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FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL-Abridged

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL-Abridged

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  • FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION
  • SURVIVAL ACTIONS
  • S -Size Up the Situation
  • U -Use All Your Senses, Undue Haste Makes Waste
  • R -Remember Where You Are
  • V -Vanquish Fear and Panic
  • I -Improvise
  • V -Value Living
  • A -Act Like the Natives
  • L -Live by Your Wits, But for Now, Learn Basic Skills
  • PATTERN FOR SURVIVAL
  • CHAPTER 2 - PSYCHOLOGY OF SURVIVAL
  • A LOOK AT STRESS
  • Need for Stress
  • Survival Stressors
  • NATURAL REACTIONS
  • Anger and Frustration
  • Depression
  • Loneliness and Boredom
  • Guilt
  • PREPARING YOURSELF
  • Know Yourself
  • Anticipate Fears
  • Be Realistic
  • Adopt a Positive Attitude
  • Remind Yourself What Is at Stake
  • Train
  • Learn Stress Management Techniques
  • CHAPTER 3 - SURVIVAL PLANNING AND SURVIVAL KITS
  • IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING
  • SURVIVAL KITS
  • CHAPTER 4 - BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE
  • REQUIREMENTS FOR MAINTENANCE OF HEALTH
  • Water
  • Food
  • Plant Foods
  • Animal Foods
  • Personal Hygiene
  • Keep Your Hands Clean
  • Keep Your Hair Clean
  • Keep Your Clothing Clean
  • Keep Your Teeth Clean
  • Take Care of Your Feet
  • Get Sufficient Rest
  • Keep Camp Site Clean
  • MEDICAL EMERGENCIES
  • Breathing Problems
  • Severe Bleeding
  • Shock
  • LIFESAVING STEPS
  • Open Airway and Maintain
  • Control Bleeding
  • Direct Pressure
  • Elevation
  • Pressure Points
  • Digital Ligation
  • Tourniquet
  • BONE AND JOINT INJURY
  • Fractures
  • Dislocations
  • Sprains
  • BITES AND STINGS
  • Treatment
  • Bee and Wasp Stings
  • Spider Bites and Scorpion Stings
  • Snakebites
  • WOUNDS
  • Open Wounds
  • Skin Diseases and Ailments
  • Boils
  • Fungal Infections
  • Rashes
  • Frostbite
  • Trench Foot
  • Burns
  • ENVIRONMENTAL INJURIES
  • Heatstroke
  • Hypothermia
  • Diarrhea
  • Intestinal Parasites
  • HERBAL MEDICINES
  • CHAPTER 5 - SHELTERS
  • SHELTER SITE SELECTION
  • TYPES OF SHELTERS
  • Poncho Lean-To
  • Poncho Tent
  • Three-Pole Parachute Tepee
  • One-Pole Parachute Tepee
  • No-Pole Parachute Tepee
  • One-Man Shelter
  • Parachute Hammock
  • Field-Expedient Lean-To
  • Swamp Bed
  • Natural Shelters
  • Debris Hut
  • Tree-Pit Snow Shelter
  • Beach Shade Shelter
  • Desert Shelters
  • CHAPTER 6 - WATER PROCUREMENT
  • WATER SOURCES
  • STILL CONSTRUCTION
  • Aboveground Still
  • Belowground Still
  • WATER PURIFICATION
  • WATER FILTRATION DEVICES
  • CHAPTER 7 - FIRECRAFT
  • BASIC FIRE PRINCIPLES
  • SITE SELECTION AND PREPARATION
  • FIRE MATERIAL SELECTION
  • HOW TO BUILD A FIRE
  • Tepee
  • Lean-To
  • Cross-Ditch
  • Pyramid
  • HOW TO LIGHT A FIRE
  • Modern Methods
  • Matches
  • Convex Lens
  • Metal Match
  • Battery
  • Gunpowder
  • Primitive Methods
  • Flint and Steel
  • Fire-Plow
  • Bow and Drill
  • CHAPTER 8 - FOOD PROCUREMENT
  • ANIMALS FOR FOOD
  • Insects
  • Worms
  • Crustaceans
  • Mollusks
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • TRAPS AND SNARES
  • Use of Bait
  • Trap and Snare Construction
  • Simple Snare
  • Drag Noose
  • Twitch-Up
  • Twitch-Up Snare
  • Squirrel Pole
  • Ojibwa Bird Pole
  • Noosing Wand
  • Treadle Spring Snare
  • Paiute Deadfall
  • Bow Trap
  • Pig Spear Shaft
  • Bottle Trap
  • KILLING DEVICES
  • Rabbit Stick
  • Spear
  • Bow and Arrow
  • Sling
  • FISHING DEVICES
  • Improvised Fishhooks
  • Stakeout
  • Gill Net
  • Fish Traps
  • Spearfishing
  • Chop Fishing
  • Fish Poison
  • Snakes
  • Skinning and Butchering Game
  • Smoking Meat
  • Drying Meat
  • Other Preservation Methods
  • Freezing
  • Brine and Salt
  • CHAPTER 9 - SURVIVAL USE OF PLANTS
  • EDIBILITY OF PLANTS
  • Plant Identification
  • Universal Edibility Test
  • Seaweeds
  • SEAWEEDS
  • Preparation of Plant Food
  • PLANTS FOR MEDICINE
  • Terms and Definitions
  • Specific Remedies
  • CHAPTER 10 - POISONOUS PLANTS
  • HOW PLANTS POISON
  • ALL ABOUT PLANTS
  • RULES FOR AVOIDING POISONOUS PLANTS
  • CONTACT DERMATITIS
  • INGESTION POISONING
  • CHAPTER 11 - DANGEROUS ANIMALS
  • INSECTS AND ARACHNIDS
  • Scorpions
  • Spiders
  • Centipedes and Millipedes
  • Bees, Wasps, and Hornets
  • Ticks
  • LEECHES
  • BATS
  • POISONOUS SNAKES
  • Snake-Free Areas
  • DANGEROUS LIZARDS
  • Gila Monster
  • Mexican Beaded Lizard
  • Komodo Dragon
  • DANGERS IN RIVERS
  • Electric Eel
  • Piranha
  • Turtle
  • Platypus
  • DANGERS IN BAYS AND ESTUARIES
  • SALTWATER DANGERS
  • Fish Dangerous to Handle, Touch, or Contact
  • Animals and Fish Poisonous to Eat
  • Other Dangerous Sea Creatures
  • CLUBS
  • Simple Club
  • Weighted Club
  • Sling Club
  • EDGED WEAPONS
  • Knives
  • Spear Blades
  • Arrow Points
  • OTHER EXPEDIENT WEAPONS
  • Throwing Stick
  • Archery Equipment
  • Bola
  • LASHING AND CORDAGE
  • Natural Cordage Selection
  • Lashing Material
  • RUCKSACK CONSTRUCTION
  • Horseshoe Pack
  • Square Pack
  • CLOTHING AND INSULATION
  • Parachute Assembly
  • Animal Skins
  • Plant Fibers
  • COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS
  • Bowls
  • Forks, Knives, and Spoons
  • Pots
  • Water Bottles
  • CHAPTER 13 - DESERT SURVIVAL
  • TERRAIN
  • Mountain Deserts
  • Rocky Plateau Deserts
  • Sandy or Dune Deserts
  • Salt Marshes
  • Broken Terrain
  • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
  • Low Rainfall
  • Intense Sunlight and Heat
  • Wide Temperature Range
  • Sparse Vegetation
  • High Mineral Content
  • Sandstorms
  • Mirages
  • NEED FOR WATER
  • HEAT CASUALTIES
  • Heat Cramps
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat Stroke
  • PRECAUTIONS
  • DESERT HAZARDS
  • CHAPTER 14 - TROPICAL SURVIVAL
  • TROPICAL WEATHER
  • JUNGLE TYPES
  • Tropical Rain Forests
  • Secondary Jungles
  • Semievergreen Seasonal and Monsoon Forests
  • Tropical Scrub and Thorn Forests
  • Tropical Savannas
  • Saltwater Swamps
  • Freshwater Swamps
  • TRAVEL THROUGH JUNGLE AREAS
  • IMMEDIATE CONSIDERATIONS
  • WATER PROCUREMENT
  • Animals as Signs of Water
  • Water From Plants
  • Vines
  • Roots
  • Palm Trees
  • Water From Condensation
  • FOOD
  • POISONOUS PLANTS
  • CHAPTER 15 - COLD WEATHER SURVIVAL
  • COLD REGIONS AND LOCATIONS
  • Wet Cold Weather Environments
  • Dry Cold Weather Environments
  • WINDCHILL
  • HYGIENE
  • MEDICAL ASPECTS
  • COLD INJURIES
  • Trench Foot and Immersion Foot
  • Dehydration
  • Cold Diuresis
  • Sunburn
  • Snow Blindness
  • Constipation
  • Insect Bites
  • SHELTERS
  • Snow Cave Shelter
  • Snow Trench Shelter
  • Snow Block and Parachute Shelter
  • Snow House or Igloo
  • Lean-To Shelter
  • Fallen Tree Shelter
  • Tree-Pit Shelter
  • 20-Man Life Raft
  • FIRE
  • WATER
  • Fish
  • Sea Ice Animals
  • Plants
  • TRAVEL
  • WEATHER SIGNS
  • Wind
  • Clouds
  • Smoke
  • Birds and Insects
  • Low-Pressure Front
  • CHAPTER 16 - SEA SURVIVAL
  • THE OPEN SEA
  • Precautionary Measures
  • Down at Sea
  • Cold Weather Considerations
  • Hot Weather Considerations
  • Raft Procedures
  • Sailing Rafts
  • Food Procurement
  • Medical Problems Associated With Sea Survival
  • Sharks
  • Detecting Land
  • Rafting or Beaching Techniques
  • Swimming Ashore
  • Pickup or Rescue
  • SEASHORES
  • Special Health Hazards
  • CHAPTER 17 - EXPEDIENT WATER CROSSINGS
  • RIVERS AND STREAMS
  • RAPIDS
  • RAFTS
  • Brush Raft
  • Australian Poncho Raft
  • Poncho Donut Raft
  • Log Raft
  • FLOTATION DEVICES
  • OTHER WATER OBSTACLES
  • VEGETATION OBSTACLES
  • CHAPTER 18 - FIELD-EXPEDIENT DIRECTION FINDING
  • USING THE SUN AND SHADOWS
  • Shadow-Tip Methods
  • The Watch Method
  • USING THE MOON
  • USING THE STARS
  • The Northern Sky
  • The Southern Sky
  • MAKING IMPROVISED COMPASSES
  • OTHER MEANS OF DETERMINING DIRECTION
  • CHAPTER 19 - SIGNALING TECHNIQUES
  • APPLICATION
  • MEANS FOR SIGNALING
  • Visual Signals
  • Audio Signals
  • CODES AND SIGNALS
  • Ground-to-Air Emergency Code
  • Body Signals
  • Panel Signals
  • Aircraft Acknowledgments
  • AIRCRAFT VECTORING PROCEDURES
  • CHAPTER 20 - SURVIVAL MOVEMENT IN HOSTILE AREAS
  • PHASES OF PLANNING
  • Contingency Plan of Action (CPA)
  • Standing Operating Procedures
  • Notification to Move and Avoid Capture
  • EXECUTION
  • Hide Site Activities
  • Hole-Up Areas
  • RETURN TO FRIENDLY CONTROL
  • Border Crossings
  • Linkup at the FEBA/FLOT
  • Linkup With Friendly Patrols
  • CHAPTER 21 - CAMOUFLAGE
  • PERSONAL CAMOUFLAGE
  • Shape and Outline
  • Color and Texture
  • Shine
  • Shadow
  • Movement
  • Noise
  • Scent
  • METHODS OF STALKING
  • Upright Stalking
  • Crawling
  • Prone Stalking
  • Animal Stalking
  • CHAPTER 22 - CONTACT WITH PEOPLE
  • CONTACT WITH LOCAL PEOPLE
  • THE SURVIVOR'S BEHAVIOR
  • CHANGES TO POLITICAL ALLEGIANCE
  • CHAPTER 23 - SURVIVAL IN MAN-MADE HAZARDS
  • THE NUCLEAR ENVIRONMENT
  • Effects of Nuclear Weapons
  • Types of Nuclear Bursts
  • Nuclear Injuries
  • Residual Radiation
  • Bodily Reactions to Radiation
  • Countermeasures Against Penetrating External Radiation
  • Shelter
  • Water Procurement
  • BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENTS
  • Biological Agents and Effects
  • Detection of Biological Agents
  • Influence of Weather and Terrain
  • CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENTS
  • Detection of Chemical Agents

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as NOT permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army# b$t by %e t"e &iti'enry %" paid ! r it

(a)e 1 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL ............................................................1 +A,L- .F /.N+-N+S......................................................................................................................... 2 /0A(+-R 1 - IN+R.DU/+I.N.......................................................................................................... 11 SURVIVAL A/+I.NS...................................................................................................................... 11 S -Si'e Up t"e Sit$ati n................................................................................................................ 11 U -Use A11 Y $r Senses# Und$e 0aste Ma2es 3aste...................................................................11 R -Remember 3"ere Y $ Are......................................................................................................12 V -Van4$is" Fear and (ani&......................................................................................................... 12 I -Impr 5ise................................................................................................................................... 12 V -Va1$e Li5in).............................................................................................................................. 12 A -A&t Li2e t"e Nati5es.................................................................................................................. 12 L -Li5e by Y $r 3its# ,$t ! r N %# Learn ,asi& S2i11s....................................................................1* (A++-RN F.R SURVIVAL............................................................................................................. 1* /0A(+-R 2 - (SY/0.L.6Y .F SURVIVAL....................................................................................17 A L..8 A+ S+R-SS....................................................................................................................... 17 Need ! r Stress............................................................................................................................. 17 S$r5i5a1 Stress rs......................................................................................................................... 19 NA+URAL R-A/+I.NS.................................................................................................................. 16 An)er and Fr$strati n................................................................................................................... 17 Depressi n.................................................................................................................................... 17 L ne1iness and , red m............................................................................................................... 17 6$i1t............................................................................................................................................... 1: (R-(ARIN6 Y.URS-LF................................................................................................................ 1: 8n % Y $rse1!............................................................................................................................... 1: Anti&ipate Fears............................................................................................................................ 1: ,e Rea1isti&................................................................................................................................... 1: Ad pt a ( siti5e Attit$de............................................................................................................... 1: Remind Y $rse1! 3"at Is at Sta2e.................................................................................................1; +rain.............................................................................................................................................. 1; Learn Stress Mana)ement +e&"ni4$es.........................................................................................1; /0A(+-R * - SURVIVAL (LANNIN6 AND SURVIVAL 8I+S.............................................................2< IM(.R+AN/- .F (LANNIN6........................................................................................................2< SURVIVAL 8I+S.............................................................................................................................. 2< /0A(+-R 7 - ,ASI/ SURVIVAL M-DI/IN-......................................................................................22 R-=UIR-M-N+S F.R MAIN+-NAN/- .F 0-AL+0....................................................................22 3ater............................................................................................................................................ 22 F d.............................................................................................................................................. 2* (1ant F ds................................................................................................................................... 27 Anima1 F ds................................................................................................................................ 27 (ers na1 0y)iene.......................................................................................................................... 27 8eep Y $r 0ands /1ean................................................................................................................ 27 8eep Y $r 0air /1ean................................................................................................................... 29 8eep Y $r /1 t"in) /1ean............................................................................................................. 29 8eep Y $r +eet" /1ean................................................................................................................. 29 +a2e /are ! Y $r Feet................................................................................................................. 29 6et S$!!i&ient Rest........................................................................................................................ 29 8eep /amp Site /1ean.................................................................................................................. 29 M-DI/AL -M-R6-N/I-S.............................................................................................................. 26 ,reat"in) (r b1ems....................................................................................................................... 26 Se5ere ,1eedin)............................................................................................................................ 26
(a)e 2 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

S" &2............................................................................................................................................ 26 LIF-SAVIN6 S+-(S....................................................................................................................... 26 .pen Air%ay and Maintain............................................................................................................ 26 / ntr 1 ,1eedin)............................................................................................................................ 27 Dire&t (ress$re............................................................................................................................. 2: -1e5ati n....................................................................................................................................... 2: (ress$re ( ints............................................................................................................................. 2; Di)ita1 Li)ati n............................................................................................................................... 2; + $rni4$et..................................................................................................................................... 2; (re5ent and +reat S" &2............................................................................................................... *< ,.N- AND >.IN+ IN>URY............................................................................................................. *2 Fra&t$res....................................................................................................................................... *2 Dis1 &ati ns................................................................................................................................... *7 Sprains.......................................................................................................................................... *7 ,I+-S AND S+IN6S........................................................................................................................ *7 +reatment...................................................................................................................................... *9 ,ee and 3asp Stin)s.................................................................................................................... *9 Spider ,ites and S& rpi n Stin)s..................................................................................................*9 Sna2ebites.................................................................................................................................... *6 3.UNDS......................................................................................................................................... *7 .pen 3 $nds............................................................................................................................... *7 S2in Diseases and Ai1ments.......................................................................................................... *: , i1s.............................................................................................................................................. *: F$n)a1 In!e&ti ns........................................................................................................................... *; Ras"es.......................................................................................................................................... *; Fr stbite........................................................................................................................................ *; +ren&" F t................................................................................................................................... *; ,$rns............................................................................................................................................. 7< -NVIR.NM-N+AL IN>URI-S......................................................................................................... 7< 0eatstr 2e..................................................................................................................................... 7< 0yp t"ermia.................................................................................................................................. 7< Diarr"ea........................................................................................................................................ 71 Intestina1 (arasites........................................................................................................................ 71 0-R,AL M-DI/IN-S...................................................................................................................... 71 /0A(+-R 9 - S0-L+-RS................................................................................................................... 72 S0-L+-R SI+- S-L-/+I.N.......................................................................................................... 72 +Y(-S .F S0-L+-RS................................................................................................................... 7* ( n&" Lean-+ ............................................................................................................................ 7* ( n&" +ent.................................................................................................................................. 77 +"ree-( 1e (ara&"$te +epee........................................................................................................79 .ne-( 1e (ara&"$te +epee........................................................................................................... 76 N -( 1e (ara&"$te +epee............................................................................................................. 77 .ne-Man S"e1ter........................................................................................................................... 7: (ara&"$te 0amm &2..................................................................................................................... 7; Fie1d--?pedient Lean-+ ............................................................................................................... 7; S%amp ,ed................................................................................................................................... 9< Nat$ra1 S"e1ters............................................................................................................................ 91 Debris 0$t..................................................................................................................................... 91 +ree-(it Sn % S"e1ter................................................................................................................... 92 ,ea&" S"ade S"e1ter.................................................................................................................... 9* Desert S"e1ters............................................................................................................................. 97 /0A(+-R 6 - 3A+-R (R./UR-M-N+............................................................................................97 3A+-R S.UR/-S......................................................................................................................... 97 S+ILL /.NS+RU/+I.N.................................................................................................................. 62
(a)e * ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Ab 5e)r $nd Sti11.......................................................................................................................... 62 ,e1 %)r $nd Sti11.......................................................................................................................... 6* 3A+-R (URIFI/A+I.N.................................................................................................................. 69 3A+-R FIL+RA+I.N D-VI/-S......................................................................................................69 /0A(+-R 7 - FIR-/RAF+.................................................................................................................. 67 ,ASI/ FIR- (RIN/I(L-S............................................................................................................... 67 SI+- S-L-/+I.N AND (R-(ARA+I.N.........................................................................................67 FIR- MA+-RIAL S-L-/+I.N.........................................................................................................7< 0.3 +. ,UILD A FIR-.................................................................................................................. 7< +epee............................................................................................................................................ 7< Lean-+ ......................................................................................................................................... 71 /r ss-Dit&"................................................................................................................................... 71 (yramid......................................................................................................................................... 71 0.3 +. LI60+ A FIR-.................................................................................................................. 71 M dern Met" ds........................................................................................................................... 71 Mat&"es........................................................................................................................................ 72 / n5e? Lens................................................................................................................................. 72 Meta1 Mat&".................................................................................................................................. 72 ,attery........................................................................................................................................... 72 6$np %der................................................................................................................................... 72 (rimiti5e Met" ds.......................................................................................................................... 7* F1int and Stee1............................................................................................................................... 7* Fire-(1 %....................................................................................................................................... 7* , % and Dri11................................................................................................................................. 7* /0A(+-R : - F..D (R./UR-M-N+..............................................................................................79 ANIMALS F.R F..D..................................................................................................................... 79 Inse&ts........................................................................................................................................... 79 3 rms........................................................................................................................................... 76 /r$sta&eans.................................................................................................................................. 76 M 11$s2s........................................................................................................................................ 76 Fis"............................................................................................................................................... 77 Amp"ibians................................................................................................................................... 7; Repti1es......................................................................................................................................... 7; ,irds.............................................................................................................................................. :< Mamma1s...................................................................................................................................... :1 +RA(S AND SNAR-S..................................................................................................................... :1 Use ! ,ait.................................................................................................................................... :2 +rap and Snare / nstr$&ti n........................................................................................................ :2 Simp1e Snare................................................................................................................................. :* Dra) N se................................................................................................................................... :* +%it&"-Up...................................................................................................................................... :7 +%it&"-Up Snare........................................................................................................................... :7 S4$irre1 ( 1e.................................................................................................................................. :9 .@ib%a ,ird ( 1e............................................................................................................................ :9 N sin) 3and............................................................................................................................... :6 +read1e Sprin) Snare.................................................................................................................... :6 Fi)$re 7 Dead!a11........................................................................................................................... :7 (ai$te Dead!a11.............................................................................................................................. :: , % +rap....................................................................................................................................... :; (i) Spear S"a!t............................................................................................................................. ;< , tt1e +rap.................................................................................................................................... ;< 8ILLIN6 D-VI/-S........................................................................................................................... ;1 Rabbit Sti&2................................................................................................................................... ;1 Spear............................................................................................................................................ ;1
(a)e 7 ! 2**

..........................................................US LIAARDS..................................... 11: (iran"a.................................................................................................................. 11: (a)e 9 ! 2** ....................................................................................................................................................R M-DI/IN-.............U+ (LAN+S...... 1<1 .....................................................................................................................................................................N........................... ...............................................................................: S2innin) and ............................R /...................................................................... 1<............................................................................................................................IS..........7 Sna2es....................IDIN6 (.............................................................................. ......................... .........................A+S.....US (LAN+S.................. ...........................................................................................7 Spear!is"in)................................ ............................................... ........................F (LAN+S...................................................... +erms and De!initi ns......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1<< Dryin) Meat....................................IS......................................... ........................ Spe&i!i& Remedies..* Fis" +raps...........................ILI+Y ..................................................SURVIVAL US.....................................................................................................................................................................................2 6i11 Net..................... 116 Sna2e-Free Areas.US (LAN+S...........7 Fis"........................................................... 119 /entipedes and Mi11ipedes...............................1<2 -DI...........................N...............F FIS0 AND 6AM....................112 /..............................................117 INS-/+S AND ARA/0NIDS.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................8IN6 AND S+.....................................1 S1in)........................................................... 117 DAN6-R..................... ................................................................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................US SNA8-S.............9 /" p Fis"in)............................................................................... 1<1 Free'in).....................3 (LAN+S (.............................................................. ............................................................................................................6 Fis" ( is n..............(.......................................................................N............... 1<................................................................................................................... 111 ALL A......................................................... 111 RUL-S F........................................................................... 116 ..................2 Impr 5ised Fis"" 2s......... 11: -1e&tri& -e1.............. 1<9 Sea%eeds.......................................... 119 .....N.......IS........................................... 11: 8 m d Dra) n........................................................ 119 L--/0-S...... 11: DAN6-RS IN RIV-RS.................................................................................................................. ...........................................S............................... 1<* Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est.................................................................. 112 IN6-S+I...................................................................................... .........US ANIMALS............................................................................................................................................................. 1<.............N (........................2 FIS0IN6 D-VI/-S............................................... 116 (....... 1<1 ..................6 (R-(ARA+I................................................................................$t&"erin) 6ame.............. /0A(+-R 1< .........DAN6-R...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................N+A/+ D-RMA+I+IS..................................................................................F................................................................................................................ Sm 2in) Meat......................NIN6........................ 1<: (LAN+S F................................................. 117 6i1a M nster..........................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U................... % and Arr %...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1<: (reparati n ! (1ant F d........................................................... Department ! t"e Army ......................................N ......rine and Sa1t................................................................................................................................................................. 117 S& rpi ns..................................................... 117 Me?i&an ....... 117 Spiders...................................................................................................................................................................................................................: .................................................................... 1<1 /0A(+-R .................................................................................... .................................111 0..............................................................................................irds.....t"er (reser5ati n Met" ds.......................................................................F (LAN+S...........RA6-...............................................................................ees# 3asps# and 0 rnets...................................................... .........................................IS................................ 1<2 (1ant Identi!i&ati n...........................................................IS...................................................... ................................. 119 +i&2s.......................2 Sta2e $t................. 112 /0A(+-R 11 .................eaded Li'ard....................R AV........................................

................................................ 1** Sandy r D$ne Deserts..................................................................... 1*9 0i)" Minera1 / ntent........................................................................................................ Anima1s and Fis" ( is n $s t -at............11............................................................................................................................ 1*2 3ater .......................................... tt1es.... 1*7 Intense S$n1i)"t and 0eat..................................................................................... 1*6 N--D F.................................. 0 rses" e (a&2.....................................................................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U............................................................. 127 ................ (a)e 6 ! 2** .....................D-S-R+ SURVIVAL..................................................................... 12: LAS0IN6 AND /........ 1** M $ntain Deserts........................................NS# +...........................12< ........................................ 1*2 ( ts...........................................................................................................................................................t"er Dan)er $s Sea /reat$res..... 1*1 Anima1 S2ins....... 1*1 /..........................................................NS............................................................................................................................NS+RU/+I.......................................................... 1*6 Sandst rms...... 1*7 0-A+ /ASUAL+I-S.............................................................................................................................................................FI-LD--B(-DI-N+ 3-A(.......................................................................................... 1*< S4$are (a&2.......................................................................................................................................................................1** +-RRAIN.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. RU/8SA/8 /.......................................................... 1*......................... 1*7 3ide +emperat$re Ran)e......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... %1s.......................................................................................................................................................................... 12* -D6-D 3-A(...................................................................................................NS...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................RS....................................................r 2en +errain............................................................. Nat$ra1 / rda)e Se1e&ti n......................S............................ 1*2 /0A(+-R 1* ......... 122 S1in) /1$b.................................................................................................+0IN6 AND INSULA+I..........................................N.................................................................................. 126 Arr % ( ints....................................................................................................................... 122 3ei)"ted /1$b.......... 12................ 127 Spear ............................................................ 1*1 (1ant Fibers.................................................................................... 12.......................................... 126 ............................................................. 11....................................... 1a...........................................................................................................................................R 3A+-R.................................................................................... Las"in) Materia1.............................................................................................................................8IN6 AND -A+IN6 U+-NSILS................................................................................................................................................................. Fis" Dan)er $s t 0and1e# + $&"# r / nta&t..................... 1*7 .....................LS# AND -=UI(M-N+.......................................................................................................................................................................+0-R -B(-DI-N+ 3-A(............................................... 1** R &2y (1atea$ Deserts............ 127 Ar&"ery -4$ipment.................................1*1 (ara&"$te Assemb1y......................................................................................................127 +"r %in) Sti&2........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................RDA6-.......11................................... 1*1 F r2s# 8ni5es# and Sp ns.................................................................... 1*: 0eat /ramps.............................................................................................. 127 8ni5es..........................................................................N........... Department ! t"e Army +$rt1e...................................................................................12...................... 11: DAN6-RS IN ..............................................................................................................AYS AND -S+UARI-S............ 1*7 -NVIR.................................................. 1*6 Mira)es.......................................................................................................................... 12....... 122 Simp1e /1$b................... 122 /LU............................................................................................................................................. 1*7 Sa1t Mars"es............................................................................... 1*9 Sparse Ve)etati n....................................1*7 L % Rain!a11...............................................................................1ades.....NM-N+AL FA/+........................................................... 11: (1atyp$s....................................12< /0A(+-R 12 ....................1*1 ...................... 1*< /L................................................................................................S...................... SAL+3A+-R DAN6-RS.................................................................

............................................ 197 Sn % /a5e S"e1ter.............................................................................................................................................. 171 >UN6L................................................................................................................................. 196 Sn % .17: Dry / 1d 3eat"er -n5ir nments..............................................................................................................................................................................+R........................................1indness........NSID-RA+I............................................................................................................................17: /........................................................................................................U60 >UN6L.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 17.................... 197 Fa11en +ree S"e1ter.............................................................................. 17* Fres"%ater S%amps.................................. 17* +RAV-L +0R.......................... 1*........................ 1*.......................................................................US (LAN+S............................................................................F /..............+Y(-S............................................. 176 F..../.............................................................................................................. 197 +ree-(it S"e1ter.. 176 (..................................................................................19* De"ydrati n...............LD 3-A+0-R SURVIVAL............................................17: 3IND/0ILL........................./UR-M-N+..........................................................................................................................LD IN>URI-S.............................................................(I/AL 3-A+0-R.... 199 Sn % +ren&" S"e1ter...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..............................IS.............................................................................................................................................D................................................. 172 Semie5er)reen Seas na1 and M ns n F rests.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17: 3et / 1d 3eat"er -n5ir nments............................................................................................... 0eat Str 2e.....NS AND L................ 19* S$nb$rn...........................................................NS.................................................................................................................................................................................................LD R-6I.........NS............................... 19* Sn % ........................ Department ! t"e Army 0eat -?"a$sti n.................................................................177 3A+-R (R................... 179 R ts..............................AR-AS............................. 179 3ater Fr m (1ants............................................................. 179 Anima1s as Si)ns ! 3ater............. 179 3ater Fr m / ndensati n...............ASI/ (RIN/I(L-S ................................................................................................. 179 Vines......................................... 197 Inse&t ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 172 Se& ndary >$n)1es..............................177 IMM-DIA+......... 191 0yp t"ermia..........................................................................................................................................................................(I/AL SURVIVAL........................................ 17* Sa1t%ater S%amps................ 191 /.................... 171 +r pi&a1 Rain F rests...... 19: FIR-.............................................................................................................................................................................................. 19: (a)e 7 ! 2** ................................. 179 (a1m +rees............................../A+I...............N...................................... 197 2<-Man Li!e Ra!t......................................................................S....................................................................................................1 &2 and (ara&"$te S"e1ter...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1*.......................................................................................................................................................... 192 +ren&" F t and Immersi n F t........................................................................ 191 Fr stbite.................................... /0A(+-R 17 ....................................................................................196 Sn % 0 $se r I)1 ................................LD 3-A+0-R SURVIVAL...................................................... 197 Lean-+ S"e1ter..................../..........................................................................................................................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U............................................................................ (R-/AU+I........................NS.............................................................................. 1*.....................................................17* +r pi&a1 Sa5annas.............................................................................................................................................171 +R............................................................................ D-S-R+ 0AAARDS.........172 +r pi&a1 S&r$b and +" rn F rests........................ 197 S0-L+-RS........................... 19* / 1d Di$resis.......................................................................... 177 /0A(+-R 19 .................................................. 191 M-DI/AL AS(-/+S................... 19* / nstipati n.....................................ites......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19< 0Y6I-N-.......................

.........6 +"e S $t"ern S2y....................................................................................................................9 USIN6 +0..........................................................................................................................................................FI-LD--B(-DI-N+ DIR-/+I...........................................................6 USIN6 +0......................N....................................................................................................2 FL.....................................................................................................7 S"ad %-+ip Met" ds...........S+A/L-S................... 1...... 16< Sea I&e Anima1s........................................M(ASS-S...........................3S................................................................................................................................................. 19......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................N.......................... 1:7 RAF+S................................................................................. 177 F d (r &$rement......... 161 +RAV-L....................... A$stra1ian ( n&" Ra!t..............................................................................................................................................................................................................N. 1....................... 2<< (a)e : ! 2** ................................................................................................SI6NALIN6 +-/0NI=U-S........... 16< (1ants......... 1:9 /0A(+-R 17 ................................... 1:6 RA(IDS........1:< S"ar2s.......................................................... 16* .................ea&"in) +e&"ni4$es...........................................................................................................................6 +"e N rt"ern S2y............................................................................... 16< Fis".........................................................................................................................................................................1................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U...........................................................................* /0A(+-R 1: ......................N FINDIN6.......................................... 1.......................................................................................................................................................................F D-+-RMININ6 DIR-/+I...............................2<< A((LI/A+I... 17< Sai1in) Ra!ts......16....................... 1:7 F d..............M.................................. 1........................................: ....................SUN AND S0AD..................................... Department ! t"e Army 3A+-R............................................................................................................................. 1................... 16* /0A(+-R 16 ....................................1...... 1....... 167 D %n at Sea...............................................* V-6-+A+I........................................ 1:... 162 /1 $ds...........................irds and Inse&ts..................................... 1.........SSIN6S.................< ( n&" D n$t Ra!t...............................................................................................................................................................................1:6 RIV-RS AND S+R-AMS.................................................. 167 / 1d 3eat"er / nsiderati ns.......................1................................................................. 162 3-A+0-R SI6NS......S+A/L-S......................................................................................................................................................167 +0......................................................................................17< Ra!t (r &ed$res........................................+0-R 3A+-R .....7 USIN6 +0.................S-A SURVIVAL.... 1.....7 MA8IN6 IM(R........................................................................................................................................................................................... 0 t 3eat"er / nsiderati ns.......................1 L ) Ra!t................................................................................................................................................................ .........................................................................................R-S................... 17: Medi&a1 (r b1ems Ass &iated 3it" Sea S$r5i5a1................................................................ 167 (re&a$ti nary Meas$res...................................................S+ARS............................N D-VI/-S.......................................................................................................................................................................... 1:1 Dete&tin) Land................................................................................................................................... 162 3ind........................................................VIS-D /.............................N ... 1:* S-AS0........... 1:7 Spe&ia1 0ea1t" 0a'ards..............................................................S.................................. 176 3ater............................ 1..................... 16* L %-(ress$re Fr nt...............-B(-DI-N+ 3A+-R /R.....................................................................................................................................7 +"e 3at&" Met" d...............................................................r$s" Ra!t.....................D..............................+0-R M-ANS .................................................................................................................. 1:...............................................................................................................................................(-N S-A............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1........ 1:2 Ra!tin) r ....... F.............................................................................................2 ..................................................................+A+I..............: /0A(+-R 1.................................................................. 1.............................................. 1:* (i&2$p r Res&$e...................... 1............................................ 162 Sm 2e................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................1...............................................................................................................................................................................1:2 S%immin) As" re.........................................................

............................21< -B-/U+I............/AM....................................................................................................................... rder /r ssin)s......UFLA6-............................................................................................ +0.................................................... 2<9 S...........................................................................................................................SURVIVAL IN MAN-MAD..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 219 S"ine............................ 21< 0ide Site A&ti5ities.....................V-M-N+ IN 0................................................................../-DUR-S..........................................219 (-RS........................................................................................................................(L-....................................................22< /0A(+-R 2* ......................................................... / ntin)en&y (1an ! A&ti n C/(AD............................................................................ 217 M-+0.....................................................................NM-N+..................... (.. di1y Rea&ti ns t Radiati n............L..................217 /0A(+-R 21 ................................................................................ 2<7 AIR/RAF+ V-/+........................................................................................ 216 M 5ement..............................N+A/+ 3I+0 L...................................I.................. 227 F d (r &$rement.............N..............NU/L-AR -NVIR.......22..................................................................................................................................22* / $ntermeas$res A)ainst (enetratin) -?terna1 Radiati n.............................+........2<: /0A(+-R 2< ...........................................................................................6I/AL -NVIR................................................................................................................................$rsts......................D-S AND SI6NALS............................. ! 2** .....................................-0AVI..................................................21* .................L... dy Si)na1s..2<6 .....221 -!!e&ts ! N$&1ear 3eap ns.........22: ............................................................................. 2<6 Air&ra!t A&2n %1ed)ments...... 216 S"ad %.....................................................21.................. FRI-NDLY /............................................................................................................................................................................................../........ (a)e ................. 216 N ise.........................................................................................................22< /0AN6-S +..................................................................................................................................NAL /AM......................... 21: /0A(+-R 22 .......................2<....................... 212 R-+URN +.............................R.............................................................................. 2<9 /.............................RFS .....................................0AAARDS......................................................... 211 0 1e-Up Areas.............................AR-AS.......................................peratin) (r &ed$res......................................................................................... Standin) ........................................................ 227 .................................... 2<< A$di Si)na1s.......................................R SI6NALIN6...........UFLA6-.............................................................................................i 1 )i&a1 A)ents and -!!e&ts.....LI+I/AL ALL-6IAN/-.......................................... 219 S"ape and ................... 2<...21< N ti!i&ati n t M 5e and A5 id /apt$re...........................................................S........................ 222 N$&1ear In@$ries.....................................................................................................221 +0..............................AEFL............................................DS ..................................................................................................$t1ine....................................../AL (-..................................................... 2<9 6r $nd-t -Air -mer)en&y / de....................................................... 227 3ater (r &$rement.....N+A/+ 3I+0 (-............................................................................ Department ! t"e Army M-ANS F......................................... 2<6 (ane1 Si)na1s................................................................................................22: Dete&ti n ! ........................................................................................................................................S+IL.............................................................................(L-............... 222 ................SURVIV.....................................SURVIVAL M..21..................................................... 21* Lin2$p 3it" Friend1y (atr 1s..........................................2<......................................................................................................................................................... 21: Anima1 Sta12in).......F (LANNIN6.................i 1 )i&a1 A)ents.................. 21* Lin2$p at t"e F-.......................22* S"e1ter........................................RIN6 (R................................................................................. /................................................................... 219 / 1 r and +e?t$re....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................221 +ypes ! N$&1ear .......................................................................................................................NM-N+S.....................FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U...................... 217 Upri)"t Sta12in)................ 217 S&ent................................................................................................................................................ 217 (r ne Sta12in).........................................................................................................................................S......... 2<< Vis$a1 Si)na1s.................................................................................................................. 217 /ra%1in)................................................................................................................................................. (0AS-S .....................N+R......F S+AL8IN6..................................... 222 Resid$a1 Radiati n......

