immediate1y $p n &&$pyin) t"e "ide site. Limit y $r a&ti ns in t"e "ide site t t" se dis&$ssed ab 5e. . . . A1%ays man t"e " 1e-$p area. (i&2 t"e r $tes t"at !!er t"e best & 5er and & n&ea1ment# t"e !e%est bsta&1es# and t"e 1east 1i2e1i" d ! & nta&t %it" "$mans. +"ey s" $1d st$dy t"e map and 2n % t"e 5ari $s terrain t"ey %i11 be m 5in) a&r ss s t"at t"ey &an m 5e %it" $t $sin) t"e map. (1an ra11y p ints and rende'5 $s p ints at inter5a1s a1 n) t"e r $te. R tate se&$rity s t"at a11 members ! y $r m 5ement team &an rest. . +"ere s" $1d be 1 &ati ns a1 n) t"e r $te %"ere t"e team &an )et %ater. I! y $ add any additi na1 &am $!1a)e materia1 t t"e "ide site# d n t &$t 5e)etati n in t"e immediate area.(. • 6at"erin) ! d Cn$ts# berries# 5e)etab1esD.n&e t"is is d ne# start p1annin) ! r t"e teamFs ne?t m 5ement. • 6ettin) %ater !r m s $r&es %it"in t"e "ide area.e! re 1ea5in) t"e "ide site# steri1i'e it t pre5ent tra&2in). (1an y $r ne?t a&ti ns %"i1e at t"e "ide site. A1%ays maintain se&$rity %"i1e in t"e " 1e-$p area. +"is is an area %"ere y $ &an rest# re&$perate# and )et and prepare ! d. + aid team na5i)ati n# $se a'im$t"s# distan&es# &"e&2p ints r steerin) mar2s# and & rrid rs.e &are!$1 n t t 1ea5e tra&2s ! si)ns a1 n) t"e ban2s ! %ater s $r&es %"en )ettin) %ater. It is e?treme1y imp rtant t stay "ea1t"y and a1ert %"en tryin) t a5 id &apt$re. . Use nat$ra1 r man-made materia1s. . A&ti ns in t"e " 1e-$p area in&1$de-• Se1e&tin) and &&$pyin) t"e ne?t "ide site Cremember y $ are sti11 in a dan)er $s sit$ati nH t"is is n t a !riend1y areaD. Remember# t"e 1 &a1 p p$1ati n s metimes "ea5i1y tra5e1s trai1s near %ater s $r&es. In! rm a11 team members ! t"eir &$rrent 1 &ati n and desi)nate an a1ternate "ide site 1 &ati n. Sin&e %ater%ays are a 1ine ! & mm$ni&ati n# 1 &ate y $r "ide site %e11 a%ay !r m t"e %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Use t"is site t prepare ! d r b i1 %ater. A!ter t"is# "e ! 11 %s any instr$&ti ns )i5en "im. Friend1y patr 1s "a5e 2i11ed pers nne1 peratin) be"ind enemy 1ines be&a$se t"ey did n t ma2e & nta&t pr per1y. • D$rin) t"e a&t$a1 & nta&t# "a5e n1y ne pers n ma2e t"e & nta&t. (ers nne1 &" sen t ma2e & nta&t s" $1d be $narmed# "a5e n e4$ipment# and "a5e p siti5e identi!i&ati n readi1y a5ai1ab1e. +"e m 5ement team s" $1d maintain se&$rity# be patient# and "a5e a & ntin)en&y p1an. . • A!ter &r ssin) t"e b rder# set $p a "ide site n t"e !ar side ! t"e b rder and try t 1 &ate !riend1y p siti ns. A11 y $r patien&e# p1annin)# and "ards"ips %i11 be in 5ain i! y $ d n t e?er&ise &a$ti n %"en & nta&tin) !riend1y !r nt1ine ! r&es. +"e n rma1 tenden&y is t t"r % &a$ti n t t"e %inds %"en in si)"t ! !riend1y ! r&es. Desi)nate team members t per! rm spe&i!i& tas2s.LY CONTROL -stab1is"in) & nta&t %it" !riend1y 1ines r patr 1s is t"e m st &r$&ia1 part ! m 5ement and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. • S$r5ei1 t"e &r ssin) site ! r at 1east 27 " $rs# dependin) n t"e enemy sit$ati n. +"e bser5er s" $1d be !ar en $)" a%ay s t"at "e &an %arn t"e rest ! t"e m 5ement team i! s met"in) ) es %r n). • Ma2e & nta&t %it" t"e !riend1y ! r&es d$rin) day1i)"t. 3"i1e in t"e " 1e-$p area# se&$rity is sti11 y $r primary & n&ern. B"&(e& C&"$$i#0$ I! y $ "a5e made y $r %ay t a !riend1y r ne$tra1 & $ntry# $se t"e ! 11 %in) pr &ed$res t &r ss t"e b rder and 1in2 $p %it" !riend1y ! r&es n t"e t"er sideI • .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . +"e pers n %" a&t$a11y ma2es t"e 1in2$p s" $1d be s me ne %" 1 2s 1east 1i2e t"e enemy. • Ma2e a s2et&" ! t"e site# ta2in) n te ! terrain# bsta&1es# )$ard r $tines and r tati ns# and any sens r de5i&es r trip %ires. Lan)$a)e pr b1ems r di!!i&$1ties & n!irmin) identities may arise. • Dependin) n t"e si'e ! y $r m 5ement team# "a5e t% men s$r5ei1 t"e p tentia1 1in2$p site %it" !riend1y ! r&es $nti1 satis!ied t"at t"e pers nne1 are indeed !riend1y. 8ote9 I! you are moving to a neutral country" you are surrendering to that power and become a detained person.e &are!$1 t"at sm 2e and 1i)"t !r m t"e !ire d es n t & mpr mise t"e " 1e-$p area. 0e a5 ids ans%erin) any ta&ti&a1 4$esti ns and d es n t )i5e any indi&ati n t"at t"ere are t"er team members.n&e t"e re& n is & mp1ete# t"e team m 5es t t"e "ide site# brie!s t"e rest ! t"e team# and p1ans t &r ss t"e b rder at ni)"t.&&$py a "ide site n t"e near side ! t"e b rder and send a team $t t re& nn iter t"e p tentia1 &r ssin) site. +"e t"er pers n pr 5ides t"e se&$rity and bser5es t"e 1in2$p area !r m a sa!e distan&e. 0e stands $p !r m be"ind & 5er# %it" "ands 5er"ead and states t"at "e is an Ameri&an. • 3ait $nti1 t"e party "e is & nta&tin) 1 2s in "is dire&ti n s t"at "e d es n t s$rprise t"e & nta&t.S. D n t &&$py t"e " 1e$p area 1 n)er t"an 72 " $rs. Li#) p !t the FEBAEFLOT (a)e 21* ! 2** . + 1imit m 5ement ar $nd t"e area# y $ may "a5e a t% -man team per! rm m re t"an ne tas2. M st ! t"e &as$a1ties & $1d "a5e been a5 ided i! &a$ti n "ad been e?er&ised and a !e% simp1e pr &ed$res ! 11 %ed. F r e?amp1e# t"e team )ettin) %ater & $1d a1s set t"e !is"in) de5i&es. D n t re5ea1 y $r presen&e. /am $!1a)e and steri1i'e t"e !ire site a!ter ea&" $se. Department ! t"e Army • L &atin) a !ire site %e11 a%ay !r m t"e "ide site. Y $ m$st 5er& me t"is tenden&y and $nderstand t"at 1in2$p is a 5ery sensiti5e sit$ati n. R TURN TO 'RI N. • Re5ea1 t"at t"ere are t"er pers nne1 %it" "im n1y a!ter 5eri!yin) "is identity and satis!yin) "imse1! "e "as made & nta&t %it" !riend1y ! r&es.

I! y $ "a5e n t"in) %"ite# an arti&1e ! &1 t"in) %i11 s$!!i&e t dra% attenti n. +"e a&t$a1 1in2$p %i11 be d ne as ! r 1in2$p d$rin) a b rder &r ssin).ne pti n y $ "a5e is t p1a&e t"e perimeter $nder bser5ati n and %ait ! r a !riend1y patr 1 t m 5e $t in y $r dire&ti n# pr 5idin) a &"an&e ! r a 1in2$p. I! y $ de&ide n t t ma2e & nta&t# y $ &an bser5e t"eir r $te and appr a&" !riend1y 1ines at ab $t t"e same 1 &ati n.S. Y $ may a1s &&$py a p siti n $tside ! t"e perimeter and &a11 $t t )et t"e attenti n ! t"e !riend1y ! r&es. . Idea11y# disp1ay anyt"in) t"at is %"ite %"i1e ma2in) & nta&t. Y $ s" $1d be near r be"ind & 5er be! re tryin) t ma2e & nta&t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army I! &a$)"t bet%een !riend1y and enemy ! r&es and t"ere is "ea5y !i)"tin) in t"e area# y $ may &" se t "ide and 1et t"e !riend1y 1ines pass 5er y $.n&e y $ "a5e dra%n attenti n t y $r si)na1 and &a11ed $t# ! 11 % instr$&ti ns )i5en t y $.e&a$se ! t"e missi ns ! & mbat and re& n patr 1s and %"ere t"ey are peratin)# ma2in) & nta&t &an be dan)er $s. Y $ d n t "a5e t"e pti n ! m 5in) be"ind t"e 1ines and tryin) t 1in2 $p. S$&" bser5ati n %i11 enab1e y $ t a5 id mines and b by traps. 3"ate5er 1in2$p te&"ni4$e y $ de&ide t $se# $se e?treme &a$ti n. Fr nt1ine pers nne1 are m re 1i2e1y t s" t !irst and as2 4$esti ns 1ater# espe&ia11y in areas ! "ea5y !i)"tin). . 3"en t"e patr 1 is 29 t 9< meters !r m y $r p siti n# si)na1 t"em and &a11 $t a )reetin) t"at is &1ear1y and $nmista2ab1y ! Ameri&an ri)in.ADE! r%ard 1ine ! %n tr ps CFL. It is &r$&ia1# at t"e time ! & nta&t# t"at t"ere is en $)" 1i)"t ! r t"e patr 1 t identi!y y $ as an Ameri&an. I! t"e distan&e is 1ess t"an 29 meters# a patr 1 member may rea&t instant1y by !irin) a !ata1 s" t. Find a & n&ea1ed p siti n t"at a11 %s y $ ma?im$m 5is$a1 & 5era)e ! t"e area. (a)e 217 ! 2** . +"is m 5e ma2es t"e 1in2$p e?treme1y dan)er $s. +"e n1y di!!eren&e is t"at y $ m$st be m re &are!$1 n t"e initia1 & nta&t. Li#) p *ith F&ie#(%3 P!t&"%$ I! !riend1y 1ines are a &ir&$1ar perimeter r an is 1ated &amp# ! r e?amp1e# any dire&ti n y $ appr a&" !r m %i11 be & nsidered enemy territ ry. Fr m t"e perspe&ti5e ! t"e !riend1y patr 1 r !riend1y pers nne1 &&$pyin) a perimeter# y $ are " sti1e $nti1 t"ey ma2e p siti5e identi!i&ati n. Remember# tryin) t in!i1trate in dar2ness is e?treme1y dan)er $s.+D d$rin) a 1$11 in t"e !i)"tin)# r m 5e t an t"er area a1 n) t"e !r nt.n&e y $ "a5e sp tted a patr 1# remain in p siti n and# i! p ssib1e# a11 % t"e patr 1 t m 5e t %ard y $.e & nstant1y n t"e a1ert ! r !riend1y patr 1s be&a$se t"ese pr 5ide a means ! r ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. +"e idea is t dra% attenti n %"i1e stayin) be"ind & 5er. . . I! n t"in) e1se is a5ai1ab1e# $se any arti&1e ! &1 t"in). I! 5err$n by !riend1y ! r&es# y $ may try t 1in2 $p !r m t"eir rear d$rin) day1i)"t " $rs. I! t"e distan&e is )reater t"an 9< meters# a re& n patr 1 may a5 id & nta&t and bypass y $r p siti n. . +ry t mem ri'e e5ery terrain !eat$re s t"at# i! ne&essary# y $ &an in!i1trate t !riend1y p siti ns $nder t"e & 5er ! dar2ness. I! 5err$n by enemy ! r&es# y $ may m 5e !$rt"er t t"e enemy rear# try t m 5e t t"e ! r%ard ed)e ! t"e batt1e area CF-.