............................ 2** (a)e 1< ! 2** ........................................i 1 )i&a1 A)ents......................2*< (r te&ti n A)ainst ........................ 2*2 F d (r &$rement...............................................................................................................................S..................................................2*< S"e1ter................................... Department ! t"e Army In!1$en&e ! 3eat"er and +errain.............................................................................................................. 2*< 3ater (r &$rement............................................................. 2*1 F d (r &$rement......................................................................................................2*1 (r te&ti n A)ainst /"emi&a1 A)ents.........................2*2 S"e1ter.............................................................................................................................................................2*1 Dete&ti n ! /"emi&a1 A)ents............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2*1 /0-MI/AL -NVIR..............FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U....................................NM-N+S......................................... 2*2 3ater (r &$rement........................................................................................................

+"is r"yt"m r pattern in&1$des anima1 and bird n ises and m 5ements and inse&t s $nds.e bser5ant. I! y $ are in a & 1d r %et &1imate# p$t n additi na1 &1 t"in) t pre5ent "yp t"ermia. /"e&2 y $r % $nds and )i5e y $rse1! !irst aid. Use y $r senses ! "earin)# sme11# and si)"t t )et a !ee1 ! r t"e batt1e!ie1d. Remember# se&$rity ta2es pri rity. Size Up Your Surroundings Determine t"e pattern ! t"e area. (1an y $r m 5es. Size Up Your !uip"ent (er"aps in t"e "eat ! batt1e# y $ 1 st r dama)ed s me ! y $r e4$ipment. I! y $ a&t in "aste# y $ may ! r)et r 1 se s me ! y $r e4$ipment. Size Up Your Physical Condition +"e press$re ! t"e batt1e y $ %ere in r t"e tra$ma ! bein) in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n may "a5e &a$sed y $ t 5er1 2 % $nds y $ re&ei5ed. F r instan&e# in any &1imate# drin2 p1enty ! %ater t pre5ent de"ydrati n.e ready t m 5e $t 4$i&21y %it" $t endan)erin) y $rse1! i! t"e enemy is near y $. SURVIVAL ACTIONS +"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"s e?pand n t"e meanin) ! ea&" 1etter ! t"e % rd s$r5i5a1. S -Size Up the Sit !ti"# I! y $ are in a & mbat sit$ati n# !ind a p1a&e %"ere y $ &an & n&ea1 y $rse1! !r m t"e enemy. henever !aced with a survival situation" remember the word SURVIVAL. / nsider a11 aspe&ts ! y $r sit$ati n Csi'e $p y $r sit$ati nD be! re y $ ma2e a de&isi n and a m 5e. 3"at is t"e enemy d in)G Ad5an&in)G 0 1din) in p1a&eG Retreatin)G Y $ %i11 "a5e t & nsider %"at is de5e1 pin) n t"e batt1e!ie1d %"en y $ ma2e y $r s$r5i5a1 p1an. St$dy and remember %"at ea&" 1etter si)ni!ies be&a$se y $ may s me day "a5e t ma2e it % r2 ! r y $.INTRODUCTION This manual is based entirely on the keyword SURVIVAL.S. It may a1s in&1$de enemy tra!!i& and &i5i1ian m 5ements. D nFt m 5e @$st ! r t"e sa2e ! ta2in) a&ti n. Use a11 y $r senses t e5a1$ate t"e sit$ati n.e sensiti5e t temperat$re &"an)es.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. N % t"at y $ "a5e si'ed $p y $r sit$ati n# s$rr $ndin)s# p"ysi&a1 & nditi n# and e4$ipment# y $ are ready t ma2e y $r s$r5i5a1 p1an. U -U$e A%% Y" & Se#$e$' U#( e H!$te M!)e$ *!$te Y $ may ma2e a %r n) m 5e %"en y $ rea&t 4$i&21y %it" $t t"in2in) r p1annin). -5ery en5ir nment# %"et"er ! rest# @$n)1e# r desert# "as a r"yt"m r pattern. . +"at m 5e may res$1t in y $r &apt$re r deat". 6et a !ee1 ! r %"at is ) in) n ar $nd y $. /"e&2 t see %"at e4$ipment y $ "a5e and %"at & nditi n it is in. (a)e 11 ! 2** . +a2e &are t pre5ent !$rt"er b di1y "arm. In y $r "aste y $ may a1s be& me dis riented s t"at y $ d nFt 2n % %"i&" %ay t ) . In d in) s # 2eep in mind y $r basi& p"ysi&a1 needs--%ater# ! d# and s"e1ter. N te s $nds and sme11s. . . The letters in this word can help guide you in your actions in any survival situation. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1 .

I! $n& ntr 11ed# t"ey &an destr y y $r abi1ity t ma2e an inte11i)ent de&isi n.e& *he&e Y" A&e Sp t y $r 1 &ati n n y $r map and re1ate it t t"e s$rr $ndin) terrain.p1a&in) a "i)" 5a1$e n 1i5in)-is 5ita1. 3e dis1i2e in& n5enien&es and dis& m! rts. V -V!#. I -I+p&"/i$e In t"e United States# %e "a5e items a5ai1ab1e ! r a11 $r needs. + )et a !ee1 ! t"e area# %at&" " % t"e pe p1e ) ab $t t"eir dai1y r $tine. +"is is a basi& prin&ip1e t"at y $ m$st a1%ays ! 11 %. +"is in! rmati n %i11 a11 % y $ t ma2e inte11i)ent de&isi ns %"en y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n. +a2e a t 1 desi)ned ! r a spe&i!i& p$rp se and see " % many t"er $ses y $ &an ma2e ! it. / nstant1y rient y $rse1!. +"ey &an drain y $r ener)y and t"ereby &a$se t"er ne)ati5e em ti ns.S. 3"en and %"at d t"ey eatG 3"en# %"ere# and " % d t"ey )et t"eir ! dG 3"en and %"ere d t"ey ) ! r %aterG 3"at time d t"ey $s$a11y ) t bed and )et $pG +"ese a&ti ns are imp rtant t y $ %"en y $ are tryin) t a5 id &apt$re. Anima1s a1s re4$ire ! d# %ater# and s"e1ter. +"e e?perien&e and 2n %1ed)e y $ "a5e )ained t"r $)" 1i!e and y $r Army trainin) %i11 "a5e a bearin) n y $r %i11 t 1i5e. Anima1 1i!e in t"e area &an a1s )i5e y $ &1$es n " % t s$r5i5e. I! t"ere are t"er pers ns %it" y $# ma2e s$re t"ey a1s 2n % t"eir 1 &ati n. St$bb rnness# a re!$sa1 t )i5e in t pr b1ems and bsta&1es t"at !a&e y $# %i11 )i5e y $ t"e menta1 and p"ysi&a1 stren)t" t end$re. D n t re1y n t"ers in t"e )r $p t 2eep tra&2 ! t"e r $te.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Many ! t"ese items are &"eap t rep1a&e %"en dama)ed. *ARNIN1 (a)e 12 ! 2** . . • Areas t"at %i11 pr 5ide ) d & 5er and & n&ea1ment. +"ey may &a$se y $ t rea&t t y $r !ee1in)s and ima)inati n rat"er t"an t y $r sit$ati n. • +"e 1 &ati n ! !riend1y $nits and & ntr 11ed areas. An e?amp1e is $sin) a r &2 ! r a "ammer. Y $r ima)inati n m$st ta2e 5er %"en y $r 2it %ears $t. Department ! t"e Army R -Re+e+. I! t"at pers n is 2i11ed# y $ %i11 "a5e t )et t"e map and & mpass !r m "im.i$h Fe!& !#( P!#i.y %at&"in) t"em# y $ &an !ind s $r&es ! %ater and ! d. +"is ine?perien&e in impr 5isati n &an be an enemy in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. A1%ays 2n % %" in y $r )r $p# 5e"i&1e# r air&ra!t "as a map and & mpass. (ay &1 se attenti n t %"ere y $ are and t %"ere y $ are ) in). Learn t impr 5ise. 3e "a5e be& me &reat$res ! & m! rt. • +"e 1 &ati n ! 1 &a1 %ater s $r&es Cespe&ia11y imp rtant in t"e desertD. N matter " % & mp1ete a s$r5i5a1 2it y $ "a5e %it" y $# it %i11 r$n $t r %ear $t a!ter a %"i1e. A1%ays try t determine# as a minim$m# " % y $r 1 &ati n re1ates t -• +"e 1 &ati n ! enemy $nits and & ntr 11ed areas. V -V!% e Li/i#0 A11 ! $s %ere b rn 2i&2in) and !i)"tin) t 1i5e# b$t %e "a5e be& me $sed t t"e s !t 1i!e. Learn t $se nat$ra1 b@e&ts ar $nd y $ ! r di!!erent needs.t Li)e the N!ti/e$ +"e nati5es and anima1s ! a re)i n "a5e adapted t t"eir en5ir nment. 3"at "appens %"en %e are !a&ed %it" a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %it" its stresses# in& n5enien&es# and dis& m! rtsG +"is is %"en t"e %i11 t 1i5e.$r easy & me# easy ) # easy-t -rep1a&e &$1t$re ma2es it $nne&essary ! r $s t impr 5ise. A -A. (re5i $s s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n trainin) and se1!-& n!iden&e %i11 enab1e y $ t 5an4$is" !ear and pani&. +"e )reatest enemies in a & mbat s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n are !ear and pani&. .

!# e!t !#( (&i#)4 M!#3 !#i+!%$ e!t p%!#t$ th!t !&e t"5i. S$r5i5a1 trainin) red$&es !ear ! t"e $n2n %n and )i5es y $ se1!-& n!iden&e. t" h +!#$4 8eep in mind t"at t"e rea&ti n ! anima1s &an re5ea1 y $r presen&e t t"e enemy. (ra&ti&e basi& s$r5i5a1 s2i11s d$rin) a11 trainin) pr )rams and e?er&ises. I! in a !riend1y area# ne %ay y $ &an )ain rapp rt %it" t"e nati5es is t s" % interest in t"eir t 1s and " % t"ey )et ! d and %ater.3 Y" & *it$' #ut $or No%& Le!&# B!$i. PATT RN 'OR SURVIVAL De5e1 p a s$r5i5a1 pattern t"at 1ets y $ beat t"e enemies ! s$r5i5a1. 0 % y $ de&ide t e4$ip y $rse1! be! re dep1 yment %i11 impa&t n %"et"er r n t y $ s$r5i5e. F r e?amp1e# in a & 1d en5ir nment# y $ % $1d need a !ire t )et %armH a shelter t pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d# %ind# and rain r sn %H traps r snares t )et !ood# a means t signal !riend1y air&ra!tH and !irst aid t maintain "ea1t". It tea&"es y $ t live by your wits. F r instan&e# i! y $ are ) in) t a desert# y $ need t 2n % " % t )et %ater in t"e desert.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.!##"t $e&/e !$ !# !. L -Li/e . S)i%%$ 3it" $t trainin) in basi& s2i11s ! r s$r5i5in) and e5adin) n t"e batt1e!ie1d# y $r &"an&es ! 1i5in) t"r $)" a & mbat s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n are s1i)"t. /"an)e y $r s$r5i5a1 pattern t meet y $r immediate p"ysi&a1 needs as t"e en5ir nment &"an)es.$"% te 0 i(e t" 2h!t 3" .y st$dyin) t"e pe p1e# y $ 1earn t respe&t t"em# y $ !ten ma2e 5a1$ab1e !riends# and# m st imp rtant# y $ 1earn " % t adapt t t"eir en5ir nment and in&rease y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1.S. . As y $ read t"e rest ! t"is man$a1# 2eep in mind t"e 2ey% rd SURVIVAL and t"e need ! r a s$r5i5a1 pattern. I! in$ured" !irst aid has top priority n matter %"at &1imate y $ are in. (a)e 1* ! 2** . Learn t"ese basi& s2i11s #"2--n t %"en y $ are "eaded ! r r are in t"e batt1e. Y $ need t 2n % ab $t t"e en5ir nment t %"i&" y $ are ) in)# and y $ m$st pra&ti&e basi& s2i11s )eared t t"at en5ir nment. +"is s$r5i5a1 pattern m$st in&1$de ! d# %ater# s"e1ter# !ire# !irst aid# and si)na1s p1a&ed in rder ! imp rtan&e. Department ! t"e Army A#i+!%$ .

The knowledge you" the soldier" gain !rom this chapter and other chapters in this manual" will prepare you to come through the toughest times ali(e) A LOO* AT STR SS .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Distress &a$ses an $n& m! rtab1e tensi n t"at %e try t es&ape and# pre!erab1y# (a)e 17 ! 2** . Some people with little or no survival training have managed to survive li!e%threatening circumstances. Some people with survival training have not used their skills and died. ithout a desk to survive" ac)uired skills serve little purpose and invaluable knowledge goes to waste. This chapter will identi!y and e+plain the nature o! stress" the stresses o! survival" and those internal reactions soldiers will naturally e+perience when !aced with the stresses o! a real%world survival situation.PSYCHOLO1Y OF SURVIVAL It takes much more than the knowledge and skills to build shelters" get !ood" make !ires" and travel without the aid o! standard navigational devices to live success!ully through a survival situation. Additionally" it is imperative that soldiers be aware o! their reactions to the wide variety o! stresses associated with survival. (aving survival skills is important# having the will to survive is essential.e&a$se %e $s$a11y d n t & nsider $nimp rtant e5ents stress!$1# stress &an a1s be an e?&e11ent indi&at r ! t"e si)ni!i&an&e %e atta&" t an e5ent--in t"er % rds# it "i)"1i)"ts %"at is imp rtant t $s. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 2 .S. + m$&" stress 1eads t distress. +"e ) a1 is t "a5e stress# b$t n t an e?&ess ! it. Thus" every soldier must be aware o! and be able to recogni*e those stresses commonly associated with survival. Stress is n t a disease t"at y $ &$re and e1iminate. It is t"e name )i5en t t"e e?perien&e %e "a5e as %e p"ysi&a11y# menta11y# em ti na11y# and spirit$a11y resp nd t 1i!eFs tensi ns. 3e need t "a5e s me stress in $r 1i5es# b$t t m$&" ! anyt"in) &an be bad. Nee( 6"& St&e$$ 3e need stress be&a$se it "as many p siti5e bene!its. Stress &an be des&ribed as $r rea&ti n t press$re. Instead# it is a & nditi n %e a11 e?perien&e. The soldier in a survival environment !aces many stresses that ultimately impact on his mind. Stress &an s" % $r abi1ity t "and1e press$re %it" $t brea2in)H it tests $r adaptabi1ity and !1e?ibi1ityH it &an stim$1ate $s t d $r best. There is a psychology to survival. + m$&" stress &an ta2e its t 11 n pe p1e and r)ani'ati ns. .e! re %e &an $nderstand $r psy&" 1 )i&a1 rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 settin)# it is "e1p!$1 t !irst 2n % a 1itt1e bit ab $t stress. These stresses can produce thoughts and emotions that" i! poorly understood" can trans!orm a con!ident" well%trained soldier into an indecisive" ine!!ective individual with )uestionable ability to survive. Stress pr 5ides $s %it" &"a11en)esH it )i5es $s &"an&es t 1earn ab $t $r 5a1$es and stren)t"s. A key ingredient in any survival situation is the mental attitude o! the individual&s' involved.

Listed be1 % are a !e% ! t"e & mm n si)ns ! distress y $ may !ind in y $r !e11 % s 1diers r y $rse1! %"en !a&ed %it" t m$&" stressI • Di!!i&$1ty ma2in) de&isi ns.n&e t"e b dy re& )ni'es t"e presen&e ! a stress r# it t"en be)ins t a&t t pr te&t itse1!. (er"aps n t"in) is m re stress!$1 t"an bein) a1 ne in an $n!ami1iar en5ir nment %"ere y $ & $1d die !r m " sti1e a&ti n# an a&&ident# r !r m eatin) s met"in) 1et"a1. In resp nse t a stress r# t"e b dy prepares eit"er t J!i)"t r !1ee. As t"e b dy resp nds t t"is S. I11ness and in@$ry &an a1s add t stress by 1imitin) y $r abi1ity t mane$5er# )et ! d and drin2# !ind s"e1ter# and de!end y $rse1!. S &/i/!% St&e$$"&$ Any e5ent &an 1ead t stress and# as e5ery ne "as e?perien&ed# e5ents d nFt a1%ays & me ne at a time. It &an be e?treme1y stress!$1 peratin) n 1imited (a)e 19 ! 2** . It &an a1s &a$se y $ t pani& and ! r)et a11 y $r trainin). Uncertainly and Lac. 8ey t y $r s$r5i5a1 is y $r abi1ity t mana)e t"e ine5itab1e stresses y $ %i11 en& $nter. +"e &$m$1ati5e e!!e&t ! min r stress rs &an be a ma@ r distress i! t"ey a11 "appen t &1 se t )et"er. • +" $)"ts ab $t deat" r s$i&ide.J Stress rs are t"e b5i $s &a$se %"i1e stress is t"e resp nse. • 3it"dra%in) !r m t"ers. Department ! t"e Army a5 id. +"e b dy re1eases st red !$e1s Cs$)ar and !atsD t pr 5ide 4$i&2 ener)yH breat"in) rate in&reases t s$pp1y m re ?y)en t t"e b1 dH m$s&1e tensi n in&reases t prepare ! r a&ti nH b1 d &1 ttin) me&"anisms are a&ti5ated t red$&e b1eedin) !r m &$tsH senses be& me m re a&$te C"earin) be& mes m re sensiti5e# eyes be& me bi)# sme11 be& mes s"arperD s t"at y $ are m re a%are ! y $r s$rr $ndin) and "eart rate and b1 d press$re rise t pr 5ide m re b1 d t t"e m$s&1es. Stress rs are n t & $rte $sH ne stress r d es n t 1ea5e be&a$se an t"er ne arri5es. +"is pr te&ti5e p st$re 1ets a pers n & pe %it" p tentia1 dan)ersH " %e5er# a pers n &ann t maintain s$&" a 1e5e1 ! a1ertness inde!inite1y. Stress rs add $p. LetFs ta2e a 1 2 at a !e% ! t"ese. • (r pensity ! r mista2es. As y $ &an see# stress &an be & nstr$&ti5e r destr$&ti5e. • /are1essness. At t"is p int# t"e abi1ity t resist stress r $se it in a p siti5e %ay )i5es $t and si)ns ! distress appear. It is n1y by & n-tr 11in) t"e stress ass &iated %it" t"e 5$1nerabi1ity t in@$ry# i11ness# and deat" t"at a s 1dier &an "a5e t"e & $ra)e t ta2e t"e ris2s ass &iated %it" s$r5i5a1 tas2s. Stress &an inspire y $ t perate s$&&ess!$11y and per! rm at y $r ma?im$m e!!i&ien&y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. As t"e b dyFs resistan&e t stress %ears d %n and t"e s $r&es ! stress & ntin$e C r in&reaseD# e5ent$a11y a state ! e?"a$sti n arri5es. +"ese e5ents are n t stress# b$t t"ey pr d$&e it and are &a11ed Jstress rs. It is t"ere! re essentia1 t"at t"e s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 settin) be a%are ! t"e types ! stress rs "e %i11 en& $nter.S# se5era1 a&ti ns ta2e p1a&e. • An)ry $tb$rsts. . • +r $b1e )ettin) a1 n) %it" t"ers.J +"is preparati n in5 15es an interna1 S. It &an en& $ra)e r dis& $ra)e# m 5e $s a1 n) r st p $s dead in $r tra&2s# and ma2e 1i!e meanin)!$1 r seemin)1y meanin)1ess.eath In@$ry# i11ness# and deat" are rea1 p ssibi1ities a s$r5i5 r "as t !a&e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. In+ury& Illness& or . • / nstant % rryin). • 0idin) !r m resp nsibi1ities. +"e s$r5i5 r is t"e s 1dier %" % r2s %it" "is stresses instead ! 1ettin) "is stresses % r2 n "im.o$ Control S me pe p1e "a5e tr $b1e peratin) in settin)s %"ere e5eryt"in) is n t &1ear-&$t.!ten# stress!$1 e5ents &&$r sim$1tane $s1y. +"e n1y )$arantee in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is t"at n t"in) is )$aranteed.S sent t"r $)" $t t"e b dy. -5en i! i11ness and in@$ry d nFt 1ead t deat"# t"ey add t stress t"r $)" t"e pain and dis& m! rt t"ey )enerate. • L % ener)y 1e5e1. . • F r)et!$1ness. Anti&ipatin) stress rs and de5e1 pin) strate)ies t & pe %it" t"em are t% in)redients in t"e e!!e&ti5e mana)ement ! stress.

A1t" $)" %e# as s 1diers# & mp1ain ab $t "i)"er "ead4$arters# %e be& me $sed t t"e in! rmati n and )$idan&e it pr 5ides# espe&ia11y d$rin) times ! & n!$si n. +"e s$r5i5a1 stress rs menti ned in t"is se&ti n are by n means t"e n1y nes y $ may !a&e. +"ere is n s"ame in t"isK -a&" s 1dier m$st train "imse1! n t t be 5er& me by "is !ears. F r t"e s 1dier tryin) t s$r5i5e# !ear &an "a5e a p siti5e !$n&ti n i! it en& $ra)es "im t be &a$ti $s in sit$ati ns %"ere re&21essness & $1d res$1t in in@$ry. Isolation +"ere are s me ad5anta)es t !a&in) ad5ersity %it" t"ers. Remember# %"at is stress!$1 t ne pers n may n t be stress!$1 t an t"er. +"e b@e&t is n t t a5 id stress# b$t rat"er t mana)e t"e stress rs ! s$r5i5a1 and ma2e t"em % r2 ! r y $. +"is $n&ertainty and 1a&2 ! & ntr 1 a1s add t t"e stress ! bein) i11# in@$red# r 2i11ed. In s$r5i5a1# a s 1dier %i11 "a5e t & ntend %it" t"e stress rs ! %eat"er# terrain# and t"e 5ariety ! &reat$res in"abitin) an area. As s 1diers %e 1earn indi5id$a1 s2i11s# b$t %e train t !$n&ti n as part ! a team. It is p ssib1e t be& me s !ati)$ed t"at t"e a&t ! @$st stayin) a%a2e is stress!$1 in itse1!. 3e n % "a5e a )enera1 2n %1ed)e ! stress and t"e stress rs & mm n t s$r5i5a1H t"e ne?t step is t e?amine $r rea&ti ns t t"e stress rs %e may !a&e. Y $r e?perien&es# trainin)# pers na1 $t1 2 n 1i!e# p"ysi&a1 and menta1 & nditi nin)# and 1e5e1 ! se1!-& n!iden&e & ntrib$te t %"at y $ %i11 !ind stress!$1 in a s$r5i5a1 en5ir nment. Un! rt$nate1y# !ear &an a1s imm bi1i'e a pers n. 'atigue F r&in) y $rse1! t & ntin$e s$r5i5in) is n t easy as y $ )r % m re tired.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"$s# )ettin) and preser5in) ! d and %ater ta2es n in&reasin) imp rtan&e as t"e 1en)t" ! time in a s$r5i5a1 settin) in&reases. M st s 1diers %i11 "a5e s me de)ree ! !ear %"en p1a&ed in $n!ami1iar s$rr $ndin)s $nder ad5erse & nditi ns. Idea11y# t"r $)" rea1isti& trainin)# %e &an a&4$ire t"e 2n %1ed)e and s2i11s needed t in&rease $r & n!iden&e and t"ereby mana)e $r !ears. A#5iet3 Ass &iated %it" !ear is an?iety. Fe!& Fear is $r em ti na1 resp nse t dan)er $s &ir&$mstan&es t"at %e be1ie5e "a5e t"e p tentia1 t &a$se deat"# in@$ry# r i11ness. LetFs be)in. +"is "arm is n t @$st 1imited t p"ysi&a1 dama)eH t"e t"reat t neFs em ti na1 and menta1 %e11-bein) &an )enerate !ear as %e11. It is n t s$rprisin) t"at t"e a5era)e pers n %i11 "a5e s me psy&" 1 )i&a1 rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. +"e same s$r5i5a1 me&"anisms t"at 2ept $r ! re!at"ers a1i5e &an "e1p 2eep $s a1i5e as %e11K 0 %e5er# t"ese s$r5i5a1 me&"anisms t"at &an "e1p $s &an a1s % r2 a)ainst $s i! %e d nFt $nderstand and anti&ipate t"eir presen&e.S. .unger and Thirst 3it" $t ! d and %ater a pers n %i11 %ea2en and e5ent$a11y die. 0eat# & 1d# rain# %inds# m $ntains# s%amps# deserts# inse&ts# dan)er $s repti1es# and t"er anima1s are @$st a !e% ! t"e &"a11en)es a%aitin) t"e s 1dier % r2in) t s$r5i5e. 3e %i11 n % e?amine s me ! t"e ma@ r interna1 rea&ti ns y $ and any ne %it" y $ mi)"t e?perien&e %it" t"e s$r5i5a1 stress rs addressed in t"e ear1ier para)rap"s. n(iron"ent -5en $nder t"e m st idea1 &ir&$mstan&es# nat$re is 4$ite ! rmidab1e.e&a$se it is nat$ra1 ! r $s t be a!raid# it is a1s nat$ra1 ! r $s t e?perien&e an?iety. It &an &a$se "im t be& me s !ri)"tened t"at "e !ai1s t per! rm a&ti5ities essentia1 ! r s$r5i5a1.ein) in & nta&t %it" t"ers a1s pr 5ides a )reater sense ! se&$rity and a !ee1in) s me ne is a5ai1ab1e t "e1p i! pr b1ems &&$r. 0is abi1ity t adapt p"ysi&a11y and menta11y t a &"an)in) % r1d 2ept "im a1i5e %"i1e t"er spe&ies ar $nd "im )rad$a11y died !!. 3"en $sed in a "ea1t"y %ay# an?iety $r)es $s t a&t t end# (a)e 16 ! 2** . NATURAL R ACTIONS Man "as been ab1e t s$r5i5e many s"i!ts in "is en5ir nment t"r $)" $t t"e &ent$ries. An?iety &an be an $neasy# appre"ensi5e !ee1in) %e )et %"en !a&ed %it" dan)er $s sit$ati ns Cp"ysi&a1# menta1# and em ti na1D. F r a s 1dier $sed t "a5in) "is pr 5isi ns iss$ed# ! ra)in) &an be a bi) s $r&e ! stress. Dependin) n " % a s 1dier "and1es t"e stress ! "is en5ir nment# "is s$rr $ndin)s &an be eit"er a s $r&e ! ! d and pr te&ti n r &an be a &a$se ! e?treme dis& m! rt 1eadin) t in@$ry# i11ness# r deat". Department ! t"e Army in! rmati n in a settin) %"ere y $ "a5e 1imited & ntr 1 ! y $r s$rr $ndin)s. A si)ni!i&ant stress r in s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns is t"at !ten a pers n r team "as t re1y s 1e1y n its %n res $r&es. . .

+"e !r$strated pers n be& mes m re and m re an)ry as "e !ai1s t rea&" "is ) a1s. M st ! a11# y $ may tap int a reser5 ir ! inner stren)t" and ! rtit$de y $ ne5er 2ne% y $ "ad. +"e s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 settin) red$&es "is an?iety by per! rmin) t" se tas2s t"at %i11 ens$re "is & min) t"r $)" t"e rdea1 a1i5e. Department ! t"e Army r at 1east master# t"e dan)ers t"at t"reaten $r e?isten&e. L"#e%i#e$$ !#( B"&e("+ Man is a s &ia1 anima1. I! t"e an)er d es n t "e1p t"e pers n t s$&&eed# t"en t"e !r$strati n 1e5e1 ) es e5en "i)"er. L ne1iness and b red m &an brin) t t"e s$r!a&e 4$a1ities y $ t" $)"t n1y t"ers "ad. An?iety &an 5er%"e1m a s 1dier t t"e p int %"ere "e be& mes easi1y & n!$sed and "as di!!i&$1ty t"in2in). / n5erse1y# 1 ne1iness and b red m &an be an t"er s $r&e ! depressi n.$t de&isi ns# and# in s me instan&es# an JI 4$itJ attit$de Cpe p1e s metimes a5 id d in) s met"in) t"ey &anFt masterD. A destr$&ti5e &y&1e bet%een an)er and !r$strati n & ntin$es $nti1 t"e pers n be& mes % rn d %n-p"ysi&a11y# em ti na11y# and menta11y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ m$st "a5e !ait" in y $r &apabi1ity t J) it a1 ne.S. +"$s# s ner r 1ater# s 1diers %i11 "a5e t & pe %it" !r$strati n %"en a !e% ! t"eir p1ans r$n int tr $b1e. I! %e %ere ne5er an?i $s# t"ere % $1d be 1itt1e m ti5ati n t ma2e &"an)es in $r 1i5es. . A#0e& !#( F& $t&!ti"# Fr$strati n arises %"en a pers n is & ntin$a11y t"%arted in "is attempts t rea&" a ) a1.ne $t)r %t" ! t"is !r$strati n is an)er. +"ere is n t"in) %r n) %it" bein) sad as y $ temp rari1y t"in2 ab $t y $r 1 5ed nes and remember %"at 1i!e is 1i2e ba&2 in J&i5i1i'ati nJ r Jt"e % r1d. As t"is sadness deepens# %e 1abe1 t"e !ee1in) Jdepressi n. Additi na11y# y $ m$st de5e1 p a de)ree ! se1!-s$!!i&ien&y. It is ine5itab1e# in tryin) t d t"ese tas2s# t"at s met"in) %i11 ) %r n)H t"at s met"in) %i11 "appen bey nd t"e s 1dierFs & ntr 1H and t"at %it" neFs 1i!e at sta2e# e5ery mista2e is ma)ni!ied in terms ! its imp rtan&e. I! t"e s 1dier &an "arness and pr per1y &"anne1 t"e em ti na1 intensity ass &iated %it" an)er and !r$strati n# "e &an pr d$&ti5e1y a&t as "e ans%ers t"e &"a11en)es ! s$r5i5a1.J S$&" t" $)"ts# in !a&t# &an )i5e y $ t"e desire t try "arder and 1i5e ne m re day. + a&"ie5e t"is ) a1# t"e s 1dier m$st & mp1ete s me tas2s %it" minima1 res $r&es. 3"en a pers n rea&"es t"is p int# "e starts t )i5e $p# and "is ! &$s s"i!ts !r m J3"at &an I d J t J+"ere is n t"in) I &an d .J Depressi n is an e?pressi n ! t"is " pe1ess# "e1p1ess !ee1in). +"is means %e# as "$man bein)s# en@ y t"e & mpany ! t"ers. . + s$r5i5e# t"e s 1dier m$st 1earn te&"ni4$es t &a1m "is an?ieties and 2eep t"em in t"e ran)e %"ere t"ey "e1p# n t "$rt.n t"e t"er "and# i! y $ a11 % y $rs e1! t sin2 int a depressed state# t"en it &an sap a11 y $r ener)y and# m re imp rtant# y $r %i11 t s$r5i5e. +"e e?tent ! y $r ima)inati n and &reati5ity may s$rprise y $. Very !e% pe p1e %ant t be a1 ne all the time. As y $ are a%are# t"ere is a distin&t &"an&e ! is 1ati n in a s$r5i5a1 settin). 6ettin) 1 st# dama)ed r ! r) tten e4$ipment# t"e %eat"er# in" spitab1e terrain# enemy patr 1s# and p"ysi&a1 1imitati ns are @$st a !e% s $r&es ! !r$strati n and an)er. +"is is n t bad.n&e t"is "appens# it be& mes m re and m re di!!i&$1t ! r "im t ma2e ) d @$d)ments and s $nd de&isi ns. 3"en re4$ired t d s # y $ may dis& 5er s me "idden ta1ents and abi1ities. In t"is ! rm# an?iety is ) dH " %e5er# an?iety &an a1s "a5e a de5astatin) impa&t.J (a)e 17 ! 2** . Dep&e$$i"# It % $1d be a rare pers n indeed %" % $1d n t )et sad# at 1east m mentari1y# %"en !a&ed %it" t"e pri5ati ns ! s$r5i5a1. As "e red$&es "is an?iety# t"e s 1dier is a1s brin)in) $nder & ntr 1 t"e s $r&e ! t"at an?iety--"is !ears. +"ere are many e5ents in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n t"at &an !r$strate r an)er a s 1dier.J Depressi n is &1 se1y 1in2ed %it" !r$strati n and an)er. +"e ) a1 ! s$r5i5a1 is t stay a1i5e $nti1 y $ &an rea&" "e1p r $nti1 "e1p &an rea&" y $. As a s 1dier s$r5i5in) a1 ne# r %it" t"ers# y $ m$st !ind %ays t 2eep y $r mind pr d$&ti5e1y &&$pied. . Fr$strati n and an)er en& $ra)e imp$1si5e rea&ti ns# irrati na1 be"a5i r# p r1y t" $)"t. It is imperati5e t"at ea&" s 1dier resist s$&&$mbin) t depressi n. I! t"e s 1dier d es n t pr per1y ! &$s "is an)ry !ee1in)s# "e &an %aste m$&" ener)y in a&ti5ities t"at d 1itt1e t !$rt"er eit"er "is &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1 r t"e &"an&es ! t" se ar $nd "im.

A#ti.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is s 1dier e?perien&es psy&" 1 )i&a1 de!eat 1 n) be! re "e p"ysi&a11y s$&&$mbs. +"e &"a11en)e ! s$r5i5a1 "as pr d$&ed & $nt1ess e?amp1es ! "er ism# & $ra)e# and se1!-sa&ri!i&e. F 11 % t"e ada)e# J0 pe ! r t"e best# prepare ! r t"e % rst. It may be t"e res$1t ! an a&&ident r mi1itary missi n %"ere t"ere %as a 1 ss ! 1i!e. 7#"2 Y" &$e%6 +"r $)" trainin)# !ami1y# and !riends ta2e t"e time t dis& 5er %" y $ are n t"e inside.ip!te Fe!&$ D nFt pretend t"at y $ %i11 "a5e n !ears. (er"aps y $ %ere t"e n1y# r ne ! a !e%# s$r5i5 rs. Stren)t"en y $r str n)er 4$a1ities and de5e1 p t"e areas t"at y $ 2n % are ne&essary t s$r5i5e. 8eep y $r " pes and e?pe&tati ns %it"in t"e estimate ! t"e sit$ati n. +"ese &an % r2 ! r y $# r t"ey &an % r2 t y $r d %n!a11. 3"i1e nat$ra11y re1ie5ed t be a1i5e# y $ sim$1tane $s1y may be m $rnin) t"e deat"s ! t"ers %" %ere 1ess ! rt$nate. As y $ &an see# y $ are ) in) t e?perien&e an ass rtment ! t" $)"ts and em ti ns. Department ! t"e Army 1 i%t +"e &ir&$mstan&es 1eadin) t y $r bein) in a s$r5i5a1 settin) are s metimes dramati& and tra)i&.J It is m$&" easier t ad@$st t p1easant s$rprises ab $t neFs $ne?pe&ted ) d ! rt$nes t"an t be $pset by neFs $ne?pe&ted "ars" &ir&$mstan&es. +"is !ee1in)# %"en $sed in a p siti5e %ay# "as en& $ra)ed pe p1e t try "arder t s$r5i5e %it" t"e be1ie! t"ey %ere a11 %ed t 1i5e ! r s me )reater p$rp se in 1i!e.J (repare y $rse1! t r$1e 5er t"ese rea&ti ns s t"ey ser5e y $r $1timate interest--stayin) a1i5e %it" t"e " n r and di)nity ass &iated %it" bein) an Ameri&an s 1dier. .e)in t"in2in) ab $t %"at % $1d !ri)"ten y $ t"e m st i! ! r&ed t s$r5i5e a1 ne. +"ese are t"e 4$a1ities it &an brin) $t in y $ i! y $ "a5e prepared y $rse1!. S$&" an a&t % $1d be t"e )reatest tra)edy.S. D nFt be a!raid ! y $r Jnat$ra1 rea&ti ns t t"is $nnat$ra1 sit$ati n. . Be Re!%i$ti. +"ese rea&ti ns# %"en & ntr 11ed in a "ea1t"y %ay# "e1p t in&rease a s 1dierFs 1i2e1i" d ! s$r5i5in).e1 % are a !e% tips t "e1p prepare y $rse1! psy&" 1 )i&a11y ! r s$r5i5a1. See &ir&$mstan&es as t"ey are# n t as y $ %ant t"em t be. 3"ate5er reas n y $ )i5e y $rse1!# d n t 1et )$i1t !ee1in)s pre5ent y $ !r m 1i5in). A("pt ! P"$iti/e Attit (e (a)e 1: ! 2** . Instead ! ra11yin) "is interna1 res $r&es# t"e s 1dier 1istens t "is interna1 !ears. Remember# s$r5i5a1 is nat$ra1 t e5ery neH bein) $ne?pe&ted1y t"r$st int t"e 1i!e and deat" str$))1e ! s$r5i5a1 is n t. +"ey pr mpt t"e s 1dier t pay m re attenti n in trainin)# t !i)"t ba&2 %"en s&ared# t ta2e a&ti ns t"at ens$re s$stenan&e and se&$rity# t 2eep !ait" %it" "is !e11 % s 1diers# and t stri5e a)ainst 1ar)e dds. +"e 1i5in) %" aband n t"eir &"an&e t s$r5i5e a&& mp1is" n t"in). +"e ) a1 is n t t e1iminate t"e !ear# b$t t b$i1d & n!iden&e in y $r abi1ity t !$n&ti n despite y $r !ears. PR PARIN/ YOURS L' Y $r missi n as a s 1dier in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is t stay a1i5e. D nFt be a!raid t ma2e an " nest appraisa1 ! sit$ati ns. 3"en t"e s$r5i5 r &ann t & ntr 1 t"ese rea&ti ns in a "ea1t"y %ay# t"ey &an brin) "im t a standsti11. +"r $)" st$dyin) t"is man$a1 and attendin) s$r5i5a1 trainin) y $ &an de5e1 p t"e survival attitude. 3"en y $ ) int a s$r5i5a1 settin) %it" $nrea1isti& e?pe&tati ns# y $ may be 1ayin) t"e )r $nd% r2 ! r bitter disapp intment. Fear# an?iety# an)er# !r$strati n# )$i1t# depressi n# and 1 ne1iness are a11 p ssib1e rea&ti ns t t"e many stresses & mm n t s$r5i5a1. S metimes# s$r5i5 rs tried t stay a1i5e s t"at t"ey & $1d &arry n t"e % r2 ! t" se 2i11ed. +rain in t" se areas ! & n&ern t y $. It in5 15es preparati n t ens$re t"at y $r rea&ti ns in a s$r5i5a1 settin) are pr d$&ti5e# n t destr$&ti5e. It is n t $n& mm n ! r s$r5i5 rs t !ee1 )$i1ty ab $t bein) spared !r m deat" %"i1e t"ers %ere n t.

Remember# t"e m re rea1isti& t"e trainin)# t"e 1ess 5er%"e1min) an a&t$a1 s$r5i5a1 settin) %i11 be. At sta2e is y $r 1i!e and t"e 1i5es ! t"ers %" are dependin) n y $ t d y $r s"are.e$ (e p1e $nder stress "a5e a p tentia1 t pani& i! t"ey are n t %e11-trained and n t prepared psy&" 1 )i&a11y t !a&e %"ate5er t"e &ir&$mstan&es may be.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.h#i. Le!&# St&e$$ M!#!0e+e#t Te. L 2in) ! r t"e ) e?&e11ent ! r e?er&isin) y $r ima)inati n and &reati5ity. ! 2** . A !e% ) d te&"ni4$es t de5e1 p in&1$de re1a?ati n s2i11s# time mana)ement s2i11s# asserti5eness s2i11s# and & )niti5e restr$&t$rin) s2i11s Ct"e abi1ity t & ntr 1 " % y $ 5ie% a sit$ati nD. 3"i1e %e !ten &ann t & ntr 1 t"e s$r5i5a1 &ir&$mstan&es in %"i&" %e !ind $rse15es# it is %it"in $r abi1ity t & ntr 1 $r resp nse t t" se &ir&$mstan&es. T&!i# +"r $)" mi1itary trainin) and 1i!e e?perien&es# be)in t day t prepare y $rse1! t & pe %it" t"e ri) rs ! s$r5i5a1.J (a)e 1. d n t n1y b sts m ra1e# it a1s is Re+i#( Y" &$e%6 *h!t I$ !t St!)e Remember# !ai1$re t prepare y $rse1! psy&" 1 )i&a11y t & pe %it" s$r5i5a1 1eads t rea&ti ns s$&" as depressi n# &are1essness# inattenti n# 1 ss ! & n!iden&e# p r de&isi n-ma2in)# and )i5in) $p be! re t"e b dy )i5es in.S. Remember# Jt"e %i11 t s$r5i5eJ &an a1s be & nsidered t be Jt"e re!$sa1 t )i5e $p. Learnin) stress mana)ement te&"ni4$es &an en"an&e si)ni!i&ant1y y $r &apabi1ity t remain &a1m and ! &$sed as y $ % r2 t 2eep y $rse1! and t"ers a1i5e. Dem nstratin) y $r s2i11s in trainin) %i11 )i5e y $ t"e & n!iden&e t &a11 $p n t"em s" $1d t"e need arise. Department ! t"e Army Learn t see t"e p tentia1 ) d in e5eryt"in).

(1a&e b$12y items in t"e r$&2sa&2. +"$s# s$r5i5a1 p1annin) means preparati n. Y $r s$r5i5a1 2it need n t be e1ab rate. F r e?amp1e# i! y $r @ b re-4$ires t"at y $ % r2 in a sma11# en&1 sed area t"at 1imits %"at y $ &an &arry n y $r pers n# p1an %"ere y $ &an p$t y $r r$&2sa&2 r y $r 1 ad-bearin) e4$ipment.e! re ma2in) y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# " %e5er# & nsider y $r $nitFs missi n# t"e perati na1 en5ir nment# and t"e e4$ipment and 5e"i&1es assi)ned t y $r $nit.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0 % m$&" e4$ipment y $ p$t in y $r 2it depends n " % y $ %i11 &arry t"e 2it. +"ey p$t sn % tires n t"eir 5e"i&1es# add e?tra %ei)"t in t"e ba&2 ! r tra&ti n# and t"ey &arry a s" 5e1# sa1t# and a b1an2et. SURVIVAL *ITS +"e en5ir nment is t"e 2ey t t"e types ! items y $ %i11 need in y $r s$r5i5a1 2it. (reparin) and &arryin) a s$r5i5a1 2it is as imp rtant as t"e & nsiderati ns menti ned ab 5e. In preparin) y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# se1e&t items y $ &an $se ! r m re t"an ne p$rp se. Fina11y# emer)en&y p1annin) is essentia1. (a)e 2< ! 2** . F r e?amp1e# y $r map and & mpass s" $1d a1%ays be n y $r b dy.SURVIVAL PLANNIN1 AND SURVIVAL 7ITS S$r5i5a1 p1annin) is n t"in) m re t"an rea1i'in) s met"in) & $1d "appen t"at % $1d p$t y $ in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n and# %it" t"at in mind# ta2in) steps t in&rease y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. (reparati n & $1d a1s mean 2n %in) y $r intended r $te ! tra5e1 and !ami1iari'in) y $rse1! %it" t"e area. 0 %e5er# i! y $ 2n % %"at t"ese 2its & ntain# it %i11 "e1p y $ t p1an and t prepare y $r %n s$r5i5a1 2it. /arry 1ess imp rtant items n y $r 1 ad-bearin) e4$ipment. I! y $ are n t an a5iat r# y $ %i11 pr bab1y n t "a5e a&&ess t t"e s$r5i5a1 5ests r s$r5i5a1 2its. A1%ays 1ayer y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# 2eepin) t"e m st imp rtant items n y $r b dy. I0PORTANC O' PLANNIN/ Detai1ed pri r p1annin) is essentia1 in p tentia1 s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. . . In&1$din) s$r5i5a1 & nsiderati ns in missi n p1annin) %i11 en"an&e y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1 i! an emer)en&y &&$rs. An t"er e?amp1e ! preparati n is !indin) t"e emer)en&y e?its n an air&ra!t %"en y $ b ard it ! r a !1i)"t. I! y $ "a5e t% items t"at %i11 ser5e t"e same !$n&ti n# pi&2 t"e ne y $ &an $se ! r an t"er !$n&ti n. +"ere are 2its ! r 5er-%ater s$r5i5a1# ! r " t &1imate s$r5i5a1# and an a5iat r s$r5i5a1 5est Csee Appendi? A ! r a des&ripti n ! t"ese s$r5i5a1 2its and t"eir & ntentsD.ne imp rtant aspe&t ! pri r p1annin) is pre5enti5e medi&ine. ($t it %"ere it %i11 n t pre5ent y $ !r m )ettin) $t ! t"e area 4$i&21y# yet %"ere it is readi1y a&&essib1e. F r t"e &ase# y $ mi)"t %ant t $se a . (reparati n means "a5in) s$r5i5a1 items and 2n %in) " % t $se t"em (e p1e %" 1i5e in sn % re)i ns prepare t"eir 5e"i&1es ! r p r r ad & nditi ns. Fai1$re t 2eep y $r s" ts &$rrent may mean y $r b dy is n t imm$ne t diseases t"at are pre5a1ent in t"e area. -5en t"e sma11est s$r5i5a1 2it# i! pr per1y prepared# is in5a1$ab1e %"en !a&ed %it" a s$r5i5a1 pr b1em. D n t d$p1i&ate items# as t"is in&reases y $r 2itFs si'e and %ei)"t. Y $ need n1y !$n&ti na1 items t"at %i11 meet y $r needs and a &ase t " 1d t"e items. -ns$rin) t"at y $ "a5e n denta1 pr b1ems and t"at y $r imm$ni'ati ns are &$rrent %i11 "e1p y $ a5 id p tentia1 denta1 r "ea1t" pr b1ems.S.and-Aid b ?# a !irst aid &ase# an amm$niti n p $&"# r an t"er s$itab1e &ase. +"is &ase s" $1d be-• 3ater repe11ent r %aterpr !. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 8 . A11 Army air&ra!t n rma11y "a5e s$r5i5a1 2its n b ard ! r t"e type areaCsD 5er %"i&" t"ey %i11 !1y. A denta1 pr b1em in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %i11 red$&e y $r abi1ity t & pe %it" t"er pr b1ems t"at y $ !a&e. A 2it &arried n y $r b dy %i11 "a5e t be sma11er t"an ne &arried in a 5e"i&1e.

+"en prepare y $r s$r5i5a1 2it. In y $r s$r5i5a1 2it# y $ s" $1d "a5e-• First aid items. • Snare %ire. • Need1e and t"read. • S 1ar b1an2et. • /"ap Sti&2. S$itab1e t a&&ept 5arisi'ed & mp nents. • /and1e. • 3rist & mpass. / nsider y $r $nitFs missi n and t"e en5ir nment in %"i&" y $r $nit %i11 perate. • . • Sma11 "and 1ens.$tter!1y s$t$res. D$rab1e. • . Department ! t"e Army • • • -asy t &arry r atta&" t y $r b dy. • Si)na1in) items. Read ab $t and pra&ti&e t"e s$r5i5a1 te&"ni4$es in t"is man$a1. • Fis"" 2s.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.?ytetra&y&1ine tab1ets Cdiarr"ea r in!e&ti nD. • S$r)i&a1 b1ades. • S"e1ter items. • Si)na1in) mirr r. • / nd ms ! r %ater st ra)e. (a)e 21 ! 2** . • 3ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets r dr ps. • F d pr &$rement items. S me e?amp1es ! t"ese items are-• Li)"ter# meta1 mat&"# %aterpr ! mat&"es. • Fis" and snare 1ine. • 8ni!e. • Fire startin) e4$ipment. • 3ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets.S. In&1$de a %eap n n1y i! t"e sit$ati n s di&tates.

. Survivors have related !eeling o! apathy and helplessness because they could not treat themselves in this environment. *!te& Y $r b dy 1 ses %ater t"r $)" n rma1 b dy pr &esses Cs%eatin)# $rinatin)# and de!e&atin)D. / nsider t"e ! 11 %in) res$1ts ! b dy !1$id 1 ssI • A 9 per&ent 1 ss ! b dy !1$ids res$1ts in t"irst# irritabi1ity# na$sea# and %ea2ness. • A 19 per&ent 1 ss res$1ts in dim 5isi n# pain!$1 $rinati n# s% 11en t n)$e# dea!ness# and a n$mb !ee1in) in t"e s2in.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.t"er !a&t rs# s$&" as "eat e?p s$re# & 1d e?p s$re# intense a&ti5ity# "i)" a1tit$de# b$rns# r i11ness# &an &a$se y $r b dy t 1 se m re %ater. The ability to treat themselves increased their morale and cohesion and aided in their survival and eventual return to !riendly !orces. ALT. + s$r5i5e# y $ need %ater and ! d. (a)e 22 ! 2** .s ability to return to sa!ety are medical problems resulting !rom parachute descent and landing" e+treme climates" ground combat" evasion" and illnesses contracted in captivity. • A 1 ss )reater t"an 19 per&ent ! b dy !1$ids may res$1t in deat". +"e m st & mm n si)ns and sympt ms ! de"ydrati n are-• Dar2 $rine %it" a 5ery str n) d r.BASIC SURVIVAL MEDICINE -oremost among the many problems that can compromise a survivor. Y $ m$st rep1a&e t"is %ater. R 1UIR 0 NTS 'OR 0AINT NANC O' . It de&reases y $r e!!i&ien&y and# i! in@$red# in&reases y $r s$s&eptibi1ity t se5ere s" &2. D$rin) a5era)e dai1y e?erti n %"en t"e atm sp"eri& temperat$re is 2< de)rees /e1si$s C/D C6: de)rees Fa"ren"eitD# t"e a5era)e ad$1t 1 ses and t"ere! re re4$ires 2 t * 1iters ! %ater dai1y. 0ne man with a !air amount o! basic medical knowledge can make a di!!erence in the lives o! many. Y $ m$st a1s "a5e and app1y "i)" pers na1 "y)iene standards. /any evaders and survivors have reported di!!iculty in treating in$uries and illness due to the lack o! training and medical supplies. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 9 . • Dar2# s$n2en eyes. -or some" this led to capture or surrender. • A 1< per&ent 1 ss res$1ts in di''iness# "eada&"e# inabi1ity t %a12# and a tin)1in) sensati n in t"e 1imbs. ithout )uali!ied medical personnel available" it is you who must know what to do to stay alive. • L % $rine $tp$t. De"ydrati n res$1ts !r m inade4$ate rep1a&ement ! 1 st b dy !1$ids.S.

In 5aryin) de)rees b t" pr 5ide t"e &a1 ries# &arb "ydrates# !ats# and pr teins needed ! r n rma1 dai1y b dy !$n&ti ns. Drin2 en $)" 1i4$ids t maintain a $rine $tp$t ! at 1east <. L ss ! s2in e1asti&ity. An ade4$ate am $nt ! &arb "ydrates# !ats# and pr teins %it" $t an ade4$ate &a1 ri& inta2e %i11 1ead t star5ati n and &anniba1ism ! t"e b dyFs %n tiss$e ! r ener)y. +"e t% basi& s $r&es ! ! d are p1ants and anima1s Cin&1$din) !is"D.9 1iter 1 ss t"e p$1se rate %i11 be 1<< t 12< beats per min$te and 2< t *< breat"s per min$te. 3ater is $sed and & ns$med as a part ! t"e di)esti n pr &ess and &an 1ead t de"ydrati n. Vita1 si)ns ab 5e t"ese rates re4$ire m re ad5an&ed &are. • 3it" a <. +"irst. Y $ &an a1s $se t"e p$1se and breat"in) rate t estimate !1$id 1 ss. In any sit$ati n %"ere ! d inta2e is 1 %# drin2 6 t : 1iters ! %ater per day. . A standard !ie1d dressin) " 1ds ab $t <. S # e5en %"en n t t"irsty# drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater at re)$1ar inter5a1s ea&" " $r t pre5ent de"ydrati n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ rep1a&e t"e %ater as y $ 1 se it. De1ayed &api11ary re!i11 in !in)ernai1 beds. A s a2ed +-s"irt " 1ds <.29 1iter C ne-! $rt" &anteenD ! b1 d. +"e a5era)e pers n needs 2#<<< &a1 ries per day t !$n&ti n at a minim$m 1e5e1. ( ssib1y m re imp rtant# it "e1ps m ra1e. Use t"e ! 11 %in) as a )$ideI • 3it" a <. 3it" t"e 1 ss ! %ater t"ere is a1s a 1 ss ! e1e&tr 1ytes Cb dy sa1tsD. • Acclimati*e. A mi?t$re ! <. A dai1y inta2e ! 9<< &$bi& &entimeter C<.79 t 1. • 3it" a 1. I! y $ are $nder p"ysi&a1 and menta1 stress r s$b@e&t t se5ere & nditi ns# in&rease y $r %ater inta2e. +"e ! 11 %in) are basi& )$ide1ines ! r t"e pre5enti n ! de"ydrati nI • Always drink water when eating. (a)e 2* ! 2** .79 1iter. Y $ &an estimate !1$id 1 ss by se5era1 means. It pr 5ides 5itamins# minera1s# sa1ts# and t"er e1ements essentia1 t ) d "ea1t".29 teasp n ! sa1t t 1 1iter ! %ater %i11 pr 5ide a & n&entrati n t"at t"e b dy tiss$es &an readi1y abs rb.S.9 t *. +ryin) t ma2e $p a de!i&it is di!!i&$1t in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# and t"irst is n t a si)n ! " % m$&" %ater y $ need.9 t <.9 1iter e5ery 27 " $rs. -m ti na1 instabi1ity. 3it" $t ! d y $r menta1 and p"ysi&a1 &apabi1ities %i11 deteri rate rapid1y# and y $ %i11 be& me %ea2. Limit s%eat-pr d$&in) a&ti5ities b$t drin2 %ater. F d rep1enis"es t"e s$bstan&es t"at y $r b dy b$rns and pr 5ides ener)y. In an e?treme &1imate# espe&ia11y an arid ne# t"e a5era)e pers n &an 1 se 2. • Ration water. Last n t"e 1ist be&a$se y $ are a1ready 2 per&ent de"ydrated by t"e time y $ &ra5e !1$ids. /a1 ries are a meas$re ! "eat and p tentia1 ener)y. M st pe p1e &ann t & m! rtab1y drin2 m re t"an 1 1iter ! %ater at a time.79 1iter 1 ss t"e %rist p$1se rate %i11 be $nder 1<< beats per min$te and t"e breat"in) rate 12 t 2< breat"s per min$te.! a11 t"e p"ysi&a1 pr b1ems en& $ntered in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# t"e 1 ss ! %ater is t"e m st pre5entab1e. +"e b dy per! rms m re e!!i&ient1y in e?treme & nditi ns %"en a&&1imati'ed.9 t 2 1iter 1 ss t"e p$1se rate %i11 be 12< t 17< beats per min$te and *< t 7< breat"s per min$te.9 1iters ! %ater per hour.9 1iterD ! a s$)ar-%ater mi?t$re C2 teasp ns per 1iterD %i11 s$!!i&e t pre5ent se5ere de"ydrati n ! r at 1east a %ee2# pr 5ided y $ 2eep %ater 1 sses t a minim$m by 1imitin) a&ti5ity and "eat )ain r 1 ss. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • Fati)$e. +ren&" 1ine d %n &enter ! t n)$e. +"e a5era)e diet &an $s$a11y 2eep $p %it" t"ese 1 sses b$t in an e?treme sit$ati n r i11ness# additi na1 s $r&es need t be pr 5ided. Unti1 y $ !ind a s$itab1e s $r&e# rati n y $r %ater sensib1y. F""( A1t" $)" y $ &an 1i5e se5era1 %ee2s %it" $t ! d# y $ need an ade4$ate am $nt t stay "ea1t"y. In t"is type ! &1imate# y $ s" $1d drin2 17 t *< 1iters ! %ater per day. • 1onserve sweat not water.

Pe&$"#!% H30ie#e In any sit$ati n# &1ean1iness is an imp rtant !a&t r in pre5entin) in!e&ti n and disease. A!ter t"e mi?t$re--t"e s ap--& 1s# y $ &an $se it in t"e semi 1i4$id state dire&t1y !r m t"e p t. • (1a&e as"es in a & ntainer %it" a sp $t near t"e b tt m. Many p1ants pr 5ide en $)" pr tein t 2eep t"e b dy at n rma1 e!!i&ien&y. • / 2 t"e !at s1 %1y# stirrin) !re4$ent1y. + ma2e s ap-• -?tra&t )rease !r m anima1 !at by &$ttin) t"e !at int sma11 pie&es and & 2in) t"em in a p t.e &are!$1 n t t s$nb$rn. Ani"al 'oods Meat is m re n $ris"in) t"an p1ant ! d. Use a &1 t" and s apy %ater t %as" y $rse1!. Rem 5e as m$&" ! y $r &1 t"in) as pra&ti&a1 and e?p se y $r b dy t t"e s$n and air ! r at 1east 1 " $r. Department ! t"e Army Plant 'oods +"ese ! ds pr 5ide &arb "ydrates--t"e main s $r&e ! ener)y. Many p1ant ! ds s$&" as n$ts and seeds %i11 )i5e y $ en $)" pr tein and i1s ! r n rma1 e!!i&ien&y. +"is is e?treme1y imp rtant %"en t"e enemy is near. Y $ &an a1s p $r it int a pan# a11 % it t "arden# and &$t it int bars ! r 1ater $se. ( r "y)iene &an red$&e y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. A dai1y s" %er %it" " t %ater and s ap is idea1# b$t y $ &an stay &1ean %it" $t t"is 1$?$ry. R ts# )reen 5e)etab1es# and p1ant ! d & ntainin) nat$ra1 s$)ar %i11 pr 5ide &a1 ries and &arb "ydrates t"at )i5e t"e b dy nat$ra1 ener)y. F r instan&e-• Y $ &an dry p1ants by %ind# air# s$n# r !ire. • ( $r %ater 5er t"e as"es and & 11e&t t"e 1i4$id t"at drips $t ! t"e sp $t in a separate & ntainer.ands Clean 6erms n y $r "ands &an in!e&t ! d and % $nds. • Y $ &an btain p1ants m re easi1y and m re 4$iet1y t"an meat. I! %ater is s&ar&e# ta2e an JairJ bat". 3as" y $r "ands a!ter "and1in) any materia1 t"at is 1i2e1y t &arry )erms# a!ter 5isitin) t"e 1atrine# a!ter &arin) ! r t"e si&2# and be! re "and1in) any ! d# ! d (a)e 27 ! 2** . +"ese &an satis!y y $r immediate "$n)er %"i1e y $ are preparin) traps and snares ! r 1ar)er )ame. *eep Your . I! y $ d nFt "a5e s ap# $se as"es r sand# r ma2e s ap !r m anima1 !at and % d as"es# i! y $r sit$ati n a11 %s. (ay spe&ia1 attenti n t t"e !eet# armpits# &r t&"# "ands# and "air as t"ese are prime areas ! r in!estati n and in!e&ti n.S. • Add en $)" %ater t t"e p t t 2eep t"e !at !r m sti&2in) as it & 2s. + satis!y y $r immediate ! d needs# !irst see2 t"e m re ab$ndant and m re easi1y btained %i1d1i!e# s$&" as inse&ts# &r$sta&eans# m 11$s2s# !is"# and repti1es. 0 %e5er# t )et meat# y $ need t 2n % t"e "abits !# and " % t &apt$re# t"e 5ari $s %i1d1i!e. +"is retards sp i1a)e s t"at y $ &an st re r &arry t"e p1ant ! d %it" y $ t $se %"en needed.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In !a&t# it may e5en be m re readi1y a5ai1ab1e in s me p1a&es. +"is 1i4$id is t"e p tas" r 1ye. An t"er %ay t )et t"e 1ye is t p $r t"e s1$rry Ct"e mi?t$re ! as"es and %aterD t"r $)" a strainin) &1 t". A1t" $)" p1ants may n t pr 5ide a ba1an&ed diet# t"ey %i11 s$stain y $ e5en in t"e ar&ti&# %"ere meatFs "eat-pr d$&in) 4$a1ities are n rma11y essentia1. +"e ! d 5a1$e ! p1ants be& mes m re and m re imp rtant i! y $ are e1$din) t"e enemy r i! y $ are in an area %"ere %i1d1i!e is s&ar&e. • A!ter t"e !at is rendered# p $r t"e )rease int a & ntainer t "arden. • (1a&e t"is mi?t$re 5er a !ire and b i1 it $nti1 it t"i&2ens. • In a & 2in) p t# mi? t% parts )rease t ne part p tas". . It be& mes e5en m re imp rtant in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n.

A &"an)e !r m menta1 t p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity r 5i&e 5ersa &an be re!res"in) %"en time r sit$ati n d es n t permit t ta1 re1a?ati n. 3ear an ins 1e and t"e pr per si'e ! dry s &2s. +"e t"read %i11 abs rb t"e 1i4$id inside. *eep Your Clothing Clean 8eep y $r &1 t"in) and beddin) as &1ean as p ssib1e t red$&e t"e &"an&e ! s2in in!e&ti n as %e11 as t de&rease t"e dan)er ! parasiti& in!estati n. 8eep y $r !in)ernai1s &1 se1y trimmed and &1ean# and 2eep y $r !in)ers $t ! y $r m $t". I! y $ )et a sma11 b1ister# d n t pen it. Ta-e Care o$ Your 'eet + pre5ent seri $s ! t pr b1ems# brea2 in y $r s" es be! re %earin) t"em n any missi n. ( %der and &"e&2 y $r !eet dai1y ! r b1isters. • (ad ar $nd t"e b1ister. Lea5e 1ar)e b1isters inta&t. Department ! t"e Army $tensi1s# r drin2in) %ater. /1ean y $r $ter &1 t"in) %"ene5er it be& mes s i1ed. A1s # !1 ssin) y $r teet" %it" strin) r !iber "e1ps ra1 "y)iene. *eep Ca"p Site Clean (a)e 29 ! 2** . N % br$s" y $r teet" t" r $)"1y. *eep Your Teeth Clean +" r $)"1y &1ean y $r m $t" and teet" %it" a t t"br$s" at 1east n&e ea&" day.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +rim y $r t enai1s strai)"t a&r ss. +"en rinse y $r m $t" %it" %ater# sa1t %ater# r %i11 % bar2 tea.S. +"is red$&es t"e si'e ! t"e " 1e and ens$res t"at t"e " 1e d es n t &1 se $p. + a5 id "a5in) t"e b1ister b$rst r tear $nder press$re and &a$se a pain!$1 and pen s re# d t"e ! 11 %in)I • . • Deta&" t"e need1e and 1ea5e b t" ends ! t"e t"read "an)in) $t ! t"e b1ister. An t"er %ay is t %rap a &1ean strip ! &1 t" ar $nd y $r !in)ers and r$b y $r teet" %it" it t %ipe a%ay ! d parti&1es. I! y $ d nFt "a5e a t t"br$s"# ma2e a &"e%in) sti&2. I! t"e b1ister b$rsts# treat it as an pen % $nd.air Clean Y $r "air &an be& me a "a5en ! r ba&teria r !1eas# 1i&e# and t"er parasites. /"e% ne end ! t"e sti&2 t separate t"e !ibers.btain a se%in)-type need1e and a &1ean r steri1i'ed t"read. Find a t%i) ab $t 2< &entimeters 1 n) and 1 &entimeter %ide. *eep Your . 3as" and massa)e y $r !eet dai1y. Ma2e s$re y $ &1ean t"e &a5ity by rinsin) r pi&2in) t"e parti&1es $t ! t"e &a5ity be! re p1a&in) a !i11in) in t"e &a5ity. I! y $ "a5e &a5ities# y $ &an ma2e temp rary !i11in)s by p1a&in) &and1e %a?# t ba&& # aspirin# " t pepper# t t" paste r p %der# r p rti ns ! a )in)er r t int t"e &a5ity. I! %ater is s&ar&e# JairJ &1ean y $r &1 t"in) by s"a2in)# airin)# and s$nnin) it ! r 2 " $rs. • R$n t"e need1e and t"read t"r $)" t"e b1ister a!ter &1eanin) t"e b1ister. An inta&t b1ister is sa!e !r m in!e&ti n. 8eepin) y $r "air &1ean# & mbed# and trimmed "e1ps y $ a5 id t"is dan)er. (1an ! r re)$1ar rest peri ds ! at 1east 1< min$tes per " $r d$rin) y $r dai1y a&ti5ities. Learn t ma2e y $rse1! & m! rtab1e $nder 1ess t"an idea1 & nditi ns. Y $ &an a1s br$s" y $r teet" %it" sma11 am $nts ! sand# ba2in) s da# sa1t# r s ap. 3ear &1ean $nder&1 t"in) and s &2s ea&" day. /et Su$$icient Rest Y $ need a &ertain am $nt ! rest t 2eep ) in). /1ean and dress it dai1y and pad ar $nd it. I! y $ are $sin) a s1eepin) ba)# t$rn it inside $t a!ter ea&" $se# !1$!! it# and air it. App1y a paddin) materia1 ar $nd t"e b1ister t re1ie5e press$re and red$&e !ri&ti n.

L 2 ! r t"e &a$se ! t"e in@$ry and ! 11 % t"e A.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3"en an indi5id$a1 is $n& ns&i $s# t"e m$s&1es ! t"e 1 %er @a% and t n)$e re1a? as t"e ne&2 dr ps ! r%ard# &a$sin) t"e 1 %er @a% t sa) and t"e t n)$e t dr p ba&2 and b1 &2 t"e passa)e ! air. Use 1atrines# i! a5ai1ab1e. Department ! t"e Army D n t s i1 t"e )r $nd in t"e &amp site area %it" $rine r !e&es. • In!1ammati n and s%e11in) ! m $t" and t"r at &a$sed by in"a1in) sm 2e# !1ames# and irritatin) 5ap rs r by an a11er)i& rea&ti n. I! "is air%ay is & mp1ete1y bstr$&ted# administer abd mina1 t"r$sts $nti1 t"e bstr$&ti n is &1eared. Step 3. +"e 1 ss ! 2 1iters %i11 pr d$&e a se5ere state ! s" &2 t"at p1a&es t"e b dy in e?treme dan)er. LI' SAVIN/ ST PS / ntr 1 pani&# b t" y $r %n and t"e 5i&timFs. (a)e 26 ! 2** . • J8in2J in t"e t"r at C&a$sed by t"e ne&2 bent ! r%ard s t"at t"e &"in rests $p n t"e &"estD may b1 &2 t"e passa)e ! air. 3"en 1atrines are n t a5ai1ab1e# di) J&at " 1esJ and & 5er t"e %aste. ($ri!y a11 %ater. F r stabi1ity# rest y $r e1b %s n t"e s$r!a&e n %"i&" t"e 5i&tim is 1yin).) S" &2 Ca&$te stress rea&ti nD is n t a disease in itse1!. /"e&2 i! t"e 5i&tim "as a partia1 r & mp1ete air%ay bstr$&ti n. A pers n may die !r m arteria1 b1eedin) m re 4$i&21y t"an !r m an air%ay bstr$&ti n in s me &ases./s ! !irst aid# startin) %it" t"e air%ay and breat"in)# b$t be dis&ernin). I! "e &an & $)" r spea2# a11 % "im t &1ear t"e bstr$&ti n nat$ra11y. Reass$re "im and try t 2eep "im 4$iet. +"e 1 ss ! 1 1iter ! b1 d %i11 pr d$&e m derate sympt ms ! s" &2.ICAL 0 R/ NCI S Medi&a1 pr b1ems and emer)en&ies y $ may be !a&ed %it" in&1$de breat"in) pr b1ems# se5ere b1eedin)# and s" &2. +"e 1 ss ! * 1iters is $s$a11y !ata1. Se/e&e B%ee(i#0 Se5ere b1eedin) !r m any ma@ r b1 d 5esse1 in t"e b dy is e?treme1y dan)er $s. Step 2. Step 4. B&e!thi#0 P&". 0 . • + n)$e b1 &2s passa)e ! air t t"e 1$n)s $p n $n& ns&i $sness. Sh". Ope# Ai&2!3 !#( M!i#t!i# Y $ &an pen an air%ay and maintain it by $sin) t"e ! 11 %in) steps.S. (er! rm a rapid p"ysi&a1 e?am. Stand by# reass$re t"e 5i&tim# and be ready t &1ear "is air%ay and per! rm m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n s" $1d "e be& me $n& ns&i $s.%e+$ Any ne ! t"e ! 11 %in) &an &a$se air%ay bstr$&ti n# res$1tin) in st pped breat"in)I • F rei)n matter in m $t" ! t"r at t"at bstr$&ts t"e penin) t t"e tra&"ea. Usin) t"e @a% t"r$st met" d# )rasp t"e an)1es ! t"e 5i&timFs 1 %er @a% and 1i!t %it" b t" "ands# ne n ea&" side# m 5in) t"e @a% ! r%ard. • Fa&e r ne&2 in@$ries. / 11e&t drin2in) %ater $pstream !r m t"e &amp site. I! "is 1ips are &1 sed# )ent1y pen t"e 1 %er 1ip %it" y $r t"$mb CFi)$re 7-1D. It is a &1ini&a1 & nditi n &"ara&teri'ed by sympt ms t"at arise %"en &ardia& $tp$t is ins$!!i&ient t !i11 t"e arteries %it" b1 d $nder en $)" press$re t pr 5ide an ade4$ate b1 d s$pp1y t t"e r)ans and tiss$es. Usin) a !in)er# 4$i&21y s%eep t"e 5i&timFs m $t" &1ear ! any ! rei)n b@e&ts# br 2en teet"# dent$res# sand.

+"e &api11aries are t"e e?treme1y sma11 5esse1s t"at & nne&t t"e arteries %it" t"e 5eins. Y $ &an & ntr 1 e?terna1 b1eedin) by dire&t press$re# indire&t Cpress$re p intsD press$re# e1e5ati n# di)ita1 1i)ati n# r t $rni4$et. 8ote9 1ardiopulmonary resuscitation &1:R' may be necessary a!ter cleaning the airway" but only a!ter ma$or bleeding is under control. Y $ &an $s$a11y & ntr 1 5en $s b1eedin) m re easi1y t"an arteria1 b1eedin). See -/ 32%3. • -eel ! r !1 % ! air n y $r &"ee2. A steady !1 % ! dark red" maroon" or bluish blood &"ara&teri'es b1eedin) !r m a 5ein. Ven $s b1 d is b1 d t"at is ret$rnin) t t"e "eart t"r $)" b1 d 5esse1s &a11ed 5eins. Step 6. Department ! t"e Army Step 5. . I! n t & ntr 11ed pr mpt1y# it &an be !ata1. 3it" t"e 5i&timFs air%ay pen# pin&" "is n se &1 sed %it" y $r t"$mb and ! re!in)er and b1 % t% & mp1ete breat"s int "is 1$n)s. /"e&2 t"e 5i&timFs m $t" peri di&a11y ! r 5 mit and &1ear as needed. • Listen ! r es&apin) air d$rin) e?"a1ati n. +"ere is dan)er ! t"e 5i&tim 5 mitin) d$rin) m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n. • 1apillary. +"ere! re# arteria1 b1eedin) is t"e m st seri $s type ! b1eedin). +"is type ! b1eedin) is n t di!!i&$1t t & ntr 1. I! t"e ! r&ed breat"s d n t stim$1ate sp ntane $s breat"in)# maintain t"e 5i&timFs breat"in) by per! rmin) m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n.e&a$se t"e b1 d in t"e arteries is $nder "i)" press$re# an indi5id$a1 &an 1 se a 1ar)e 5 1$me ! b1 d in a s" rt peri d %"en dama)e t an artery ! si)ni!i&ant si'e &&$rs.S. A &$t artery iss$es bright red b1 d !r m t"e % $nd in distinct spurts r p$1ses t"at & rresp nd t t"e r"yt"m ! t"e "eartbeat." the American (eart Association manual" the Red 1ross manual" or most other !irst aid books !or detailed instructions on 1:R.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. C"#t&"% B%ee(i#0 In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ m$st & ntr 1 seri $s b1eedin) immediate1y be&a$se rep1a&ement !1$ids n rma11y are n t a5ai1ab1e and t"e 5i&tim &an die %it"in a matter ! min$tes. . (a)e 27 ! 2** . /api11ary b1eedin) m st & mm n1y &&$rs in min r &$ts and s&rapes. A11 % t"e 1$n)s t de!1ate a!ter t"e se& nd in!1ati n and per! rm t"e ! 11 %in)I • Look ! r "is &"est t rise and !a11. -?terna1 b1eedin) !a11s int t"e ! 11 %in) &1assi!i&ati ns Ca&& rdin) t its s $r&eDI • Arterial. • Venous. Step 7.1 d 5esse1s &a11ed arteries &arry b1 d a%ay !r m t"e "eart and t"r $)" t"e b dy.