+"e s"ape ! a "at# "e1met# r b1a&2 b ts &an )i5e y $ a%ay.S. / 5er %it" a dar2er & 1 r areas t"at sti&2 $t m re and &at&" m re 1i)"t C! re"ead# n se# &"ee2b nes# &"in# and earsD. C"%"& !#( Te5t &e -a&" area ! t"e % r1d and ea&" &1imati& & nditi n Car&ti&E%inter# temperateE@$n)1e# r s%ampEdesertD "as & 1 r patterns and te?t$res t"at are nat$ra1 ! r t"at area.rea2 $p y $r $t1ine by p1a&in) sma11 am $nts ! 5e)etati n !r m t"e s$rr $ndin) area in y $r $ni! rm# e4$ipment# and "ead)ear. It may mean the di!!erence between survival and capture by the enemy. It ma2es 1itt1e sense t & 5er y $rse1! %it" dead# br %n 5e)etati n in t"e midd1e ! a 1ar)e )rassy !ie1d. Simi1ar1y# it % $1d be $se1ess t &am $!1a)e y $rse1! %it" )reen )rass in t"e midd1e ! a desert r r &2y area. F r e?amp1e# s$r!a&e te?t$res may be sm t"# r $)"# r &2y# 1ea!y# r many t"er p ssib1e & mbinati ns. . . + "ide and &am $!1a)e m 5ement in any spe&i!i& area ! t"e % r1d# y $ m$st ta2e n t"e & 1 r and te?t$re ! t"e immediate s$rr $ndin)s. +ry t red$&e any s"ine !r m s2in r e4$ipment. -5en anima1s 2n % and r$n !r m t"e s"ape ! a "$man si1" $ette.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Use & 1 r and te?t$re t )et"er t &am $!1a)e y $rse1! e!!e&ti5e1y. 3"en "idin)# & 5er y $rse1! and y $r e4$ipment %it" 1ea5es# )rass# r t"er 1 &a1 debris. / 5er t"er areas# parti&$1ar1y re&essed r s"aded areas Car $nd t"e eyes and $nder t"e &"inD# %it" 1i)"ter & 1 rs. 3"i1e & 1 r is se1!-e?p1anat ry# te?t$re de!ines t"e s$r!a&e &"ara&teristi&s ! s met"in) %"en 1 2in) at it. / 5er a11 areas ! e?p sed s2in# in&1$din) !a&e# "ands# ne&2# and ears.e s$re t $se an irre)$1ar pattern.1end in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin) & 1 rs and sim$1ate t"e te?t$re ! y $r s$rr $ndin)s. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 21 . +"e enemy %i11 1 2 ! r t"ese s"apes. / n&ea1 any si)na1in) de5i&es y $ "a5e prepared# b$t 2eep t"em ready ! r $se. Use &am $!1a)e paint# &"ar& a1# r m$d t &am $!1a)e y $rse1!. Ma2e s$re t"e added &am $!1a)e d es n t "inder t"e e4$ipmentFs perati n. . /am $!1a)e paint# &"ar& a1 !r m b$rned paper r % d# m$d# )rass# 1ea5es# strips ! &1 t" r b$r1ap# pine b $)"s# and &am $!1a)ed $ni! rms are a !e% e?amp1es. 1amou!lage and movement techni)ues" such as stalking" will also help you get animals or game !or !ood using primitive weapons and skills. Atta&" (a)e 219 ! 2** . Sh!pe !#( O t%i#e /"an)e t"e $t1ine ! %eap ns and e4$ipment by tyin) 5e)etati n r strips ! &1 t" nt t"em. Use nat$ra1 r man-made materia1s t &am $!1a)e y $rse1!. P RSONAL CA0OU'LA/ 3"en &am $!1a)in) y $rse1!# & nsider t"at &ertain s"apes are parti&$1ar t "$mans.CAMOUFLA1E In a survival situation" especially in a hostile environment" you may !ind it necessary to camou!lage yoursel!" your e)uipment" and your movement.

Y $ m$st & 5er t"ese )1ass b@e&ts %"en n t in $se. It may e?tend $t ar $nd t"e & mer ! a b$i1din) and )i5e a%ay y $r p siti n. Department ! t"e Army 5e)etati n !r m t"e area r strips ! &1 t" ! t"e pr per & 1 r t &1 t"in) and e4$ipment. /arry a si)na1 mirr r in its desi)ned p $&" r in a p &2et %it" t"e mirr r p rti n !a&in) y $r b dy. Use appr priate & 1 rs ! r y $r s$rr $ndin)s. I! y $ m$st %ear )1asses# &am $!1a)e t"em by app1yin) a t"in 1ayer ! d$st t t"e $tside ! t"e 1enses. . I! y $ m$st &1imb 5er an bsta&1e# 2eep y $r b dy 1e5e1 %it" its t p t a5 id si1" $ettin) y $rse1!. I! y $ $se 5e)etati n# rep1a&e it as it %i1ts. I! &apt$re appears imminent in y $r present 1 &ati n and y $ m$st m 5e# m 5e a%ay s1 %1y# ma2in) as 1itt1e n ise as p ssib1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3"ene5er p ssib1e# %as" i1y s2in and reapp1y &am $!1a)e. 3"en tra5e1in)# espe&ia11y in b$i1t-$p areas at ni)"t# be a%are ! %"ere y $ &ast y $r s"ad %. / 5er s"iny sp ts n e4$ipment by paintin)# & 5erin) %it" m$d# r %rappin) %it" &1 t" r tape. (ay parti&$1ar attenti n t & 5erin) b t eye1ets# b$&21es n e4$ipment# %at&"es and @e%e1ry# 'ippers# and $ni! rm insi)nia.y m 5in) s1 %1y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ de&rease t"e &"an&e ! dete&ti n and & nser5e ener)y t"at y $ may need ! r 1 n)-term s$r5i5a1 r 1 n)-distan&e e5asi n. Fi)$re 21-1 )i5es a )enera1 idea ! " % t app1y &am $!1a)e ! r 5ari $s areas and &1imates. +"e $ter ed)es ! t"e s"ad %s are 1i)"ter and t"e deeper parts are dar2er. M"/e+e#t M 5ement# espe&ia11y !ast m 5ement# attra&ts attenti n. -4$ipment %it" % rn !! paint is a1s s"iny. +"e b1 t&"es r s1as"es %i11 "e1p t sim$1ate te?t$re. Remember# i! y $ are in an area %"ere t"ere is p1enty ! 5e)etati n# 2eep as m$&" 5e)etati n bet%een y $ and a p tentia1 enemy as p ssib1e. Shi#e As s2in )ets i1y# it be& mes s"iny. S2in i1 %i11 %as" !! &am $!1a)e# s reapp1y it !re4$ent1y. Anyt"in) t"at s"ines a$t mati&a11y attra&ts attenti n and %i11 )i5e a%ay y $r 1 &ati n. 3"en m 5in) past bsta&1es# a5 id ) in) 5er t"em.S. F r&in) an enemy t 1 2 t"r $)" many 1ayers ! mas2in) 5e)etati n %i11 !ati)$e "is eyes 5ery 4$i&21y. -5en painted b@e&ts# i! sm t"# may s"ine. +"is 1ayer ! d$st %i11 red$&e t"e re!1e&ti n ! 1i)"t. Sh!("2 3"en "idin) r tra5e1in)# stay in t"e deepest part ! t"e s"ad %s. As y $ m 5e t"r $)" an area# be a1ert t t"e & 1 r &"an)es and m di!y y $r &am $!1a)e & 1 rs as ne&essary. I! at a11 p ssib1e# a5 id m 5ement in t"e presen&e ! an enemy. A1s # i! y $ are in a dar2 s"ad % and t"ere is a 1i)"t s $r&e t ne side# an enemy n t"e t"er side &an see y $r si1" $ette a)ainst t"e 1i)"t. +"is a&ti n %i11 ma2e it 5ery "ard ! r t"e enemy t see y $ as t"e 5e)etati n %i11 partia11y mas2 y $ !r m "is 5ie%. D n t si1" $ette y $rse1! a)ainst t"e s2y1ine %"en (a)e 216 ! 2** . 61ass b@e&ts s$&" as mirr rs# )1asses# bin &$1ars# and te1es& pes s"ine.

Y $ s" $1d be ab1e t st p at any p int in t"at m 5ement and " 1d t"at p siti n as 1 n) as ne&essary. Use t"e ! 11 %in) te&"ni4$es %"en pra&ti&in). N"i$e N ise attra&ts attenti n# espe&ia11y i! t"ere is a se4$en&e ! 1 $d n ises s$&" as se5era1 snappin) t%i)s. Standin) in sm 2e !r m a !ire &an "e1p mas2 y $r s&ent !r m anima1s. Y $ need m re t"an @$st &am $!1a)e t ma2e t"ese m 5es s$&&ess!$11y. Up&i0ht St!%)i#0 +a2e steps ab $t "a1! y $r n rma1 stride %"en sta12in) in t"e $pri)"t p siti n. 3"en m 5in) in a &r $&"# y $ )ain e?tra s$pp rt by p1a&in) y $r "ands n y $r 2nees. Li!t t"e ba&2 ! t t ab $t 2nee "ei)"t and start t"e pr &ess 5er a)ain.S O' STAL*IN/ S metimes y $ need t m 5e# $ndete&ted# t r !r m a 1 &ati n. Fee1 ! r sti&2s and t%i)s t"at may snap %"en y $ p1a&e y $r %ei)"t n t"em. S1 % d %n y $r pa&e as m$&" as ne&essary t a5 id ma2in) n ise %"en m 5in) ar $nd r a%ay !r m p ssib1e t"reats. 3"en y $ are m 5in)# y $ %i11 "a5e di!!i&$1ty dete&tin) t"e m 5ement ! t"ers. A!ter ma2in) & nta&t %it" t"e $tside ed)e ! t"e ba11 ! y $r ! t# r 11 t t"e inside ba11 ! y $r ! t# p1a&e y $r "ee1 d %n# ! 11 %ed by y $r t es. St p !re4$ent1y# 1isten# and 1 2 ar $nd s1 %1y t dete&t si)ns ! " sti1e m 5ement. C&!2%i#0 (a)e 217 ! 2** . 8eep y $r "ands and arms &1 se t y $r b dy and a5 id %a5in) t"em ab $t r "ittin) 5e)etati n. D n t $se t ba&& pr d$&ts# &andy# )$m# r & smeti&s.O. .S.ne step $s$a11y ta2es 1 min$te t & mp1ete# b$t t"e time it ta2es %i11 depend n t"e sit$ati n. /$r1 t"e t es $p $t ! t"e %ay %"en steppin) d %n s t"e $tside ed)e ! t"e ba11 ! t"e ! t t $&"es t"e )r $nd. 3"i1e anima1s are a!raid ! !res" sm 2e !r m a !ire# 1der sm 2e s&ents are n rma1 sme11s a!ter ! rest !ires and d n t s&are t"em. +"e abi1ity t sta12 r m 5e %it" $t ma2in) any s$dden 4$i&2 m 5ement r 1 $d n ise is essentia1 t a5 idin) dete&ti n. Rain %i11 mas2 a 1 t ! m 5ement n ise# b$t it a1s red$&es y $r abi1ity t dete&t p tentia1 enemy n ise. +"is %as"in) met" d rem 5es s ap and b dy d rs. A5 idin) str n) sme11in) ! ds# s$&" as )ar1i&# "e1ps red$&e b dy d rs.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (ine need1es# mint# r any simi1ar ar mati& p1ant %i11 "e1p &am $!1a)e y $r s&ent !r m b t" anima1s and "$mans. I! p ssib1e# a5 id ma2in) any n ise at a11. Use ba&2)r $nd n ises t & 5er t"e n ise ! y $r m 5ement. 3"i1e tra5e1in)# $se y $r sense ! sme11 t "e1p y $ !ind r a5 id "$mans. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e sta12in) i! it is t be e!!e&ti5e. Department ! t"e Army &r ssin) "i11s r rid)es. (ay attenti n t sme11s ass &iated %it" "$mans# s$&" as !ire# &i)arettes# )as 1ine# i1# s ap# and ! d. S$&" sme11s may a1ert y $ t t"eir presen&e 1 n) be! re y $ &an see r "ear t"em# dependin) n %ind speed and dire&ti n. Y $ &an $se ar mati& "erbs r p1ants t %as" y $rse1! and y $r &1 t"in)# t r$b n y $r b dy and &1 t"in)# r t &"e% n t &am $!1a)e y $r breat". S$&" strides "e1p y $ t maintain y $r ba1an&e. 0 T. Start by %as"in) y $rse1! and y $r &1 t"es %it" $t $sin) s ap.e#t 3"et"er "$ntin) anima1s r a5 idin) t"e enemy# it is a1%ays %ise t &am $!1a)e t"e s&ent ass &iated %it" "$mans. N te t"e %indFs dire&ti n and# %"en p ssib1e# appr a&" !r m r s2irt ar $nd n t"e d %n%ind side %"en nearin) "$mans r anima1s. S $nds ! air&ra!t# tr$&2s# )enerat rs# str n) %inds# and pe p1e ta12in) %i11 & 5er s me r a11 t"e s $nds pr d$&ed by y $r m 5ement. S. +"en )rad$a11y s"i!t y $r %ei)"t ! r%ard t t"e !r nt ! t. I! y $ start t step n ne# 1i!t y $r ! t and m 5e it.

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

/ra%1 n y $r "ands and 2nees %"en t"e 5e)etati n is t 1 % t a11 % y $ t %a12 $pri)"t %it" $t bein) seen. M 5e ne 1imb at a time and be s$re t set it d %n s !t1y# !ee1in) ! r anyt"in) t"at may snap and ma2e n ise. ,e &are!$1 t"at y $r t es and "ee1s d n t &at&" n 5e)etati n.

P&"#e St!%)i#0
+ sta12 in t"e pr ne p siti n# y $ d a 1 %# m di!ied p$s"-$p n y $r "ands and t es# m 5in) y $rse1! ! r%ard s1i)"t1y# and t"en 1 %erin) y $rse1! a)ain s1 %1y. A5 id dra))in) and s&rapin) a1 n) t"e )r $nd as t"is ma2es e?&essi5e n ise and 1ea5es 1ar)e trai1s ! r tra&2ers t ! 11 %.

A#i+!% St!%)i#0
,e! re sta12in) an anima1# se1e&t t"e best r $te. I! t"e anima1 is m 5in)# y $ %i11 need an inter&eptin) r $te. (i&2 a r $te t"at p$ts b@e&ts bet%een y $ and t"e anima1 t & n&ea1 y $r m 5ement !r m it. ,y p siti nin) y $rse1! in t"is %ay# y $ %i11 be ab1e t m 5e !aster# $nti1 y $ pass t"at b@e&t. S me b@e&ts# s$&" as 1ar)e r &2s and trees# may t ta11y & n&ea1 y $# and t"ers# s$&" as sma11 b$s"es and )rass# may n1y partia11y & n&ea1 y $. (i&2 t"e r $te t"at !!ers t"e best & n&ea1ment and re4$ires t"e 1east am $nt ! e!! rt. 8eep y $r eyes n t"e anima1 and st p %"en it 1 2s y $r %ay r t$rns its ears y $r %ay# espe&ia11y i! it s$spe&ts y $r presen&e. As y $ )et &1 se# s4$int y $r eyes s1i)"t1y t & n&ea1 b t" t"e 1i)"t-dar2 & ntrast ! t"e %"ites ! t"e eyes and any s"ine !r m y $r eyes. 8eep y $r m $t" &1 sed s t"at t"e anima1 d es n t see t"e %"iteness r s"ine ! y $r teet".