+"is press$re m$st n t n1y be !irm en $)" t st p t"e b1eedin)# b$t it m$st a1s be maintained 1 n) en $)" t Jsea1 !!J t"e dama)ed s$r!a&e. It s" $1d be ti)"ter t"an an rdinary & mpressi n banda)e b$t n t s ti)"t t"at it impairs &ir&$1ati n t t"e rest ! t"e 1imb. Lea5e t"e press$re dressin) in p1a&e ! r 1 r 2 days# a!ter %"i&" y $ &an rem 5e and rep1a&e it %it" a sma11er dressin). Department ! t"e Army .S. 0 %e5er# e1e5ati n a1 ne %i11 (a)e 2: ! 2** . In t"e 1 n)-term s$r5i5a1 en5ir nment# ma2e !res"# dai1y dressin) &"an)es and inspe&t ! r si)ns ! in!e&ti n. le(ation Raisin) an in@$red e?tremity as "i)" as p ssib1e ab 5e t"e "eartFs 1e5e1 s1 %s b1 d 1 ss by aidin) t"e ret$rn ! b1 d t t"e "eart and 1 %erin) t"e b1 d press$re at t"e % $nd.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.irect Pressure +"e m st e!!e&ti5e %ay t & ntr 1 e?terna1 b1eedin) is by app1yin) press$re dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd. . +"is dressin) & nsists ! a t"i&2 dressin) ! )a$'e r t"er s$itab1e materia1 app1ied dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd and "e1d in p1a&e %it" a ti)"t1y %rapped banda)e CFi)$re 7-2D. I! b1eedin) & ntin$es a!ter "a5in) app1ied dire&t press$re ! r *< min$tes# app1y a press$re dressin).n&e y $ app1y t"e dressin)# do not remove it" e5en %"en t"e dressin) be& mes b1 d s a2ed.

! 2** . + m$&" press$re ! r t 1 n) may &a$se $n& ns&i $sness r deat". Tourni!uet (a)e 2. It is rare %"en a sin)1e ma@ r & mpressib1e artery s$pp1ies a dama)ed 5esse1. Pressure Points A press$re p int is a 1 &ati n %"ere t"e main artery t t"e % $nd 1ies near t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e s2in r %"ere t"e artery passes dire&t1y 5er a b ny pr minen&e CFi)$re 7-*D. . Y $ &an $se di)ita1 press$re n a press$re p int t s1 % arteria1 b1eedin) $nti1 t"e app1i&ati n ! a press$re dressin). *ARNIN1 Use &a$ti n %"en app1yin) press$re t t"e ne&2. 3"en treatin) a sna2ebite# " %e5er# 2eep t"e e?tremity 1 %er t"an t"e "eart. .S. Department ! t"e Army n t & ntr 1 b1eedin) entire1yH y $ m$st a1s app1y dire&t press$re 5er t"e % $nd.igital Ligation Y $ &an st p ma@ r b1eedin) immediate1y r s1 % it d %n by app1yin) press$re %it" a !in)er r t% n t"e b1eedin) end ! t"e 5ein r artery. . (ress$re p int & ntr 1 is n t as e!!e&ti5e ! r & ntr 11in) b1eedin) as dire&t press$re e?erted n t"e % $nd. Maintain press$re p ints by p1a&in) a r $nd sti&2 in t"e @ int# bendin) t"e @ int 5er t"e sti&2# and t"en 2eepin) it ti)"t1y bent by 1as"in).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ &ann t remember t"e e?a&t 1 &ati n ! t"e press$re p ints# ! 11 % t"is r$1eI App1y press$re at t"e end ! t"e @ int @$st ab 5e t"e in@$red area.y $sin) t"is met" d t maintain press$re# it !rees y $r "ands t % r2 in t"er areas. Maintain t"e press$re $nti1 t"e b1eedin) st ps r s1 %s d %n en $)" t app1y a press$re banda)e# e1e5ati n# and s ! rt".n "ands# !eet# and "ead# t"is %i11 be t"e %rist# an21e# and ne&2# respe&ti5e1y. Ne5er p1a&e a t $rni4$et ar $nd t"e ne&2.

Ne5er p1a&e it dire&t1y 5er t"e % $nd r a !ra&t$re. A 1 ne s$r5i5 r ("e$ #"t rem 5e r re1ease an app1ied t $rni4$et. I! y $ m$st $se a t $rni4$et# p1a&e it ar $nd t"e e?tremity# bet%een t"e % $nd and t"e "eart# 9 t 1< &entimeters ab 5e t"e % $nd site CFi)$re 7-7D.S. 3"en y $ "a5e ti)"tened t"e t $rni4$et# bind t"e !ree end ! t"e sti&2 t t"e 1imb t pre5ent $n%indin). I! y $ 1ea5e a t $rni4$et in p1a&e t 1 n)# t"e dama)e t t"e tiss$es &an pr )ress t )an)rene# %it" a 1 ss ! t"e 1imb 1ater. P&e/e#t !#( T&e!t Sh". Use a sti&2 as a "and1e t ti)"ten t"e t $rni4$et and ti)"ten it n1y en $)" t st p b1 d !1 %.) (a)e *< ! 2** . A!ter y $ se&$re t"e t $rni4$et# &1ean and banda)e t"e % $nd. An impr per1y app1ied t $rni4$et &an a1s &a$se permanent dama)e t ner5es and t"er tiss$es at t"e site ! t"e & nstri&ti n. In a b$ddy system# " %e5er# t"e b$ddy &an re1ease t"e t $rni4$et press$re e5ery 1< t 19 min$tes ! r 1 r 2 min$tes t 1et b1 d !1 % t t"e rest ! t"e e?tremity t pre5ent 1imb 1 ss. Department ! t"e Army Use a t $rni4$et n1y %"en dire&t press$re 5er t"e b1eedin) p int and a11 t"er met" ds did n t & ntr 1 t"e b1eedin).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

• Impr 5ise a s"e1ter t ins$1ate t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e %eat"er. • I! %et# rem 5e a11 t"e 5i&timFs %et &1 t"in) as s n as p ssib1e and rep1a&e %it" dry &1 t"in).S. • I! y $ are $ns$re ! t"e best p siti n# p1a&e t"e 5i&tim per!e&t1y !1at. Department ! t"e Army Anti&ipate s" &2 in a11 in@$red pers nne1. • I! y $ are %it" a b$ddy# reassess y $r patient & nstant1y. (a)e *1 ! 2** . • Maintain b dy "eat by ins$1atin) t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e s$rr $ndin)s and# in s me instan&es# app1yin) e?terna1 "eat. • 0a5e t"e 5i&tim rest ! r at 1east 27 " $rs. • I! t"e 5i&tim is $n& ns&i $s# p1a&e "im n "is side r abd men %it" "is "ead t$rned t ne side t pre5ent &" 2in) n 5 mit# b1 d# r t"er !1$ids.n&e t"e 5i&tim is in a s" &2 p siti n# d n t m 5e "im. . • I! y $ are a 1 ne s$r5i5 r# 1ie in a depressi n in t"e )r $nd# be"ind a tree# r any t"er p1a&e $t ! t"e %eat"er# %it" y $r "ead 1 %er t"an y $r !eet.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Use %arm 1i4$ids r ! ds# a pre%armed s1eepin) ba)# an t"er pers n# %armed %ater in &anteens# " t r &2s %rapped in &1 t"in)# r !ires n eit"er side ! t"e 5i&tim t pr 5ide e?terna1 %armt". • I! t"e 5i&tim is $n& ns&i $s r "as abd mina1 % $nds# d n t )i5e !1$ids by m $t". +reat a11 in@$red pers ns as ! 11 %s# re)ard1ess ! %"at sympt ms appear CFi)$re 7-9DI • I! t"e 5i&tim is & ns&i $s# p1a&e "im n a 1e5e1 s$r!a&e %it" t"e 1 %er e?tremities e1e5ated 19 t 2< &entimeters. • I! t"e 5i&tim is & ns&i $s# s1 %1y administer sma11 d ses ! a %arm sa1t r s$)ar s 1$ti n# i! a5ai1ab1e.

S.t &e$ +"ere are basi&a11y t% types ! !ra&t$resI pen and &1 sed. A!ter settin) t"e !ra&t$re# treat t"e % $nd as any t"er pen % $nd. (a)e *2 ! 2** . F&!. 3it" an pen C r & mp $ndD !ra&t$re# t"e b ne pr tr$des t"r $)" t"e s2in and & mp1i&ates t"e a&t$a1 !ra&t$re %it" an pen % $nd. Department ! t"e Army #ON AN. +"e &1 sed !ra&t$re "as n pen % $nds. F 11 % t"e )$ide1ines ! r imm bi1i'ati n# and set and sp1int t"e !ra&t$re. +"e si)ns and sympt ms ! a !ra&t$re are pain# tenderness# dis& 1 rati n# s%e11in) de! rmity# 1 ss ! !$n&ti n# and )ratin) Ca s $nd r !ee1in) t"at &&$rs %"en br 2en b ne ends r$b t )et"erD.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 2OINT IN2URY Y $ & $1d !a&e b ne and @ int in@$ries t"at in&1$de !ra&t$res# dis1 &ati ns# and sprains.

Y $ &an &reate tra&ti n by %ed)in) a "and r ! t in t"e V-n t&" ! a tree and p$s"in) a)ainst t"e tree %it" t"e t"er e?tremity.t *<-&entimeter &r ss member made !r m a 9-&entimeter diameter bran&" bet%een t"em. I! you must change or repair the splint" maintain the traction manually !or a short time. (a)e ** ! 2** . Very str n) m$s&1es " 1d a br 2en t"i)"b ne C!em$rD in p1a&e ma2in) it di!!i&$1t t maintain tra&ti n d$rin) "ea1in). N t&" t"e ends %it" $t ! r2s and 1as" a 2<.9-&entimeter sti&2 in t"e midd1e ! t"e !ree ends ! t"e an21e %rap bet%een t"e &r ss member and t"e ! t. • (ad t"e t% sp1ints. Y $ &an ma2e an impr 5ised tra&ti n sp1int $sin) nat$ra1 materia1 CFi)$re 7-6D as ! 11 %sI • 6et t% ! r2ed bran&"es r sap1in)s at 1east 9 &entimeters in diameter. • / ntin$e t%istin) $nti1 t"e br 2en 1e) is as 1 n) r s1i)"t1y 1 n)er t"an t"e $nbr 2en 1e).S. • 3it" a5ai1ab1e materia1# !as"i n a %rap t"at %i11 e?tend ar $nd t"e an21e# %it" t"e t% !ree ends tied t t"e &r ss member. I! y $ n ti&e t"e area be1 % t"e brea2 be& min) n$mb# s% 11en# & 1 t t"e t $&"# r t$rnin) pa1e# and t"e 5i&tim s" %s si)ns ! s" &2# a ma@ r 5esse1 may "a5e been se5ered. Y $ &an t"en sp1int t"e brea2. Meas$re t"e t"er !r m t"e )r in t 2< t *< &entimeters past t"e $nbr 2en 1e). • Las" t"e sti&2 t maintain tra&ti n.by 2. • (1a&e a 1<. Usin) a5ai1ab1e materia1 C5ines# &1 t"# ra%"ideD# tie t"e sp1int ar $nd t"e $pper p rti n ! t"e b dy and d %n t"e 1en)t" ! t"e br 2en 1e). 8ote9 0ver time you may lose traction because the material weakened. Usin) t"e sti&2# t%ist t"e materia1 t ma2e t"e tra&ti n easier. Department ! t"e Army +"e dan)ers %it" a !ra&t$re are t"e se5erin) r t"e & mpressi n ! a ner5e r b1 d 5esse1 at t"e site ! !ra&t$re. -ns$re t"at b t" e?tend an e4$a1 distan&e bey nd t"e end ! t"e 1e).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Rest t"e 5i&tim ! r s" &2# and rep1a&e 1 st !1$ids. Meas$re ne !r m t"e patientFs armpit t 2< t *< &entimeters past "is $nbr 2en 1e).!ten y $ m$st maintain tra&ti n d$rin) t"e sp1intin) and "ea1in) pr &ess. . Y $ m$st & ntr 1 t"is interna1 b1eedin). F 11 % t"e sp1intin) )$ide1ines. F r t"is reas n minim$m manip$1ati n s" $1d be d ne# and n1y 5ery &a$ti $s1y. Y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y p$11 sma11er b nes s$&" as t"e arm r 1 %er 1e) by "and. 1heck the traction periodically.

+"ey are &a$ses ! s1eepin) si&2ness# typ" id# &" 1era# and dysentery. / mpressi n-%rappin) andE r sp1intin) t "e1p stabi1i'e. +"ese misa1i)nments &an be e?treme1y pain!$1 and &an &a$se an impairment ! ner5e r &ir&$1at ry !$n&ti n be1 % t"e area a!!e&ted. Y $ &an $se se5era1 met" ds# b$t man$a1 tra&ti n r t"e $se ! %ei)"ts t p$11 t"e b nes are t"e sa!est and easiest. In many parts ! t"e % r1d y $ %i11 be e?p sed t seri $s# e5en !ata1# diseases n t en& $ntered in t"e United States. -1e5ati n ! t"e a!!e&ted area. + re"abi1itate t"e dis1 &ati n# rem 5e t"e sp1ints a!ter 7 t 17 days. 3it" $t an B ray# y $ &an @$d)e pr per a1i)nment by t"e 1 2 and !ee1 ! t"e @ int and by & mparin) it t t"e @ int n t"e pp site side. /os)uitoes may &arry ma1aria# den)$e# and many t"er diseases. Lice &an transmit typ"$s and re1apsin) !e5er. STIN/S Inse&ts and re1ated pests are "a'ards in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. +i&2s a1s transmit t"e Lyme disease. 6rad$a11y $se t"e in@$red @ int $nti1 !$11y "ea1ed. Si)ns and sympt ms ! dis1 &ati ns are @ int pain# tenderness# s%e11in)# dis& 1 rati n# 1imited ran)e ! m ti n# and de! rmity ! t"e @ int. • /"e&2 &ir&$1ati n be1 % t"e !ra&t$re a!ter ma2in) ea&" tie n t"e sp1int. I! p ssib1e# 1ea5e t"e b sprained an21e $n1ess &ir&$1ati n is & mpr mised. Y $ m$st p1a&e t"ese @ ints ba&2 int a1i)nment as 4$i&21y as p ssib1e. . +"ey n t n1y &a$se irritati ns# b$t t"ey are !ten &arriers ! diseases t"at &a$se se5ere a11er)i& rea&ti ns in s me indi5id$a1s. Department ! t"e Army Di$%".!ti"#$ Dis1 &ati ns are t"e separati ns ! b ne @ ints &a$sin) t"e b nes t ) $t ! pr per a1i)nment. Ticks &an &arry and transmit diseases# s$&" as R &2y M $ntain sp tted !e5er & mm n in many parts ! t"e United States. Red$&ti n r Jsettin)J is p1a&in) t"e b nes ba&2 int t"eir pr per a1i)nment.S. (a)e *7 ! 2** . +"e basi& )$ide1ines ! r sp1intin) are-• Sp1int ab 5e and be1 % t"e !ra&t$re site. t na #IT S AN. Y $ treat dis1 &ati ns by red$&ti n# imm bi1i'ati n# and re"abi1itati n. -leas &an transmit p1a)$e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e si)ns and sympt ms are pain# s%e11in)# tenderness# and dis& 1 rati n Cb1a&2 and b1$eD. Y $ &an $se any !ie1de?pedient materia1 ! r a sp1int r y $ &an sp1int an e?tremity t t"e b dy. • (ad sp1ints t red$&e dis& m! rt. Imm bi1i'ati n is n t"in) m re t"an sp1intin) t"e dis1 &ati n a!ter red$&ti n. +"e best %ay t a5 id t"e & mp1i&ati ns ! inse&t bites and stin)s is t 2eep imm$ni'ati ns Cin&1$din) b ster s" tsD $p-t -date# a5 id inse&t-in!ested areas# $se nettin) and inse&t repe11ent# and %ear a11 &1 t"in) pr per1y. Sp&!i#$ +"e a&&identa1 5erstret&"in) ! a tend n r 1i)ament &a$ses sprains. I / I&e ! r 27 " $rs# t"en "eat a!ter t"at. -lies &an spread disease !r m & nta&t %it" in!e&ti $s s $r&es. 3"en treatin) sprains# t"in2 RI/--R Rest in@$red area.n&e per! rmed# red$&ti n de&reases t"e 5i&timFs pain and a11 %s ! r n rma1 !$n&ti n and &ir&$1ati n.

Ne&r sis d es n t &&$r in a11 bites# b$t $s$a11y in * t 7 days# a star-s"aped# !irm area ! deep p$rp1e dis& 1 rati n appears at t"e bite site. 3ea2ness# trem rs# s%eatin)# and sa1i5ati n may &&$r. An anti5enin is a5ai1ab1e. . • (redep1 yment imm$ni'ati ns &an pre5ent m st ! t"e & mm n diseases &arried by m s4$it es and s me &arried by !1ies. T&e!t+e#t It is imp ssib1e t 1ist t"e treatment ! a11 t"e di!!erent types ! bites and stin)s. • +"e & mm n !1y-b rne diseases are $s$a11y treatab1e %it" peni&i11ins r eryt"r my&in.ni n. I! y $ !ind ti&2s atta&"ed t y $r b dy# & 5er t"em %it" a s$bstan&e# s$&" as Vase1ine# "ea5y i1# r tree sap# t"at %i11 &$t !! t"eir air s$pp1y. • Sap !r m dande1i ns. Use t%ee'ers i! y $ "a5e t"em. Sympt ms be)in t re)ress a!ter se5era1 " $rs and are $s$a11y ) ne in a !e% days. Se& ndary in!e&ti n and re)i na1 s% 11en 1ymp" )1ands $s$a11y be& me 5isib1e at t"is sta)e. Inspe&t y $r b dy at 1east n&e a day t ens$re t"ere are n inse&ts atta&"ed t y $. +"ere is n pain# r s 1itt1e pain# t"at $s$a11y a 5i&tim is n t a%are ! t"e bite. +"reat ! r s" &2. +"e area t$rns dar2 and m$mmi!ied in a %ee2 r t% . +"e pain )rad$a11y spreads 5er t"e entire b dy and sett1es in t"e abd men and 1e)s. • . Bee !#( *!$p Sti#0$ I! st$n) by a bee# immediate1y rem 5e t"e stin)er and 5en m sa&# i! atta&"ed# by s&rapin) %it" a !in)ernai1 r a 2ni!e b1ade. I! y $ &ann t remember t"e e?a&t d se rate t treat a disease# 2 tab1ets# 7 times a day ! r 1< t 17 days %i11 $s$a11y 2i11 any ba&teria. D n t s4$ee'e r )rasp t"e stin)er r 5en m sa&# as s4$ee'in) %i11 ! r&e m re 5en m int t"e % $nd. • A & 1in) paste ! m$d and as"es. +"e initia1 pain is n t se5ere# b$t se5ere 1 &a1 pain rapid1y de5e1 ps. • M st ti&2-# !1ea-# 1 $se-# and mite-b rne diseases are treatab1e %it" tetra&y&1ine. +"e br %n " $se spider r br %n re&1$se spider is a sma11# 1i)"t br %n spider identi!ied by a dar2 br %n 5i 1in n its ba&2. 3as" t"e stin) site t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater t 1essen t"e &"an&e ! a se& ndary in!e&ti n. +"e $tstandin) &"ara&teristi& ! t"e br %n re&1$se bite is an $1&er t"at d es n t "ea1 b$t (a)e *9 ! 2** . Anap"y1a&ti& rea&ti ns &an &&$r.n1y t"e !ema1e bites# and it "as a ne$r t ?i& 5en m. D n t s4$ee'e t"e ti&2Fs b dy. 3it"in a !e% " $rs a pain!$1 red area %it" a m tt1ed &yan ti& &enter appears. +"e !$nne1%eb spider is a 1ar)e br %n r )ray spider ! $nd in A$stra1ia. • /r$s"ed &1 5es ! )ar1i&. +a2e &are t rem 5e t"e %" 1e ti&2. +"e mar)ins separate and t"e s&ab !a11s !!# 1ea5in) an pen $1&er. • M st antibi ti&s & me in 29< mi11i)ram Cm)D r 9<< m) tab1ets. Abd mina1 &ramps and pr )ressi5e na$sea# 5 mitin)# and a ras" may &&$r. 3as" y $r "ands a!ter t $&"in) t"e ti&2.S. 6rasp t"e ti&2 %"ere t"e m $t" parts are atta&"ed t t"e s2in."&pi"# Sti#0$ +"e b1a&2 %id % spider is identi!ied by a red " $r)1ass n its abd men. /1ean and dress t"e bite area t red$&e t"e ris2 ! in!e&ti n. 3it" $t air# t"e ti&2 re1eases its " 1d# and y $ &an rem 5e it. +reat bites and stin)s as ! 11 %sI • I! antibi ti&s are a5ai1ab1e ! r y $r $se# be& me !ami1iar %it" t"em be! re dep1 yment and $se t"em. Re1ie5e t"e it&"in) and dis& m! rt &a$sed by inse&t bites by app1yin)-• / 1d & mpresses. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ )et bitten r st$n)# d n t s&rat&" t"e bite r stin)# it mi)"t be& me in!e&ted. .e ready t per! rm /(R. +"e sympt ms and t"e treatment ! r its bite are as ! r t"e b1a&2 %id % spider. Spi(e& Bite$ !#( S. I! y $ 2n % r s$spe&t t"at y $ are a11er)i& t inse&t stin)s# a1%ays &arry an inse&t stin) 2it %it" y $.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. /1ean t"e ti&2 % $nd dai1y $nti1 "ea1ed. • / & n$t meat.

S" &2 and pani& in a pers n bitten by a sna2e &an a1s a!!e&t t"e pers nFs re& 5ery. Si)ns ! s" &2 &&$r %it"in t"e !irst *< min$tes a!ter t"e bite. . . M re t"an ne-"a1! ! t"e sna2ebite 5i&tims "a5e 1itt1e r n p is nin)# and n1y ab $t ne-4$arter de5e1 p seri $s systemi& p is nin). ( ssib1e pri&21y sensati n ar $nd t"e m $t" and a t"i&2-!ee1in) t n)$e. • Set $p ! r s" &2 and ! r&e !1$ids r )i5e an intra5en $s CIVD.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Rea&ti ns C!e5er# &"i11s# @ int pain# 5 mitin)# and a )enera1i'ed ras"D &&$r &"ie!1y in &"i1dren r debi1itated pers ns. (a)e *6 ! 2** . I! y $ determine t"at a p is n $s sna2e bit an indi5id$a1# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) stepsI • Reass$re t"e 5i&tim and 2eep "im sti11.e! re y $ start treatin) a sna2ebite# determine %"et"er t"e sna2e %as p is n $s r n np is n $s. • Maintain an air%ay Cespe&ia11y i! bitten near t"e !a&e r ne&2D and be prepared t administer m $t"-t -m $t" res$s&itati n r /(R. -?&itement# "ysteria# and pani& &an speed $p t"e &ir&$1ati n# &a$sin) t"e b dy t abs rb t"e t ?in 4$i&21y. • Rem 5e %at&"es# rin)s# bra&e1ets# r t"er & nstri&tin) items.S. I! sympt ms ! p is nin) appear# treat as ! r t"e bite ! t"e b1a&2 %id % spider. S& rpi ns are a11 p is n $s t a )reater r 1esser de)ree. +"ey "a5e 1ar)e !an)s.9 t 2 " $rs a!ter t"e bite. +"is & nditi n & $1d 1ead t t"e need ! r e5ent$a1 amp$tati n i! n t treated. +"ere are t% di!!erent rea&ti ns# dependin) n t"e spe&iesI • Se5ere 1 &a1 rea&ti n n1y# %it" pain and s%e11in) ar $nd t"e area ! t"e stin). 0 %e5er# it & $1d "appen and y $ s" $1d 2n % " % t treat a sna2ebite. Sympt ms ! a p is n $s bite may be sp ntane $s b1eedin) !r m t"e n se and an$s# b1 d in t"e $rine# pain at t"e site ! t"e bite# and s%e11in) at t"e site ! t"e bite %it"in a !e% min$tes r $p t 2 " $rs 1ater. • Se5ere systemi& rea&ti n# %it" 1itt1e r n 5isib1e 1 &a1 rea&ti n. +reat s& rpi n stin)s as y $ % $1d a b1a&2 %id % bite.ite$ +"e &"an&e ! a sna2ebite in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is rat"er sma11# i! y $ are !ami1iar %it" t"e 5ari $s types ! sna2es and t"eir "abitats. L &a1 pain may be present. 0 %e5er# t"e &"an&e ! a sna2ebite in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n &an a!!e&t m ra1e# and !ai1$re t ta2e pre5enti5e meas$res r !ai1$re t treat a sna2ebite pr per1y &an res$1t in need1ess tra)edy. +reat a tarant$1a bite as ! r any pen % $nd# and try t pre5ent in!e&ti n. +"ese p is ns &an &a$se a 5ery 1ar)e area ! tiss$e deat"# 1ea5in) a 1ar)e pen % $nd. I! bitten# pain and b1eedin) are &ertain# and in!e&ti n is 1i2e1y. In additi n t t"e $1&er# t"ere is !ten a systemi& rea&ti n t"at is seri $s and may 1ead t deat". Sna2e 5en ms n t n1y & ntain p is ns t"at atta&2 t"e 5i&timFs &entra1 ner5 $s system Cne$r t ?insD and b1 d &ir&$1ati n C"em t ?insD# b$t a1s di)esti5e en'ymes C&yt t ?insD t aid in di)estin) t"eir prey. +"ese si)ns $s$a11y appear 1. +"e primary & n&ern in t"e treatment ! sna2ebite is t 1imit t"e am $nt ! e5ent$a1 tiss$e destr$&ti n ar $nd t"e bite area. Systemi& rea&ti n in&1$des respirat ry di!!i&$1ties# t"i&2-!ee1in) t n)$e# b dy spasms# dr 1in)# )astri& distenti n# d $b1e 5isi n# b1indness# in5 1$ntary rapid m 5ement ! t"e eyeba11s# in5 1$ntary $rinati n and de!e&ati n# and "eart !ai1$re. . Department ! t"e Army persists ! r %ee2s r m nt"s. S#!)e. Deat"s !r m sna2ebites are rare. A bite % $nd# re)ard1ess ! t"e type ! anima1 t"at in!1i&ted it# &an be& me in!e&ted !r m ba&teria in t"e anima1Fs m $t". .ites !r m a n np is n $s sna2e %i11 s" % r %s ! teet". +arant$1as are 1ar)e# "airy spiders ! $nd main1y in t"e tr pi&s.ites !r m a p is n $s sna2e may "a5e r %s ! teet" s" %in)# b$t %i11 "a5e ne r m re distin&ti5e p$n&t$re mar2s &a$sed by !an) penetrati n. • /1ean t"e bite area.reat"in) di!!i&$1ty# para1ysis# %ea2ness# t%it&"in)# and n$mbness are a1s si)ns ! ne$r t ?i& 5en ms. M st d n t in@e&t 5en m# b$t s me S $t" Ameri&an spe&ies d . 3it" n np is n $s as %e11 as p is n $s sna2ebites# t"is 1 &a1 in!e&ti n is resp nsib1e ! r a 1ar)e part ! t"e resid$a1 dama)e t"at res$1ts. Deat" is rare# &&$rrin) main1y in &"i1dren and ad$1ts %it" "i)" b1 d press$re r i11nesses.

Suction the bite site 4 to 5 times. Ope# *" #($ . Department ! t"e Army • • • Use a & nstri&tin) band bet%een t"e % $nd and t"e "eart. .y ta2in) pr per &are ! t"e % $nd y $ &an red$&e !$rt"er & ntaminati n and pr m te "ea1in). Ven m may &a$se b1indness. A!ter &arin) ! r t"e 5i&tim as des&ribed ab 5e# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) a&ti ns t minimi'e 1 &a1 e!!e&tsI • • • • I! in!e&ti n appears# 2eep t"e % $nd pen and &1ean. Imm bi1i'e t"e site. Lea5e t"e % $nd pen t a11 % t"e draina)e ! any p$s res$1tin) !r m in!e&ti n. • • ($t y $r "ands n y $r !a&e r r$b y $r eyes# as 5en m may be n y $r "ands. . 8eep t"e % $nd & 5ered %it" a dry# steri1e dressin). • Ma2e any deep &$ts at t"e bite site. Use "eat a!ter 27 t 7: " $rs t "e1p pre5ent t"e spread ! 1 &a1 in!e&ti n. This method will draw out 36 to 4. Use mouth suction only as a last resort and only i$ you do not ha(e open sores in your "outh) Spit the envenomed blood out and rinse your mouth with water. 0a5e t"e 5i&tim drin2 1ar)e am $nts ! !1$ids $nti1 t"e in!e&ti n is ) ne.rea2 pen t"e 1ar)e b1isters t"at ! rm ar $nd t"e bite site.S. +"e J pen treatmentJ met" d is t"e sa!est %ay t mana)e % $nds in s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. 0eat a1s "e1ps t dra% $t an in!e&ti n.S An interr$pti n ! t"e s2inFs inte)rity &"ara&teri'es % $nds. /$ttin) pens &api11aries t"at in t$rn pen a dire&t r $te int t"e b1 d stream ! r 5en m and in!e&ti n. D n t try t &1 se any % $nd by s$t$rin) r simi1ar pr &ed$res. Rem 5e t"e p is n as s n as p ssib1e by $sin) a me&"ani&a1 s$&ti n de5i&e r by s4$ee'in). As 1 n) as t"e % $nd &an drain# it )enera11y %i11 n t be& me 1i!e-t"reatenin)# re)ard1ess ! " % $np1easant it 1 2s r sme11s. • A1%ays 1 2in) ! r an e?it % $nd i! a s"arp b@e&t# )$n s" t# r pr @e&ti1e &a$sed a % $nd. • Rinsin) Cn t s&r$bbin)D t"e % $nd %it" 1ar)e am $nts ! %ater $nder press$re. (a)e *7 ! 2** . • +" r $)"1y &1eanin) t"e s2in ar $nd t"e % $nd. Y $ &an $se !res" $rine i! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e.a&teria n t"e b@e&t t"at made t"e % $nd# n t"e indi5id$a1Fs s2in and &1 t"in)# r n t"er ! rei)n materia1 r dirt t"at t $&"es t"e % $nd may &a$se in!e&ti n. • 6i5e m rp"ine r t"er &entra1 ner5 $s system C/NSD depress rs.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.pen % $nds are seri $s in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# n t n1y be&a$se ! tiss$e dama)e and b1 d 1 ss# b$t a1s be&a$se t"ey may be& me in!e&ted. /1ean t"e % $nd as s n as p ssib1e a!ter it &&$rs by-• Rem 5in) r &$ttin) &1 t"in) a%ay !r m t"e % $nd. percent o! the venom. +"ese % $nds & $1d be pen % $nds# s2in diseases# !r stbite# tren&" ! t# and b$rns. :lace a suction cup over the bite so that you have a good vacuum seal. 8ote9 I! medical treatment is over one hour away" make an incision &no longer than 7 millimeters and no deeper than 4 millimeter' over each puncture" cutting $ust deep enough to enlarge the !ang opening" but only through the !irst or second layer o! skin. . D" #"t-• 6i5e t"e 5i&tim a1& " 1i& be5era)es r t ba&& pr d$&ts. 3OUN.

. App1y t"e & mpresses t"ree r ! $r times dai1y. (1a&e a banda)e n t"e dressin) t " 1d it in p1a&e. Department ! t"e Army / 5er t"e % $nd %it" a &1ean dressin). • /"e&2 t"e % $nd e5ery ! $r " $rs ! r se5era1 days t ens$re a11 ma)) ts "a5e been rem 5ed. I! y $ d n t "a5e antibi ti&s and t"e % $nd "as be& me se5ere1y in!e&ted# d es n t "ea1# and rdinary debridement is imp ssib1e# & nsider ma)) t t"erapy# despite its "a'ardsI • -?p se t"e % $nd t !1ies ! r ne day and t"en & 5er it. • . #oils (a)e *: ! 2** . In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# s me de)ree ! % $nd in!e&ti n is a1m st ine5itab1e. + treat an in!e&ted % $nd-• (1a&e a %arm# m ist & mpress dire&t1y n t"e in!e&ted % $nd. • Dress and banda)e t"e % $nd. S)i# Di$e!$e$ !#( Ai%+e#t$ A1t" $)" b i1s# !$n)a1 in!e&ti ns# and ras"es rare1y de5e1 p int a seri $s "ea1t" pr b1em# t"ey &a$se dis& m! rt and y $ s" $1d treat t"em. /"an)e t"e & mpress %"en it & 1s# 2eepin) a %arm & mpress n t"e % $nd ! r a t ta1 ! *< min$tes.n&e ma)) ts de5e1 p# 2eep % $nd & 5ered b$t &"e&2 dai1y. • F1$s" t"e % $nd repeated1y %it" steri1e %ater r !res" $rine t rem 5e t"e ma)) ts. /"an)e t"e dressin) dai1y t &"e&2 ! r in!e&ti n. • /"e&2 dai1y ! r ma)) ts. / ntin$e t"is treatment dai1y $nti1 a11 si)ns ! in!e&ti n "a5e disappeared. It s" $1d "ea1 n rma11y. I! a % $nd is )apin)# y $ &an brin) t"e ed)es t )et"er %it" ad"esi5e tape &$t in t"e ! rm ! a Jb$tter!1yJ r Jd$mbbe11J CFi)$re 7-7D. In&reased pain and bri)"t red b1 d in t"e % $nd indi&ate t"at t"e ma)) ts "a5e rea&"ed "ea1t"y tiss$e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (ain# s%e11in)# and redness ar $nd t"e % $nd# in&reased temperat$re# and p$s in t"e % $nd r n t"e dressin) indi&ate in!e&ti n is present. • Rem 5e a11 ma)) ts %"en t"ey "a5e &1eaned $t a11 dead tiss$e and be! re t"ey start n "ea1t"y tiss$e. • Drain t"e % $nd.S.pen and )ent1y pr be t"e in!e&ted % $nd %it" a steri1e instr$ment. • Drin2 a 1 t ! %ater. • .anda)e t"e % $nd and treat it as any t"er % $nd.

• Sphagnum moss. D$rin) t"e S $t"east Asian & n!1i&t# s 1diers $sed anti!$n)a1 p %ders# 1ye s ap# &"1 rine b1ea&"# a1& " 1# 5ine)ar# & n&entrated sa1t %ater# and i dine t treat !$n)a1 in!e&ti ns %it" 5aryin) de)rees ! s$&&ess. F $nd in b ))y areas % r1d%ide# it is a nat$ra1 s $r&e ! i dine. Rashes + treat a s2in ras" e!!e&ti5e1y# !irst determine %"at is &a$sin) it. (a)e *. 'ungal In$ections 8eep t"e s2in &1ean and dry# and e?p se t"e in!e&ted area t as m$&" s$n1i)"t as p ssib1e. +"e ner5es and m$s&1es s$stain t"e main dama)e# b$t )an)rene &an &&$r. • Salt water. . Dry t"e part and p1a&e it ne?t t y $r s2in t %arm it at b dy temperat$re. Department ! t"e Army App1y %arm & mpresses t brin) t"e b i1 t a "ead. ! 2** . +"en pen t"e b i1 $sin) a steri1e 2ni!e# %ire# need1e# r simi1ar item. Li)"t !r stbite in5 15es n1y t"e s2in t"at ta2es n a d$11# %"itis" pa11 r.ite +"is in@$ry res$1ts !r m !r 'en tiss$es. Use 9 t 19 tab1ets in a 1iter ! %ater t pr d$&e a ) d rinse ! r % $nds d$rin) "ea1in). F&"$t. Again" use noncommercially prepared materials with caution. Use it strai)"t r diss 15ed in %ater. R$b it n a % $nd r b i1 it t e?tra&t t"e i1s and $se t"e %ater t rinse t"e a!!e&ted area.h F""t +"is & nditi n res$1ts !r m many " $rs r days ! e?p s$re t %et r damp & nditi ns at a temperat$re @$st ab 5e !ree'in). • ?ee honey.S. • D n t s&rat&" it.bser5e t"e ! 11 %in) r$1es t treat ras"esI • I! it is m ist# 2eep it dry. 6ent1y r$b t"em in 1$2e%arm %ater. /"e&2 y $r b$ddyFs !a&e !ten and ma2e s$re t"at "e &"e&2s y $rs. Dry %et s &2s a)ainst y $r b dy. Use 2 t * tab1esp ns per 1iter ! %ater t 2i11 ba&teria. T&e#. 3"en %it" t"ers# pre5ent !r stbite by $sin) t"e b$ddy system. • >arlic. Remember# treat ras"es as pen % $nds and &1ean and dress t"em dai1y. As with any =unorthodo+= method o! treatment" use it with caution. +"ere are many s$bstan&es a5ai1ab1e t s$r5i5 rs in t"e %i1d r in &apti5ity ! r $se as antisepti&s t treat % $ndI • Iodine tablets. +" r $)"1y &1ean $t t"e p$s $sin) s ap and %ater. 3as" y $r !eet dai1y and p$t n dry s &2s. I! y $ are a1 ne# peri di&a11y & 5er y $r n se and 1 %er part ! y $r !a&e %it" y $r mittens. +"e best pre5enti n is t 2eep y $r !eet dry. <o not scratch t"e a!!e&ted area. / 5er t"e b i1 site# &"e&2in) it peri di&a11y t ens$re n !$rt"er in!e&ti n de5e1 ps. Y $r !eet# "ands# and e?p sed !a&ia1 areas are parti&$1ar1y 5$1nerab1e t !r stbite. • I! it is dry# 2eep it m ist.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 8eep dry ras"es m ist by r$bbin) a sma11 am $nt ! rendered anima1 !at r )rease n t"e a!!e&ted area. +"is determinati n may be di!!i&$1t e5en in t"e best ! sit$ati ns. Use a & mpress ! 5ine)ar r tanni& a&id deri5ed !r m tea r !r m b i1in) a& rns r t"e bar2 ! a "ard% d tree t dry %eepin) ras"es. /arry e?tra s &2s %it" y $ in a %aterpr ! pa&2et. D n t try t t"a% t"e a!!e&ted areas by p1a&in) t"em &1 se t an pen !1ame. +"e tiss$es be& me s 1id and imm 5ab1e. Use as a dressin). Deep !r stbite e?tends t a dept" be1 % t"e s2in. In e?treme &ases t"e !1es" dies and it may be& me ne&essary t "a5e t"e ! t r 1e) amp$tated.

• Reddened %"ites ! eyes. 8ote9 Treat !or dehydration with lightly salted water. F r b$rns &a$sed by %"ite p" sp" r $s# pi&2 $t t"e %"ite p" sp" r $s %it" t%ee'ersH d n t d $se %it" %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.s head. H3p"the&+i! (a)e 7< ! 2** . • Reb $nd "eatstr 2e %it"in 7: " $rs. Administer IVs and provide drinking !luids. • +reat as an pen % $nd. 1ool him by dipping him in a cool stream. • +reat ! r s" &2. I! one is not available" douse the victim with urine" water" or at the very least" apply cool wet com%presses to all the $oints" especially the neck" armpits" and crotch.t"er "eat in@$ries# s$&" as &ramps r de"ydrati n# d n t a1%ays pre&ede a "eatstr 2e. • Vi&tim n t s%eatin). ?e sure to wet the victim.S. ($t $t t"e !ire by rem 5in) &1 t"in)# d $sin) %it" %ater r sand# r by r 11in) n t"e )r $nd. 8ote9 ?y this time the victim is in severe shock. • Maintain air%ay. • / 1 t"e dressin)s r &1ean ra)s and app1y 5er b$rns. • Diarr"ea. • Un& ns&i $sness r de1iri$m# %"i&" &an &a$se pa11 r# a b1$is" & 1 r t 1ips and nai1 beds C&yan sisD# and & 1 s2in. • Rep1a&e !1$id 1 ss. • /ardia& arrestH be ready t per! rm /(R. Department ! t"e Army B &#$ +"e ! 11 %in) !ie1d treatment ! r b$rns re1ie5es t"e pain s me%"at# seems t "e1p speed "ea1in)# and !!ers s me pr te&ti n a)ainst in!e&ti nI • First# st p t"e b$rnin) pr &ess. • Str$))1in). He!t$t&")e +"e brea2d %n ! t"e b dyFs "eat re)$1at ry system Cb dy temperat$re m re t"an 7<. NVIRON0 NTAL IN2URI S 0eatstr 2e# "yp t"ermia# diarr"ea# and intestina1 parasites are en5ir nmenta1 in@$ries y $ & $1d !a&e. (eat loss through the scalp is great. -?pe&t# d$rin) & 1in)-• V mitin). • S"i5erin). 1ool the victim as rapidly as possible. . • S" $tin). • (r 1 n)ed $n& ns&i $sness. @ou may !an the individual. / 1 t"e b$rnin) s2in %it" i&e r %ater. Si)ns and sympt ms ! "eatstr 2e are-• S% 11en# beet-red !a&e.9 de)rees / L1<9 de)rees FMD &a$ses a "eatstr 2e. • S a2 dressin)s r &1ean ra)s ! r 1< min$tes in a b i1in) tanni& a&id s 1$ti n C btained !r m tea# inner bar2 ! "ard% d trees# r a& rns b i1ed in %aterD. • / nsider $sin) m rp"ine# $n1ess t"e b$rns are near t"e !a&e.

D n t repeat t"is treatment. • Aerosene.ICIN S . +"e ni& tine in t"e &i)arette %i11 2i11 r st$n t"e % rms 1 n) en $)" ! r y $r system t pass t"em.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.9 &i)arettes.$r m dern % nder dr$)s# 1ab rat ries# and e4$ipment "a5e bs&$red m re primiti5e types ! medi&ine in5 15in) determinati n# & mm n sense# and a !e% simp1e treatments. -?p s$re t & 1 r & 1d temperat$re 5er a s" rt r 1 n) time &an &a$se "yp t"ermia. Department ! t"e Army De!ined as t"e b dyFs !ai1$re t maintain a temperat$re ! *6 de)rees / C. Drin2 2 tab1esp ns ! 2er sene but no more. 0 %e5er# s" $1d y $ be& me in!ested and 1a&2 pr per medi&ine# y $ &an $se " me remedies. Y $ &an eat t"em ra% r p$t t"em in s $ps r ri&e and meat dis"es. . Un1i2e "eatstr 2e# y $ m$st )rad$a11y %arm t"e "yp t"ermia 5i&tim. +"e m st e!!e&ti5e %ay t pre5ent intestina1 parasites is t a5 id $n& 2ed meat and ra% 5e)etab1es & ntaminated by ra% se%a)e r "$man %aste $sed as a !erti1i'er. R#AL 0 . +"ey may &a$se 1$n) irritati n.# S$r5i5a1 Use ! (1ants# ! r s me basi& "erba1 medi&ine treatments.e &are!$1 n t t in"a1e t"e !$mes. In many areas ! t"e % r1d# " %e5er# t"e pe p1e sti11 depend n 1 &a1 J%it&" d &t rsJ r "ea1ers t &$re t"eir ai1ments. De"ydrati n and 1a&2 ! ! and rest predisp se t"e s$r5i5 r t "yp t"ermia. Many ! t"e "erbs Cp1antsD and treatments t"ey $se are as e!!e&ti5e as t"e m st m dern medi&ati ns a5ai1ab1e. I! y $ )et diarr"ea# " %e5er# and d n t "a5e antidiarr"ea1 medi&ine# ne ! t"e ! 11 %in) treatments may be e!!e&ti5eI • Limit y $r inta2e ! !1$ids ! r 27 " $rs. I! t"e in!estati n is se5ere# repeat t"e treatment in 27 t 7: " $rs# but no sooner. S me "erba1 medi&ines are dan)er $s and may &a$se !$rt"er dama)e r e5en deat". • Tobacco. d Di!&&he! A & mm n# debi1itatin) ai1ment &a$sed by a &"an)e ! %ater and ! d# drin2in) & ntaminated %ater# eatin) sp i1ed ! d# be& min) !ati)$ed# and $sin) dirty dis"es. Rep1a&e 1 st !1$ids# and %arm "im. . i1 t"e inner bar2 ! a "ard% d tree ! r 2 " $rs r m re t re1ease t"e tanni& a&id. 6et t"e 5i&tim int dry &1 t"in). +"ey &reate an en5ir nment t"at is pr "ibiti5e t parasiti& atta&"ment. (a)e 71 ! 2** . Y $ &an a5 id m st ! t"ese &a$ses by pra&ti&in) pre5enti5e medi&ine.S. • Drin2 ne &$p ! a str n) tea s 1$ti n e5ery 2 " $rs $nti1 t"e diarr"ea s1 %s r st ps. (eppers are e!!e&ti5e n1y i! t"ey are a steady part ! y $r diet. • Ma2e a s 1$ti n ! ne "and!$1 ! )r $nd &"a12# &"ar& a1# r dried b nes and treated %ater. *ARNIN1 Use "erba1 medi&ines %it" e?treme &are# " %e5er# and n1y %"en y $ 1a&2 r "a5e 1imited medi&a1 s$pp1ies. -at 1 t 1. • (ot peppers. +"e ! 11 %in) are " me remedies y $ & $1d $seI • Salt water. I#te$ti#!% P!&!$ite$ Y $ &an $s$a11y a5 id % rm in!estati ns and t"er intestina1 parasites i! y $ ta2e pre5enti5e meas$res. I! y $ "a5e s me app1e p ma&e r t"e rinds ! &itr$s !r$it# add an e4$a1 p rti n t t"e mi?t$re t ma2e it m re e!!e&ti5e. 8eep in mind t"at t"ese " me remedies % r2 n t"e prin&ip1e ! &"an)in) t"e en5ir nment ! t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t. Diss 15e 7 tab1esp ns ! sa1t in 1 1iter ! %ater and drin2. In !a&t# many m dern medi&ati ns & me !r m re!ined "erbs. +"e tanni& a&id in t"e tea "e1ps t & ntr 1 t"e diarr"ea. F r e?amp1e# ne5er ) bare! t.7 de)rees FD. . +a2e 2 tab1esp ns ! t"e s 1$ti n e5ery 2 " $rs $nti1 t"e diarr"ea s1 %s r st ps. I! ne&essary# y $ &an repeat t"is treatment in 27 t 7: " $rs. See /"apter .

Idea1 sites ! r a s"e1ter di!!er in %inter and s$mmer. It can help you maintain your will to survive. Y $ m$st a1s & nsider %"et"er t"e site-• (r 5ides & n&ea1ment !r m enemy bser5ati n. A shelter must be large enough to protect you. (a)e 72 ! 2** . • (r 5ides pr te&ti n a)ainst %i1d anima1s and r &2s and dead trees t"at mi)"t !a11. +% re4$isites are-• It m$st & ntain materia1 t ma2e t"e type ! s"e1ter y $ need. An e+hausted person may develop a =passive= outlook" thereby losing the will to survive. S. In some areas" your need !or shelter may take precedence over your need !or !ood and possibly even your need !or water. • A5 id sites near b dies ! %ater t"at are be1 % t"e "i)" %ater mar2. Y $ m$st a1s remember t"e pr b1ems t"at & $1d arise in y $r en5ir nment. D$rin) & 1d %inter m nt"s y $ %i11 %ant a site t"at %i11 pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d and %ind# b$t %i11 "a5e a s $r&e ! !$e1 and %ater. -or e+ample" prolonged e+posure to cold can cause e+cessive !atigue and weakness &e+haustion'.S. • It m$st be 1ar)e en $)" and 1e5e1 en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie d %n & m! rtab1y.SHELTERS A shelter can protect you !rom the sun" insects" wind" rain" snow" hot or cold temperatures" and enemy observation.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. LT R SIT S L CTION 3"en y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n and rea1i'e t"at s"e1ter is a "i)" pri rity# start 1 2in) ! r s"e1ter as s n as p ssib1e. • Is !ree !r m inse&ts# repti1es# and p is n $s p1ants. The most common error in making a shelter is to make it too large. It must also be small enough to contain your body heat" especially in cold climates. F r instan&e-• A5 id !1as" !1 d areas in ! t"i11s. • A5 id a5a1an&"e r r &2s1ide areas in m $ntain $s terrain. 3"en y $ & nsider t"ese re4$isites# " %e5er# y $ &ann t i)n re y $r ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n r y $r sa!ety. In s me areas# t"e seas n ! t"e year "as a str n) bearin) n t"e site y $ se1e&t. • Is s$itab1e ! r si)na1in)# i! ne&essary. It can give you a !eeling o! well%being. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER : . As y $ d s # remember %"at y $ %i11 need at t"e site. • 0as &am $!1a)ed es&ape r $tes. D$rin) s$mmer m nt"s in t"e same area y $ %i11 %ant a s $r&e ! %ater# b$t y $ %i11 %ant t"e site t be a1m st inse&t !ree.

n ne 1 n) side ! t"e p n&" # tie "a1! ! t"e r pe t t"e & rner )r mmet. TYP S O' S. Use a r $nd t$rn and t% "a1! "it&"es %it" a 4$i&2-re1ease 2n t. ($11 t"e dra%strin) ti)"t# r 11 t"e " d 1 n)%ays# ! 1d it int t"irds# and tie it !! %it" t"e dra%strin). (a)e 7* ! 2** . +ie t"e t"er "a1! t t"e t"er & rner )r mmet. . 0 %e5er# y $ m$st a1s & nsider-• 0 % m$&" time and e!! rt y $ need t b$i1d t"e s"e1ter. LT RS 3"en 1 2in) ! r a s"e1ter site# 2eep in mind t"e type ! s"e1ter Cpr te&ti nD y $ need. • I! t"e s"e1ter %i11 ade4$ate1y pr te&t y $ !r m t"e e1ements Cs$n# %ind# rain# sn %D.L % si1" $ette. S . I .S. + ma2e t"e 1ean-t -• +ie !! t"e " d ! t"e p n&" . + ans%er t"ese 4$esti ns# y $ need t 2n % " % t ma2e 5ari $s types ! s"e1ters and %"at materia1s y $ need t ma2e t"em.Irre)$1ar s"ape.h" Le!#-T" It ta2es n1y a s" rt time and minima1 e4$ipment t b$i1d t"is 1ean-t CFi)$re 9-1D. • /$t t"e r pe in "a1!. P"#.Sma11. . Y $ need a p n&" # 2 t * meters ! r pe r para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine# t"ree sta2es ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n)# and t% trees r t% p 1es 2 t * meters apart. • Atta&" a drip sti&2 Cab $t a 1<-&entimeter sti&2D t ea&" r pe ab $t 2.e! re se1e&tin) t"e trees y $ %i11 $se r t"e 1 &ati n ! y $r p 1es# &"e&2 t"e %ind dire&ti n. . +yin) strin)s Cab $t 1< &entimeters 1 n)D t ea&" )r mmet a1 n) t"e p n&" Fs t p ed)e %i11 a11 % t"e %ater t r$n t and d %n t"e 1ine %it" $t drippin) int t"e s"e1ter. L . S .. -ns$re t"at t"e ba&2 ! y $r 1ean-t %i11 be int t"e %ind. • +ie t"e r pes ab $t %aist "i)" n t"e trees C$pri)"tsD.9 &entimeters !r m t"e )r mmet. I! n t# &an y $ ma2e impr 5ised t 1sG • I! y $ "a5e t"e type and am $nt ! materia1s needed t b$i1d it. • I! y $ "a5e t"e t 1s t b$i1d it. +"ese drip sti&2s %i11 2eep rain%ater !r m r$nnin) d %n t"e r pes int t"e 1ean-t .1end in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin)s.LISS as a )$ide. .Se&1$ded 1 &ati n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army 3"en & nsiderin) s"e1ter site se1e&ti n# $se t"e % rd .

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Spread t"e p n&" and an&" r it t t"e )r $nd# p$ttin) s"arpened sti&2s t"r $)" t"e )r mmets and int t"e )r $nd.

I! y $ p1an t $se t"e 1ean-t ! r m re t"an ne ni)"t# r y $ e?pe&t rain# ma2e a &enter s$pp rt ! r t"e 1ean-t . Ma2e t"is s$pp rt %it" a 1ine. Atta&" ne end ! t"e 1ine t t"e p n&" " d and t"e t"er end t an 5er"an)in) bran&". Ma2e s$re t"ere is n s1a&2 in t"e 1ine. An t"er met" d is t p1a&e a sti&2 $pri)"t $nder t"e &enter ! t"e 1ean-t . +"is met" d# " %e5er# %i11 restri&t y $r spa&e and m 5ements in t"e s"e1ter. F r additi na1 pr te&ti n !r m %ind and rain# p1a&e s me br$s"# y $r r$&2sa&2# r t"er e4$ipment at t"e sides ! t"e 1ean-t . + red$&e "eat 1 ss t t"e )r $nd# p1a&e s me type ! ins$1atin) materia1# s$&" as 1ea5es r pine need1es# inside y $r 1ean-t . 8ote9 hen at rest" you lose as much as B; percent o! your body heat to the ground.

+ in&rease y $r se&$rity !r m enemy bser5ati n# 1 %er t"e 1ean-t Fs si1" $ette by ma2in) t% &"an)es. First# se&$re t"e s$pp rt 1ines t t"e trees at 2nee "ei)"t Cn t at %aist "ei)"tD $sin) t% 2nee-"i)" sti&2s in t"e t% &enter )r mmets Csides ! 1ean-t D. Se& nd# an)1e t"e p n&" t t"e )r $nd# se&$rin) it %it" s"arpened sti&2s# as ab 5e.

P"#.h" Te#t
+"is tent CFi)$re 9-2D pr 5ides a 1 % si1" $ette. It a1s pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e e1ements n t% sides. It "as# " %e5er# 1ess $sab1e spa&e and bser5ati n area t"an a 1ean-t # de&reasin) y $r rea&ti n time t enemy dete&ti n. + ma2e t"is tent# y $ need a p n&" # t% 1.9- t 2.9-meter r pes# si? s"arpened sti&2s ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n)# and t% trees 2 t * meters apart.

+ ma2e t"e tent-• +ie !! t"e p n&" " d in t"e same %ay as t"e p n&" 1ean-t . • +ie a 1.9- t 2.9-meter r pe t t"e &enter )r mmet n ea&" side ! t"e p n&" . • +ie t"e t"er ends ! t"ese r pes at ab $t 2nee "ei)"t t t% trees 2 t * meters apart and stret&" t"e p n&" ti)"t. • Dra% ne side ! t"e p n&" ti)"t and se&$re it t t"e )r $nd p$s"in) s"arpened sti&2s t"r $)" t"e )r mmets. • F 11 % t"e same pr &ed$re n t"e t"er side.

(a)e 77 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! y $ need a &enter s$pp rt# $se t"e same met" ds as ! r t"e p n&" 1ean-t . An t"er &enter s$pp rt is an A-!rame set $tside b$t 5er t"e &enter ! t"e tent CFi)$re 9-*D. Use t% ;<- t 12<-&entimeter-1 n) sti&2s# ne %it" a ! r2ed end# t ! rm t"e A-!rame. +ie t"e " dFs dra%strin) t t"e A-!rame t s$pp rt t"e &enter ! t"e tent.

Th&ee-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
I! y $ "a5e a para&"$te and t"ree p 1es and t"e ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n a11 %s# ma2e a para&"$te tepee. It is easy and ta2es 5ery 1itt1e time t ma2e t"is tepee. It pr 5ides pr te&ti n !r m t"e e1ements and &an a&t as a si)na1in) de5i&e by en"an&in) a sma11 am $nt ! 1i)"t !r m a !ire r &and1e. It is 1ar)e en $)" t " 1d se5era1 pe p1e and t"eir e4$ipment and t a11 % s1eepin)# & 2in)# and st rin) !ire% d. Y $ &an ma2e t"is tepee $sin) parts ! r a %" 1e pers nne1 main r reser5e para&"$te &an py. I! $sin) a standard pers nne1 para&"$te# y $ need t"ree p 1es *.9 t 7.9 meters 1 n) and ab $t 9 &entimeters in diameter. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-7D-• Lay t"e p 1es n t"e )r $nd and 1as" t"em t )et"er at ne end. • Stand t"e !rame% r2 $p and spread t"e p 1es t ! rm a trip d. • F r m re s$pp rt# p1a&e additi na1 p 1es a)ainst t"e trip d. Fi5e r si? additi na1 p 1es % r2 best# b$t d n t 1as" t"em t t"e trip d. • Determine t"e %ind dire&ti n and 1 &ate t"e entran&e ;< de)rees r m re !r m t"e mean %ind dire&ti n. • Lay $t t"e para&"$te n t"e Jba&2sideJ ! t"e trip d and 1 &ate t"e brid1e 1 p Cny1 n %eb 1 pD at t"e t p Cape?D ! t"e &an py. • (1a&e t"e brid1e 1 p 5er t"e t p ! a !ree-standin) p 1e. +"en p1a&e t"e p 1e ba&2 $p a)ainst t"e trip d s t"at t"e &an pyFs ape? is at t"e same "ei)"t as t"e 1as"in) n t"e t"ree p 1es. • 3rap t"e &an py ar $nd ne side ! t"e trip d. +"e &an py s" $1d be ! d $b1e t"i&2ness# as y $ are %rappin) an entire para&"$te. Y $ need n1y %rap "a1! ! t"e trip d# as t"e remainder ! t"e &an py %i11 en&ir&1e t"e trip d in t"e pp site dire&ti n. • / nstr$&t t"e entran&e by %rappin) t"e ! 1ded ed)es ! t"e &an py ar $nd t% !ree-standin) p 1es. Y $ &an t"en p1a&e t"e p 1es side by side t &1 se t"e tepeeFs entran&e. • (1a&e a11 e?tra &an py $nderneat" t"e tepee p 1es and inside t &reate a !1 r ! r t"e s"e1ter. • Lea5e a *<- t 9<-&entimeter penin) at t"e t p ! r 5enti1ati n i! y $ intend t "a5e a !ire inside t"e tepee.

(a)e 79 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

O#e-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
Y $ need a 17-) re se&ti n Cn rma11yD ! &an py# sta2es# a st $t &enter p 1e# and inner & re and need1e t & nstr$&t t"is tepee. Y $ &$t t"e s$spensi n 1ines e?&ept ! r 7<- t 79-&entimeter 1en)t"s at t"e &an pyFs 1 %er 1atera1 band. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-9D-• Se1e&t a s"e1ter site and s&ribe a &ir&1e ab $t 7 meters in diameter n t"e )r $nd. • Sta2e t"e para&"$te materia1 t t"e )r $nd $sin) t"e 1ines remainin) at t"e 1 %er 1atera1 band. • A!ter de&idin) %"ere t p1a&e t"e s"e1ter d r# emp1a&e a sta2e and tie t"e !irst 1ine C!r m t"e 1 %er 1atera1 bandD se&$re1y t it. • Stret&" t"e para&"$te materia1 ta$t t t"e ne?t 1ine# emp1a&e a sta2e n t"e s&ribed 1ine# and tie t"e 1ine t it. • / ntin$e t"e sta2in) pr &ess $nti1 y $ "a5e tied a11 t"e 1ines.
(a)e 76 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

• •

L se1y atta&" t"e t p ! t"e para&"$te materia1 t t"e &enter p 1e %it" a s$spensi n 1ine y $ pre5i $s1y &$t and# t"r $)" tria1 and err r# determine t"e p int at %"i&" t"e para&"$te materia1 %i11 be p$11ed ti)"t n&e t"e &enter p 1e is $pri)"t. +"en se&$re1y atta&" t"e materia1 t t"e p 1e. Usin) a s$spensi n 1ine C r inner & reD# se% t"e end ) res t )et"er 1ea5in) 1 r 1.2 meters ! r a d r.

N"-P"%e P!&!.h te Tepee
Y $ $se t"e same materia1s# e?&ept ! r t"e &enter p 1e# as ! r t"e ne-p 1e para&"$te tepee. + ma2e t"is tepee CFi)$re 9-6D-• +ie a 1ine t t"e t p ! para&"$te materia1 %it" a pre5i $s1y &$t s$spensi n 1ine. • +"r % t"e 1ine 5er a tree 1imb# and tie it t t"e tree tr$n2. • Startin) at t"e pp site side !r m t"e d r# emp1a&e a sta2e n t"e s&ribed *.9- t 7.*-meter &ir&1e. • +ie t"e !irst 1ine n t"e 1 %er 1atera1 band. • / ntin$e emp1a&in) t"e sta2es and tyin) t"e 1ines t t"em. • A!ter sta2in) d %n t"e materia1# $n!asten t"e 1ine tied t t"e tree tr$n2# ti)"ten t"e tepee materia1 by p$11in) n t"is 1ine# and tie it se&$re1y t t"e tree tr$n2.

(a)e 77 ! 2**

+ ma2e t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-7D-• Se&$re t"e 7. . A &and1e# $sed &are!$11y# &an 2eep t"e inside temperat$re & m! rtab1e. • Sta2e d %n r p$t a spreader bet%een t"e t% *-meter p 1es at t"e s"e1terFs entran&e s t"ey %i11 n t s1ide in%ard.9 meters 1 n) and t"e t"er t% ab $t * meters 1 n). +"e para&"$te &1 t" ma2es t"is s"e1ter %ind resistant# and t"e s"e1ter is sma11 en $)" t"at it is easi1y %armed.9 meter p 1e s t"at ab $t t"e same am $nt ! materia1 "an)s n b t" sides. • Use any e?&ess materia1 t & 5er t"e entran&e. +"is s"e1ter is $nsatis!a&t ry# " %e5er# %"en sn % is !a11in) as e5en a 1i)"t sn %!a11 %i11 &a5e it in. • Lay t"e t% *-meter p 1es n t"e )r $nd n eit"er side ! and in t"e same dire&ti n as t"e 7. (a)e 7: ! 2** .9meter p 1e.ne p 1e s" $1d be ab $t 7.S. • Lay t"e ! 1ded &an py 5er t"e 7. • +$&2 t"e e?&ess materia1 $nder t"e *-meter p 1es# and spread it n t"e )r $nd inside t ser5e as a !1 r.9-meter p 1e t t"e tree at ab $t %aist "ei)"t. Department ! t"e Army O#e-M!# She%te& A ne-man s"e1ter y $ &an easi1y ma2e $sin) a para&"$te re4$ires a tree and t"ree p 1es.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Fie%(-E5pe(ie#t Le!#-T" I! y $ are in a % ded area and "a5e en $)" nat$ra1 materia1s# y $ &an ma2e a !ie1d-e?pedient 1ean-t CFi)$re 9-.S.) Y $ &an ma2e a "amm &2 $sin) 6 t : ) res ! para&"$te &an py and t% trees ab $t 7.9 meters apart CFi)$re 9-:D. ! 2** . Department ! t"e Army P!&!. (a)e 7.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. It ta2es 1 n)er t ma2e t"is type ! s"e1ter t"an it d es t ma2e t"er types# b$t it %i11 pr te&t y $ !r m t"e e1ements.h te H!++".D %it" $t t"e aid ! t 1s r %it" n1y a 2ni!e.

• (1a&e ne end ! t"e beams C*-meter p 1esD n ne side ! t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt. S2!+p Be( In a mars" r s%amp# r any area %it" standin) %ater r & ntin$a11y %et )r $nd# t"e s%amp bed CFi)$re 9-1<D 2eeps y $ $t ! t"e %ater. + ma2e t"is 1ean-t -• +ie t"e 2-meter p 1e t t"e t% trees at %aist t &"est "ei)"t. Department ! t"e Army Y $ %i11 need t% trees C r $pri)"t p 1esD ab $t 2 meters apartH ne p 1e ab $t 2 meters 1 n) and 2. 3"en se1e&tin) s$&" a site# & nsider t"e %eat"er# %ind# tides# and a5ai1ab1e materia1s. +"is is t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt. 3it" @$st a 1itt1e m re e!! rt y $ &an "a5e a dryin) ra&2. Lay ne end ! t"e p 1es n t"e 1ean-t s$pp rt and t"e t"er end n t p ! t"e re!1e&t r %a11. (a)e 9< ! 2** . /$t a !e% 2-&entimeter-diameter p 1es C1en)t" depends n t"e distan&e bet%een t"e 1ean-t Fs " ri' nta1 s$pp rt and t"e t p ! t"e !ire re!1e&t r %a11D. (1a&e and tie int p1a&e sma11er sti&2s a&r ss t"ese p 1es.S. F rm t% r %s ! sta&2ed 1 )s t &reate an inner spa&e %it"in t"e %a11 t"at y $ &an !i11 %it" dirt. . As %it" a11 1ean-t type s"e1ters# be s$re t p1a&e t"e 1ean-t Fs ba&2side int t"e %ind. I! a standin) tree is n t a5ai1ab1e# & nstr$&t a biped $sin) Y-s"aped sti&2s r t% trip ds.9meter-1 n) sta2es int t"e )r $nd t s$pp rt t"e %a11.D. +"is a&ti n n t n1y stren)t"ens t"e %a11 b$t ma2es it m re "eat re!1e&ti5e. • / 5er t"e !rame% r2 %it" br$s"# 1ea5es# pine need1es# r )rass# startin) at t"e b tt m and % r2in) y $r %ay $p 1i2e s"in)1in).9 &entimeters in diameterH !i5e t ei)"t p 1es ab $t * meters 1 n) and 2.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Sta&2 )reen 1 )s n t p ! ne an t"er bet%een t"e s$pp rt sta2es.ind t"e t p ! t"e s$pp rt sta2es s t"at t"e )reen 1 )s and dirt %i11 stay in p1a&e.9 &entimeters in diameter ! r beamsH & rd r 5ines ! r se&$rin) t"e " ri' nta1 s$pp rt t t"e treesH and t"er p 1es# sap1in)s# r 5ines t &riss&r ss t"e beams. Dri5e ! $r 1. Y $ n % "a5e a p1a&e t dry &1 t"es# meat# r !is". • /riss&r ss sap1in)s r 5ines n t"e beams. • (1a&e stra%# 1ea5es# pine need1es# r )rass inside t"e s"e1ter ! r beddin). In & 1d %eat"er# add t y $r 1ean-t Fs & m! rt by b$i1din) a !ire re!1e&t r %a11 CFi)$re 9-.

+"ey# t # m$st be str n) en $)" t s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t. Y $ 5ery simp1y 1ay sti&2s and bran&"es 1en)t"%ise n t"e inside ! t"e trees C r p 1esD $nti1 t"ere is en $)" materia1 t raise t"e s1eepin) s$r!a&e ab 5e t"e %ater 1e5e1. • L 2 ! r 1 se r &2s# dead 1imbs# & & n$ts# r t"er nat$ra1 )r %t" t"an & $1d !a11 n y $r s"e1ter. +"ey s" $1d be !ar en $)" apart and str n) en $)" t s$pp rt y $r "ei)"t and %ei)"t# t in&1$de e4$ipment. 3"en s"e1ter is essentia1 t s$r5i5a1# b$i1d t"is s"e1ter. • / 5er t"e t p ! t"e bed !rame %it" br ad 1ea5es r )rass t ! rm a s !t s1eepin) s$r!a&e. An t"er s"e1ter desi)ned t )et y $ ab 5e and $t ! t"e %ater r %et )r $nd $ses t"e same re&tan)$1ar & n!i)$rati n as t"e s%amp bed. 0 %e5er# %"en se1e&tin) a nat$ra1 ! rmati n-• Stay a%ay !r m 1 % )r $nd s$&" as ra5ines# narr % 5a11eys# r &ree2 beds.e s$re t"ey are "i)" en $)" ab 5e t"e )r $nd r %ater t a11 % ! r tides and "i)" %ater.$i1d a !ire pad by 1ayin) &1ay# si1t# r m$d n ne & mer ! t"e s%amp bed and a11 % it t dry. N!t &!% She%te&$ D n t 5er1 2 nat$ra1 ! rmati ns t"at pr 5ide s"e1ter. .&i$ H t F r %armt" and ease ! & nstr$&ti n# t"is s"e1ter is ne ! t"e best. +"i&2# br$s"y# 1 % )r $nd a1s "arb rs m re inse&ts. + ma2e a debris "$t CFi)$re 9-11D-• . • Se&$re t"ese t% p 1es t t"e trees C r p 1esD. • /"e&2 ! r p is n $s sna2es# ti&2s# mites# s& rpi ns# and stin)in) ants. -?amp1es are &a5es# r &2y &re5i&es# &1$mps ! b$s"es# sma11 depressi ns# 1ar)e r &2s n 1ee%ard sides ! "i11s# 1ar)e trees %it" 1 %-"an)in) 1imbs# and !a11en trees %it" t"i&2 bran&"es. Lay t"em a&r ss t"e t% side p 1es# and se&$re t"em. • /$t t% p 1es t"at span t"e %idt" ! t"e re&tan)1e. De. (a)e 91 ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e a s%amp bed-• L 2 ! r ! $r trees &1$stered in a re&tan)1e# r &$t ! $r p 1es Cbamb is idea1D and dri5e t"em !irm1y int t"e )r $nd s t"ey ! rm a re&tan)1e. L % areas & 11e&t t"e "ea5y & 1d air at ni)"t and are t"ere! re & 1der t"an t"e s$rr $ndin) "i)" )r $nd. • /$t additi na1 p 1es t"at span t"e re&tan)1eFs 1en)t". • .$i1d it by ma2in) a trip d %it" t% s" rt sta2es and a 1 n) rid)ep 1e r by p1a&in) ne end ! a 1 n) rid)ep 1e n t p ! a st$rdy base.

As a !ina1 step in & nstr$&tin) t"is s"e1ter# add s"in)1in) materia1 r bran&"es n t p ! t"e debris 1ayer t pre5ent t"e ins$1atin) materia1 !r m b1 %in) a%ay in a st rm. (1a&e !iner sti&2s and br$s" &r ss%ise n t"e ribbin).S. (r p 1ar)e sti&2s a1 n) b t" sides ! t"e rid)ep 1e t &reate a %ed)e-s"aped ribbin) e!!e&t. 1# y $ (a)e 92 ! 2** . T&ee-Pit S#"2 She%te& I! y $ are in a & 1d# sn %-& 5ered area %"ere e5er)reen trees )r % and y $ "a5e a di))in) t &an ma2e a tree-pit s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-12D.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"ese ! rm a 1atti&e% r2 t"at %i11 2eep t"e ins$1atin) materia1 C)rass# pine need1es# 1ea5esD !r m !a11in) t"r $)" t"e ribbin) int t"e s1eepin) area. At t"e entran&e# pi1e ins$1atin) materia1 t"at y $ &an dra) t y $ n&e inside t"e s"e1ter t &1 se t"e entran&e r b$i1d a d r. (1a&e a *<-&entimeter 1ayer ! ins$1atin) materia1 inside t"e s"e1ter. Add 1i)"t# dry# i! p ssib1e# s !t debris 5er t"e ribbin) $nti1 t"e ins$1atin) materia1 is at 1east 1 meter t"i&2--t"e t"i&2er t"e better. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • • Se&$re t"e rid)ep 1e Cp 1e r$nnin) t"e 1en)t" ! t"e s"e1terD $sin) t"e trip d met" d r by an&" rin) it t a tree at ab $t %aist "ei)"t. -ns$re t"e ribbin) is %ide en $)" t a&& mm date y $r b dy and steep en $)" t s"ed m ist$re.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Find and &$t t"er e5er)reen b $)"s. • Use nat$ra1 materia1s s$&" as )rass r 1ea5es t ! rm a bed inside t"e s"e1ter. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e t"is s"e1ter-• Find a tree %it" b$s"y bran&"es t"at pr 5ides 5er"ead & 5er. Ma2e t"e tren&" 1 n) and %ide en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie d %n & m! rtab1y. • M $nd s i1 n t"ree sides ! t"e tren&". Be!. • -n1ar)e t"e s"e1terFs entran&e by di))in) $t m re sand in !r nt ! it. • Se1e&t a site t"at is ab 5e t"e "i)" %ater mar2. +"e "i)"er t"e m $nd# t"e m re spa&e inside t"e s"e1ter. • Di) $t t"e sn % ar $nd t"e tree tr$n2 $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e dept" and diameter y $ desire# r $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e )r $nd. + ma2e t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-1*D-• Find and & 11e&t dri!t% d r t"er nat$ra1 materia1 t $se as s$pp rt beams and as a di))in) t 1. • (a&2 t"e sn % ar $nd t"e t p and t"e inside ! t"e " 1e t pr 5ide s$pp rt. (a)e 9* ! 2** . (1a&e e5er)reen b $)"s in t"e b tt m ! t"e pit ! r ins$1ati n.S. • S&rape r di) $t a tren&" r$nnin) n rt" t s $t" s t"at it re&ei5es t"e 1east am $nt ! s$n1i)"t.h Sh!(e She%te& +"is s"e1ter pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e s$n# %ind# rain# and "eat. See /"apter 19 ! r t"er ar&ti& r & 1d %eat"er s"e1ters. (1a&e t"em 5er t"e t p ! t"e pit t )i5e y $ additi na1 5er"ead & 5er. • Lay s$pp rt beams Cdri!t% d r t"er nat$ra1 materia1D t"at span t"e tren&" n t p ! t"e m $nd t ! rm t"e !rame% r2 ! r a r !. It is easy t ma2e $sin) nat$ra1 materia1s.

8ote9 I! you have enough material" !old it in hal! and !orm a 4. • An&" r ne end ! t"e materia1 n t p ! t"e m $nd $sin) sand r t"er %ei)"ts. • -?tend and an&" r t"e t"er end ! t"e materia1 s it pr 5ides t"e best p ssib1e s"ade.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A be1 %)r $nd s"e1ter CFi)$re 9-17D &an red$&e t"e midday "eat as m$&" as 16 t 22 de)rees / C*< t 7< de)rees FD. Sin&e y $r p"ysi&a1 e!! rt %i11 ma2e y $ s%eat m re and in&rease de"ydrati n# & nstr$&t it be! re t"e "eat ! t"e day. • -?tend and an&" r t"e t"er end ! t"e p n&" s it pr 5ides t"e best p ssib1e s"ade.$i1d a m $nd ! sand r $se t"e side ! a sand d$ne ! r ne side ! t"e s"e1ter.S. . (a)e 97 ! 2** . Usin) r &2 $t&r ppin)s-• An&" r ne end ! y $r p n&" C&an5as# para&"$te# r t"er materia1D n t"e ed)e ! t"e $t&r p $sin) r &2s r t"er %ei)"ts.%centimeter to 56% centimeter airspace between the two halves.$i1din) it# " %e5er# re4$ires m re time and e!! rt t"an ! r t"er s"e1ters. Department ! t"e Army De$e&t She%te&$ In an arid en5ir nment# & nsider t"e time# e!! rt# and materia1 needed t ma2e a s"e1ter. This airspace will reduce the temperature under the shelter. In a sandy area-• . I! y $ "a5e materia1 s$&" as a p n&" # &an5as# r a para&"$te# $se it a1 n) %it" s$&" terrain !eat$res as r &2 $t&r ppin)# m $nds ! sand# r a depressi n bet%een d$nes r r &2s t ma2e y $r s"e1ter.