(a)e 21: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 22 - CONTACT *ITH PEOPLE

Some o! the best and most !re)uently given advice" when dealing with local peoples" is !or the survivor to accept" respect" and adapt to their ways. Thus" =when in Rome" do as the Romans do.= This is e+cellent advice" but there are several considerations involved in putting this advice into practice.

CONTACT 3IT. LOCAL P OPL
Y $ m$st )i5e seri $s & nsiderati n t dea1in) %it" t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e. D t"ey "a5e a primiti5e &$1t$reG Are t"ey !armers# !is"ermen# !riend1y pe p1e# r enemyG As a s$r5i5 r# J&r ss-&$1t$ra1 & mm$ni&ati nJ &an 5ary radi&a11y !r m area t area and !r m pe p1e t pe p1e. It may mean intera&ti n %it" pe p1e ! an e?treme1y primiti5e &$1t$re r & nta&t %it" pe p1e %" "a5e a re1ati5e1y m dem &$1t$re. A &$1t$re is identi!ied by standards ! be"a5i r t"at its members & nsider pr per and a&&eptab1e b$t may r may n t & n! rm t y $r idea ! %"at is pr per. N matter %" t"ese pe p1e are# y $ &an e?pe&t t"ey %i11 "a5e 1a%s# s &ia1 and e& n mi& 5a1$es# and p 1iti&a1 and re1i)i $s be1ie!s t"at may be radi&a11y di!!erent !r m y $rs. ,e! re dep1 yin) int y $r area ! perati ns# st$dy t"ese di!!erent &$1t$ra1 aspe&ts. (ri r st$dy and preparati n %i11 "e1p y $ ma2e r a5 id & nta&t i! y $ "a5e t dea1 %it" t"e 1 &a1 p p$1ati n. (e p1e %i11 be !riend1y# $n!riend1y# r t"ey %i11 &" se t i)n re y $. +"eir attit$de may be $n2n %n. I! t"e pe p1e are 2n %n t be !riend1y# try t 2eep t"em !riend1y t"r $)" y $r & $rtesy and respe&t ! r t"eir re1i)i n# p 1iti&s# s &ia1 &$st ms# "abits# and a11 t"er aspe&ts ! t"eir &$1t$re. I! t"e pe p1e are 2n %n t be enemies r are $n2n %ns# ma2e e5ery e!! rt t a5 id any & nta&t and 1ea5e n si)n ! y $r presen&e. A basi& 2n %1ed)e ! t"e dai1y "abits ! t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e %i11 be essentia1 in t"is attempt. I! a!ter &are!$1 bser5ati n y $ determine t"at an $n2n %n pe p1e are !riend1y# y $ may & nta&t t"em i! y $ abs 1$te1y need t"eir "e1p. Us$a11y# y $ "a5e 1itt1e t !ear and m$&" t )ain !r m &a$ti $s and respe&t!$1 & nta&t %it" 1 &a1 pe p1e ! !riend1y r ne$tra1 & $ntries. I! y $ be& me !ami1iar %it" t"e 1 &a1 &$st ms# disp1ay & mm n de&en&y# and m st imp rtant# s" % respe&t ! r t"eir &$st ms# y $ s" $1d be ab1e t a5 id tr $b1e and p ssib1y )ain needed "e1p. + ma2e & nta&t# %ait $nti1 n1y ne pers n is near and# i! p ssib1e# 1et t"at pers n ma2e t"e initia1 appr a&". M st pe p1e %i11 be %i11in) t "e1p a s$r5i5 r %" appears t be in need. 0 %e5er# 1 &a1 p 1iti&a1 attit$des# instr$&ti n# r pr pa)anda e!! rts may &"an)e t"e attit$des ! t"er%ise !riend1y pe p1e. / n5erse1y# in $n!riend1y & $ntries# many pe p1e# espe&ia11y in rem te areas# may !ee1 anim sity t %ard t"eir p 1iti&ians and may be m re !riend1y t %ard a s$r5i5 r. +"e 2ey t s$&&ess!$1 & nta&t %it" 1 &a1 pe p1es is t be !riend1y# & $rte $s# and patient. Disp1ayin) !ear# s" %in) %eap ns# and ma2in) s$dden r t"reatenin) m 5ements &an &a$se a 1 &a1 pers n t !ear y $. S$&" a&ti ns &an pr mpt a " sti1e resp nse. 3"en attemptin) a & nta&t# smi1e as !ten as y $ &an. Many 1 &a1 pe p1es are s"y and seem $nappr a&"ab1e# r t"ey may i)n re y $. Appr a&" t"em s1 %1y and d n t r$s" y $r & nta&t.

(a)e 21; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

T. SURVIVOR<S # .AVIOR
Use sa1t# t ba&& # si15er m ney# and simi1ar items dis&reet1y %"en tradin) %it" 1 &a1 pe p1e. (aper m ney is %e11-2n %n % r1d%ide. D n t 5erpayH it may 1ead t embarrassment and e5en dan)er. A1%ays treat pe p1e %it" respe&t. D n t b$11y t"em r 1a$)" at t"em. Usin) si)n 1an)$a)e r a&tin) $t needs r 4$esti ns &an be 5ery e!!e&ti5e. Many pe p1e are $sed t s$&" 1an)$a)e and & mm$ni&ate $sin) n n5erba1 si)n 1an)$a)e. +ry t 1earn a !e% % rds and p"rases ! t"e 1 &a1 1an)$a)e in and ar $nd y $r p tentia1 area ! perati ns. +ryin) t spea2 s me neFs 1an)$a)e is ne ! t"e best %ays t s" % respe&t ! r "is &$1t$re. Sin&e -n)1is" is %ide1y $sed# s me ! t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e may $nderstand a !e% % rds ! -n)1is". S me areas may be tab . +"ey ran)e !r m re1i)i $s r sa&red p1a&es t diseased r dan)er areas. In s me areas# &ertain anima1s m$st n t be 2i11ed. Learn t"e r$1es and ! 11 % t"em. 3at&" and 1earn as m$&" as p ssib1e. S$&" a&ti ns %i11 "e1p t stren)t"en re1ati ns and pr 5ide ne% 2n %1ed)e and s2i11s t"at may be 5ery imp rtant 1ater. See2 ad5i&e n 1 &a1 "a'ards and !ind $t !r m !riend1y pe p1e %"ere t"e " sti1e pe p1e are. A1%ays remember t"at pe p1e !re4$ent1y insist t"at t"er pe p1es are " sti1e# simp1y be&a$se t"ey d n t $nderstand di!!erent &$1t$res and distant pe p1es. +"e pe p1e t"ey &an $s$a11y tr$st are t"eir immediate nei)"b rs--m$&" t"e same as in $r %n nei)"b r" d. Fre4$ent1y# 1 &a1 pe p1e# 1i2e $rse15es# %i11 s$!!er !r m & nta)i $s diseases. ,$i1d a separate s"e1ter# i! p ssib1e# and a5 id p"ysi&a1 & nta&t %it" $t )i5in) t"e impressi n ! d in) s . (ers na11y prepare y $r ! d and drin2# i! y $ &an d s %it" $t )i5in) !!ense. Fre4$ent1y# t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e %i11 a&&ept t"e $se ! Jpers na1 r re1i)i $s &$st mJ as an e?p1anati n ! r is 1ati nist be"a5i r. ,arter# r tradin)# is & mm n in m re primiti5e s &ieties. 0ard & in is $s$a11y ) d# %"et"er ! r its e?&"an)e 5a1$e r as @e%e1ry r trin2ets. In is 1ated areas# mat&"es# t ba&& # sa1t# ra' r b1ades# empty & ntainers# r &1 t" may be % rt" m re t"an any ! rm ! m ney. ,e 5ery &a$ti $s %"en t $&"in) pe p1e. Many pe p1e & nsider Jt $&"in)J tab and s$&" a&ti ns may be dan)er $s. A5 id se?$a1 & nta&t. 0 spita1ity am n) s me pe p1e is s$&" a str n) &$1t$ra1 trait t"at t"ey may seri $s1y red$&e t"eir %n s$pp1ies t !eed a stran)er. A&&ept %"at t"ey !!er and s"are it e4$a11y %it" a11 present. -at in t"e same %ay t"ey eat and# m st imp rtant# try t eat a11 t"ey !!er. I! y $ ma2e any pr mises# 2eep t"em. Respe&t pers na1 pr perty and 1 &a1 &$st ms and manners# e5en i! t"ey seem dd. Ma2e s me 2ind ! payment ! r ! d# s$pp1ies# and s ! rt". Respe&t pri5a&y. D n t enter a " $se $n1ess in5ited.

C.AN/ S TO POLITICAL ALL /IANC
In t dayFs % r1d ! !ast-pa&ed internati na1 p 1iti&s# p 1iti&a1 attit$des and & mmitments %it"in nati ns are s$b@e&t t rapid &"an)e. +"e p p$1ati n ! many & $ntries# espe&ia11y p 1iti&a11y " sti1e & $ntries# m$st n t be & nsidered !riend1y @$st be&a$se t"ey d n t dem nstrate pen " sti1ity. Un1ess brie!ed t t"e & ntraryH a5 id a11 & nta&t %it" s$&" pe p1e.

(a)e 22< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 28 - SURVIVAL IN MAN-MADE HA=ARDS

8uclear" chemical" and biological weapons have become potential realities on any modern battle!ield. Recent e+perience in A!ghanistan" 1ambodia" and other areas o! con!lict has proved the use o! chemical and biological weapons &such as mycoto+ins'. The war!ighting doctrine o! the 8AT0 and arsaw :act nations addresses the use o! both nuclear and chemical weapons. The potential use o! these weapons intensi!ies the problems o! survival because o! the serious dangers posed by either radioactive !allout or contamination produced by persistent biological or chemical agents. @ou must use special precautions i! you e+pect to survive in these man%made ha*ards. I! you are sub$ected to any o! the e!!ects o! nuclear" chemical" or biological war!are" the survival procedures recommended in this chapter may save your li!e. This chapter presents some background in!ormation on each type o! ha*ard so that you may better understand the true nature o! the ha*ard. Awareness o! the ha*ards" knowledge o! this chapter" and application o! common sense should keep you alive.

T. NUCL AR NVIRON0 NT
(repare y $rse1! t s$r5i5e in a n$&1ear en5ir nment. 8n % " % t rea&t t a n$&1ear "a'ard.

E66e.t$ "6 N .%e!& *e!p"#$
+"e e!!e&ts ! n$&1ear %eap ns are &1assi!ied as eit"er initia1 r resid$a1. Initia1 e!!e&ts &&$r in t"e immediate area ! t"e e?p1 si n and are "a'ard $s in t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. Resid$a1 e!!e&ts &an 1ast ! r days r years and &a$se deat". +"e prin&ipa1 initia1 e!!e&ts are b1ast and radiati n. #last De!ined as t"e brie! and rapid m 5ement ! air a%ay !r m t"e e?p1 si nFs &enter and t"e press$re a&& mpanyin) t"is m 5ement. Str n) %inds a&& mpany t"e b1ast. ,1ast "$r1s debris and pers nne1# & 11apses 1$n)s# r$pt$res eardr$ms# & 11apses str$&t$res and p siti ns# and &a$ses immediate deat" r in@$ry %it" its &r$s"in) e!!e&t. Ther"al Radiation +"e "eat and 1i)"t radiati n a n$&1ear e?p1 si nFs !ireba11 emits. Li)"t radiati n & nsists ! b t" 5isib1e 1i)"t and $1tra5i 1et and in!rared 1i)"t. +"erma1 radiati n pr d$&es e?tensi5e !ires# s2in b$rns# and !1as" b1indness. Nuclear Radiation N$&1ear radiati n brea2s d %n int t% &ate) ries-initia1 radiati n and resid$a1 radiati n. Initia1 n$&1ear radiati n & nsists ! intense )amma rays and ne$tr ns pr d$&ed d$rin) t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. +"is radiati n &a$ses e?tensi5e dama)e t &e11s t"r $)" $t t"e b dy. Radiati n dama)e may &a$se "eada&"es# na$sea# 5 mitin)# diarr"ea# and e5en deat"# dependin) n t"e radiati n d se re&ei5ed. +"e ma@ r pr b1em in pr te&tin) y $rse1! a)ainst t"e initia1 radiati nFs e!!e&ts is t"at y $
(a)e 221 ! 2**