An t"er type ! be1 %)r $nd s"ade s"e1ter is ! simi1ar & nstr$&ti n# e?&ept a11 sides are pen t air &$rrents and &ir&$1ati n. (a)e 99 ! 2** . • . +"is 1ayerin) ! t"e materia1 %i11 red$&e t"e inside temperat$re 11 t 22 de)rees / C2< t 7< de)rees FD.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. I! y $ "a5e e?tra materia1# y $ &an !$rt"er de&rease t"e midday temperat$re in t"e tren&" by se&$rin) t"e materia1 *< t 79 &entimeters ab 5e t"e t"er & 5er. • Se&$re t"e materia1 in p1a&e $sin) sand# r &2s# r t"er %ei)"ts. I! ne&essary# di) a tren&" 79 t 6< &entimeters deep and 1 n) and %ide en $)" ! r y $ t 1ie in & m! rtab1y. F r ma?im$m pr te&ti n# y $ need a minim$m ! t% 1ayers ! para&"$te materia1 CFi)$re 9-19D.n t"e pen end ! t"e tren&"# di) $t m re sand s y $ &an )et in and $t ! y $r s"e1ter easi1y. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e t"is s"e1ter-• Find a 1 % sp t r depressi n bet%een d$nes r r &2s. • (i1e t"e sand y $ ta2e !r m t"e tren&" t ! rm a m $nd ar $nd t"ree sides. • / 5er t"e tren&" %it" y $r materia1. 3"ite is t"e best & 1 r t re!1e&t "eatH t"e innerm st 1ayer s" $1d be ! dar2er materia1.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army (a)e 96 ! 2** .

Cven in cold areas" you need a minimum o! 3 liters o! water each day to maintain e!!iciency. (a)e 97 ! 2** . /ore than three%!ourths o! your body is composed o! !luids. To !unction e!!ectively" you must replace the !luid your body loses.S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 6 . t live long without it" especially in hot areas where you lose water rapidly through perspiration. @ou can. It a1s pr 5ides in! rmati n n " % t ma2e t"e %ater p tab1e. Fi)$re 6-1 1ists p ssib1e s $r&es ! %ater in 5ari $s en5ir nments.*ATER PROCUREMENT ater is one o! your most urgent needs in a survival situation. @our body loses !luid as a result o! heat" cold" stress" and e+ertion. 3AT R SOURC S A1m st any en5ir nment "as %ater present t s me de)ree. So" one o! your !irst goals is to obtain an ade)uate supply o! water.

Department ! t"e Army (a)e 9: ! 2** .S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Use pins or other suitable items%%even your hands%%to hold the pleats.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 9. Shape the plastic or cloth into a bowl by pleating it.S. I! y $ d n t "a5e a re1iab1e s $r&e t rep1enis" y $r %ater s$pp1y# stay a1ert ! r %ays in %"i&" y $r en5ir nment &an "e1p y $. Department ! t"e Army 8ote9 I! you do not have a canteen" a cup" a can" or other type o! container" improvise one !rom plastic or water%resistant cloth. ! 2** . CAUTION D n t s$bstit$te t"e !1$ids 1isted in Fi)$re 6-2 ! r %ater.

. 3"ere5er y $ !ind banana r p1antain trees# y $ &an )et %ater. Use t"e ab 5e pr &ed$res t )et t"e %ater. +"e %ater %i11 drip !ree1y d$rin) t"e ni)"t. Department ! t"e Army 0ea5y de% &an pr 5ide %ater. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.1d# &ra&2ed bamb may & ntain %ater. (a)e 6< ! 2** . 3ater !r m )reen bamb is &1ear and d r1ess. 3ater s metimes )at"ers in tree &r t&"es r r &2 &re5i&es. . + )et t"e %ater# bend a )reen bamb sta12# tie it d %n# and &$t !! t"e t p CFi)$re 6-*D. Y $ &an a1s st$!! &1 t" in t"e " 1e t abs rb t"e %ater and t"en %rin) it !r m t"e &1 t". In arid areas# bird dr ppin)s ar $nd a &ra&2 in t"e r &2s may indi&ate %ater in r near t"e &ra&2. Sip" n t"e %ater %it" p1asti& t$bin) r s& p it $p %it" an impr 5ised dipper. Repeat t"e pr &ess $nti1 y $ "a5e a s$pp1y ! %ater r $nti1 t"e de% is ) ne. /$t d %n t"e tree# 1ea5in) ab $t a *<&entimeter st$mp# and s& p $t t"e &enter ! t"e st$mp s t"at t"e " 11 % is b %1-s"aped. +"e st$mp CFi)$re 6-7D %i11 s$pp1y %ater ! r $p t ! $r days. +ie ra)s r t$!ts ! !ine )rass ar $nd y $r an21es and %a12 t"r $)" de%& 5ered )rass be! re s$nrise. +"e !irst t"ree !i11in)s ! %ater %i11 be bitter# b$t s$&&eedin) !i11in)s %i11 be pa1atab1e. A$stra1ian nati5es s metimes m p $p as m$&" as a 1iter an " $r t"is %ay.S. 6reen bamb t"i&2ets are an e?&e11ent s $r&e ! !res" %ater. 3ater !r m t"e r ts %i11 immediate1y start t !i11 t"e " 11 %. As t"e ra)s r )rass t$!ts abs rb t"e de%# %rin) t"e %ater int a & ntainer. CAUTION ($ri!y t"e %ater be! re drin2in) it.e s$re t & 5er it t 2eep $t inse&ts.ees r ants ) in) int a " 1e in a tree may p int t a %ater-!i11ed " 1e.

Department ! t"e Army S me tr pi&a1 5ines &an )i5e y $ %ater.S. /$t a n t&" in t"e 5ine as "i)" as y $ &an rea&"# t"en &$t t"e 5ine !! &1 se t t"e )r $nd. /at&" t"e dr ppin) 1i4$id in a & ntainer r in y $r m $t" CFi)$re 6-9D.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 61 ! 2** .

CAUTION D n t 2eep t"e sap !r m p1ants 1 n)er t"an 27 " $rs.s tree. Drin2 in m derati n n1y. Strain t"e %ater t"r $)" a &1 t" t rem 5e inse&ts and debris. +"is tree ! t"e sandy p1ains ! n rt"ern A$stra1ia and A!ri&a & 11e&ts %ater in its b tt1e1i2e tr$n2 d$rin) t"e %et seas n. Y $ &an )et %ater !r m p1ants %it" m ist p$1py &enters. +"ese air p1ants may " 1d a & nsiderab1e am $nt ! rain%ater in t"eir 5er1appin)# t"i&21y )r %in) 1ea5es. 0 %e5er# t"e mi12 !r m mat$re & & n$ts & ntains an i1 t"at a&ts as a 1a?ati5e. Fre4$ent1y# y $ &an !ind &1ear# !res" %ater in t"ese trees a!ter %ee2s ! dry %eat"er."/e0&" #( Sti%% + ma2e t"e ab 5e)r $nd sti11# y $ need a s$nny s1 pe n %"i&" t p1a&e t"e sti11# a &1ear p1asti& ba)# )reen 1ea!y 5e)etati n# and a sma11 r &2 CFi)$re 6-6D. (1ant r ts may pr 5ide %ater. A. (a)e 62 ! 2** . /$t !! a se&ti n ! t"e p1ant and s4$ee'e r smas" t"e p$1p s t"at t"e m ist$re r$ns $t. It be)ins !ermentin)# be& min) dan)er $s as a %ater s $r&e.S. +"ey dra% m ist$re !r m t"e )r $nd and !r m p1ant materia1. F $nd in Mada)as&ar# t"is tree "as a &$p1i2e s"eat" at t"e base ! its 1ea5es in %"i&" %ater & 11e&ts. /$t r n t&" t"e sta12s at t"e base ! a @ int t drain $t t"e 1i4$id. F1es"y 1ea5es# stems# r sta12s# s$&" as bamb # & ntain %ater. Di) r pry t"e r ts $t ! t"e )r $nd# &$t t"em int s" rt pie&es# and smas" t"e p$1p s t"at t"e m ist$re r$ns $t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • ?aobab tree. . /at&" t"e 1i4$id in a & ntainer. Y $ need &ertain materia1s t b$i1d a sti11# and y $ need time t 1et it & 11e&t t"e %ater. • Traveler. STILL CONSTRUCTION Y $ &an $se sti11s in 5ari $s areas ! t"e % r1d.r$ise a 1 %er !r nd and p$11 it d %n s t"e tree %i11 Jb1eedJ at t"e in@$ry. +"e mi12 !r m )reen C$nripeD & & n$ts is a ) d t"irst 4$en&"er. +"e 1ea! bases and r ts ! t"is tree ! %estern tr pi&a1 A!ri&a &an pr 5ide %ater. In t"e Ameri&an tr pi&s y $ may !ind 1ar)e trees %" se bran&"es s$pp rt air p1ants. • Umbrella tree. +"e ! 11 %in) trees &an a1s pr 5ide %aterI • :alms. /at&" t"e 1i4$id in a & ntainer. (a1ms# s$&" as t"e b$ri# & & n$t# s$)ar# rattan# and nips# & ntain 1i4$id.9 t 1 1iter ! %ater. Department ! t"e Army CAUTION D n t drin2 t"e 1i4$id i! it is sti&2y# mi12y# r bitter tastin). It ta2es ab $t 27 " $rs t )et <.

CAUTION D n t $se p is n $s 5e)etati n. /1 se t"e ba) and tie t"e m $t" se&$re1y as &1 se t t"e end ! t"e ba) as p ssib1e t 2eep t"e ma?im$m am $nt ! air spa&e.e s$re t rem 5e a11 "ard sti&2s r s"arp spines t"at mi)"t p$n&t$re t"e ba). Be%"20&" #( Sti%% + ma2e a be1 %)r $nd sti11# y $ need a di))in) t and a r &2 CFi)$re 6-7D. Sett1e t"e ba) in p1a&e s t"at t"e r &2 % r2s itse1! int t"e 1 % p int in t"e ba). I! y $ "a5e a pie&e ! t$bin)# a sma11 stra%# r a " 11 % reed# insert ne end in t"e m $t" ! t"e ba) be! re y $ tie it se&$re1y. /"an)e t"e 5e)etati n in t"e ba) a!ter e?tra&tin) m st ! t"e %ater !r m it. ( siti n t"e m $t" ! t"e ba) s1i)"t1y "i)"er t"an t"e 1 % p int in t"e ba). It %i11 pr 5ide p is n $s 1i4$id. . • Fi11 t"e p1asti& ba) "a1! t t"ree-! $rt"s !$11 ! )reen 1ea!y 5e)etati n. +"en retie t"e m $t" se&$re1y and rep siti n t"e sti11 t a11 % !$rt"er & ndensati n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e t"e sti11-• Fi11 t"e ba) %it" air by t$rnin) t"e penin) int t"e bree'e r by Js& pin)J air int t"e ba). +"en tie !! r p1$) t"e t$bin) s t"at air %i11 n t es&ape. +"is %i11 ens$re ma?im$m $tp$t ! %ater. + )et t"e & ndensed %ater !r m t"e sti11# 1 sen t"e tie ar $nd t"e ba)Fs m $t" and tip t"e ba) s t"at t"e %ater & 11e&ted ar $nd t"e r &2 %i11 drain $t. • • • • (1a&e a sma11 r &2 r simi1ar item in t"e ba). +"is t$bin) %i11 a11 % y $ t drain $t & ndensed %ater %it" $t $ntyin) t"e ba).S. 1# a & ntainer# a &1ear p1asti& s"eet# a drin2in) t$be# (a)e 6* ! 2** . (1a&e t"e ba)# m $t" d %n"i11# n a s1 pe in !$11 s$n1i)"t.

+"e b tt m ! t"e s$mp s" $1d a11 % t"e & ntainer t stand $pri)"t. Y $ may %ant t $se p1ants in t"e " 1e as a m ist$re s $r&e. +"en pr &eed as ab 5e. ( $r t"e p 11$ted %ater in t"e tr $)". +"e tr $)" " 1ds t"e p 11$ted %ater and t"e s i1 !i1ters it as t"e sti11 dra%s it. Department ! t"e Army Se1e&t a site %"ere y $ be1ie5e t"e s i1 %i11 & ntain m ist$re Cs$&" as a dry stream bed r a 1 % sp t %"ere rain%ater "as & 11e&tedD. +"is pr &ess % r2s e?treme1y %e11 %"en y $r n1y %ater s $r&e is sa1t %ater. • Di) a s$mp in t"e &enter ! t"e " 1e. It n % ! rms an in5erted & ne %it" t"e r &2 at its ape?. • ($t m re s i1 n t"e ed)es ! t"e p1asti& t " 1d it se&$re1y in p1a&e and t pre5ent t"e 1 ss ! m ist$re. +"e s$mpFs dept" and perimeter %i11 depend n t"e si'e ! t"e & ntainer t"at y $ "a5e t p1a&e in it. • An&" r t"e t$bin) t t"e & ntainerFs b tt m by ! rmin) a 1 se 5er"and 2n t in t"e t$bin).S. +"e %ater t"en & ndenses n t"e p1asti& and drains int t"e & ntainer. (a)e 67 ! 2** . Di) t"e tr $)" ab $t 29 &entimeters deep and : &entimeters %ide. • (1a&e t"e p1asti& s"eet 5er t"e " 1e# & 5erin) its ed)es %it" s i1 t " 1d it in p1a&e. • (1a&e t"e & ntainer $pri)"t in t"e s$mp.e s$re y $ d n t spi11 any p 11$ted %ater ar $nd t"e rim ! t"e " 1e %"ere t"e p1asti& s"eet t $&"es t"e s i1. • L %er t"e p1asti& s"eet int t"e " 1e $nti1 it is ab $t 7< &entimeters be1 % )r $nd 1e5e1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ &an drin2 %ater %it" $t dist$rbin) t"e sti11 by $sin) t"e t$be as a stra%. A1s ma2e s$re t"e p1asti& & ne d es n t t $&" t"e sides ! t"e " 1e be&a$se t"e eart" %i11 abs rb t"e & ndensed %ater. Ma2e s$re t"at t"e & neFs ape? is dire&t1y 5er y $r & ntainer. I! s # di) $t additi na1 s i1 !r m t"e sides ! t"e " 1e t ! rm a s1 pe n %"i&" t p1a&e t"e p1ants. . • (1a&e a r &2 in t"e &enter ! t"e p1asti& s"eet. • -?tend t"e $nan&" red end ! t"e t$bin) $p# 5er# and bey nd t"e 1ip ! t"e " 1e. I! p 11$ted %ater is y $r n1y m ist$re s $r&e# di) a sma11 tr $)" $tside t"e " 1e ab $t 29 &entimeters !r m t"e sti11Fs 1ip CFi)$re 6-:D. • (1$) t"e t$be %"en n t in $se s t"at t"e m ist$re %i11 n t e5ap rate. +"e s i1 at t"is site s" $1d be easy t di)# and s$n1i)"t m$st "it t"e site m st ! t"e day. + & nstr$&t t"e sti11-• Di) a b %1-s"aped " 1e ab $t 1 meter a&r ss and 6< &entimeters deep.

D • (1a&in) 9 dr ps ! 2 per&ent tin&t$re ! i dine in a &anteen !$11 ! &1ear %ater. (a)e 69 ! 2** . • 1holera and typhoid. -?amp1es ! s$&" diseases r r)anisms are-• <ysentery. . Department ! t"e Army Y $ %i11 need at 1east t"ree sti11s t meet y $r indi5id$a1 dai1y %ater inta2e needs. 3AT R PURI'ICATION Rain%ater & 11e&ted in &1ean & ntainers r in p1ants is $s$a11y sa!e ! r drin2in).y drin2in) n np tab1e %ater y $ may & ntra&t diseases r s%a11 % r)anisms t"at &an "arm y $.S. • Leeches. -a&" b1eedin) % $nd may be& me in!e&ted. • -lukes.y p1a&in) it in a & ntainer and 1ettin) it stand ! r 12 " $rs. Se5ere# pr 1 n)ed diarr"ea %it" b1 dy st 1s# !e5er# and %ea2ness.D • . 3AT R 'ILTRATION . CLet t"e &anteen ! %ater stand ! r *< min$tes be! re drin2in). ($ri!y %ater by-• Usin) %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets. I! y $ s%a11 % !1$2es# t"ey %i11 b re int t"e b1 dstream# 1i5e as parasites# and &a$se disease. i1in) %ater ! r 1 min$te at sea 1e5e1# addin) 1 min$te ! r ea&" additi na1 *<< meters ab 5e sea 1e5e1# r b i1 ! r 1< min$tes n matter %"ere y $ are.!ten & ntains b1 d !1$2es. I! t"e &anteen is !$11 ! &1 $dy r & 1d %ater# $se 1< dr ps. @ou will have to puri!y it. 0 %e5er# p$ri!y %ater !r m 1a2es# p nds# s%amps# sprin)s# r streams# espe&ia11y t"e %ater near "$man sett1ements r in t"e tr pi&s. • . 3"en p ssib1e# p$ri!y a11 %ater y $ ) t !r m 5e)etati n r !r m t"e )r $nd by $sin) i dine r &"1 rine# r by b i1in).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ s%a11 % a 1ee&"# it &an " 2 nt t"e t"r at passa)e r inside t"e n se. Y $ may be s$s&eptib1e t t"ese diseases re)ard1ess ! in &$1ati ns. CF 11 % t"e dire&ti ns pr 5ided.y p $rin) it t"r $)" a !i1terin) system. 8ote9 These procedures only clear the water and make it more palatable. It %i11 s$&2 b1 d# &reate a % $nd# and m 5e t an t"er area. VIC S I! t"e %ater y $ !ind is a1s m$ddy# sta)nant# and ! $1 sme11in)# y $ &an &1ear t"e %ater-• . Sta)nant# p 11$ted %ater--espe&ia11y in tr pi&a1 areas-.

Let t"e %ater stand ! r 79 min$tes be! re drin2in) it. (a)e 66 ! 2** .D. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e a !i1terin) system# p1a&e se5era1 &entimeters r 1ayers ! !i1terin) materia1 s$&" as sand# &r$s"ed r &2# &"ar& a1# r &1 t" in bamb # a " 11 % 1 )# r an arti&1e ! &1 t"in) CFi)$re 6-.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Rem 5e t"e d r !r m %ater by addin) &"ar& a1 !r m y $r !ire.S.

-ire can also cause burns carbon mono+ide poisoning when used in shelters. @ou can use !ire to puri!y water" sterili*e bandages" signal !or rescue" and provide protection !rom animals. Understandin) t"e & n&ept ! t"e !ire trian)1e is 5ery imp rtant in & rre&t1y & nstr$&tin) and maintainin) a !ire. . • +imeI " % m$&" time y $ "a5eG • NeedI %"y y $ need a !ireG • Se&$rityI " % &1 se is t"e enemyG L • • • 2 ! r a dry sp t t"at-Is pr te&ted !r m t"e %ind.FIRECRAFT In many survival situations" the ability to start a !ire can make the di!!erence between living and dying. SIT S L CTION AN. +"e n1y %ay t 1earn t"is rati is t pra&ti&e. • +"e materia1s and t 1s a5ai1ab1e. +"is )as# & mbined %it" ?y)en in t"e air# b$rns. I! y $ rem 5e any ! t"ese# t"e !ire %i11 ) $t. -ire can !ul!ill many needs. It not only cooks and preserves !ood" it also provides warmth in the !orm o! heated !ood that saves calories our body normally uses to produce body heat.S. #ASIC 'IR PRINCIPL S + b$i1d a !ire# it "e1ps t $nderstand t"e basi& prin&ip1es ! a !ire. 3"en y $ app1y "eat t a !$e1# it pr d$&es a )as. The enemy can detect the smoke and light it produces. -ire can cause problems" as well. It can be a psychological boost by providing peace o! mind and companionship. Remember weigh your need !or !ire against your need to avoid enemy detection. +"e t"ree sides ! t"e trian)1e represent air" heat" and !uel. F$e1 Cin a n n)ase $s stateD d es n t b$rn dire&t1y. It can provide warmth and com!ort. 3i11 & n&entrate t"e "eat in t"e dire&ti n y $ desire.e! re b$i1din) a !ire & nsider-• +"e area Cterrain and &1imateD in %"i&" y $ are peratin). +"e & rre&t rati ! t"ese & mp nents is 5ery imp rtant ! r a !ire t b$rn at its )reatest &apabi1ity.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. @ou can also use !ire to produce tools and weapons. PR PARATION Y $ %i11 "a5e t de&ide %"at site and arran)ement t $se. It can cause !orest !ires or destroy essential e)uipment.D (a)e 67 ! 2** 0as a s$pp1y ! % . Is s$itab1y p1a&ed in re1ati n t y $r s"e1ter Ci! anyD. d r t"er !$e1 a5ai1ab1e. CSee Fi)$re 7-7 ! r types ! materia1 y $ &an $se. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 7 .

0 %e5er# y $ %i11 need en $)" %ind t 2eep t"e !ire b$rnin). (a)e 6: ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! time a11 %s# & nstr$&t a !ire %a11 $sin) 1 )s r r &2s. CAUTION D n t $se %et r p r $s r &2s as t"ey may e?p1 de %"en "eated.S. +"is %a11 %i11 "e1p t re!1e&t r dire&t t"e "eat %"ere y $ %ant it CFi)$re 7-1D. It %i11 a1s red$&e !1yin) spar2s and &$t d %n n t"e am $nt ! %ind b1 %in) int t"e !ire. /1ear a &ir&1e at 1east 1 meter in diameter s t"ere is 1itt1e &"an&e ! t"e !ire spreadin). Department ! t"e Army I! y $ are in a % ded r br$s"-& 5ered area# &1ear t"e br$s" and s&rape t"e s$r!a&e s i1 !r m t"e sp t y $ "a5e se1e&ted.

(a)e 6.n t"e $p%ind side ! t"is " 1e# p 2e r di) a 1ar)e & nne&tin) " 1e ! r 5enti1ati n. • . Add ne r t% m re 1ayers. I! y $ are in a sn %-& 5ered area# $se )reen 1 )s t ma2e a dry base ! r y $r !ire CFi)$re 7-*D. Lay t"e t p 1ayer ! 1 )s pp site t" se be1 % it. + ma2e an $nder)r $nd !irep1a&e r Da2 ta !ire " 1e CFi)$re 7-2D-• Di) a " 1e in t"e )r $nd. It & n&ea1s t"e !ire and ser5es %e11 ! r & 2in) ! d.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +rees %it" %rist-si'ed tr$n2s are easi1y br 2en in e?treme & 1d. Department ! t"e Army In s me sit$ati ns# y $ may !ind t"at an $nder)r $nd !irep1a&e %i11 best meet y $r needs.$i1d y $r !ire in t"e " 1e as i11$strated.S. • . /$t r brea2 se5era1 )reen 1 )s and 1ay t"em side by side n t p ! t"e sn %. ! 2** .

A 'IR +"ere are se5era1 met" ds ! r 1ayin) a !ire# ea&" ! %"i&" "as ad5anta)es. Tepee + ma2e t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# arran)e t"e tinder and a !e% sti&2s ! 2ind1in) in t"e s"ape ! a tepee r & ne. Add it t y $r indi5id$a1 s$r5i5a1 2it. +"e sit$ati n y $ !ind y $rse1! in %i11 determine %"i&" !ire t $se. As t"e tepee b$rns# t"e $tside 1 )s %i11 !a11 in%ard# !eedin) t"e !ire. +"is type ! !ire b$rns %e11 e5en %it" %et % d. 8ind1in) is readi1y & mb$stib1e materia1 t"at y $ add t t"e b$rnin) tinder. Li)"t t"e &enter. (repare t"is &1 t" %e11 in ad5an&e ! any s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. A)ain# t"is materia1 s" $1d be abs 1$te1y dry t ens$re rapid b$rnin). +"e tinder m$st be abs 1$te1y dry t be s$re @$st a spar2 %i11 i)nite it. . It " 1ds a spar2 ! r 1 n) peri ds# a11 %in) y $ t p$t tinder n t"e " t area t )enerate a sma11 !1ame. Y $ &an ma2e &"arred &1 t" by "eatin) & tt n &1 t" $nti1 it t$rns b1a&2# b$t d es n t b$rn. +inder is dry materia1 t"at i)nites %it" 1itt1e "eat--a spar2 starts a !ire. Department ! t"e Army 'IR 0AT RIAL S L CTION Y $ need t"ree types ! materia1s CFi)$re 7-7D t b$i1d a !ire--tinder# 2ind1in)# and !$e1. I! y $ n1y "a5e a de5i&e t"at )enerates spar2s# &"arred &1 t" %i11 be a1m st essentia1. F$e1 is 1ess & mb$stib1e materia1 t"at b$rns s1 %1y and steadi1y n&e i)nited. 8ind1in) in&reases t"e !ireFs temperat$re s t"at it %i11 i)nite 1ess & mb$stib1e materia1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.O3 TO #UIL.n&e it is b1a&2# y $ m$st 2eep it in an airti)"t & ntainer t 2eep it dry.S. (a)e 7< ! 2** . .

+"is )i5es y $ a !ire t"at b$rns d %n%ard# re4$irin) n attenti n d$rin) t"e ni)"t. M"(e&# Meth"($ (a)e 71 ! 2** . . As t"e starter !ire b$rns# it %i11 i)nite t"e 1 )s be1 % it. Y $r sit$ati n and t"e materia1 a5ai1ab1e in t"e area may ma2e an t"er met" d m re s$itab1e.O3 TO LI/. Li)"t t"e tinder.$i1d a 2ind1in) pyramid ab 5e t"e tinder. . ($t a 1ar)e %ad ! tinder in t"e midd1e ! t"e &r ss.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"ey !a11 int t% &ate) riesI m dern met" ds and primiti5e met" ds. I)niters pr 5ide t"e initia1 "eat re4$ired t start t"e tinder b$rnin).T A 'IR A1%ays 1i)"t y $r !ire !r m t"e $p%ind side. Di) t"e &r ss 7. Add t"ree r ! $r m re 1ayers ! 1 )s r bran&"es# ea&" 1ayer sma11er t"an and at a ri)"t an)1e t t"e 1ayer be1 % it. (1a&e s me tinder deep $nder t"is 1ean-t sti&2. Department ! t"e Army Le!#-T" + 1ay t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# p$s" a )reen sti&2 int t"e )r $nd at a *<-de)ree an)1e. Ma2e a starter !ire n t p ! t"e pyramid.S. P3&!+i( + 1ay t"is !ire CFi)$re 7-9D# p1a&e t% sma11 1 )s r bran&"es para11e1 n t"e )r $nd.h + $se t"is met" d CFi)$re 7-9D# s&rat&" a &r ss ab $t *< &entimeters in si'e in t"e )r $nd. +"ere are se5era1 t"er %ays t 1ay a !ire t"at are 4$ite e!!e&ti5e. Lean pie&es ! 2ind1in) a)ainst t"e 1ean-t sti&2. ( int t"e end ! t"e sti&2 in t"e dire&ti n ! t"e %ind. As t"e 2ind1in) &at&"es !ire !r m t"e tinder# add m re 2ind1in). C&"$$-Dit. (1a&e a s 1id 1ayer ! sma11 1 )s a&r ss t"e para11e1 1 )s.9 &entimeters deep. Ma2e s$re t 1ay y $r tinder# 2ind1in)# and !$e1 s t"at y $r !ire %i11 b$rn as 1 n) as y $ need it. +"e s"a11 % dit&" a11 %s air t s%eep $nder t"e tinder t pr 5ide a dra!t.

Department ! t"e Army M dem i)niters $se m dem de5i&es--items %e n rma11y t"in2 ! t start a !ire. S&rape y $r 2ni!e a)ainst t"e meta1 mat&" t pr d$&e spar2s. (a)e 72 ! 2** . 6ent1y b1 % r !an t"e tinder int !1ame# and app1y it t t"e !ire 1ay.e e?treme1y &are!$1 %"en e?tra&tin) t"e b$11et !r m t"e &ase. Atta&" a %ire t ea&" termina1. (1a&e t"e tip ! t"e meta1 mat&" n t"e dry 1ea!# " 1din) t"e meta1 mat&" in ne "and and a 2ni!e in t"e t"er. Use ! t"is met" d depends n t"e type ! battery a5ai1ab1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.!ten# y $ %i11 "a5e amm$niti n %it" y $r e4$ipment. /unpo%der . +"e spar2s %i11 "it t"e tinder. . A spar2 %i11 i)nite t"e p %der.S. +"e 1ens &an & me !r m bin &$1ars# &amera# te1es& pi& si)"ts# r ma)ni!yin) )1asses. 0atches Ma2e s$re t"ese mat&"es are %aterpr dependab1e stri2er pad. 3"en t"e tinder starts t sm 1der# pr &eed as ab 5e. A1s # st re t"em in a %aterpr ! & ntainer a1 n) %it" a Con(e4 Lens Use t"is met" d CFi)$re 7-6D n1y n bri)"t# s$nny days. !. An)1e t"e 1ens t & n&entrate t"e s$nFs rays n t"e tinder. #attery Use a battery t )enerate a spar2. 0etal 0atch (1a&e a !1at# dry 1ea! $nder y $r tinder %it" a p rti n e?p sed. 0 1d t"e 1ens 5er t"e same sp t $nti1 t"e tinder be)ins t sm 1der. I! s # &are!$11y e?tra&t t"e b$11et !r m t"e s"e11 &asin)# and $se t"e )$np %der as tinder. + $&" t"e ends ! t"e bare %ires t )et"er ne?t t t"e tinder s t"e spar2s %i11 i)nite it.

Stri2e a !1int r t"er "ard# s"arp-ed)ed r &2 ed)e %it" a pie&e ! &arb n stee1 Cstain1ess stee1 %i11 n t pr d$&e a ) d spar2D. Use it t " 1d t"e dri11 in p1a&e and t app1y d %n%ard press$re. /$t a depressi n ab $t 2 &entimeters !r m t"e ed)e n ne side ! t"e b ard. +"en# as y $ app1y m re press$re n ea&" str 2e# t"e !ri&ti n i)nites t"e % d parti&1es.n t"e $nderside# ma2e a V-s"aped &$t !r m t"e ed)e ! t"e b ard t t"e depressi n. 'ire5Plo% +"e !ire-p1 % CFi)$re 7-7D is a !ri&ti n met" d ! i)niti n.S. + $se t"is met" d# &$t a strai)"t )r 5e in t"e base and p1 % t"e b1$nt tip ! t"e s"a!t $p and d %n t"e )r 5e. +"e !1int and stee1 met" d is t"e m st re1iab1e ! t"e dire&t spar2 met" ds. Its si'e is $p t y $. +"e s &2et is an easi1y )rasped st ne r pie&e ! "ard% d r b ne %it" a s1i)"t depressi n in ne side. Y $ need t"e ! 11 %in) items t $se t"is met" dI • • • Socket. +"e t p end is r $nd and t"e 1 % end b1$nt Ct pr d$&e m re !ri&ti nD. <rill.9 &entimeters t"i&2 and 1< &entimeters %ide is pre!erab1e. (a)e 7* ! 2** . #o% and . +"e spar2 %i11 spread and b$rst int !1ames. .rill +"e te&"ni4$e ! startin) a !ire %it" a b % and dri11 CFi)$re 7-:D is simp1e# b$t y $ m$st e?ert m$&" e!! rt and be persistent t pr d$&e a !ire. +"e p1 %in) a&ti n ! t"e s"a!t p$s"es $t sma11 parti&1es ! % d !ibers. A seas ned s !t% d b ard ab $t 2. +"e dri11 s" $1d be a strai)"t# seas ned "ard% d sti&2 ab $t 2 &entimeters in diameter and 29 &entimeters 1 n). Y $ r$b a "ard% d s"a!t a)ainst a s !ter % d base. +"is met" d re4$ires a 1 se-@ inted %rist and pra&ti&e. 3"en a spar2 "as &a$)"t in t"e tinder# b1 % n it. Department ! t"e Army P&i+iti/e Meth"($ (rimiti5e i)niters are t" se attrib$ted t $r ear1y an&est rs. 'lint and Steel +"e dire&t spar2 met" d is t"e easiest ! t"e primiti5e met" ds t $se. -ire board.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

. Add inse&t repe11ent t t"e tinder. . 8eep t"e !ire% d dry. / 11e&t 2ind1in) and tinder a1 n) t"e trai1. D n t se1e&t % d 1yin) n t"e )r $nd. Dry damp !ire% d near t"e !ire. HELPFUL HINTS Use n nar mati& seas ned "ard% d ! r !$e1# i! p ssib1e. L p t"e b %strin) 5er t"e dri11 and p1a&e t"e dri11 in t"e pre&$t depressi n n t"e !ire b ard. (1a&e ne ! t n t"e !ire b ard. .e s$re t"e !ire is $t be! re 1ea5in) &amp.an2 t"e !ire t 2eep t"e & a1s a1i5e 5erni)"t. Y $ tie t"e b %strin) !r m ne end ! t"e b % t t"e t"er# %it" $t any s1a&2.S. (1a&e t"e s &2et# "e1d in ne "and# n t"e t p ! t"e dri11 t " 1d it in p siti n.9 &entimeters in diameter and a strin). +"en p1a&e a b$nd1e ! tinder $nder t"e V-s"aped &$t in t"e !ire b ard. +"is a&ti n %i11 )rind " t b1a&2 p %der int t"e tinder# &a$sin) a spar2 t &at&". (ress d %n n t"e dri11 and sa% t"e b % ba&2 and ! rt" t t%ir1 t"e dri11 CFi)$re 7-:D. Department ! t"e Army • ?ow.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . 8ote9 :rimitive !ire%building methods are e+haustive and re)uire practice to ensure success. It may appear t be dry b$t )enera11y d esnFt pr 5ide en $)" !ri&ti n. (a)e 77 ! 2** .n&e y $ "a5e estab1is"ed a sm t" m ti n# app1y m re d %n%ard press$re and % r2 t"e b % !aster. +"e b % is a resi1ient# )reen sti&2 ab $t 2. +"e type ! % d is n t imp rtant.1 % n t"e tinder $nti1 it i)nites. /arry 1i)"ted p$n2# %"en p ssib1e. +"e b %strin) &an be any type ! & rda)e. + $se t"e b % and dri11# !irst prepare t"e !ire 1ay.

In contemplating virtually any hypothetical survival situation" the mind immediately turns to thoughts o! !ood. ANI0ALS 'OR 'OO. /"e&2 t"ese sites. +"e !irst bsta&1e is 5er& min) y $r nat$ra1 a5ersi n t a parti&$1ar ! d s $r&e. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER . +"e sma11er anima1 spe&ies are a1s easier t prepare. 6rassy areas# s$&" as !ie1ds# are ) d areas t sear&" be&a$se t"e inse&ts are easi1y seen.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Inse&ts pr 5ide 69 t :< per&ent pr tein & mpared t 2< per&ent ! r bee!. Lar)er# "erdin) anima1s# s$&" as e12 r &arib $# r am 5ast areas and are s me%"at m re di!!i&$1t t trap. This estimate must not only be timely but accurate as well. A1s a5 id spiders and & mm n disease &arriers s$&" as ti&2s# !1ies# and m s4$it es. The survivor must remember that the three essentials o! survival%%water" !ood" and shelter%%are prioriti*ed according to the estimate o! the actual situation. F r e?amp1e# anima1s t"at are e?&e11ent &" i&es ! r trappin)# t" se t"at in"abit a parti&$1ar ran)e and &&$py a den r nest# t" se t"at "a5e s me%"at !i?ed !eedin) areas# and t" se t"at "a5e trai1s 1eadin) !r m ne area t an t"er. Y $ m$st n t 2n % a11 t"e anima1 spe&ies t"at are s$itab1e as ! d. 3"at is imp rtant is t 1earn t"e "abits and be"a5i ra1 patterns ! &1asses ! anima1s. A1t" $)" it may pr 5e di!!i&$1t at !irst# a s$r5i5 r m$st eat %"at is a5ai1ab1e t maintain "is "ea1t".t$ +"e m st ab$ndant 1i!e-! rm n eart"# inse&ts are easi1y &a$)"t. Unless the situation occurs in an arid environment" even water" which is more important to maintaining body !unctions" will almost always !ollow !ood in our initial thoughts. I#$e.S. D n t 5er1 2 inse&t nests n r in t"e )r $nd. Inse&t 1ar5ae are a1s edib1e.s most urgent re)uirement is !ood. Re1ati5e1y !e% are p is n $s# and t"ey ma2e a sma11er 1ist t remember. Un1ess y $ "a5e t"e &"an&e t ta2e 1ar)e )ame# & n&entrate y $r e!! rts n t"e sma11er anima1s# d$e t t"eir ab$ndan&e. St nes# b ards# r t"er materia1s 1yin) n t"e )r $nd pr 5ide t"e inse&ts %it" ) d nestin) sites.FOOD PROCUREMENT A!ter water" man. A pers n %" i)n res an t"er%ise "ea1t"y ! d s $r&e d$e t a pers na1 bias# r be&a$se "e !ee1s it is $nappeti'in)# is ris2in) "is %n s$r5i5a1. A1s # y $ m$st $nderstand t"e ! d &" i&es ! a parti&$1ar spe&ies. Inse&ts s$&" as beet1es and )rass" ppers t"at "a5e a "ard $ter (a)e 79 ! 2** . . Y $ &an# %it" re1ati5e1y !e% e?&epti ns# eat anyt"in) t"at &ra%1s# s%ims# %a12s# r !1ies. Some situations may well dictate that shelter precede both !ood and water. R ttin) 1 )s 1yin) n t"e )r $nd are e?&e11ent p1a&es t 1 2 ! r a 5ariety ! inse&ts in&1$din) ants# termites# beet1es# and )r$bs# %"i&" are beet1e 1ar5ae. 0ist ri&a11y# pe p1e in star5ati n sit$ati ns "a5e res rted t eatin) e5eryt"in) ima)inab1e ! r n $ris"ment. Inse&ts t a5 id in&1$de a11 ad$1ts t"at stin) r bite# "airy r bri)"t1y & 1 red inse&ts# and &aterpi11ars and inse&ts t"at "a5e a p$n)ent d r. +"is !a&t ma2es inse&ts an imp rtant# i! n t 5er1y appeti'in)# ! d s $r&e.