S. A s$bs$r!a&e b$rst &&$rs & mp1ete1y $nder)r $nd r $nder%ater. A s$r!a&e b$rst &&$rs n t"e )r $nd r %ater s$r!a&e. T3pe$ "6 N . +"ese in@$ries are &1assed as b1ast# t"erma1# r radiati n in@$ries. Indi5id$a1s in t"e area near a n$&1ear e?p1 si n %i11 pr bab1y s$!!er a & mbinati n ! a11 t"ree types ! in@$ries. F$rt"er radiati n in@$ries may &&$r i! y $ d n t ta2e pr per pre&a$ti ns a)ainst !a11 $t. (ers nne1 e?p sed t 1et"a1 am $nts ! initia1 radiati n may %e11 "a5e been 2i11ed r !ata11y in@$red by b1ast r t"erma1 radiati n. Ne$tr ns are "i)"-speed# e?treme1y penetratin) parti&1es t"at a&t$a11y smas" &e11s %it"in y $r b dy. F1as" b1indness a1s &&$rs. +"e airb$rst pr 5ides t"e ma?im$m radiati n e!!e&t n t"e tar)et and is# t"ere! re# m st dan)er $s t y $ in terms ! immediate n$&1ear e!!e&ts. / 5er b1ast in@$ry % $nds as s n as p ssib1e t pre5ent t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e d$st parti&1es. Its e!!e&ts remain beneat" t"e s$r!a&e r in t"e immediate area %"ere t"e s$r!a&e & 11apses int a &rater 5er t"e b$rstFs 1 &ati n.eta and a1p"a radiati n are radi a&ti5e parti&1es n rma11y ass &iated %it" radi a&ti5e d$st !r m !a11 $t. Lar)e am $nts ! !a11 $t res$1t# %it" seri $s 1 n)term e!!e&ts ! r y $. N !$rt"er dis&$ssi n ! t"is type ! b$rst %i11 ta2e p1a&e. +"e type ! b$rst dire&t1y a!!e&ts y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. A dis&$ssi n ! resid$a1 radiati n ta2es p1a&e in a s$bse4$ent para)rap". S$bs$r!a&e b$rsts &a$se y $ 1itt1e r n radi a&ti5e "a'ard $n1ess y $ enter t"e immediate area ! t"e &rater. Radiation In+uries Ne$tr ns# )amma radiati n# a1p"a radiati n# and beta radiati n &a$se radiati n in@$ries. Re$i( !% R!(i!ti"# (a)e 222 ! 2** . #last In+uries . First aid ! r t"erma1 in@$ries is t"e same as !irst aid ! r b$rns.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . +"ey are s" rt-ran)e parti&1es and y $ &an easi1y pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst t"em i! y $ ta2e pre&a$ti ns. 6amma radiati n is simi1ar t B rays and is a1s a "i)"1y penetratin) radiati n. (r @e&ti1e % $nds &&$r as t"e e?p1 si nFs ! r&e "$r1s debris at y $. / 5er pen b$rns Cse& nd. +"is type ! b$rst is y $r greatest n$&1ear "a'ard. /1 t"in) %i11 pr 5ide si)ni!i&ant pr te&ti n a)ainst t"erma1 in@$ries. N .%e!& B &$t$ +"ere are t"ree types ! n$&1ear b$rsts--airb$rst# s$r!a&e b$rst# and s$bs$r!a&e b$rst. It "as m re e!!e&t n y $ t"an initia1 radiati n.%e!& I#F &ie$ M st in@$ries in t"e n$&1ear en5ir nment res$1t !r m t"e initia1 n$&1ear e!!e&ts ! t"e det nati n.1ast in@$ries pr d$&ed by n$&1ear %eap ns are simi1ar t t" se &a$sed by & n5enti na1 "i)"-e?p1 si5e %eap ns. An airb$rst &&$rs in t"e air ab 5e its intended tar)et. D$rin) t"e initia1 !ireba11 sta)e ! a n$&1ear det nati n# initia1 )amma radiati n and ne$tr ns are t"e m st seri $s t"reat. 3as" a11 b$rns be! re & 5erin). Ther"al In+uries +"e "eat and 1i)"t t"e n$&1ear !ireba11 emits &a$ses t"erma1 in@$ries. S$bstantia1 & 5er and distan&e !r m t"e e?p1 si n &an pre5ent t"erma1 in@$ries. / 5er as m$&" e?p sed s2in as p ssib1e be! re a n$&1ear e?p1 si n. Resid$a1 radiati n & nsists ! a11 radiati n pr d$&ed a!ter ne min$te !r m t"e e?p1 si n. See ?odily Reactions to Radiation" be1 %# ! r t"e sympt ms ! radiati n in@$ries. +"is b1indness may be permanent r temp rary dependin) n t"e de)ree ! e?p s$re ! t"e eyes. Department ! t"e Army may "a5e re&ei5ed a 1et"a1 r in&apa&itatin) d se be! re ta2in) any pr te&ti5e a&ti n. .1ast 5erpress$re &an pr d$&e & 11apsed 1$n)s and r$pt$red interna1 r)ans.1ast 5er-press$re may t"r % y $ 1 n) distan&es# and y $ %i11 s$!!er se5ere in@$ry $p n impa&t %it" t"e )r $nd r t"er b@e&ts. First-# se& nd-# r t"ird-de)ree b$rns may res$1t.r t"ird-de)reeD t pre5ent t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es. Lar)e pie&es ! debris stri2in) y $ %i11 &a$se !ra&t$red 1imbs r massi5e interna1 in@$ries. . S$bstantia1 & 5er and distan&e !r m t"e e?p1 si n are t"e best pr te&ti n a)ainst b1ast in@$ry.

A1p"a and beta radiati n are re1ati5e1y easy t & $ntera&t# and resid$a1 )amma radiati n is m$&" 1ess intense t"an t"e )amma radiati n emitted d$rin) t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. Y $ s" $1d n t tra5e1 int an area ! ind$&ed radiati n.S. 4ternal and Internal . Induced Radiation It des&ribes a re1ati5e1y sma11# intense1y radi a&ti5e area dire&t1y $nderneat" t"e n$&1ear %eap nFs !ireba11. Us$a11y# a d se ! 6<< &enti)rams C&)ysD t t"e entire b dy %i11 res$1t in a1m st &ertain deat".azards An e?terna1 r an interna1 "a'ard &an &a$se b dy dama)e. C" #te&+e!$ &e$ A0!i#$t Pe#et&!ti#0 E5te&#!% R!(i!ti"# 8n %1ed)e ! t"e radiati n "a'ards dis&$ssed ear1ier is e?treme1y imp rtant in s$r5i5in) in a !a11 $t area. (enetratin) beta rays &a$se radiati n b$rnsH t"e % $nds are simi1ar t !ire b$rns.ti"#$ t" R!(i!ti"# +"e e!!e&ts ! radiati n n t"e "$man b dy &an be br ad1y &1assed as eit"er &"r ni& r a&$te. (a)e 22* ! 2** . +"e irradiated eart" in t"is area %i11 remain "i)"1y radi a&ti5e ! r an e?treme1y 1 n) time. +"e se5erity ! t"e sympt ms and t"e speed ! nset a!ter e?p s$re are ) d indi&at rs ! t"e de)ree ! radiati n dama)e. +"e e?terna1 "a'ard pr d$&es 5era11 irradiati n and beta b$rns. Materia1 t"at enters t"e b dy t"r $)" breat"in) presents n1y a min r "a'ard. +"e interna1 "a'ard res$1ts in irradiati n ! &riti&a1 r)ans s$&" as t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t# t"yr id )1and# and b ne. . Fa11 $t is y $r m st si)ni!i&ant radiati n "a'ard# pr 5ided y $ "a5e n t re&ei5ed a 1et"a1 radiati n d se !r m t"e initia1 radiati n. Department ! t"e Army Resid$a1 radiati n is a11 radiati n emitted a!ter 1 min$te !r m t"e instant ! t"e n$&1ear e?p1 si n. 0i)"1y penetratin) )amma radiati n r t"e 1ess penetratin) beta radiati n t"at &a$ses b$rns &an &a$se e?terna1 dama)e.t"er parts Cs2in and b ne marr %D "a5e a )reat abi1ity t re& 5er !r m dama)e. A 5ery sma11 am $nt ! radi a&ti5e materia1 &an &a$se e?treme dama)e t t"ese and t"er interna1 r)ans. 3"en t"ese 5ap ri'ed & ntents & 1# t"ey &an ! rm m re t"an 2<< di!!erent radi a&ti5e pr d$&ts. I! n1y y $r "ands re&ei5ed t"is same d se# y $r 5era11 "ea1t" % $1d n t s$!!er m$&"# a1t" $)" y $r "ands % $1d s$!!er se5ere dama)e. Resid$a1 radiati n & nsists ! ind$&ed radiati n and !a11 $t. 'allout Fa11 $t & nsists ! radi a&ti5e s i1 and %ater parti&1es# as %e11 as %eap n !ra)ments. It is a1s &riti&a1 t 2n % " % t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m t"e m st dan)er $s ! rm ! resid$a1 radiati n-penetratin) e?terna1 radiati n. +"ese e!!e&ts res$1t !r m t"e radiati nFs dire&t p"ysi&a1 dama)e t tiss$e. +"e interna1 "a'ard &an enter t"e b dy eit"er t"r $)" & ns$mpti n ! & ntaminated %ater r ! d r by abs rpti n t"r $)" &$ts r abrasi ns. Radiati n si&2ness and beta b$rns are e?amp1es ! a&$te e!!e&ts. Y $ &an )reat1y red$&e t"e interna1 radiati n "a'ard by $sin) ) d pers na1 "y)iene and &are!$11y de& ntaminatin) y $r ! d and %ater. /"r ni& e!!e&ts are ! min r & n&ern ins !ar as t"ey a!!e&t y $r immediate s$r5i5a1 in a radi a&ti5e en5ir nment. Fa11 $t parti&1es emit a1p"a# beta# and )amma radiati n. . B"(i%3 Re!. +"e brain and 2idneys "a5e 1itt1e re& 5ery &apabi1ity. /"r ni& e!!e&ts are t" se t"at &&$r s me years a!ter e?p s$re t radiati n.n t"e t"er "and# a&$te e!!e&ts are ! primary imp rtan&e t y $r s$r5i5a1. +"e entry ! a1p"a r beta radiati n-emittin) parti&1es int t"e b dy &an &a$se interna1 dama)e. +"e se5erity ! t"ese sympt ms is d$e t t"e e?treme sensiti5ity ! t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t t radiati n. +"e 5ap ri'ed b mb & ntents & ndense int tiny radi a&ti5e parti&1es t"at t"e %ind &arries and t"ey !a11 ba&2 t eart" as radi a&ti5e d$st. D$rin) a s$r!a&e det nati n# r i! an airb$rstFs n$&1ear !ireba11 t $&"es t"e )r $nd# 1ar)e am $nts ! s i1 and %ater are 5ap ri'ed a1 n) %it" t"e b mbFs !ra)ments# and ! r&ed $p%ard t a1tit$des ! 29#<<< meters r m re. Reco(ery Capa6ility +"e e?tent ! b dy dama)e depends main1y n t"e part ! t"e b dy e?p sed t radiati n and " % 1 n) it %as e?p sed# as %e11 as its abi1ity t re& 5er. Radiati n si&2ness sympt ms in&1$de na$sea# diarr"ea# 5 mitin)# !ati)$e# %ea2ness# and 1 ss ! "air. S me a&$te e!!e&ts &&$r %it"in " $rs a!ter e?p s$re t radiati n. -?amp1es are &an&er and )eneti& de!e&ts. +"e )astr intestina1 dama)e &an & me !r m eit"er t"e e?terna1 r t"e interna1 radiati n "a'ard. Sy"pto"s +"e sympt ms ! radiati n in@$ries in&1$de na$sea# diarr"ea# and 5 mitin).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Lead# ir n# & n&rete# and %ater are ) d e?amp1es ! s"ie1din) materia1s. +"e denser t"e materia1# t"e better t"e s"ie1din) e!!e&t.9D2 r <. Ri) r $s1y pra&ti&e pers na1 "y)iene t pre5ent in!e&ti ns. +"ere! re# it is t"e m st desirab1e met" d. S"ie1din) a&t$a11y % r2s by abs rbin) r %ea2enin) t"e penetratin) radiati n# t"ereby red$&in) t"e am $nt ! radiati n rea&"in) y $r b dy. -5en an $ntrained bser5er &an see t"at t"e )reatest "a'ard !r m !a11 $t &&$rs immediate1y a!ter det nati n# and t"at t"e "a'ard de&reases 4$i&21y 5er a re1ati5e1y s" rt time. Y $ m$st & 5er a11 % $nds t pre5ent & ntaminati n and t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es.29 t"e am $nt. I! s"ie1din) is n t p ssib1e# $se t"e t"er t% met" ds t t"e ma?im$m e?tent pra&ti&a1. 3"i1e t"is ! rm$1a is 5a1id ! r & n&entrated s $r&es ! radiati n in sma11 areas# it be& mes m re & mp1i&ated ! r 1ar)e areas ! radiati n s$&" as !a11 $t areas. Ti"e +ime is imp rtant t y $# as t"e s$r5i5 r# in t% %ays. Y $ &an a1s )et as !ar a%ay !r m t"e radiati n s $r&e as p ssib1e.S.! t"e t"ree & $ntermeas$res a)ainst penetratin) radiati n# s"ie1din) pr 5ides t"e )reatest pr te&ti n and is t"e easiest t $se $nder s$r5i5a1 & nditi ns. Special 0edical Aspects +"e presen&e ! !a11 $t materia1 in y $r area re4$ires s1i)"t &"an)es in !irst aid pr &ed$res. Y $ &an red$&e t"e 1e5e1 ! radiati n and "e1p in&rease y $r &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1 by & ntr 11in) t"e d$rati n ! e?p s$re. . +"e primary reas n ! r !indin) and b$i1din) a s"e1ter is t )et pr te&ti n a)ainst t"e "i)"-intensity radiati n 1e5e1s ! ear1y )amma !a11 $t as !ast as p ssib1e. / 5er y $r eyes %it" impr 5ised ) ))1es t pre5ent t"e entry ! parti&1es. F r e?amp1e# i! e?p sed t 1#<<< &)ys ! radiati n standin) *< &entimeters !r m t"e s $r&e# at 6< &entimeters# y $ % $1d n1y re&ei5e 29< &)ys.b5i $s1y# spend as 1itt1e time in a radi a&ti5e area as p ssib1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. F r !a11 $t radiati n# a re1ati5e1y sma11 am $nt ! s"ie1din) materia1 &an pr 5ide ade4$ate (a)e 227 ! 2** . An amp1e t"i&2ness ! s"ie1din) materia1 %i11 red$&e t"e 1e5e1 ! radiati n t ne)1i)ib1e am $nts. +"e r$1e ! t"$mb ! r radi a&ti5ity de&ay is t"at it de&reases in intensity by a !a&t r ! ten ! r e5ery se5en! 1d in&rease in time ! 11 %in) t"e pea2 radiati n 1e5e1. (ay &1 se attenti n t t"e pre5enti n ! & 1ds r respirat ry in!e&ti ns. First# radiati n d sa)es are &$m$1ati5e. +"e 1 n)er y $ are e?p sed t a radi a&ti5e s $r&e# t"e )reater t"e d se y $ %i11 re&ei5e. " $rs. . +"$s# a radi a&ti5e e1ement de&ays r 1 ses "a1! ! its radi a&ti5ity %it"in a &ertain time. Fina11y y $ &an p1a&e s me radiati n-abs rbin) r s"ie1din) materia1 bet%een y $ and t"e radiati n. I! y $ &an a5 id !a11 $t areas 1 n) en $)" ! r m st ! t"e radi a&ti5ity t de&ay# y $ en"an&e y $r &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1. 3it" $t s"e1ter# t"e d sa)e re&ei5ed in t"e !irst !e% " $rs %i11 e?&eed t"at re&ei5ed d$rin) t"e rest ! a %ee2 in a & ntaminated area. +a2e e?tra meas$res t pre5ent in!e&ti n. Y $r b dy %i11 be e?treme1y sensiti5e t in!e&ti ns d$e t &"an)es in y $r b1 d &"emistry. As a s$r5i5 r# try t a5 id !a11 $t areas $nti1 t"e radi a&ti5ity de&ays t sa!e 1e5e1s. +"e d sa)e re&ei5ed in t"is !irst %ee2 %i11 e?&eed t"e d sa)e a&&$m$1ated d$rin) t"e rest ! a 1i!etime spent in t"e same & ntaminated area. Fi5e min$tes t 1 &ate t"e s"e1ter is a ) d )$ide. Se& nd# radi a&ti5ity de&reases r de&ays 5er time. Speed in !indin) s"e1ter is abs 1$te1y essentia1. Fa11 $t radiati n "as 1ess ener)y t"an a n$&1ear det nati nFs initia1 radiati n. Shielding 0aterials +"e t"i&2ness re4$ired t %ea2en )amma radiati n !r m !a11 $t is !ar 1ess t"an t"at needed t s"ie1d a)ainst initia1 )amma radiati n. Department ! t"e Army +"e means y $ &an $se t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m penetratin) e?terna1 radiati n are time# distan&e# and s"ie1din). . She%te& As stated ear1ier# t"e s"ie1din) materia1Fs e!!e&ti5eness depends n its t"i&2ness and density. Y $ m$st !irst %as" b$rns ! beta radiati n# t"en treat t"em as rdinary b$rns. Shielding S"ie1din) is t"e m st imp rtant met" d ! pr te&ti n !r m penetratin) radiati n. F r e?amp1e# i! a n$&1ear !a11 $t area "ad a ma?im$m radiati n rate ! 2<< &)ys per " $r %"en !a11 $t is & mp1ete# t"is rate % $1d !a11 t 2< &)ys per " $r a!ter 7 " $rsH it % $1d !a11 sti11 !$rt"er t 2 &)ys per " $r a!ter 7. +"is & n&ept is 2n %n as radi a&ti5e hal!%li!e. +"$s# %"en y $ d $b1e t"e distan&e# radiati n de&reases t C<.istance Distan&e pr 5ides 5ery e!!e&ti5e pr te&ti n a)ainst penetratin) )amma radiati n be&a$se radiati n intensity de&reases by t"e s4$are ! t"e distan&e !r m t"e s $r&e.