Y $ &an & 2 t"em t impr 5e t"eir taste. /rabs %i11 & me t bait p1a&ed at t"e ed)e ! t"e s$r!# %"ere y $ &an trap r net t"em. +"ey &an ! rm rat"er 1ar)e & 1 nies in mats ! !1 atin) a1)ae r in m$d b tt ms ! p nds and 1a2es. +"e % rms %i11 nat$ra11y p$r)e r %as" t"emse15es $t# a!ter %"i&" y $ &an eat t"em ra%. Y $ &an )rind a & 11e&ti n ! inse&ts int a paste. Y $ &an distin)$is" t"em by t"eir "ard e? s2e1et n and !i5e pairs ! 1e)s# t"e !r nt pair "a5in) 5ersi'ed pin&ers. Y $ &an a1s !ind t"em by 1 2in) in t"e s !t m$d near t"e &"imney1i2e breat"in) " 1es ! t"eir nests. M"%% $)$ +"is &1ass in&1$des &t p$ses and !res"%ater and sa1t%ater s"e11!is" s$&" as snai1s# &1ams# m$sse1s# bi5a15es# barna&1es# peri%in21es# &"it ns# and sea $r&"ins CFi)$re :-1D. Y $ !ind bi5a15es simi1ar t $r !res"%ater m$sse1 and terrestria1 and a4$ati& snai1s % r1d%ide $nder a11 %ater & nditi ns.29 &entimeter $p t 2.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S.e!#$ Fres"%ater s"rimp ran)e in si'e !r m <. (a)e 76 ! 2** . /ray!is" are a2in t marine 1 bsters and &rabs. +"e taste 5aries !r m ne spe&ies t an t"er.9 &entimeters. Di) ! r t"em in damp "$m$s s i1 r %at&" ! r t"em n t"e )r $nd a!ter a rain. Y $ &an &at&" &ray!is" by tyin) bits ! !!a1 r interna1 r)ans t a strin). Department ! t"e Army s"e11 %i11 "a5e parasites. Y $ !ind sa1t%ater 1 bsters# &rabs# and s"rimp !r m t"e s$r!Fs ed)e $t t %ater 1< meters deep. *"&+$ 3 rms CAnnelideaD are an e?&e11ent pr tein s $r&e. 3"en t"e &ray!is" )rabs t"e bait# p$11 it t s" re be! re it "as a &"an&e t re1ease t"e bait. Y $ &an mi? t"em %it" edib1e 5e)etati n. Y $ &an &at&" 1 bsters and &rabs %it" a baited trap r a baited " 2. C& $t!. / 2 t"em be! re eatin). /ray!is" are a&ti5e at ni)"t# b$t y $ &an 1 &ate t"em in t"e daytime by 1 2in) $nder and ar $nd st nes in streams. S"rimp may & me t a 1i)"t at ni)"t %"ere y $ &an s& p t"em $p %it" a net. Y $ &an eat m st inse&ts ra%. L bsters and &rabs are n &t$rna1 and &a$)"t best at ni)"t. Rem 5e any %in)s and barbed 1e)s a1s . 3 d )r$bs are b1and# %"i1e s me spe&ies ! ants st re " ney in t"eir b dies# )i5in) t"em a s%eet taste. A!ter &apt$rin) t"em# dr p t"em int &1ean# p tab1e %ater ! r a !e% min$tes.

CAUTION D n t eat s"e11!is" t"at are n t & 5ered by %ater at "i)" tideK Fi$h (a)e 77 ! 2** . +"ese snai1s may be pen&i1 p int r )1 b$1ar in s"ape. CAUTION M$sse1s may be p is n $s in tr pi&a1 ' nes d$rin) t"e s$mmerK Steam# b i1# r ba2e m 11$s2s in t"e s"e11. Lar)e snai1s# &a11ed &"it ns# ad"ere ti)"t1y t r &2s ab 5e t"e s$r! 1ine.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. L 2 ! r t"e narr % trai1s t"ey 1ea5e in t"e m$d r ! r t"e dar2 e11ipti&a1 s1it ! t"eir pen 5a15es. Snai1s and 1impets &1in) t r &2s and sea%eed !r m t"e 1 % %ater mar2 $p%ard. R &2s a1 n) bea&"es r e?tendin) as ree!s int deeper %ater !ten bear &1in)in) s"e11!is". In !res" %ater# 1 2 ! r m 11$s2s in t"e s"a11 %s# espe&ia11y in %ater %it" a sandy r m$ddy b tt m. M$sse1s $s$a11y ! rm dense & 1 nies in r &2 p 1s# n 1 )s# r at t"e base ! b $1ders. Department ! t"e Army Ri5er snai1s r !res"%ater peri%in21es are p1enti!$1 in ri5ers# streams# and 1a2es ! n rt"ern & ni!er $s ! rests. Near t"e sea# 1 2 in t"e tida1 p 1s and t"e %et sand. +"ey ma2e e?&e11ent ste%s in & mbinati n %it" )reens and t$bers.S.

Fis" %i11 a1s )at"er %"ere t"ere are deep p 1s# $nder 5er"an)in) br$s"# and in and ar $nd s$bmer)ed ! 1ia)e# 1 )s# r t"er b@e&ts t"at !!er t"em s"e1ter.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. F r instan&e# !is" tend t !eed "ea5i1y be! re a st rm. +"ere are n p is n $s !res"%ater !is". +"ey !!er s me distin&t ad5anta)es t t"e s$r5i5 r r e5ader. +"e barra&$da# %"i1e n t a&t$a11y p is n $s itse1!# may transmit &i)$atera C!is" p is nin)D i! eaten ra%. (a)e 7: ! 2** . Any marine 1i!e btained !art"er $t in t"e sea %i11 n t & ntain parasites be&a$se ! t"e sa1t%ater en5ir nment. +"ey are $s$a11y m re ab$ndant t"an mamma1 %i1d1i!e# and t"e %ays t )et t"em are si1ent. Y $ &an eat t"ese ra%. In s me spe&ies t"e p is n &&$rs seas na11y in t"ers# it is permanent. Li)"t !ten attra&ts !is" at ni)"t.S. 3"en t"ere is a "ea5y &$rrent# !is" %i11 rest in p1a&es %"ere t"ere is an eddy# s$&" as near r &2s. +"ese &an in!1i&t pain!$1 p$n&t$re % $nds t"at 4$i&21y be& me in!e&ted. /ertain sa1t%ater spe&ies ! !is" "a5e p is n $s !1es". Fis" are n t 1i2e1y t !eed a!ter a st rm %"en t"e %ater is m$ddy and s% 11en. A1s & 2 sa1t%ater !is" &a$)"t %it"in a ree! r %it"in t"e in!1$en&e ! a !res"%ater s $r&e as a pre&a$ti n. -?amp1es ! p is n $s sa1t%ater !is" are t"e p r&$pine !is"# tri))er!is"# & %!is"# t" rn !is"# i1!is"# red snapper# @a&2# and p$!!er CFi)$re :-2D. 0 %e5er# t"e &at!is" spe&ies "as s"arp# need1e1i2e pr tr$si ns n its d rsa1 !ins and barbe1s. + be s$&&ess!$1 at &at&"in) !is"# y $ m$st 2n % t"eir "abits. Department ! t"e Army Fis" represent a ) d s $r&e ! pr tein and !at. / 2 a11 !res"%ater !is" t 2i11 parasites.

Se5era1 spe&ies ! t ads se&rete a p is n $s s$bstan&e t"r $)" t"eir s2in as a de!ense a)ainst atta&2. ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"ere are !e% p is n $s spe&ies ! !r )s. +"ere! re# t a5 id p is nin)# d n t "and1e r eat t ads.i!#$ Fr )s and sa1amanders are easi1y ! $nd ar $nd b dies ! !res" %ater.S. Y $ n rma11y !ind t ads in drier en5ir nments. L 2 in %ater ar $nd r &2s and m$d ban2s ! r sa1amanders. +"ey &an ran)e in si'e !r m a !e% &entimeters t %e11 5er 6< &entimeters in 1en)t". D n t & n!$se t ads %it" !r )s. At t"e !irst si)n ! dan)er# t"ey p1$n)e int t"e %ater and b$ry t"emse15es in t"e m$d and debris. Sa1amanders are n &t$rna1. Fr )s se1d m m 5e !r m t"e sa!ety ! t"e %aterFs ed)e. +"e best time t &at&" t"em is at ni)"t $sin) a 1i)"t. A5 id any bri)"t1y & 1 red !r ) r ne t"at "as a distin&t JBJ mar2 n itFs ba&2. Department ! t"e Army A+phi. Repti%e$ (a)e 7.

Department ! t"e Army Repti1es are a ) d pr tein s $r&e and re1ati5e1y easy t &at&". +"e b ? t$rt1e is a & mm n1y en& $ntered t$rt1e t"at y $ s" $1d n t eat. ( is n $s sna2es# a11i)at rs# &r & di1es# and 1ar)e sea t$rt1es present b5i $s "a'ards t t"e s$r5i5 r. Y $ &an ta2e pi)e ns# as %e11 as s me t"er spe&ies# !r m t"eir r st at ni)"t by "and. 8n %in) %"ere and %"en t"e birds nest ma2es &at&"in) t"em easier CFi)$re :-*D. D$rin) t"e nestin) seas n# s me spe&ies %i11 n t 1ea5e t"e nest e5en %"en appr a&"ed. Y $ may s2in !is"-eatin) birds t impr 5e t"eir taste. (a)e :< ! 2** . Bi&($ A11 spe&ies ! birds are edib1e# a1t" $)" t"e !1a5 r %i11 5ary & nsiderab1y. +"eir ra% !1es" may transmit parasites# b$t be&a$se repti1es are & 1db1 ded# t"ey d n t &arry t"e b1 d diseases ! t"e %arm-b1 ded anima1s. .irds tend t "a5e re)$1ar !1y%ays ) in) !r m t"e r st t a !eedin) area# t %ater# and s ! rt". As %it" any %i1d anima1# y $ m$st $nderstand birdsF & mm n "abits t "a5e a rea1isti& &"an&e ! &apt$rin) t"em. / 2in) d es n t destr y t"is t ?in.S. R stin) sites and %ater" 1es are s me ! t"e m st pr misin) areas ! r trappin) r snarin). /are!$1 bser5ati n s" $1d re5ea1 %"ere t"ese !1y%ays are and indi&ate ) d areas ! r &at&"in) birds in nets stret&"ed a&r ss t"e !1y%ays CFi)$re :-7D.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A5 id t"e "a%2sbi11 t$rt1e# ! $nd in t"e At1anti& .&ean# be&a$se ! its p is n $s t" ra? )1and. Y $ s" $1d & 2 t"em# b$t in an emer)en&y# y $ &an eat t"em ra%. It !eeds n p is n $s m$s"r ms and may b$i1d $p a "i)"1y t ?i& p is n in its !1es".

• Nestin) r r stin) sites.e &apab1e ! & nstr$&tin) a pr per trap. +"e am $nt ! in@$ry an anima1 &an in!1i&t is in dire&t pr p rti n t its si'e. A11 mamma1s "a5e teet" and near1y a11 %i11 bite in se1!-de!ense. L 2 ! r t"e ! 11 %in)I • R$ns and trai1s. • . +"e p1atyp$s# nati5e t A$stra1ia and +asmania# is an e))-1ayin)# semia4$ati& mamma1 t"at "as p is n $s )1ands.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. M!++!%$ Mamma1s are e?&e11ent pr tein s $r&es and# ! r Ameri&ans# t"e m st tasty ! d s $r&e. A1s # a m t"er &an be e?treme1y a))ressi5e in de!ense ! "er y $n). • /"e%ed r r$bbed 5e)etati n. / ntin$e rem 5in) t"e !res" e))s# 1ea5in) t"e nes y $ mar2ed. • Feedin) and %aterin) areas. • N t a1arm t"e prey by 1ea5in) si)ns ! y $r presen&e. • Dr ppin)s. (a)e :1 ! 2** . +"e bird %i11 & ntin$e t 1ay m re e))s t !i11 t"e &1$t&".e !ami1iar %it" t"e spe&ies ! anima1 y $ intend t &at&". • +ra&2s. -5en a s4$irre1 &an in!1i&t a seri $s % $nd and any bite presents a seri $s ris2 ! in!e&ti n. Any anima1 %it" n r $te ! es&ape %i11 !i)"t %"en & rnered. Y $ m$st determine %"at spe&ies are in a )i5en area and set y $r traps spe&i!i&a11y %it" t" se anima1s in mind. +"ere are n &at&"a11 traps y $ &an set ! r a11 anima1s.S. + be e!!e&ti5e %it" any type ! trap r snare# y $ m$st-• . +"ere are s me dra%ba&2s t btainin) mamma1s. SNAR S F r an $narmed s$r5i5 r r e5ader# r %"en t"e s $nd ! a ri!1e s" t & $1d be a pr b1em# trappin) r snarin) %i1d )ame is a ) d a1ternati5e. Se5era1 %e11-p1a&ed traps "a5e t"e p tentia1 t &at&" m$&" m re )ame t"an a man %it" a ri!1e is 1i2e1y t s" t. A11 mamma1s are edib1eH " %e5er# t"e p 1ar bear and bearded sea1 "a5e t ?i& 1e5e1s ! 5itamin A in t"eir 1i5ers. In a " sti1e en5ir nment# t"e enemy may dete&t any traps r snares p1a&ed n 1and. Rem 5e a11 b$t t% r t"ree e))s !r m t"e &1$t&"# mar2in) t"e nes t"at y $ 1ea5e. Department ! t"e Army Nestin) birds present an t"er ! d s $r&e--e))s. S&a5en)in) mamma1s# s$&" as t"e p ss$m# may &arry diseases. TRAPS AN.

3"en y $ p siti n t"e trap# &am $!1a)e it as nat$ra11y as p ssib1e t pre5ent dete&ti n by t"e enemy and t a5 id a1armin) t"e prey. In near1y a11 parts ! t"e % r1d# anima1s 2n % t"e sme11 ! b$rned 5e)etati n and sm 2e. 8ote9 0nce you have success!ully trapped an animal" you will not only gain con!idence in your ability" you also will have resupplied yoursel! with bait !or several more traps. It is n1y %"en a !ire is a&t$a11y b$rnin) t"at t"ey be& me a1armed. Y $ m$st determine i! it is a Jr$nJ r a Jtrai1. Li2e%ise# i! & rn is n t )r %n in t"e re)i n# a & rn-baited trap may ar $se an anima1Fs &$ri sity and 2eep it a1erted %"i1e it p nders t"e stran)e ! d. /"anne1i'ati n d es n t "a5e t be an impassab1e barrier.S. D n t "and1e a trap %"i1e it is %eat"erin). I! y $ set and bait a trap ! r ne spe&ies b$t an t"er spe&ies ta2es t"e bait %it" $t bein) &a$)"t# try t determine %"at t"e anima1 %as. A baited trap &an a&t$a11y dra% anima1s t it.J A trai1 %i11 s" % si)ns ! $se by se5era1 spe&ies and %i11 be rat"er distin&t. Maintain t"is & nstri&ti n at 1east as !ar ba&2 !r m t"e trap as t"e anima1Fs b dy 1en)t"# t"en be)in t"e %idenin) t %ard t"e m $t" ! t"e !$nne1. +"e bait s" $1d be s met"in) t"e anima1 2n %s. It is e4$a11y imp rtant# " %e5er# n t t &reate a dist$rban&e t"at %i11 a1arm t"e anima1 and &a$se it t a5 id t"e trap. Fres"1y &$t 5e)etati n %i11 Jb1eedJ sap t"at "as an d r t"e prey %i11 be ab1e t sme11. U$e "6 B!it . F r best e!!e&t# t"e &"anne1i'ati n s" $1d red$&e t"e trai1Fs %idt" t @$st s1i)"t1y %ider t"an t"e tar)eted anima1Fs b dy.aitin) a trap r snare in&reases y $r &"an&es ! &at&"in) an anima1. Use it t & at y $r "ands %"en "and1in) t"e trap and t & at t"e trap %"en settin) it. 3"en &at&"in) !is"# y $ m$st bait near1y a11 t"e de5i&es. -5en t"e s1i)"test "$man s&ent n a trap %i11 a1arm t"e prey and &a$se it t a5 id t"e area. +"ere! re# sm 2in) t"e trap parts is an e!!e&ti5e means t mas2 y $r s&ent. + b$i1d a &"anne1# & nstr$&t a !$nne1-s"aped barrier e?tendin) !r m t"e sides ! t"e trai1 t %ard t"e trap# %it" t"e narr %est part nearest t"e trap. +"is bait# " %e5er# s" $1d n t be s readi1y a5ai1ab1e in t"e immediate area t"at t"e anima1 &an )et it &1 se by. /"anne1i'ati n s" $1d be in& nspi&$ $s t a5 id a1ertin) t"e prey. Anima1s "a5e beddin) areas# %ater" 1es# and !eedin) areas %it" trai1s 1eadin) !r m ne t an t"er. A&t$a11y rem 5in) t"e s&ent !r m a trap is di!!i&$1t b$t mas2in) it is re1ati5e1y easy. +"e anima1 %i11 t"en 5er& me s me ! its &a$ti n be! re it )ets t t"e trap. A1t" $)" birds d n t "a5e a de5e1 ped sense ! sme11# near1y a11 mamma1s depend n sme11 e5en m re t"an n si)"t. D n t $se "$man $rine. F r e?amp1e# baitin) a trap %it" & rn in t"e midd1e ! a & rn !ie1d % $1d n t be 1i2e1y t % r2. S$&&ess %it" an $nbaited trap depends n its p1a&ement in a ) d 1 &ati n. M$d# parti&$1ar1y !r m an area %it" p1enty ! r ttin) 5e)etati n# is a1s ) d. +"en set a pr per trap ! r t"at anima1# $sin) t"e same bait. Sa1t is a1s a ) d bait.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. F r an e5ader in a " sti1e en5ir nment# trap and snare & n&ea1ment is imp rtant. 3"en $sin) s$&" baits# s&atter bits ! it ar $nd t"e trap t )i5e t"e prey a &"an&e t samp1e it and de5e1 p a &ra5in) ! r it.ti"# (a)e :2 ! 2** . As t"e anima1 )ets t t"e trap# it &ann t t$rn 1e!t r ri)"t and & ntin$es int t"e trap. Y $ n1y "a5e t ma2e it in& n5enient ! r t"e anima1 t ) 5er r t"r $)" t"e barrier. Y $ m$st p1a&e snares and traps ar $nd t"ese areas t be e!!e&ti5e. I! ne ! t"e ab 5e te&"ni4$es is n t pra&ti&a1# and i! time permits# a11 % a trap t %eat"er ! r a !e% days and t"en set it. (repare t"e 5ari $s parts ! a trap r snare a%ay !r m t"e site# &arry t"em in# and set t"em $p. Y $ m$st rem 5e r mas2 t"e "$man s&ent n and ar $nd t"e trap y $ set. Under s$&" &ir&$mstan&es it may n t ) ! r t"e bait. Fe% %i1d anima1s %i11 ba&2 $p# pre!errin) t !a&e t"e dire&ti n ! tra5e1. . M st anima1s %i11 instin&ti5e1y a5 id a pit!a11-type trap. +raps r snares p1a&ed n a trai1 r r$n s" $1d $se &"anne1i'ati n. A r$n is $s$a11y sma11er and 1ess distin&t and %i11 n1y & ntain si)ns ! ne spe&ies. S$&" a&ti ns ma2e it easier t a5 id dist$rbin) t"e 1 &a1 5e)etati n# t"ereby a1ertin) t"e prey. T&!p !#( S#!&e C"#$t& . Department ! t"e Army ( siti n y $r traps and snares %"ere t"ere is pr ! t"at anima1s pass t"r $)". +"ere! re# i! y $ m$st di)# rem 5e a11 !res" dirt !r m t"e area.ne bait t"at % r2s %e11 n sma11 mamma1s is t"e pean$t b$tter !r m a mea1# ready-t -eat CMR-D rati n. D n t $se !res"1y &$t# 1i5e 5e)etati n t & nstr$&t a trap r snare. Use t"e !1$id !r m t"e )a11 and $rine b1adders ! pre5i $s 2i11s. Y $ may & nstr$&t a per!e&t snare# b$t it %i11 n t &at&" anyt"in) i! "ap"a'ard1y p1a&ed in t"e % ds. It is an a1arm si)na1 t t"e anima1.

I! y $ $se & rda)e# it may 1 sen en $)" t s1ip !! t"e anima1Fs ne&2. +"e me&"anisms t"at pr 5ide p %er t t"e trap are a1m st a1%ays 5ery simp1e. +raps are desi)ned t &at&" and " 1d r t &at&" and 2i11. +"is type ! snare $s$a11y d es n t 2i11 t"e anima1. Department ! t"e Army +raps and snares crush" choke" hang" r entangle t"e prey. CN ses desi)ned t &at&" by t"e "ead s" $1d ne5er be 1 % en $)" ! r t"e prey t step int %it" a ! t. I! t"e n se is s me type ! & rda)e p1a&ed $pri)"t n a )ame trai1# $se sma11 t%i)s r b1ades ! )rass t " 1d it $p. Ma2e s$re t"e n se is 1ar)e en $)" t pass !ree1y 5er t"e anima1Fs "ead. Si"ple Snare A simp1e snare CFi)$re :-9D & nsists ! a n se p1a&ed 5er a trai1 r den " 1e and atta&"ed t a !irm1y p1anted sta2e.rag Noose Use a dra) n se n an anima1 r$n CFi)$re :-6D.D As t"e n se ti)"tens ar $nd t"e anima1Fs ne&2# t"e anima1 p$11s t"e &r ssmember !r m t"e ! r2ed sti&2s and dra)s it a1 n). (1a&e ! r2ed sti&2s n eit"er side ! t"e r$n and 1ay a st$rdy &r ssmember a&r ss t"em. +"e m re t"e anima1 str$))1es# t"e ti)"ter t"e n se )ets. (a)e :* ! 2** . Snares are traps t"at in& rp rate a n se t a&& mp1is" eit"er !$n&ti n. +"e str$))1in) 5i&tim# t"e ! r&e ! )ra5ity# r a bent sap1in)Fs tensi n pr 5ides t"e p %er. Fi1aments !r m spider %ebs are e?&e11ent ! r " 1din) n ses pen. +"e s$rr $ndin) 5e)etati n 4$i&21y &at&"es t"e &r ssmember and t"e anima1 be& mes entan)1ed. As t"e anima1 & ntin$es t m 5e# t"e n se ti)"tens ar $nd its ne&2.S. A sin)1e trap r snare %i11 & mm n1y in& rp rate t% r m re ! t"ese prin&ip1es. . +"e "eart ! any trap r snare is t"e tri))er.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3"en p1annin) a trap r snare# as2 y $rse1! " % it s" $1d a!!e&t t"e prey# %"at is t"e s $r&e ! p %er# and %"at %i11 be t"e m st e!!i&ient tri))er. +ie t"e n se t t"e &r ssmember and "an) it at a "ei)"t ab 5e t"e anima1Fs "ead. Y $r ans%ers %i11 "e1p y $ de5ise a spe&i!i& trap ! r a spe&i!i& spe&ies. 3ire is t"ere! re t"e best &" i&e ! r a simp1e snare.

Se1e&t a "ard% d sap1in) a1 n) t"e trai1. T%itch5Up Snare A simp1e t%it&"-$p snare $ses t% ! r2ed sti&2s# ea&" %it" a 1 n) and s" rt 1e) CFi)$re :-7D. +ie t"e 1 n) 1e) ! t"e remainin) ! r2ed sti&2 t a pie&e ! & rda)e se&$red t t"e t%it&"-$p. 3"en an anima1 &at&"es its "ead in t"e n se# it p$11s t"e ! r2ed sti&2s apart# a11 %in) t"e t%it&"-$p t sprin) $p and "an) t"e prey. 8ote9 <o not use green sticks !or the trigger. A t%it&"-$p %i11 % r2 m$&" !aster and %it" m re ! r&e i! y $ rem 5e a11 t"e bran&"es and ! 1ia)e.S. -?tend a n se 5er t"e trai1. Set t"e trap by bendin) t"e t%it&"-$p and en)a)in) t"e s" rt 1e)s ! t"e ! r2ed sti&2s. Dri5e t"e 1 n) 1e) ! ne ! r2ed sti&2 !irm1y int t"e )r $nd at t"at p int.end t"e t%it&"-$p and mar2 t"e trai1 be1 % it. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army T%itch5Up A t%it&"-$p is a s$pp1e sap1in)# %"i&"# %"en bent 5er and se&$red %it" a tri))erin) de5i&e# %i11 pr 5ide p %er t a 5ariety ! snares. The sap that oo*es out could glue them together. (a)e :7 ! 2** . -ns$re t"e &$t n t"e s" rt 1e) ! t"is sti&2 is para11e1 t t"e )r $nd. /$t t"e s" rt 1e) s t"at it &at&"es n t"e s" rt 1e) ! t"e t"er ! r2ed sti&2.

O+i6%a #ird Pole (a)e :9 ! 2** . I! t"is "appens# t"e s4$irre1 %i11 &"e% t"r $)" t"e %ire. Department ! t"e Army S!uirrel Pole A s4$irre1 p 1e is a 1 n) p 1e p1a&ed a)ainst a tree in an area s" %in) a 1 t ! s4$irre1 a&ti5ity CFi)$re ::D. +"e str$))1in) anima1 %i11 s n !a11 !r m t"e p 1e and stran)1e.9 &entimeters !! t"e p 1e.t"er s4$irre1s %i11 s n ! 11 % and# in t"is %ay# y $ &an &at&" se5era1 s4$irre1s. S4$irre1s are nat$ra11y &$ri $s. (1a&e se5era1 %ire n ses a1 n) t"e t p and sides ! t"e p 1e s t"at a s4$irre1 tryin) t ) $p r d %n t"e p 1e %i11 "a5e t pass t"r $)" ne r m re ! t"em. (1a&e t"e t p and b tt m %ire n ses 79 &entimeters !r m t"e t p and b tt m ! t"e p 1e t pre5ent t"e s4$irre1 !r m )ettin) its !eet n a s 1id s$r!a&e. Y $ &an emp1a&e m$1tip1e p 1es t in&rease t"e &at&". ( siti n t"e n ses C9 t 6 &entimeters in diameterD ab $t 2.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. A!ter an initia1 peri d ! &a$ti n# t"ey %i11 try t ) $p r d %n t"e p 1e and %i11 )et &a$)"t in a n se. .

Noosing 3and A n se sti&2 r Jn sin) %andJ is $se!$1 ! r &apt$rin) r stin) birds r sma11 mamma1s CFi)$re :-1<D. (ass t"e !ree end ! t"e & rda)e t"r $)" t"e " 1e# and tie a s1ip n se t"at & 5ers t"e per&".FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is is t"e per&". +"is %and is m re a %eap n t"an a trap. +"en dri5e a ! r2ed sti&2 C! r2 d %nD int t"e )r $nd n ea&" side ! t"e " 1e n t"e same side ! t"e trai1.@ib%a bird p 1e is a snare $sed by nati5e Ameri&ans ! r &ent$ries CFi)$re :-.: t 2. + be e!!e&ti5e# p1a&e it in a re1ati5e1y pen area a%ay !r m ta11 trees. (1a&e se5era1 sti&2s 5er t"e " 1e in t"e trai1 by p siti nin) ne end 5er t"e 1 %er " ri' nta1 sti&2 (a)e :6 ! 2** . A11 % t"e & rda)e t s1ip t"r $)" t"e " 1e $nti1 t"e 5er"and 2n t rests a)ainst t"e p 1e and t"e t p ! t"e per&". /$t a p 1e 1. + &at&" an anima1# y $ s1ip t"e n se 5er t"e ne&2 ! a r stin) bird and p$11 it ti)"t. D n t $se resin $s % d s$&" as pine.9 &entimeters d %n !r m t"e t p. Treadle Spring Snare Use a tread1e snare a)ainst sma11 )ame n a trai1 CFi)$re :-11D. /$t a sma11 sti&2 1< t 19 &entimeters 1 n) and s"ape ne end s t"at it %i11 a1m st !it int t"e " 1e. /arry a st $t &1$b t 2i11 t"e prey. +ie a sin)1e 5er"and 2n t in t"e & rda)e and p1a&e t"e per&" a)ainst t"e " 1e. M st birds pre!er t rest n s met"in) ab 5e )r $nd and %i11 1and n t"e per&". Spread t"e n se 5er t"e per&"# ens$rin) it & 5ers t"e per&" and drapes 5er n b t" sides. F r best res$1ts# pi&2 a sp t near !eedin) areas# d$stin) areas# r %aterin) " 1es. Di) a s"a11 % " 1e in t"e trai1.S. It re4$ires a patient perat r. +ie a sma11 %ei)"t# ab $t e4$a1 t t"e %ei)"t ! t"e tar)eted spe&ies# t a 1en)t" ! & rda)e. Y $ &an a1s p1a&e it 5er a den " 1e and "ide in a nearby b1ind. It & nsists ! a p 1e Cas 1 n) as y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y "and1eD %it" a s1ip n se ! %ire r sti!! & rda)e at t"e sma11 end. Se1e&t t% !air1y strai)"t sti&2s t"at span t"e t% ! r2s. ( siti n t"ese t% sti&2s s t"at t"eir ends en)a)e t"e ! r2s. +"e n se %i11 ti)"ten ar $nd t"e birdFs !eet# &apt$rin) it. +"e tensi n ! t"e 5er"and 2n t a)ainst t"e p 1e and per&" %i11 " 1d t"e per&" in p siti n. 3"en t"e anima1 emer)es !r m t"e den# y $ @er2 t"e p 1e t ti)"ten t"e n se and t"$s &apt$re t"e anima1.1 meters 1 n) and trim a%ay a11 1imbs and ! 1ia)e. I! t"e %ei)"t is t "ea5y# it %i11 &$t t"e birdFs !eet !!# a11 %in) it t es&ape. (1ant t"e 1 n) p 1e in t"e )r $nd %it" t"e p inted end $p.D. As s n as t"e bird 1ands# t"e per&" %i11 !a11# re1easin) t"e 5er-"and 2n t and a11 %in) t"e %ei)"t t dr p. S"arpen t"e $pper end t a p int# t"en dri11 a sma11 diameter " 1e 9 t 7. Department ! t"e Army An .

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ m$st t"ere! re $se &"anne1i'ati n. . Ad@$st t"e b tt m " ri' nta1 sti&2 s t"at it %i11 bare1y " 1d a)ainst t"e tri))er. / 5er t"e " 1e %it" en $)" sti&2s s t"at t"e prey m$st step n at 1east ne ! t"em t set !! t"e snare. 'igure 7 . F rm a n se %it" t"e t"er end ! t"e & rda)e. . / nstr$&t t"e (a)e :7 ! 2** .end t"e t%it&"-$p r raise t"e s$spended %ei)"t t determine %"ere Y $ %i11 tie a 9 &entimeter r s 1 n) tri))er.S. (1a&e t"e tri))er sti&2 a)ainst t"e " ri' nta1 sti&2s and r $te t"e & rda)e be"ind t"e sti&2s s t"at t"e tensi n ! t"e p %er s $r&e %i11 " 1d it in p1a&e. A t"e anima1 p1a&es its ! t n a sti&2 a&r ss t"e " 1e# t"e b tt m " ri' nta1 sti&2 m 5es d %n# re1easin) t"e tri))er and a11 %in) t"e n se t &at&" t"e anima1 by t"e ! t. +"e type ! %ei)"t $sed may 5ary# b$t it s" $1d be "ea5y en $)" t 2i11 r in&apa&itate t"e prey immediate1y. R $te and spread t"e n se 5er t"e t p ! t"e sti&2s 5er t"e " 1e. +ie ne end ! a pie&e ! & rda)e t a t%it&"$p r t a %ei)"t s$spended 5er a tree 1imb. Department ! t"e Army and t"e t"er n t"e )r $nd n t"e t"er side ! t"e " 1e.e&a$se ! t"e dist$rban&e n t"e trai1# an anima1 %i11 be %ary.ead$all +"e !i)$re 7 is a tri))er $sed t dr p a %ei)"t nt a prey and &r$s" it CFi)$re :-12D.

. 3"en a prey dist$rbs t"e bait sti&2# it !a11s !ree# re1easin) t"e &at&" sti&2. +ie t"e t"er end ! t"e & rda)e t an t"er sti&2 ab $t 9 &entimeters 1 n).ead$all +"e (ai$te dead!a11 is simi1ar t t"e !i)$re 7 b$t $ses a pie&e ! & rda)e and a &at&" sti&2 CFi)$re :-1*D. (ra&ti&e ma2in) t"is tri))er be! re-"andH it re4$ires &1 se t 1eran&es and pre&ise an)1es in its & nstr$&ti n. +ie ne end ! a pie&e ! & rda)e t t"e 1 %er end ! t"e dia) na1 sti&2.S. Paiute . Department ! t"e Army !i)$re 7 $sin) t"ree n t&"ed sti&2s. +"ese n t&"es " 1d t"e sti&2s t )et"er in a !i)$re 7 pattern %"en $nder tensi n.<-de)ree an)1e. +"is 9-&entimeter sti&2 is t"e &at&" sti&2. (a)e :: ! 2** . (1a&e t"e bait sti&2 %it" ne end a)ainst t"e dr p %ei)"t# r a pe) dri5en int t"e )r $nd# and t"e t"er a)ainst t"e &at&" sti&2. It "as t"e ad5anta)e ! bein) easier t set t"an t"e !i)$re 7. As t"e dia) na1 sti&2 !1ies $p# t"e %ei)"t !a11s# &r$s"in) t"e prey.rin) t"e & rd "a1!%ay ar $nd t"e 5erti&a1 sti&2 %it" t"e &at&" sti&2 at a .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (1a&e a &at&" sti&2 bet%een t"e t ))1e sti&2 and a sta2e dri5en int t"e )r $nd. Ad@$st t"e aimin) p int as y $ an&" r t"e b %. ! 2** . + & nstr$&t t"is trap# b$i1d a b % and an&" r it t t"e )r $nd %it" pe)s. +% $pri)"t sti&2s dri5en int t"e )r $nd " 1d t"e tri))er sti&2 in p1a&e at a p int %"ere t"e t ))1e sti&2 %i11 en)a)e t"e p$11ed b % strin). A n t&" in t"e b % ser5es t "e1p aim t"e arr %. Las" a t ))1e sti&2 t t"e tri))er sti&2. Department ! t"e Army #o% Trap A b % trap is ne ! t"e dead1iest traps. 3"en t"e prey trips t"e trip %ire# t"e b % 1 ses an arr % int it. It is dan)er $s t man as %e11 as anima1s CFi)$re :-17D. Appr a&" it %it" &a$ti n and !r m t"e rear n1yK (a)e :. *ARNIN1 +"is is a 1et"a1 trap. +ie a trip %ire r & rda)e t t"e &at&" sti&2 and r $te it ar $nd sta2es and a&r ss t"e )ame trai1 %"ere y $ tie it !! Cas in Fi)$re :-17D.S.