Fi)$re 2*-1 )i5es an idea ! t"e t"i&2ness ! 5ari $s materia1s needed t red$&e resid$a1 )amma radiati n transmissi n by 9< per&ent. Natural Shelters +errain t"at pr 5ides nat$ra1 s"ie1din) and easy s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n is t"e idea1 1 &ati n ! r an emer)en&y s"e1ter.asements r &e11ars ! aband ned b$i1din)s. A r !Fs s 1e !$n&ti n is t red$&e radiati n !r m t"e !a11 $t s $r&e t y $r b dy. 6 d e?amp1es are dit&"es# ra5ines# r &2y $t&r ppin)# "i11s# and ri5er ban2s. Department ! t"e Army pr te&ti n.n 1e5e1 )r $nd# pi1e t"e dirt ar $nd y $r b dy ! r additi na1 s"ie1din). +"$s# a s"e1ter pr te&ted by 1 meter ! dirt % $1d red$&e a radiati n intensity ! 1#<<< &)ys per " $r n t"e $tside t ab $t <. I! b$i1din) a r ! % $1d re4$ire e?tended e?p s$re t penetratin) radiati n# it % $1d be %iser t 1ea5e t"e s"e1ter r !1ess.9 &)y per " $r inside t"e s"e1ter. • /$15erts. . In 1e5e1 areas %it" $t nat$ra1 pr te&ti n# di) a !i)"tin) p siti n r s1it tren&". Y $ &an & nstr$&t a simp1e r ! !r m a p n&" an&" red d %n %it" dirt# r &2s# r t"er re!$se !r m y $r s"e1ter. Other Shelters 3"i1e an $nder)r $nd s"e1ter & 5ered by 1 meter r m re ! eart" pr 5ides t"e best pr te&ti n a)ainst !a11 $t radiati n# t"e ! 11 %in) $n &&$pied str$&t$res Cin rder 1istedD !!er t"e ne?t best pr te&ti nI • /a5es and t$nne1s & 5ered by m re t"an 1 meter ! eart". .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Trenches 3"en di))in) a tren&"# % r2 !r m inside t"e tren&" as s n as it is 1ar)e en $)" t & 5er part ! y $r b dy t"ereby n t e?p sin) a11 y $r b dy t radiati n. • . • St rm r st ra)e &e11ars. Roo$s It is n t mandat ry t"at y $ b$i1d a r ! n y $r s"e1ter. Dependin) $p n s i1 & nditi ns# s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n time %i11 5ary !r m a !e% min$tes t a !e% " $rs.$i1d ne n1y i! t"e materia1s are readi1y a5ai1ab1e %it" n1y a brie! e?p s$re t $tside & ntaminati n.S. A&& rdin) t t"is prin&ip1e# i! 9 &entimeters ! bri&2 red$&e t"e )amma radiati n 1e5e1 by ne-"a1!# addin) an t"er 9 &entimeters ! bri&2 Can t"er "a1!-5a1$e 1ayerD %i11 red$&e t"e intensity by an t"er "a1!# name1y# t ne-! $rt" t"e ri)ina1 am $nt. +"e prin&ip1e ! hal!%value layer thickness is $se!$1 in $nderstandin) t"e abs rpti n ! )amma radiati n by 5ari $s materia1s. • Aband ned b$i1din)s made ! st ne r m$d. Y $ &an rem 5e 1ar)e parti&1es ! dirt and debris !r m t"e t p ! t"e p n&" by beatin) it !! !r m (a)e 229 ! 2** . Fi!teen &entimeters %i11 red$&e )amma radiati n !a11 $t 1e5e1s t ne-ei)"t" its ri)ina1 am $nt# 2< &entimeters t ne-si?teent"# and s n. I! y $ di) as 4$i&21y as p ssib1e# y $ %i11 red$&e t"e d sa)e y $ re&ei5e. In pen & $ntry# try t di) t"e tren&" !r m a pr ne p siti n# sta&2in) t"e dirt &are!$11y and e5en1y ar $nd t"e tren&". Un1ess y $ $se a t"i&2 r !# a r ! pr 5ides 5ery 1itt1e s"ie1din).

I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# %ipe y $r !a&e and any t"er e?p sed s2in s$r!a&e t rem 5e & ntaminated d$st and dirt. +"ere is n !irst aid ! r t"is si&2ness. • /1ean t"e s"e1ter site ! any s$r!a&e dep sit $sin) a bran&" r t"er b@e&t t"at y $ &an dis&ard. -5en sma11 d ses ! radiati n &an &a$se t"ese sympt ms %"i&" may disappear in a s" rt time. • . • De& ntaminate any materia1s y $ brin) int t"e s"e1ter. • / 5er t"e t p ! t"e !i)"tin) p siti n r tren&" %it" any readi1y a5ai1ab1e materia1 and a t"i&2 1ayer ! eart"# i! y $ &an d s %it" $t 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter. • . +"is %as"in) %i11 rem 5e m st ! t"e "arm!$1 radi a&ti5e parti&1es t"at are 1i2e1y t &a$se beta b$rns r t"er dama)e. • Up n & mp1etin) t"e s"e1ter# 1ie d %n# 2eep %arm# and s1eep and rest as m$&" as p ssib1e %"i1e in t"e s"e1ter. • D nFt pani& i! y $ e?perien&e na$sea and sympt ms ! radiati n si&2ness. +"e &1eaned area s" $1d e?tend at 1east 1. Y $ may retrie5e it 1ater Ca!ter t"e radi a&ti5ity de&aysD %"en 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter. Simp1y dip t"e materia1 int t"e %ater and s"a2e it t )et rid ! t"e e?&ess %ater.9 meters bey nd y $r s"e1terFs area. 3"i1e a r ! and &am $!1a)e are b t" desirab1e# it is pr bab1y sa!er t d %it" $t t"em t"an t e?p se y $rse1! t radiati n $tside y $r !i)"tin) p siti n. I! t"e &1 t"in) is dry# y $ may de& ntaminate it by beatin) r s"a2in) it $tside t"e s"e1terFs entran&e t rem 5e t"e radi a&ti5e d$st. • A 5ery brie! e?p s$re t pr &$re %ater n t"e t"ird day is permissib1e# b$t e?p s$re s" $1d n t e?&eed *< min$tes. Y $ may $se any b dy ! %ater# e5en t" $)" & ntaminated# t rid materia1s ! e?&ess !a11 $t parti&1es. I! n ne is a5ai1ab1e# di) a tren&". D t"is &1eanin) t rem 5e & ntaminated materia1s !r m t"e area y $ %i11 &&$py. • Di) t"e s"e1ter deep en $)" t )et ) d pr te&ti n# t"en en1ar)e it as re4$ired ! r & m! rt.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. S"e1ter Site Se1e&ti n and (reparati n + red$&e y $r e?p s$re time and t"ereby red$&e t"e d sa)e re&ei5ed# remember t"e ! 11 %in) !a&t rs %"en se1e&tin) and settin) $p a s"e1terI • 3"ere p ssib1e# see2 a &r$de# e?istin) s"e1ter t"at y $ &an impr 5e. • 3"en n t restin)# 2eep b$sy by p1annin) !$t$re a&ti ns# st$dyin) y $r maps# r ma2in) t"e s"e1ter m re & m! rtab1e and e!!e&ti5e.ne e?p s$re ! n t m re t"an 1 " $r n t"e ei)"t" day.ne e?p s$re ! n t m re t"an *< min$tes n t"e se5ent" day. I! t"e %eat"er permits and y $ "a5e "ea5i1y & ntaminated $ter &1 t"in)# y $ may %ant t rem 5e it and b$ry it $nder a ! t ! eart" at t"e end ! y $r s"e1ter. +"is & 5er %i11 n t !!er s"ie1din) !r m t"e radi a&ti5e parti&1es dep sited n t"e s$r!a&e# b$t it %i11 in&rease t"e distan&e !r m t"e !a11 $t s $r&e and 2eep t"e s"e1ter area !r m !$rt"er & ntaminati n. Y $ may %ipe y $r !a&e %it" a &1ean pie&e ! &1 t" r a "and!$1 ! $n& ntaminated dirt. 4posure Ti"eta6le +"e ! 11 %in) timetab1e pr 5ides y $ %it" t"e in! rmati n needed t a5 id re&ei5in) seri $s d sa)e and sti11 1et y $ & pe %it" s$r5i5a1 pr b1emsI • / mp1ete is 1ati n !r m 7 t 6 days ! 11 %in) de1i5ery ! t"e 1ast %eap n. (a)e 226 ! 2** . Y $ )et t"is $n& ntaminated dirt by s&rapin) !! t"e t p !e% in&"es ! s i1 and $sin) t"e J&1eanJ dirt. +"ese materia1s in&1$de )rass r ! 1ia)e t"at y $ $se as ins$1ati n r beddin)# and y $r $ter &1 t"in) Cespe&ia11y ! t)earD. Department ! t"e Army t"e inside at !re4$ent inter5a1s. • I! at a11 p ssib1e and %it" $t 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter# %as" y $r b dy t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater# e5en i! t"e %ater n "and may be & ntaminated.S. • -?p s$re ! 2 t 7 " $rs !r m t"e nint" day t"r $)" t"e t%e1!t" day. Y $r main dan)er !r m radiati n si&2ness is in!e&ti n. • N rma1 perati n# ! 11 %ed by rest in a pr te&ted s"e1ter# !r m t"e t"irteent" day n. Restin)# drin2in) !1$ids# ta2in) any medi&ine t"at pre5ents 5 mitin)# maintainin) y $r ! d inta2e# and pre5entin) additi na1 e?p s$re %i11 "e1p a5 id in!e&ti n and aid re& 5ery. • 3"i1e b$i1din) y $r s"e1ter# 2eep a11 parts ! y $r b dy & 5ered %it" &1 t"in) t pr te&t it a)ainst beta b$rns. D n t %rin) it $t# t"is a&ti n %i11 trap t"e parti&1es.

($ri!y t"is %ater $sin) a !i1trati n de5i&e. +"is met" d &an rem 5e $p t . per&ent ! t"e radi a&ti5ity in %ater. +"e best !i1trati n met" d is t di) sediment " 1es r seepa)e basins a1 n) t"e side ! a %ater s $r&e. A1t" $)" many !a&t rs C%ind dire&ti n# rain!a11# sedimentD %i11 in!1$en&e y $r &" i&e in se1e&tin) %ater s $r&es# & nsider t"e ! 11 %in) )$ide1ines. I! at a11 p ssib1e# !i1ter s$&" %ater be! re drin2in) t )et rid ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es. Sa$est 3ater Sources 3ater !r m sprin)s# %e11s# r t"er $nder)r $nd s $r&es t"at $nder) nat$ra1 !i1trati n %i11 be y $r sa!est s $r&e. M st pr &essed ! ds y $ may !ind in aband ned b$i1din)s are sa!e ! r $se a!ter de& ntaminatin) t"em. See Fi)$re 6-. +"e times )i5en ab 5e are & nser5ati5e. &e+e#t A1t" $)" it is a seri $s pr b1em t btain edib1e ! d in a radiati n-& ntaminated area# it is n t imp ssib1e t s 15e. Standing 3ater 3ater !r m 1a2es# p 1s# p nds# and t"er standin) s $r&es is 1i2e1y t be "ea5i1y & ntaminated# t" $)" m st ! t"e "ea5ier# 1 n)-1i5ed radi a&ti5e is t pes %i11 sett1e t t"e b tt m.S. I! y $ %ait at 1east 7: " $rs be! re drin2in) any %ater t a11 % ! r radi a&ti5e de&ay t ta2e p1a&e and se1e&t t"e sa!est p ssib1e %ater s $r&e# y $ %i11 )reat1y red$&e t"e dan)er ! in)estin) "arm!$1 am $nts ! radi a&ti5ity. Sin&e se&$re pa&2a)in) pr te&ts y $r & mbat rati ns# t"ey %i11 be per!e&t1y sa!e ! r $se. Y $ m$st & 5er t"e " 1e in s me %ay in rder t pre5ent !$rt"er & ntaminati n. F""( P&". +"e %ater %i11 seep 1atera11y int t"e " 1e t"r $)" t"e inter5enin) s i1 t"at a&ts as a !i1terin) a)ent and rem 5es t"e & ntaminated !a11 $t parti&1es t"at sett1ed n t"e ri)ina1 b dy ! %ater. De& ntaminate at e5ery st p. +"e sett1in) dirt parti&1es %i11 &arry m st ! t"e s$spended !a11 $t parti&1es t t"e b tt m and & 5er t"em. Sn % ta2en !r m 19 r m re &entimeters be1 % t"e s$r!a&e d$rin) t"e !a11 $t is a1s a sa!e s $r&e ! %ater. Use t"e sett1in) te&"ni4$e t p$ri!y t"is %ater. +"ese in&1$de &anned and pa&2a)ed ! ds a!ter rem 5in) t"e & ntainers r %rappers r %as"in) t"em !ree ! !a11 $t parti&1es. I! ! r&ed t m 5e a!ter t"e !irst r se& nd day# y $ may d s # Ma2e s$re t"at t"e e?p s$re is n 1 n)er t"an abs 1$te1y ne&essary. *!te& P&". (a)e 227 ! 2** . ! r an e?amp1e ! a %ater !i1ter. First# !i11 a b$&2et r t"er deep & ntainer t"ree-! $rt"s !$11 %it" & ntaminated %ater.9 &entimeters ! dirt ! r e5ery 1< &entimeters ! %ater. Additional Precautions As an additi na1 pre&a$ti n a)ainst disease# treat a11 %ater %it" %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets !r m y $r s$r5i5a1 2it r b i1 it.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.. +"en ta2e dirt !r m a dept" ! 1< r m re &entimeters be1 % t"e )r $nd s$r!a&e and stir it int t"e %ater. Use ab $t 2. Strea"s and Ri(ers 3ater !r m streams and ri5ers %i11 be re1ati5e1y !ree !r m !a11 $t %it"in se5era1 days a!ter t"e 1ast n$&1ear e?p1 si n be&a$se ! di1$ti n. S$pp1ement y $r rati ns %it" any ! d y $ &an !ind n trips $tside y $r s"e1ter. &e+e#t In a !a11 $t-& ntaminated area# a5ai1ab1e %ater s $r&es may be & ntaminated. Department ! t"e Army • In a11 instan&es# ma2e y $r e?p s$res as brie! as p ssib1e. Y $ need t ! 11 % a !e% spe&ia1 pr &ed$res in se1e&tin) and preparin) rati ns and 1 &a1 ! ds ! r $se. Let t"e mi?t$re sett1e ! r at 1east 6 " $rs. 3as" a11 ! d & ntainers r %rappers be! re "and1in) t"em t pre5ent !$rt"er & ntaminati n. Stir t"e %ater $nti1 y $ see m st dirt parti&1es s$spended in t"e %ater. +"ese pr &essed ! ds a1s in&1$de ! d st red in any &1 sed & ntainer and ! d st red in pr te&ted areas Cs$&" as &e11arsD# i! y $ %as" t"em be! re eatin). Y $ &an t"en dip $t t"e &1ear %ater. +"is %ater %i11 be sa!e t drin2# a1t" $)" y $ %i11 "a5e t ta2e pre&a$ti ns a)ainst ba&teria in t"e %ater. / nsider n1y mandat ry re4$irements as 5a1id reas ns ! r e?p s$re. Any %ater ! $nd in t"e pipes r & ntainers ! aband ned " $ses r st res %i11 a1s be !ree !r m radi a&ti5e parti&1es.

-5en t" $)" anima1s may n t be !ree !r m "arm!$1 radi a&ti5e materia1s# y $ &an and m$st $se t"em in s$r5i5a1 & nditi ns as a ! d s $r&e i! t"er ! ds are n t a5ai1ab1e. +"ey &an a1s &a$se t"e deteri rati n ! materia1. +"e e!!e&ts ! radiati n n anima1s are simi1ar t t" se n "$mans. . L &a1 ! d s $r&es are anima1s and p1ants. +"$s# m st ! t"e %i1d anima1s 1i5in) in a !a11 $t area are 1i2e1y t be& me si&2 r die !r m radiati n d$rin) t"e !irst m nt" a!ter t"e n$&1ear e?p1 si n. Sm t"-s$r!a&ed !r$its "a5e 1 st .t"er di!!i&$1t ! ds t de& ntaminate by %as"in) %it" %ater in&1$de dried !r$its C!i)s# pr$nes# pea&"es# apri& ts# pearsD and s ya beans. It may "a5e de5e1 ped a ba&teria1 in!e&ti n as a res$1t ! radiati n p is nin). / 2 a11 meat $nti1 it is 5ery %e11 d ne. S$&" &$ts %i11 a1s red$&e & 2in) time and sa5e !$e1. Use a4$ati& ! d s $r&es n1y in & nditi ns ! e?treme emer)en&y. .i 1 )i&a1 a)ents are mi&r r)anisms t"at &an &a$se disease am n) pers nne1# anima1s# r p1ants. #IOLO/ICAL NVIRON0 NTS +"e $se ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents is rea1. Bi"%"0i.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 6r %in) p1ants# " %e5er# &an abs rb s me radi a&ti5e materia1s t"r $)" t"eir 1ea5es as %e11 as !r m t"e s i1# espe&ia11y i! rains "a5e &&$rred d$rin) r a!ter t"e !a11 $t peri d. 3it" &are!$1 preparati n and by ! 11 %in) se5era1 imp rtant prin&ip1es# anima1s &an be sa!e ! d s $r&es. /are!$11y s2in a11 anima1s t pre5ent any radi a&ti5e parti&1es n t"e s2in r !$r !r m enterin) t"e b dy.S. Se& nd in rder ! pre!eren&e are t" se p1ants %it" edib1e parts t"at y $ &an de& ntaminate by %as"in) and pee1in) t"eir $ter s$r!a&es. +"ese are t"e sa!est t eat n&e y $ s&r$b t"em and rem 5e t"eir s2ins. + be s$re t"e meat is %e11 d ne# &$t it int 1ess t"an 1*mi11imeter-t"i&2 pie&es be! re & 2in). Department ! t"e Army I! 1itt1e r n pr &essed ! d is a5ai1ab1e in y $r area# y $ may "a5e t s$pp1ement y $r diet %it" 1 &a1 ! d s $r&es.e! re & 2in) it# &$t t"e meat a%ay !r m t"e b ne# 1ea5in) at 1east a *-mi11imeter t"i&2ness ! meat n t"e b ne. Dis&ard a11 interna1 r)ans C"eart# 1i5er# and 2idneysD sin&e t"ey tend t & n&entrate beta and )amma radi a&ti5ity. (repare y $rse1! ! r s$r5i5a1 by bein) pr !i&ient in t"e tas2s identi!ied in y $r S 1dierFs Man$a1s ! / mm n +as2s CSM/+sD. -?amp1es are bananas# app1es# t mat es# pri&21y pears# and t"er s$&" !r$its and 5e)etab1es. +"e e!!e&ti5eness ! de& ntaminati n by s&r$bbin) is in5erse1y pr p rti na1 t t"e r $)"ness ! t"e !r$itFs s$r!a&e. Ani"als as a 'ood Source Ass$me t"at a11 anima1s# re)ard1ess ! t"eir "abitat r 1i5in) & nditi ns# %ere e?p sed t radiati n. First# d n t eat an anima1 t"at appears t be si&2. / mp1ete1y a5 id mi12 !r m any anima1s in a !a11 $t area be&a$se anima1s abs rb 1ar)e am $nts ! radi a&ti5ity !r m t"e p1ants t"ey eat. Plants as a 'ood Source (1ant & ntaminati n &&$rs by t"e a&&$m$1ati n ! !a11 $t n t"eir $ter s$r!a&es r by abs rpti n ! radi a&ti5e e1ements t"r $)" t"eir r ts. A11 e))s# e5en i! 1aid d$rin) t"e peri d ! !a11 $t# %i11 be sa!e t eat. A5 id $sin) t"ese p1ants ! r ! d e?&ept in an emer)en&y. D n t eat meat &1 se t t"e b nes and @ ints as an anima1Fs s2e1et n & ntains 5er .t$ . / ntaminated meat# e5en i! t" r $)"1y & 2ed# & $1d &a$se se5ere i11ness r deat" i! eaten.!% A0e#t$ !#( E66e. +"e remainin) anima1 m$s&1e tiss$e# " %e5er# %i11 be sa!e t eat.< per&ent ! t"e radi a&ti5ity. +"is is a1s tr$e ! r %ater p1ants# espe&ia11y in & asta1 areas. Y $ eat r $)"-s$r!a&ed p1ants Cs$&" as 1ett$&eD n1y as a 1ast res rt be&a$se y $ &ann t e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate t"em by pee1in) r %as"in). +"ese a)ents !a11 int t% br ad &ate) ries-pat" )ens (a)e 22: ! 2** . Y $r !irst &" i&e ! p1ant ! d s" $1d be 5e)etab1es s$&" as p tat es# t$rnips# &arr ts# and t"er p1ants %" se edib1e p rti n )r %s $nder)r $nd. 8n % %"at t d t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst t"ese a)ents. In )enera1# y $ &an $se any p1ant ! d t"at is ready ! r "ar5est i! y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate it. Any sm t"-s2inned 5e)etab1e# !r$it# r p1ant t"at y $ &ann t easi1y pee1 r e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate by %as"in) %i11 be y $r t"ird &" i&e ! emer)en&y ! d.< per&ent ! t"eir & ntaminati n a!ter %as"in)# %"i1e %as"in) r $)"-s$r!a&ed p1ants rem 5es n1y ab $t 9< per&ent ! t"e & ntaminati n. +"e e?tent ! & ntaminati n in !is" and a4$ati& anima1s %i11 be m$&" )reater t"an t"at ! 1and anima1s.

e&a$se )erms are s sma11 and %ei)" s 1itt1e# t"e %ind &an spread t"em 5er )reat distan&esH t"ey &an a1s enter $n!i1tered r n nairti)"t p1a&es. Sp re-pr d$&in) a)ents are a 1 n)-term "a'ard y $ m$st ne$tra1i'e by de& ntaminatin) in!e&ted areas r pers nne1. Sympt ms appear a1m st immediate1y# sin&e t"ere is n in&$bati n peri d. Sympt ms may in&1$de any ! t"e ! 11 %in)I • Di''iness. • .1$rred r d $b1e 5isi n. • .a&teria# ri&2ettsiae# !$n)i# and 5ir$ses are in&1$ded in t"e pat" )ens. . +"ey m$st m$1tip1y inside t"e b dy and 5er& me t"e b dyFs de!enses--a pr &ess &a11ed t"e in&$bati n peri d. + ?ins enter t"e b dy in t"e same manner as )erms.ti"# "6 Bi"%"0i. . (at" )ens are 1i5in) mi&r r)anisms t"at &a$se 1et"a1 r in&apa&itatin) diseases. • Deat". Sympt ms ! in!e&ti n 5ary a&& rdin) t t"e disease. 0 %e5er# s me t ?ins# $n1i2e )erms# &an penetrate $nbr 2en s2in. In&$bati n peri ds 5ary !r m se5era1 " $rs t se5era1 m nt"s# dependin) n t"e )erm. • (ara1ysis. M st )erms m$st 1i5e %it"in an t"er 1i5in) r)anism C" stD# s$&" as y $r b dy# t s$r5i5e and )r %. Department ! t"e Army C$s$a11y &a11ed )ermsD and t ?ins. To4ins + ?ins are s$bstan&es t"at p1ants# anima1s# r )erms pr d$&e nat$ra11y. • N$mbness r tin)1in) ! s2in. Y $ &ann t dete&t t"em by any ! t"e !i5e p"ysi&a1 senses. .$i1din)s and b$n2ers &an trap t"em t"$s &a$sin) a "i)"er & n&entrati n.n1y a !e% )erms &an start an in!e&ti n# espe&ia11y i! in"a1ed int t"e 1$n)s. +"ese t ?ins are %"at a&t$a11y "arm man# n t ba&teria. ! 2** .1 d in $rine# st 1# r sa1i5a. + ?ins may pr d$&e e!!e&ts simi1ar t t" se ! &"emi&a1 a)ents. +"e t"ree main means ! de1i5ery are-(a)e 22. ( ssib1e bi 1 )i&a1 %ar-!are t ?ins in&1$de a 5ariety ! ne$r t ?i& Ca!!e&tin) t"e &entra1 ner5 $s systemD and &yt t ?i& C&a$sin) &e11 deat"D & mp $nds. 6erms "a5e t"ree basi& r $tes ! entry int y $r b dyI t"r $)" t"e respirat ry tra&t# t"r $)" a brea2 in t"e s2in# and t"r $)" t"e di)esti5e tra&t. +"ese a)ents m$st !ind a " st %it"in r $)"1y a day ! t"eir de1i5ery r t"ey die. . • Fe5er. Many t ?ins are e?treme1y 1et"a1# e5en in 5ery sma11 d ses.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • A&"in) m$s&1es.!ten# t"e !irst si)n ! a bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent %i11 be sympt ms ! t"e 5i&tims e?p sed t t"e a)ent. t$1in# %"i&" pr d$&es b t$1ism# is an e?amp1e.!% A0e#t$ . . • . /er"s 6erms are 1i5in) r)anisms. • Ras"es r b1isters. • / $)"in). S me )erms &an ! rm pr te&ti5e s"e11s# r sp res# t a11 % s$r5i5a1 $tside t"e " st. 6erms d n t a!!e&t t"e b dy immediate1y. 3eat"er & nditi ns s$&" as %ind# rain# & 1d# and s$n1i)"t rapid1y 2i11 )erms. Dete. • Menta1 & n!$si n.i 1 )i&a1 a)ents are# by nat$re# di!!i&$1t t dete&t. + ?ins are p is ns t"at p1ants# anima1s# r mi&r r)anisms pr d$&e nat$ra11y. . • S" &2. • +iredness. M dern s&ien&e "as a11 %ed 1ar)e-s&a1e pr d$&ti n ! t"ese t ?ins %it" $t t"e $se ! t"e )erm t"at pr d$&es t"e t ?in. • Na$sea# 5 mitin)# andE r diarr"ea. Y $r best &"an&e ! dete&tin) bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents be! re t"ey &an a!!e&t y $ is t re& )ni'e t"eir means ! de1i5ery. S me nati ns "a5e $sed t"em in t"e past as %eap ns.1eedin) !r m b dy penin)s.S. • / n5$1si ns. F rt$nate1y# m st 1i5e a)ents are n t sp re-pr d$&in). + ?i& 5i&tims may n t# " %e5er# resp nd t !irst aid meas$res $sed a)ainst &"emi&a1 a)ents.

I#6% e#.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0 %e5er# t"e a)ents may sti11 be 5ery e!!e&ti5e %"ere t"ey %ere dep sited n t"e )r $nd. +"e !$rt"er d %n%ind t"e a)ent tra5e1s# t"e 1ess e!!e&ti5e it be& mes d$e t di1$ti n and deat" ! t"e pat" )ens. Ass$min) y $ d n t "a5e a pr te&ti5e mas2# a1%ays try t 2eep y $r !a&e & 5ered %it" s me type ! &1 t" t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent aer s 1s. Vectors. / 5erin) y $r s2in %i11 a1s red$&e t"e &"an&e ! t"e a)ent enterin) y $r b dy t"r $)" &$ts r s&rat&"es. Use )ermi&ida1 s ap# i! a5ai1ab1e. A!ter a t ?in atta&2# de& ntaminate y $rse1! as i! ! r a &"emi&a1 atta&2 $sin) t"e M29:A2 2it Ci! a5ai1ab1eD r by %as"in) %it" s ap and %ater. /1ean teet"# )$ms# t n)$e# and t"e r ! ! y $r m $t" !re4$ent1y. S$n1i)"t & ntains 5isib1e and $1tra5i 1et s 1ar radiati n t"at rapid1y 2i11s m st )erms $sed as bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. Spray tanks or generators.ti"# A0!i#$t Bi"%"0i. Y $ &an red$&e y $r s$s&eptibi1ity t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents by maintainin) &$rrent imm$ni'ati ns# a5 idin) & ntaminated areas# and & ntr 11in) r dents and pests. Y $ m$st ens$re t"at y $ )et en $)" s1eep t pre5ent a r$n-d %n & nditi n.t"er man-made m$tant strains ! )erms may be resistant t s$n1i)"t.e "6 *e!the& !#( Te&&!i# Y $r 2n %1ed)e ! " % %eat"er and terrain a!!e&t t"e a)ents &an "e1p y $ a5 id & ntaminati n by bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. . A1%ays pra&ti&e "i)" standards ! pers na1 "y)iene and sanitati n t "e1p pre5ent t"e spread ! 5e&t rs. Aer s 1 sprays %i11 tend t & n&entrate in 1 % areas ! terrain# simi1ar t ear1y m rnin) mist. +"is &1 $d %i11 disperse e5ent$a11yH t"e rate ! dispersi n depends n terrain and %eat"er & nditi ns. 0 %e5er# nat$ra1 r man-made & 5er may pr te&t s me a)ents !r m s$n1i)"t.!% A0e#t$ 3"i1e y $ m$st maintain a "ea1t"y respe&t ! r bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents# t"ere is n reas n ! r y $ t pani&. Y $ m$st a1%ays $se pr per !ie1d sanitati n pr &ed$res. 3ear a &"emi&a1 pr te&ti5e 5er)arment# i! a5ai1ab1e# as it pr 5ides better pr te&ti n t"an n rma1 &1 t"in). She%te& (a)e 2*< ! 2** . I! y $ &ann t %as" y $r &1 t"in)# 1ay it $t in an area ! bri)"t s$n1i)"t and a11 % t"e 1i)"t t 2i11 t"e mi&r r)anisms.at"e %it" s ap and %ater %"ene5er p ssib1e. An t"er si)n ! a p ssib1e bi 1 )i&a1 atta&2 is t"e presen&e ! $n$s$a1 s$bstan&es n t"e )r $nd r n 5e)etati n# r si&2-1 2in) p1ants# &r ps# r anima1s. 3as" y $r &1 t"in) in " t# s apy %ater i! y $ &an. Ma@ r %eat"er !a&t rs t"at a!!e&t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents are s$n1i)"t# %ind# and pre&ipitati n. / mp1ete1y b$tt n y $r &1 t"in) and t$&2 y $r tr $sers ti)"t1y int y $r b ts.S. Y $ m$st a1s $se pr per !irst aid meas$res in t"e treatment ! % $nds and n1y sa!e r pr per1y de& ntaminated s $r&es ! ! d and %ater. +"e b$rst %i11 pr d$&e a sma11 &1 $d ! 1i4$id r p %der in t"e immediate impa&t area. P&"te. +"ese may be b mbs r pr @e&ti1es %" se b$rst &a$ses 5ery 1itt1e dama)e. (re&ipitati n in t"e ! rm ! m derate t "ea5y rain tends t %as" bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents $t ! t"e air# red$&in) d %n%ind "a'ard areas. 0 %e5er# t"e d %n%ind "a'ard area ! t"e bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent is si)ni!i&ant and y $ &ann t i)n re it. Inse&ts s$&" as m s4$it es# !1eas# 1i&e# and ti&2s de1i5er pat" )ens. Air&ra!t r 5e"i&1e spray tan2s r )r $nd-1e5e1 aer s 1 )enerat rs pr d$&e an aer s 1 &1 $d ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. Department ! t"e Army • • • ?ursting%type munitions. D$st may & ntain bi 1 )i&a1 a)entsH %ear s me type ! mas2 %"en d$st is in t"e air. 0i)" %ind speeds in&rease t"e dispersi n ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents# di1$te t"eir & n&entrati n# and de"ydrate t"em. Lar)e in!estati ns ! t"ese inse&ts may indi&ate t"e $se ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. . Y $r $ni! rm and )1 5es %i11 pr te&t y $ a)ainst bites !r m 5e&t rs Cm s4$it es and ti&2sD t"at &arry diseases. 3as" y $r "air and b dy t" r $)"1y# and &1ean $nder y $r !in)ernai1s.

F""( P&". I! y $ are n t pr !i&ient in t"ese s2i11s# y $ %i11 "a5e 1itt1e &"an&e ! s$r5i5in) a &"emi&a1 en5ir nment. Fi1ter t"is %ater t"r $)" a &1 t" t rem 5e t"e dead 5e&t rs. +"e ! 11 %in) in! rmati n is pr 5ided $nder t"e ass$mpti n t"at y $ are pr !i&ient in t"e $se ! &"emi&a1 pr te&ti5e e4$ipment and 2n % t"e sympt ms ! 5ari $s &"emi&a1 a)ents. i1 t"is %ater as 1 n) as pra&ti&a1 t 2i11 a11 r)anisms. / 2 a11 p1ant and anima1 ! d by b i1in) n1y. Use %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets in a11 &ases. 0ICAL NVIRON0 NTS /"emi&a1 a)ent %ar!are is rea1. &e+e#t F d pr &$rement# 1i2e %ater pr &$rement# is n t imp ssib1e# b$t y $ m$st ta2e spe&ia1 pre&a$ti ns. &e+e#t 3ater pr &$rement $nder bi 1 )i&a1 & nditi ns is di!!i&$1t b$t n t imp ssib1e. +"e s$b@e&t matter & 5ered be1 % is n t a s$bstit$te ! r any ! t"e indi5id$a1 tas2s in %"i&" y $ m$st be pr !i&ient. 3"ene5er p ssib1e# try t $se %ater t"at "as been in a sea1ed & ntainer.S. A)ain# b i1 t"e %ater ! r at 1east 1< min$tes be! re drin2in).<-de)ree an)1e t t"e pre5ai1in) %inds. 8eep t"e %ater & 5ered %"i1e b i1in) t pre5ent & ntaminati n by airb rne pat" )ens. As a s$r5i5 r# y $r !irst 1ine ! de!ense a)ainst &"emi&a1 a)ents is y $r pr !i&ien&y in indi5id$a1 n$&1ear# bi 1 )i&a1# and &"emi&a1 CN. + ens$re sa!ety# de& ntaminate a11 ! d & ntainers by %as"in) %it" s ap and %ater r by b i1in) t"e & ntainer in %ater ! r 1< min$tes. +"ere is n )$arantee t"at a11 in!e&ted p rti ns "a5e rea&"ed t"e re4$ired temperat$re t 2i11 a11 pat" )ens.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. D n t se1e&t 2n %n &arriers ! 5e&t rs s$&" as rats r t"er 5ermin. .ti"# "6 Che+i. A1%ays $se )1 5es and pr te&ti5e &1 t"in) %"en "and1in) anima1s r p1ants. Remember# y $ &an s$r5i5e ! r a 1 n) time %it" $t ! d# espe&ia11y i! t"e ! d y $ eat may 2i11 y $K I! y $ m$st $se 1 &a1 ! d# se1e&t n1y "ea1t"y-1 2in) p1ants and anima1s. 3as" t"e %ater & ntainer t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater r b i1 it ! r at 1east 1< min$tes be! re brea2in) t"e sea1. D n t b$i1d y $r s"e1ter in depressi ns in t"e )r $nd./D trainin)# t in&1$de d nnin) and %earin) t"e pr te&ti5e mas2 and 5er)arment# pers na1 de& ntaminati n# re& )niti n ! &"emi&a1 a)ent sympt ms# and indi5id$a1 !irst aid ! r &"emi&a1 a)ent & ntaminati n. D n t try t !ry# ba2e# r r ast 1 &a1 ! d. Se1e&t and prepare p1ants as y $ % $1d in radi a&ti5e areas. Y $r last choice" only in an e+treme emergency" is t $se standin) %ater. A5 id b$i1din) y $r s"e1ter in areas ! 5e)etati n# as 5e)etati n pr 5ides s"ade and s me de)ree ! pr te&ti n t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. N matter %"at y $ d t prepare t"e ! d# t"ere is n )$arantee t"at & 2in) %i11 2i11 a11 t"e bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. +"e SM/+s address t"e 5ari $s &"emi&a1 a)ents# t"eir e!!e&ts# and !irst aid ! r t"ese a)ents. (1a&e y $r s"e1terFs entran&e at a . *!te& P&". S$&" p1a&ement %i11 1imit t"e entry ! airb rne a)ents and pre5ent air sta)nati n in y $r s"e1ter. Dete. It &an &reate e?treme pr b1ems in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# b$t y $ &an 5er& me t"e pr b1ems %it" t"e pr per e4$ipment# 2n %1ed)e# and trainin). Aer s 1 sprays tend t & n&entrate in t"ese depressi ns. 0 %e5er# y $ m$st ma2e s1i)"t &"an)es t red$&e t"e &"an&e ! bi 1 )i&a1 & ntaminati n. Y $r & mbat rati ns are sea1ed# and y $ &an ass$me t"ey are n t & ntaminated. C. Ve&t rs and )erms &an s$r5i5e easi1y in sta)nant %ater. Department ! t"e Army Y $ &an b$i1d e?pedient s"e1ters $nder bi 1 )i&a1 & ntaminati n & nditi ns $sin) t"e same te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter 9. I! %ater in sea1ed & ntainers is n t a5ai1ab1e# y $r ne?t &" i&e# only under emergency conditions" is %ater !r m sprin)s. i1 a11 ! d ! r at 1east 1< min$tes t 2i11 a11 pat" )ens. D n t eat ra% ! d. A5 id $sin) 5e)etati n in & nstr$&tin) y $r s"e1ter. Y $ &an a1s ass$me t"at sea1ed & ntainers r pa&2a)es ! pr &essed ! d are sa!e. +"e SM/+s & 5er t"ese s$b@e&ts. A1%ays 2eep y $r s"e1ter &1ean.!% A0e#t$ (a)e 2*1 ! 2** . . @ou consider supplementing your rations with local plants or animals only in e+treme emergencies. Use 1 &a1 ! d n1y in 1i!e r deat" sit$ati ns. Y $ &an ass$me t"at t"e %ater inside t"e sea1ed & ntainer is n t & ntaminated. (repare anima1s as y $ d p1ants.

6enera1 indi&at rs ! t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 a)ents are tears# di!!i&$1t breat"in)# &" 2in)# it&"in)# & $)"in)# and di''iness. Y $ m$st pr te&t t"is %ater as m$&" as p ssib1e. • 6i5e 4$i&2 and & rre&t se1!-aid %"en & ntaminated. Y $r pr te&ti5e mas2 and 5er)arment are t"e 2ey t y $r s$r5i5a1. M$stard )as in t"e 1i4$id state %i11 appear as i1y pat&"es n 1ea5es r n b$i1din)s. . Si)"t %i11 "e1p y $ dete&t &"emi&a1 a)ents. I! y $ d be& me & ntaminated# de& ntaminate y $rse1! as s n as p ssib1e $sin) pr per pr &ed$res.e s$re t de& ntaminate t"e & ntainers be! re penin). Y $ &an e?pe&t n "e1p s" $1d y $ be& me & ntaminated. P&"te.ti"# A0!i#$t Che+i. Use %"ate5er dete&ti n 2its may be a5ai1ab1e t "e1p in dete&ti n. Rem 5e a11 t ps i1 in t"e area ! t"e s"e1ter t de& ntaminate t"e area. *!te& P&".y bser5in) ! r sympt ms in t"ers and by bser5in) de1i5ery means# y $ may be ab1e t "a5e s me %arnin) ! &"emi&a1 a)ents. Y $ m$st ta2e &are ! t"ese items and pr te&t t"em !r m dama)e.!% A0e#t$ As a s$r5i5 r# a1%ays $se t"e ! 11 %in) )enera1 steps# in t"e rder 1isted# t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m a &"emi&a1 atta&2I • Use pr te&ti5e e4$ipment. M st &"emi&a1 a)ents in t"e s 1id r 1i4$id state "a5e s me & 1 r. +ra5e1 &r ss%ind r $p%ind t red$&e t"e time spent in t"e d %n%ind "a'ard area.b5i $s1y# %ater in sea1ed & ntainers is y $r best and sa!est s $r&e. Department ! t"e Army +"e best met" d ! r dete&tin) &"emi&a1 a)ents is t"e $se ! a &"emi&a1 a)ent dete&t r. Use e?treme &a$ti n %"en enterin) y $r s"e1ter s t"at y $ %i11 n t brin) & ntaminati n inside. A sme11 ! a1m nds may indi&ate b1 d a)ents.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3it" $t t"ese# y $ stand 5ery 1itt1e &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e and 2n % & rre&t se1!-aid pr &ed$res be! re e?p s$re t &"emi&a1 a)ents. Irritati n in t"e n se r eyes r n t"e s2in is an $r)ent %arnin) t pr te&t y $r b dy !r m &"emi&a1 a)ents. In t"e 5ap r state# y $ &an see s me &"emi&a1 a)ents as a mist r t"in ! ) immediate1y a!ter t"e b mb r s"e11 b$rsts.<-de)ree an)1e t t"e pre5ai1in) %ind. . . +"e d r ! ne%1y &$t )rass r "ay may indi&ate t"e presen&e ! &" 2in) a)ents. • De& ntaminate y $r e4$ipment and b dy as s n as p ssib1e. M$!!1ed s"e11 r b mb det nati ns are a ) d indi&at r. I! y $ "a5e ne# $se it. Y $r sense ! sme11 may a1ert y $ t s me &"emi&a1 a)ents# b$t m st %i11 be d r1ess. Sin&e y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# a5 id & ntaminated areas at a11 & sts. She%te& I! y $ !ind y $rse1! in a & ntaminated area# try t m 5e $t ! t"e area as !ast as p ssib1e. (a)e 2*2 ! 2** . Y $r s$rr $ndin)s %i11 pr 5ide 5a1$ab1e &1$es t t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 a)entsH ! r e?amp1e# dead anima1s# si&2 pe p1e# r pe p1e and anima1s disp1ayin) abn rma1 be"a5i r. . Additi na11y# a stran)e taste in ! d# %ater# r &i)arettes may ser5e as a %arnin) t"at t"ey "a5e been & ntaminated. D n t b$i1d a !ire $sin) & ntaminated % d--t"e sm 2e %i11 be t ?i&. +"e s $nd ! enemy m$niti ns %i11 )i5e s me &1$e t t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 %eap ns. I! y $ &ann t 1ea5e t"e area immediate1y and "a5e t b$i1d a s"e1ter# $se n rma1 s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n te&"ni4$es# %it" a !e% &"an)es.$i1d t"e s"e1ter in a &1earin)# a%ay !r m a11 5e)etati n. 8eep t"e s"e1terFs entran&e &1 sed and riented at a . +"e dete&ti n ! &"emi&a1 a)ents and t"e a5 idan&e ! & ntaminated areas is e?treme1y imp rtant t y $r s$r5i5a1. 3it" a)ents t"at are 5ery "ard t dete&t# y $ m$st %at&" ! r sympt ms in !e11 % s$r5i5 rs. Y $ m$st be a1ert and ab1e t dete&t any &1$es indi&atin) t"e $se ! &"emi&a1 %ar!are. • A5 id areas %"ere &"emi&a1 a)ents e?ist. &e+e#t As %it" bi 1 )i&a1 and n$&1ear en5ir nments# )ettin) %ater in a &"emi&a1 en5ir nment is di!!i&$1t.S. 0 %e5er# in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ %i11 m st 1i2e1y "a5e t re1y s 1e1y n t"e $se ! a11 ! y $r p"ysi&a1 senses.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e sa!est s $r&e ! ! d is y $r sea1ed & mbat rati ns. Si)ns ! %ater s $r&e & ntaminati n are ! rei)n d rs s$&" as )ar1i&# m$stard# )erani$m# r bitter a1m ndsH i1y sp ts n t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e %ater r nearbyH and t"e presen&e ! dead !is" r anima1s. &e+e#t It is e?treme1y di!!i&$1t t eat %"i1e in a & ntaminated area. F d in sea1ed &ans r b tt1es %i11 a1s be sa!e. (a)e 2** ! 2** . Y $ may $se rain%ater r sn % i! t"ere is n e5iden&e ! & ntaminati n. F""( P&". Department ! t"e Army I! y $ &ann t )et %ater in sea1ed & ntainers# try t )et it !r m a &1 sed s $r&e s$&" as $nder)r $nd %ater pipes. De& ntaminate a11 sea1ed ! d & ntainers be! re penin)# t"er%ise y $ %i11 & ntaminate t"e ! d. 3"en "and1in) p1ants r anima1s# a1%ays $se pr te&ti5e )1 5es and &1 t"in). Y $ %i11 "a5e t brea2 t"e sea1 n y $r pr te&ti5e mas2 t eat. I! y $ eat# !ind an area in %"i&" y $ &an sa!e1y $nmas2.S. I! y $ m$st s$pp1ement y $r & mbat rati ns %it" 1 &a1 p1ants r anima1s# do not $se p1ants !r m & ntaminated areas r anima1s t"at appear t be si&2. Use %ater !r m s1 %-m 5in) streams# i! ne&essary# b$t a1%ays &"e&2 !irst ! r si)ns ! & ntaminati n# and a1%ays !i1ter t"e %ater as des&ribed $nder n$&1ear & nditi ns. A1%ays b i1 r p$ri!y t"e %ater t pre5ent ba&teri 1 )i&a1 in!e&ti n. I! t"ese si)ns are present# d n t $se t"e %ater.

only in an extreme emergency. The SMCTs cover these subjects. decontaminate all food containers by washing with soap and water or by boiling the container in water for 10 minutes. Place your shelter's entrance at a 90-degree angle to the prevailing winds. It can create extreme problems in a survival situation. Always keep your shelter clean. is to use standing water. bake.S. Again.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Boil all food for at least 10 minutes to kill all pathogens. CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENTS Chemical agent warfare is real. Wash the water container thoroughly with soap and water or boil it for at least 10 minutes before breaking the seal. Do not try to fry. but you must take special precautions. Department of the Army Shelter You can build expedient shelters under biological contamination conditions using the same techniques described in Chapter 5. No matter what you do to prepare the food. is not impossible. only under emergency conditions. However. If water in sealed containers is not available. like water procurement. The SMCTs address the various chemical agents. Aerosol sprays tend to concentrate in these depressions. Water Procurement Water procurement under biological conditions is difficult but not impossible. The following information is provided under the assumption that you are proficient in the use of chemical protective equipment and know the symptoms of various chemical agents. Page 234 of 236 . Use water purification tablets in all cases. personal decontamination. try to use water that has been in a sealed container. boil the water for at least 10 minutes before drinking. There is no guarantee that all infected portions have reached the required temperature to kill all pathogens. is water from springs. Do not select known carriers of vectors such as rats or other vermin. To ensure safety. The subject matter covered below is not a substitute for any of the individual tasks in which you must be proficient. You can also assume that sealed containers or packages of processed food are safe. or roast local food. biological. as vegetation provides shade and some degree of protection to biological agents. You can assume that the water inside the sealed container is not contaminated. recognition of chemical agent symptoms. Do not eat raw food. Such placement will limit the entry of airborne agents and prevent air stagnation in your shelter. Filter this water through a cloth to remove the dead vectors. Avoid using vegetation in constructing your shelter. Whenever possible. Your last choice. and individual first aid for chemical agent contamination. Food Procurement Food procurement. Use local food only in life or death situations. your first line of defense against chemical agents is your proficiency in individual nuclear. knowledge. to include donning and wearing the protective mask and overgarment. you can survive for a long time without food. and training. Your combat rations are sealed. you will have little chance of surviving a chemical environment. Cook all plant and animal food by boiling only. Prepare animals as you do plants. Do not build your shelter in depressions in the ground. and you can assume they are not contaminated. you must make slight changes to reduce the chance of biological contamination. your next choice. but you can overcome the problems with the proper equipment. there is no guarantee that cooking will kill all the biological agents. and chemical (NBC) training. Remember. Avoid building your shelter in areas of vegetation. their effects. Always use gloves and protective clothing when handling animals or plants. Keep the water covered while boiling to prevent contamination by airborne pathogens. As a survivor. Select and prepare plants as you would in radioactive areas. especially if the food you eat may kill you! If you must use local food. and first aid for these agents. If you are not proficient in these skills. You consider supplementing your rations with local plants or animals only in extreme emergencies. Boil this water as long as practical to kill all organisms. Vectors and germs can survive easily in stagnant water. select only healthy-looking plants and animals.

choking. However. Water Procurement Page 235 of 236 . avoid contaminated areas at all costs. Additionally. use normal shelter construction techniques. If you do become contaminated. Do not build a fire using contaminated wood--the smoke will be toxic. with a few changes. With agents that are very hard to detect. you will most likely have to rely solely on the use of all of your physical senses. for example. away from all vegetation. If you have one. Remove all topsoil in the area of the shelter to decontaminate the area. Travel crosswind or upwind to reduce the time spent in the downwind hazard area. use it. You must practice and know correct self-aid procedures before exposure to chemical agents.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. dead animals. you can see some chemical agents as a mist or thin fog immediately after the bomb or shell bursts. to protect yourself from a chemical attack: • • • • Use protective equipment. You must be alert and able to detect any clues indicating the use of chemical warfare. By observing for symptoms in others and by observing delivery means. Since you are in a survival situation. difficult breathing. Your sense of smell may alert you to some chemical agents. Mustard gas in the liquid state will appear as oily patches on leaves or on buildings.S. General indicators of the presence of chemical agents are tears. Decontaminate your equipment and body as soon as possible. If you cannot leave the area immediately and have to build a shelter. you must watch for symptoms in fellow survivors. sick people. you may be able to have some warning of chemical agents. try to move out of the area as fast as possible. in a survival situation. coughing. or cigarettes may serve as a warning that they have been contaminated. In the vapor state. A smell of almonds may indicate blood agents. Sight will help you detect chemical agents. Avoid areas where chemical agents exist. Muffled shell or bomb detonations are a good indicator. decontaminate yourself as soon as possible using proper procedures. Use whatever detection kits may be available to help in detection. you stand very little chance of survival. and dizziness. but most will be odorless. You must take care of these items and protect them from damage. or people and animals displaying abnormal behavior. always use the following general steps. Give quick and correct self-aid when contaminated. Most chemical agents in the solid or liquid state have some color. You can expect no help should you become contaminated. The detection of chemical agents and the avoidance of contaminated areas is extremely important to your survival. Your protective mask and overgarment are the key to your survival. Keep the shelter's entrance closed and oriented at a 90-degree angle to the prevailing wind. itching. Use extreme caution when entering your shelter so that you will not bring contamination inside. Irritation in the nose or eyes or on the skin is an urgent warning to protect your body from chemical agents. Without these. The sound of enemy munitions will give some clue to the presence of chemical weapons. Department of the Army Detection of Chemical Agents The best method for detecting chemical agents is the use of a chemical agent detector. a strange taste in food. Your surroundings will provide valuable clues to the presence of chemical agents. Build the shelter in a clearing. The odor of newly cut grass or hay may indicate the presence of choking agents. Shelter If you find yourself in a contaminated area. water. in the order listed. Protection Against Chemical Agents As a survivor.

try to get it from a closed source such as underground water pipes.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. find an area in which you can safely unmask. You must protect this water as much as possible. but always check first for signs of contamination. Food Procurement It is extremely difficult to eat while in a contaminated area. Obviously. geranium. If these signs are present. Department of the Army As with biological and nuclear environments. You will have to break the seal on your protective mask to eat. or bitter almonds. do not use plants from contaminated areas or animals that appear to be sick. and always filter the water as described under nuclear conditions. If you eat. You may use rainwater or snow if there is no evidence of contamination. Decontaminate all sealed food containers before opening. and the presence of dead fish or animals. When handling plants or animals. The safest source of food is your sealed combat rations. Page 236 of 236 . If you must supplement your combat rations with local plants or animals. Use water from slow-moving streams. water in sealed containers is your best and safest source. mustard. if necessary. Food in sealed cans or bottles will also be safe. Be sure to decontaminate the containers before opening.S. getting water in a chemical environment is difficult. always use protective gloves and clothing. oily spots on the surface of the water or nearby. If you cannot get water in sealed containers. Always boil or purify the water to prevent bacteriological infection. Signs of water source contamination are foreign odors such as garlic. otherwise you will contaminate the food. do not use the water.

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