-n&ir&1e t"e trip %ire and t"e sm t" sti&2 %it" t"e s1ip rin). (a)e . Appr a&" it %it" &a$ti nK #ottle Trap A b tt1e trap is a simp1e trap ! r mi&e and 5 1es CFi)$re :-16D. As t"e anima1 trips t"e trip %ire# t"e &at&" sti&2 p$11s t"e s1ip rin) !! t"e sm t" sti&2s# re1easin) t"e spear s"a!t t"at sprin)s a&r ss t"e trai1 and impa1es t"e prey a)ainst t"e tree. Las" t"e 1ar)e end ti)"t1y t a tree a1 n) t"e )ame trai1. +ie a 1en)t" ! & rda)e t an t"er tree a&r ss t"e trai1. Fr m t"e !irst tree# tie a trip %ire r & rd 1 % t t"e )r $nd# stret&" it a&r ss t"e trai1# and tie it t a &at&" sti&2. *ARNIN1 +"is is a 1et"a1 trap. Ma2e t"e t p ! t"e " 1e as sma11 as p ssib1e.9 meters 1 n) CFi)$re :-19D. Ma2e a s1ip rin) !r m 5ines r t"er s$itab1e materia1. (1a&e a pie&e ! bar2 r % d 5er t"e " 1e %it" sma11 st nes $nder it t " 1d it $p 2. At t"e sma11er end# !irm1y 1as" se5era1 sma11 sta2es.< ! 2** . -mp1a&e ne end ! an t"er sm t" sti&2 %it"in t"e s1ip rin) and its t"er end a)ainst t"e se& nd tree. +ie a st$rdy# sm t" sti&2 t t"e t"er end ! t"e & rd. Di) a " 1e *< t 79 &entimeters deep t"at is %ider at t"e b tt m t"an at t"e t p.9 t 9 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. +"ey &ann t &1imb $t be&a$se ! t"e %a11Fs ba&2%ard s1 pe.S. Mi&e r 5 1es %i11 "ide $nder t"e & 5er t es&ape dan)er and !a11 int t"e " 1e. ($11 t"e sma11er end ! t"e spear s"a!t a&r ss t"e trai1 and p siti n it bet%een t"e s" rt & rd and t"e sm t" sti&2. Use &a$ti n %"en &"e&2in) t"is trapH it is an e?&e11ent "idin) p1a&e ! r sna2es. Department ! t"e Army Pig Spear Sha$t + & nstr$&t t"e pi) spear s"a!t# se1e&t a st $t p 1e ab $t 2.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

>ab %it" t"e spear# d n t t"r % it. Dead# dry % d is pre!erab1e t )reen % d.) .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e rabbit sti&2# t"e spear# t"e b % and arr %# and t"e s1in) are s$&" de5i&es. Spe!& Y $ &an ma2e a spear t 2i11 sma11 )ame and t !is". + !ire "arden % d# " 1d it 5er " t & a1s# bein) &are!$1 n t t b$m r s& r&" t"e % d. Y $ &an a1s s"arpen and !ire "arden t"e end ! t"e s"a!t. B"2 !#( A&&"2 A ) d b % is t"e res$1t ! many " $rs ! % r2. Y $ &an & nstr$&t a s$itab1e s" rt-term b % !air1y easi1y.ne ! t"e simp1est and m st e!!e&ti5e 2i11in) de5i&es is a st $t sti&2 as 1 n) as y $r arm# !r m !in)ertip t s" $1der# &a11ed a Jrabbit sti&2. D n t a11 % t"e s"a!t t s& r&" r b$m. Se1e&t arr %s !r m t"e strai)"test dry sti&2s a5ai1ab1e. +"e arr %s s" $1d be ab $t "a1! as 1 n) as t"e b %. VIC S +"ere are se5era1 2i11in) de5i&es t"at y $ &an & nstr$&t t "e1p y $ btain sma11 )ame t "e1p y $ s$r5i5e. R!. Department ! t"e Army *ILLIN/ . 3"en it 1 ses its sprin) r brea2s# y $ &an rep1a&e it. S&rape ea&" s"a!t sm t" a11 ar $nd. Y $ %i11 pr bab1y "a5e t strai)"ten t"e s"a!t. Se1e&t a "ard% d sti&2 ab $t ne meter 1 n) t"at is !ree ! 2n ts r 1imbs.. A1%ays s&rape !r m t"e side t"at !a&es y $# r t"e b % %i11 brea2 t"e !irst time y $ p$11 it. Atta&" t"e tips ! t"e b %s %it" & rda)e and n1y $se a b %strin) n ne b %. Y $ &an bend an arr % strai)"t by "eatin) t"e s"a!t 5er " t & a1s.S. 0 1d t"e s"a!t strai)"t $nti1 it & 1s.J Y $ &an t"r % it eit"er 5er"and r sidearm and %it" & nsiderab1e ! r&e. It is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame t"at st ps and !ree'es as a de!ense. /are!$1 e?aminati n %i11 s" % t"e nat$ra1 &$r5e ! t"e sti&2. Y $ &an ma2e arr %"eads !r m b ne# )1ass# meta1# r pie&es ! r &2. Y $ m$st n t&" t"e ends ! t"e arr %s ! r t"e b %strin). /$t r !i1e t"e n t&"H d n t sp1it it.it Sti. See spear!is"in) be1 %. + in&rease t"e p$11# 1as" a se& nd b % t t"e !irst# !r nt t !r nt# ! rmin) an JBJ %"en 5ie%ed !r m t"e side.1 ! 2** . (a)e . /are!$11y s&rape t"e 1ar)e end d %n $nti1 it "as t"e same p$11 as t"e sma11 end. F1et&"in) Caddin) !eat"ers t t"e n t&"ed end ! an arr %D impr 5es t"e arr %Fs !1i)"t &"ara&teristi&s# b$t is n t ne&essary n a !ie1d-e?pedient arr %.

+ ma2e a % den " 2# &$t a pie&e ! "ard% d ab $t 2. St!)e" t A sta2e $t is a !is"in) de5i&e y $ &an $se in a " sti1e en5ir nment CFi)$re :-1:D.S. +"e s1in) is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame. . A ) r)e is a sma11 s"a!t ! % d# b ne# meta1# r t"er materia1. + t"r % t"e r &2# spin t"e s1in) se5era1 times in a &ir&1e and re1ease t"e & rd bet%een t"e t"$mb and ! re!in)er. (1a&e t"e p int Cpie&e ! b ne# %ire# nai1D in t"e n t&". +ie a & rd bet%een t"em and s1i)"t1y be1 % t"e s$r!a&e. Department ! t"e Army S%i#0 Y $ &an ma2e a s1in) by tyin) t% pie&es ! & rda)e# ab $t si?ty &entimeters 1 n)# at pp site ends ! a pa1m-si'ed pie&e ! 1eat"er r &1 t". /$t a n t&" in ne end in %"i&" t p1a&e t"e p int. 'IS.2 ! 2** . 0 1d t"e p int in t"e n t&" and tie se&$re1y s t"at it d es n t m 5e $t ! p siti n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.ait t"e ) r)e by p1a&in) a pie&e ! bait n it 1en)t"%ise.ait t"e " 2s r ) r)es.9 &entimeters 1 n) and ab $t 6 mi11imeters in diameter t ! rm t"e s"an2. Y $ &an a1s ma2e !is"" 2s !r m any & mbinati n ! t"ese items CFi)$re :-17D. +ie t% s" rt & rds %it" " 2s r ) r)es t t"is & rd# ens$rin) t"at t"ey &ann t %rap ar $nd t"e p 1es r ea&" t"er. 0 1d t"e t"er & rd bet%een t"e ! re!in)er and t"$mb. Y $ &an a1s $se % d# b ne# & & n$t s"e11# t" rns# !1int# seas"e11# r t rt ise s"e11. +"is is a !air1y 1ar)e " 2. . + ma2e sma11er " 2s# $se sma11er materia1. 3"en t"e !is" s%a11 %s t"e bait# it a1s s%a11 %s t"e ) r)e. (a)e . It is s"arp n b t" ends and n t&"ed in t"e midd1e %"ere y $ tie & rda)e. 2s# nets and traps and $se se5era1 met" ds t btain !is" in a s$r5i5a1 I+p&"/i$e( Fi$hh"")$ Y $ &an ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient !is"" 2s !r m pins# need1es# %ire# sma11 nai1s# r any pie&e ! meta1. (ra&ti&e t )ain pr !i&ien&y.IN/ . VIC S Y $ &an ma2e y $r %n !is"" sit$ati n. + & nstr$&t a sta2e $t# dri5e t% s$pp1e sap1in)s int t"e b tt m ! t"e 1a2e# p nd# r stream %it" t"eir t ps @$st be1 % t"e %ater s$r!a&e. +"ey s" $1d a1s n t s1ip a1 n) t"e 1 n) & rd. (1a&e a r &2 in t"e &1 t" and %rap ne & rd ar $nd t"e midd1e !in)er and " 1d in y $r pa1m.

M 5e t"e )$ide1ine d %n a!ter & mp1etin) ea&" r %. +"en tie t"e ! $rt" and !i!t"# si?t" and se5ent"# and s n# $nti1 y $ rea&" t"e 1ast & re 1ine. +"e 1ines %i11 a1%ays "an) in pairs and y $ a1%ays tie a & rd !r m ne pair t a & rd !r m an ad@ inin) pair. + 2eep t"e r %s e5en and t re)$1ate t"e si'e ! t"e mes"# tie a )$ide1ine t t"e trees. ( siti n t"e )$ide1ine n t"e pp site side ! t"e net y $ are % r2in) n. Y $ s" $1d n % "a5e a11 & re 1ines tied in pairs %it" a sin)1e & re 1ine "an)in) at ea&" end. Startin) at ne end ! t"e easin)# tie t"e se& nd and t"e t"ird & re 1ines t )et"er $sin) an 5er"and 2n t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.D. +"e 1en)t" ! t"e desired net and t"e si'e ! t"e mes" determine t"e n$mber ! & re 1ines $sed and t"e spa&e bet%een t"em. Rem 5e t"e & re 1ines !r m t"e s$spensi n 1ine and tie t"e easin) bet%een t% trees. Department ! t"e Army 1i%% Net I! a )i11 net is n t a5ai1ab1e# y $ &an ma2e ne $sin) para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine r simi1ar materia1 CFi)$re :-1. Start t"e se& nd r % %it" t"e !irst & re 1ine# tie it t t"e se& nd# t"e t"ird t t"e ! $rt"# and s n. Use t"e )i11 net as s" %n in Fi)$re :-2<.* ! 2** . / ntin$e tyin) r %s $nti1 t"e net is t"e desired %idt". Atta&" se5era1 & re 1ines t t"e easin) by d $b1in) t"em 5er and tyin) t"em %it" pr$si2 2n ts r )irt" "it&"es. (a)e .S. +"read a s$spensi n 1ine easin) a1 n) t"e b tt m ! t"e net t stren)t"en it.

7 ! 2** .S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Fis" bas2ets are ne met" d. Y $ & nstr$&t t"em by 1as"in) se5era1 sti&2s t )et"er %it" 5ines int a !$nne1 s"ape. Department ! t"e Army Fi$h T&!p$ Y $ may trap !is" $sin) se5era1 met" ds CFi)$re :-21D. (a)e . Y $ &1 se t"e t p# 1ea5in) a " 1e 1ar)e en $)" ! r t"e !is" t s%im t"r $)".

(1a&e t"e spear p int int t"e %ater and s1 %1y m 5e it t %ard t"e !is". Y $ &an a1s ma2e a spear by sp1ittin) t"e s"a!t a !e% in&"es d %n !r m t"e end and insertin) a pie&e ! % d t a&t as a spreader. .S. .n sandy s" res# $se sandbars and t"e dit&"es t"ey en&1 se.n r &2y s" res# $se nat$ra1 r &2 p 1s. +"en# %it" a s$dden p$s"# impa1e t"e !is" n t"e stream b tt m. S"arpen t"e end t a p int r atta&" a 2ni!e# @a))ed pie&e ! b ne# r s"arpened meta1. Spe!&6i$hi#0 I! y $ are near s"a11 % %ater Cab $t %aist deepD %"ere t"e !is" are 1ar)e and p1enti!$1# y $ &an spear t"em. + spear !is"# !ind an area %"ere !is" eit"er )at"er r %"ere t"ere is a !is" r$n. D n t t"r % t"e spear# espe&ia11y i! t"e p int is a 2ni!e. (a)e . . + ma2e a spear# &$t a 1 n)# strai)"t sap1in) CFi)$re :-22D.e a1ert t t"e pr b1ems &a$sed by 1i)"t re!ra&ti n %"en 1 2in) at b@e&ts in t"e %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.n & ra1 is1ands# $se nat$ra1 p 1s n t"e s$r!a&e ! ree!s by b1 &2in) t"e penin)s as t"e tide re&edes. Y $ &ann t a!! rd t 1 se a 2ni!e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. .$i1d t"e trap as a 1 % st ne %a11 e?tendin) $t%ard int t"e %ater and ! rmin) an an)1e %it" t"e s" re.9 ! 2** . D n t try t 1i!t t"e !is" %it" t"e spear# as it %it" pr bab1y s1ip !! and y $ %i11 1 se itH " 1d t"e spear %it" ne "and and )rab and " 1d t"e !is" %it" t"e t"er. . Y $ t"en s"arpen t"e t% separated "a15es t p ints. (i&2 a 1 &ati n at "i)" tide and b$i1d t"e trap at 1 % tide. Department ! t"e Army Y $ &an a1s $se traps t &at&" sa1t%ater !is"# as s&" 1s re)$1ar1y appr a&" t"e s" re %it" t"e in& min) tide and !ten m 5e para11e1 t t"e s" re.

/r$s" r br$ise b$nd1es ! 1ea5es and stems and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater.S. +"e !is" rise "e1p1ess1y t t"e s$r!a&e. +"en# armed %it" a ma&"ete r simi1ar %eap n# y $ &an )at"er !is" $sin) t"e ba&2 side ! t"e b1ade t stri2e t"em. 6rind t"e r ts int a p %der and mi? %it" %ater. +"e best p1a&e t $se r ten ne# r r ten ne-pr d$&in) p1ants# is in p nds r t"e "ead%aiters ! sma11 streams & ntainin) !is". It bears seeds in t"ree an)1ed &aps$1es. • Lime. /r$s" t"e bean-s"aped seeds and t"r % t"em in t"e %ater. Tephrosia CFi)$re :-2*D. /r$s" t"e seeds and bar2 and t"r % int t"e %ater. Y $ may pr d$&e y $r %n by b$rnin) & ra1 r seas"e11s. +"is s"r$b )r %s in A$stra1ia and bears %"ite &1$sters ! !1 %ers and berry1i2e !r$it. <erris eliptica CFi)$re :-2*D. D n t $se t"e s"arp side as y $ %i11 &$t t"em in t% pie&es and end $p 1 sin) s me ! t"e !is". +"e ! 11 %in) p1ants# $sed as indi&ated# %i11 st$n r 2i11 !is"I Anamirta cocculus CFi)$re :-2*D. /r$s" t"e seeds and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater. 3"en $sin) !is" p is n# be s$re t )at"er a11 ! t"e a!!e&ted !is"# be&a$se many dead !is" !1 atin) d %nstream & $1d ar $se s$spi&i n. +"ese 1ar)e trees )r % near t"e sea in Ma1aya and parts ! ( 1ynesia. ?arringtonia CFi)$re :-2*D. It % r2s s1 %1y in %ater 1< t 21 de)rees / C9< t 7< de)rees FD and is ine!!e&ti5e in %ater be1 % 1< de)rees / C9< de)rees FD. +"r % a 1ar)e 4$antity ! t"e mi?t$re int t"e %ater. 1roton tiglium CFi)$re :-2*D. It a11 %s y $ t remain & n&ea1ed %"i1e it ta2es e!!e&t. +"is spe&ies ! sma11 s"r$bs# %"i&" bears bean1i2e p ds# )r %s t"r $)" $t t"e tr pi&s. +"is % dy 5ine )r %s in s $t"ern Asia and n is1ands ! t"e S $t" (a&i!i&. ( is n % r2s 4$i&21y. +"is s"r$b r sma11 tree )r %s in %aste areas n is1ands ! t"e S $t" (a&i!i&. <uboisia CFi)$re :-2*D. It a1s enab1es y $ t &at&" se5era1 !is" at ne time. S me p1ants t"at )r % in %arm re)i ns ! t"e % r1d & ntain r ten ne# a s$bstan&e t"at st$ns r 2i11s & 1d-b1 ded anima1s b$t d es n t "arm pers ns %" eat t"e anima1s. +"ey bear a !1es"y ne-seeded !r$it.6 ! 2** . Department ! t"e Army Ch"p Fi$hi#0 At ni)"t# in an area %it" a ) d !is" density# y $ &an $se a 1i)"t t attra&t !is". Fi$h P"i$"# An t"er %ay t &at&" !is" is by $sin) p is n. /r$s" t"e p1ants and t"r % t"em int t"e %ater. R ten ne % r2s 4$i&21y n !is" in %ater 21 de)rees / C7< de)rees FD r ab 5e. (a)e . +"is 1ar)e )en$s ! tr pi&a1 s"r$bs and % dy 5ines is t"e main s $r&e ! & mmer&ia11y pr d$&ed r ten ne. +"r % t"e 1ime int t"e %ater. Y $ &an )et 1ime !r m & mmer&ia1 s $r&es and in a)ri&$1t$ra1 areas t"at $se 1ar)e 4$antities ! it.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Department ! t"e Army • 8ut husks. • (e&$1iar d r. AN.7 ! 2** . / sp i1a)e are-• S$n2en eyes. 2in) d es n t ens$re t"at sp i1ed !is" %i11 be edib1e. +"r % t"e "$s2s int t"e %ater. /r$s" )reen "$s2s !r m b$ttern$ts r b1a&2 %a1n$ts.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Impr per &1eanin) r st ra)e &an res$1t in inedib1e !is" r )ame. STORA/ Y $ m$st 2n % " % t prepare !is" and )ame ! r & 2in) and st ra)e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n.S. /A0 'OR COO*IN/ AN. Si)ns ! (a)e . PR PARATION O' 'IS. Fi$h D n t eat !is" t"at appears sp i1ed.

+"en &$t t"e s2in d %n t"e b dy 19 t 2< &entimeters CFi)$re :-27D. I! y $ p1an t 2eep t"e !is" ! r 1ater# sm 2e r !ry it. . S&a1es s" $1d be a pr n $n&ed s"ade ! )ray# n t !aded. Ind$&e 5 mitin) i! sympt ms appear. 0 %e5er# b i1in) t"e !is" %it" t"e s2in n is t"e best %ay t )et t"e m st ! d 5a1$e.rea2 pen t"e &1ay ba11 t )et t t"e & 2ed !is". Bi&($ A!ter 2i11in) t"e bird# rem 5e its !eat"ers by eit"er p1$&2in) r s2innin). . Rem 5e t"e entrai1s and dis&ard. S1imy# rat"er t"an m ist r %et b dy. Y $ &an $se any ! t"e met" ds $sed t & 2 p1ant ! d t & 2 !is". Remember# s2innin) rem 5es s me ! t"e ! d 5a1$e. /$t !! t"e !eet. + prepare !is" ! r sm 2in)# &$t !! t"e "ead and rem 5e t"e ba&2b ne. Fis" is d ne %"en t"e meat !1a2es !!. /$t $t t"e )i11s and 1ar)e b1 d 5esse1s t"at 1ie near t"e spine.e! re & 2in) s&a5en)er birds# b i1 t"em at 1east 2< min$tes t 2i11 parasites. S"arp r peppery taste. C6i11s s" $1d be red t pin2.: ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. S&a1e r s2in t"e !is". (a&2 !is" int a ba11 ! &1ay and b$ry it in t"e & a1s ! a !ire $nti1 t"e &1ay "ardens. /$t t"e sna2e int sma11 se&ti ns and b i1 r r ast it.D Dents stay in t"e !is"Fs !1es" a!ter pressin) it %it" y $r t"$mb. 6$t !is" t"at is m re t"an 1< &entimeters 1 n). +"e !ats and i1 are $nder t"e s2in and# by b i1in)# y $ &an sa5e t"e @$i&es ! r br t". Department ! t"e Army • • • • S$spi&i $s & 1 r. . (a)e . S#!)e$ + s2in a sna2e# !irst &$t !! its "ead and b$ry it.pen $p t"e b dy &a5ity and rem 5e its entrai1s# sa5in) t"e &ra% Cin seed-eatin) birdsD# "eart# and 1i5er. / 2 by b i1in) r r astin) 5er a spit. +"ese sympt ms appear s$dden1y# ne t si? " $rs a!ter eatin). Y $ &an impa1e a %" 1e !is" n a sti&2 and & 2 it 5er an pen !ire. . / 2 sna2es in t"e same manner as sma11 )ame. (repare !is" ! r eatin) as s n as p ssib1e a!ter &at&"in) it. Fis" sp i1s 4$i&21y a!ter deat"# espe&ia11y n a " t day. -atin) sp i1ed r r tten !is" may &a$se diarr"ea# na$sea# &ramps# 5 mitin)# it&"in)# para1ysis# r a meta11i& taste in t"e m $t".n 1ar)e# b$12y sna2es it may be ne&essary t s1it t"e be11y s2in. (ee1 t"e s2in ba&2# t"en )rasp t"e s2in in ne "and and t"e b dy in t"e t"er and p$11 apart.

F r sma11er mamma1s# &$t t"e "ide ar $nd t"e b dy and insert t% !in)ers $nder t"e "ide n b t" sides ! t"e &$t and p$11 b t" pie&es !! CFi)$re :-26D.he&i#0 1!+e . Department ! t"e Army S)i##i#0 !#( B t. /$t t"ese pen and inspe&t ! r si)ns ! % rms r t"er parasites. (1a&e t"e &ar&ass be11y $p and sp1it t"e "ide !r m t"r at t tai1# &$ttin) ar $nd a11 se?$a1 r)ans CFi)$re :-29D. /$t 1ar)er )ame int mana)eab1e pie&es. /$t a1 n) ea&" 1e) !r m ab 5e t"e ! t t t"e pre5i $s1y made b dy &$t. 0 %e5er# a diseased 1i5er d es n t indi&ate y $ &ann t eat t"e m$s&1e tiss$e. ! 2** . This will also prevent cutting hair and getting it on the meat. Rem 5e t"e $rine b1adder by pin&"in) it !! and &$ttin) it be1 % t"e !in)ers. 8ote9 hen cutting the hide" insert the kni!e blade under the skin and turn the blade up so that only the hide gets cut. +"e 1i5erFs s$r!a&e s" $1d be sm t" and %et and its & 1 r deep red r p$rp1e. Y $ m$st &$t ar $nd a 1ar)e b ne at t"e t p ! t"e 1e) and &$t (a)e . Rem 5e t"e entrai1s !r m sma11er )ame by sp1ittin) t"e b dy pen and p$11in) t"em $t %it" t"e !in)ers. F r 1ar)er )ame# &$t t"e )$11et a%ay !r m t"e diap"ra)m. I! y $ spi11 $rine n t"e meat# %as" it t a5 id taintin) t"e meat. /$t !! t"e "ead and !eet. A1s inspe&t t"e 1i5erFs & 1 rH it & $1d indi&ate a diseased anima1. Rem 5e t"e "ide by p$11in) it a%ay !r m t"e &ar&ass# &$ttin) t"e & nne&ti5e tiss$e %"ere ne&essary. /$t ar $nd t"e an$s# t"en rea&" int t"e 1 %er abd mina1 &a5ity# )rasp t"e 1 %er intestine# and p$11 t rem 5e.. +"ere are n b nes r @ ints & nne&tin) t"e !r nt 1e)s t t"e b dy n ! $r-1e))ed anima1s. /$t t"e "ind4$arters !! %"ere t"ey @ in t"e b dy.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. R 11 t"e entrai1s $t ! t"e b dy. I! t"e 1i5er appears diseased# dis&ard it. Rem 5e t"e m$s2 )1ands at p ints A and . I! p ssib1e# &1ean t"e &ar&ass near a stream. Sa5e t"e "eart and 1i5er.S. D n t ! r)et t"e &"est &a5ity. t a5 id taintin) t"e meat.1eed t"e anima1 by &$ttin) its t"r at. First# s1i&e t"e m$s&1e tiss$e & nne&tin) t"e !r nt 1e)s t t"e b dy.

8eep t"e p n&" en&1 s$re ar $nd t"e meat t " 1d t"e sm 2e and 2eep a &1 se %at&" n t"e !ire. D n t $se resin $s % d in t"e !ire be&a$se its sm 2e %i11 r$in t"e meat. Y $ &an & 2 b dy r)ans s$&" as t"e "eart# 1i5er# pan&reas# sp1een# and 2idneys $sin) t"e same met" ds as ! r m$s&1e meat. Meat sm 2ed 5erni)"t in t"is manner %i11 1ast ab $t 1 %ee2. +"ere is 1ess % r2 and 1ess %ear n y $r 2ni!e i! y $ brea2 t"e ribs !irst# t"en &$t t"r $)" t"e brea2s. +"e intent is t pr d$&e sm 2e# n t "eat. Ma2e s$re n ne ! t"e meat t $&"es an t"er pie&e. (r per1y sm 2ed meat %i11 1 2 1i2e a dar2# &$r1ed# britt1e sti&2 and y $ &an eat it %it" $t !$rt"er & 2in). (a)e 1<< ! 2** . Y $ &an ste% r b i1 sma11er pie&es# parti&$1ar1y t" se t"at remain atta&"ed t b ne a!ter t"e initia1 b$t&"erin)# as s $p r br t". I! it is t dry# s a2 it. / 2 1ar)e meat pie&es 5er a spit r b i1 t"em. /$t t"e meat int t"in s1i&es# n m re t"an 6 &entimeters t"i&2# and drape t"em 5er a !rame% r2. Y $ &an a1s $se a pit t sm 2e meat CFi)$re :-2:D. Department ! t"e Army t t"e ba11 and s &2et "ip @ int. +"e % d s" $1d be s me%"at )reen. +"e !ire d es n t need t be bi) r " t. S+")i#0 Me!t + sm 2e meat# prepare an en&1 s$re ar $nd a !ire CFi)$re :-27D. Use "ard% ds t pr d$&e ) d sm 2e.S. /$t t"e 1i)aments ar $nd t"e @ int and bend it ba&2 t separate it. /$t t"e t n)$e $t# s2in it# b i1 it $nti1 tender# and eat it. +% p n&" s snapped t )et"er %i11 % r2.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ &an a1s & 2 and eat t"e brain. Rem 5e t"e 1ar)e m$s&1es Ct"e tender1 inD t"at 1ie n eit"er side ! t"e spine. +% days ! & ntin$ $s sm 2in) %i11 preser5e t"e meat ! r 2 t 7 %ee2s. D n t 1et t"e !ire )et t " t. Separate t"e ribs !r m t"e ba&2b ne.

A11 % t"e meat t dry t" r $)"1y be! re eatin). Othe& P&e$e&/!ti"# Meth"($ Y $ &an a1s preser5e meats $sin) t"e !ree'in) r brine and sa1t met" ds. Free'in) is n t a means ! preparin) meat. (a)e 1<1 ! 2** . #rine and Salt Y $ &an preser5e meat by s a2in) it t" r $)"1y in a sa1t%ater s 1$ti n. 3as" !! t"e sa1t be! re & 2in). 8eep t"e strips $t ! t"e rea&" ! anima1s and & 5er t"em t 2eep b1 %!1ies !!. Y $ &an a1s $se sa1t by itse1!. 'reezing In & 1d &1imates# y $ &an !ree'e and 2eep meat inde!inite1y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ m$st sti11 & 2 it be! re eatin).S. +"e s 1$ti n m$st & 5er t"e meat. Department ! t"e Army D&3i#0 Me!t + preser5e meat by dryin)# &$t it int 6-mi11imeter strips %it" t"e )rain. 0an) t"e meat strips n a ra&2 in a s$nny 1 &ati n %it" ) d air !1 %. (r per1y dried meat %i11 "a5e a dry# &risp te?t$re and %i11 n t !ee1 & 1 t t"e t $&".

@ou must not count on being able to go !or days without !ood as some sources would suggest. @ou must there!ore learn as much as possible be!orehand about the !lora o! the region where you will be operating.t eat the wrong plant. *ARNIN1 +"e &riti&a1 !a&t r in $sin) p1ants ! r ! d is t a5 id a&&identa1 p is nin). -at n1y t" se p1ants y $ &an p siti5e1y identi!y and y $ 2n % are sa!e t eat. M st ! t"e in! rmati n in t"is &"apter is dire&ted t %ards identi!yin) %i1d p1ants be&a$se in! rmati n re1atin) t &$1ti5ated p1ants is m re readi1y a5ai1ab1e. Abs 1$te1y identi!y p1ants be! re $sin) t"em as ! d. In t"is &ase y $ &an $se t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est t determine %"i&" p1ants y $ &an eat and t" se t a5 id. :lants can supply you with weapons and raw materials to construct shelters and build !ires. 8ote9 @ou will !ind illustrations o! the plants described in this chapter in Appendi+es ? and 1. In t"is instan&e y $ may n t "a5e "ad t"e &"an&e t 1earn t"e p1ant 1i!e ! t"e re)i n in %"i&" y $ m$st s$r5i5e. . At times y $ may !ind y $rse1! in a sit$ati n ! r %"i&" y $ & $1d n t p1an. Cven in the most static survival situation" maintaining health through a complete and nutritious diet is essential to maintaining strength and peace o! mind. 8ature can provide you with !ood that will let you survive any ordeal" i! you don.S.I#ILITY O' PLANTS (1ants are 5a1$ab1e s $r&es ! ! d be&a$se t"ey are %ide1y a5ai1ab1e# easi1y pr &$red# and# in t"e pr per & mbinati ns# &an meet a11 y $r n$triti na1 needs. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER < . It is imp rtant t be ab1e t re& )ni'e b t" &$1ti5ated and %i1d edib1e p1ants in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. 3as" t"em t" r $)"1y. In a survival situation you should always be on the lookout !or !amiliar wild !oods and live o!! the land whenever possible. :lants can even provide you with chemicals !or poisoning !ish" preserving animal hides" and !or camou!laging yoursel! and your e)uipment.SURVIVAL USE OF PLANTS A!ter having solved the problems o! !inding water" shelter" and animal !ood" you will have to consider the use o! plants you can eat. ( is n "em1 &2 "as 2i11ed pe p1e %" mist 2 it ! r its re1ati5es# %i1d &arr ts and %i1d parsnips. Remember t"e ! 11 %in) %"en & 11e&tin) %i1d p1ants ! r ! dI • (1ants )r %in) near " mes and &&$pied b$i1din)s r a1 n) r adsides may "a5e been sprayed %it" pesti&ides. In m re "i)"1y de5e1 ped & $ntries %it" many a$t m bi1es# a5 id r adside p1ants# i! p ssib1e# d$e t & ntaminati n !r m e?"a$st emissi ns. :lants can provide you with medicines in a survival situation.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 1<2 ! 2** .

-2D. (a)e 1<* ! 2** . S me pe p1e are m re s$s&eptib1e t )astri& distress C!r m p1antsD t"an t"ers.!ti"# Y $ identi!y p1ants# t"er t"an by mem ri'in) parti&$1ar 5arieties t"r $)" !ami1iarity# by $sin) s$&" !a&t rs as 1ea! s"ape and mar)in# 1ea! arran)ements# and r t str$&t$re. S me &" 2e&"erry p1ants "a5e "i)" & n&entrati ns ! dead1y &yanide & mp $nds %"i1e t"ers "a5e 1 % & n&entrati ns r n ne.S. S me p1ants de5e1 p e?treme1y dan)er $s !$n)a1 t ?ins. I! y $ are sensiti5e in t"is %ay# a5 id $n2n %n %i1d p1ants. +"e basi& 1ea! mar)ins CFi)$re .a2in)# r astin)# r dryin) $s$a11y destr ys t"ese ?a1ate &rysta1s. *ARNIN1 D n t eat m$s"r ms in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati nK +"e n1y %ay t te11 i! a m$s"r m is edib1e is by p siti5e identi!i&ati n. . +"e & rm Cb$1bD ! t"e @a&2-in-t"e-p$1pit is 2n %n as t"e JIndian t$rnip#J b$t y $ &an eat it n1y a!ter rem 5in) t"ese &rysta1s by s1 % ba2in) r by dryin). P%!#t I(e#ti6i.?a1ates pr d$&e a s"arp b$rnin) sensati n in y $r m $t" and t"r at and dama)e t"e 2idneys. + 1essen t"e &"an&e ! a&&identa1 p is nin)# d n t eat any !r$it t"at is startin) t sp i1 r s" %in) si)ns ! mi1de% r !$n)$s.ne e?amp1e ! t"is is t"e ! 1ia)e ! t"e & mm n &" 2e&"erry. S me edib1e %i1d p1ants# s$&" as a& rns and %ater 1i1y r"i' mes# are bitter. (1ants ! t"e same spe&ies may di!!er in t"eir t ?i& r s$bt ?i& & mp $nds & ntent be&a$se ! )eneti& r en5ir nmenta1 !a&t rs. i1in) t"em in se5era1 &"an)es ! %ater %i11 $s$a11y rem 5e t"ese bitter pr perties. 0 rses "a5e died !r m eatin) %i1ted %i1d &"erry 1ea5es. I! y $ are e?treme1y sensiti5e t p is n i5y# a5 id pr d$&ts !r m t"is !ami1y# in&1$din) any parts !r m s$ma&s# man) es# and &as"e%s.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A5 id any %eed# 1ea5es# r seeds %it" an a1m nd1i2e s&ent# a &"ara&teristi& ! t"e &yanide & mp $nds. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • (1ants )r %in) in & ntaminated %ater r in %ater & ntainin) >iardia lamblia and t"er parasites are & ntaminated t"emse15es.-1D are t t"ed# 1 bed# and t t"1ess r sm t". Sympt ms ! t"e m st dan)er $s m$s"r ms a!!e&tin) t"e &entra1 ner5 $s system may s" % $p a!ter se5era1 days "a5e passed %"en it is t 1ate t re5erse t"eir e!!e&ts. . . . +"ese 1ea5es may be 1an&e-s"aped# e11ipti&a1# e))-s"aped# b1 n)# %ed)e-s"aped# trian)$1ar# 1 n)p inted# r t p-s"aped CFi)$re . Many 5a1$ab1e %i1d p1ants "a5e "i)" & n&entrati ns ! ?a1ate & mp $nds# a1s 2n %n as ?a1i& a&id. +"ese bitter s$bstan&es# $s$a11y tannin & mp $nds# ma2e t"em $npa1atab1e. . i1 r disin!e&t t"em. +"ere is n r m ! r e?perimentati n.

(a)e 1<7 ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +$bers are 1i2e p tat es and day1i1ies and y $ %i11 !ind t"ese str$&t$res eit"er n strin)s r in &1$sters $nderneat" t"e parent p1ants. /1 5es are t" se b$1b1i2e str$&t$res t"at remind $s ! )ar1i& and %i11 separate int sma11 pie&es %"en br 2en apart. +apr ts resemb1e &arr ts and may be sin)1er ted r bran&"ed# b$t $s$a11y n1y ne p1ant sta12 arises !r m ea&" r t. +"is &"ara&teristi& separates %i1d ni ns !r m %i1d )ar1i&.$1bs are !ami1iar t $s as ni ns and# %"en s1i&ed in "a1!# %i11 s" % & n&entri& rin)s.-*D are pp site# a1ternate# & mp $nd# simp1e# and basa1 r sette.S. . Department ! t"e Army +"e basi& types ! 1ea! arran)ements CFi)$re . +"e basi& types ! r t str$&t$res CFi)$re .-7D are t"e b$1b# &1 5e# tapr t# t$ber# r"i' me# & rm# and &r %n.

/ rms are simi1ar t b$1bs b$t are s 1id %"en &$t rat"er t"an p ssessin) rin)s.S. +"ere! re# i! y $ "a5e t"e s1i)"test d $bt ab $t a p1antFs edibi1ity# app1y t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est CFi)$re . A &r %n is t"e type ! r t str$&t$re ! $nd n p1ants s$&" as aspara)$s and 1 2s m$&" 1i2e a m p"ead $nder t"e s i1Fs s$r!a&e. U#i/e&$!% E(i.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 1<9 ! 2** . S me p1ants "a5e b t" edib1e and p is n $s parts. +astin) r s%a11 %in) e5en a sma11 p rti n ! s me &an &a$se se5ere dis& m! rt# e?treme interna1 dis rders# and e5en deat".-9D be! re eatin) any p rti n ! it. Learn as m$&" as p ssib1e ab $t p1ants y $ intend t $se ! r ! d and t"eir $ni4$e &"ara&teristi&s. Department ! t"e Army R"i' mes are 1ar)e &reepin) r tst &2 r $nder)r $nd stems and many p1ants arise !r m t"e JeyesJ ! t"ese r ts.i%it3 Te$t +"ere are many p1ants t"r $)" $t t"e % r1d. Many are edib1e n1y at &ertain times ! t"e year.t"ers may "a5e p is n $s re1ati5es t"at 1 2 5ery simi1ar t t"e nes y $ &an eat r $se ! r medi&ine. .

Department ! t"e Army . +% ) d e?amp1es ! t"is are s$&" !ami1iar ! ds as )reen app1es and %i1d ni ns. • Di11# &arr t# parsnip# r pars1ey1i2e ! 1ia)e. D n t %aste time testin) a p1ant t"at is n t re1ati5e1y ab$ndant in t"e area. • . Remember# eatin) 1ar)e p rti ns ! p1ant ! d n an empty st ma&" may &a$se diarr"ea# na$sea# r &ramps. Y $ &an see !r m t"e steps and time in5 15ed in testin) ! r edibi1ity @$st " % imp rtant it is t be ab1e t identi!y edib1e p1ants. • Spines# !ine "airs# r t" rns. (a)e 1<6 ! 2** .eans# b$1bs# r seeds inside p ds.e! re testin) a p1ant ! r edibi1ity# ma2e s$re t"ere are en $)" p1ants t ma2e t"e testin) % rt" y $r time and e!! rt. -a&" part ! a p1ant Cr ts# 1ea5es# !1 %ers# and s nD re4$ires m re t"an 27 " $rs t test.itter r s apy taste. • .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • JA1m ndJ s&ent in % dy parts and 1ea5es. + a5 id p tentia11y p is n $s p1ants# stay a%ay !r m any %i1d r $n2n %n p1ants t"at "a5e-• Mi12y r dis& 1 red sap.S. -5en a!ter testin) p1ant ! d and !indin) it sa!e# eat it in m derati n.

An entire en&y&1 pedia ! edib1e %i1d p1ants & $1d be %ritten# b$t spa&e 1imits t"e n$mber ! p1ants presented "ere. Usin) t"e ab 5e &riteria as e1iminat rs %"en &" sin) p1ants ! r t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est %i11 &a$se y $ t a5 id s me edib1e p1ants.ananas C/usa spe&iesD • .ee&"n$t C-agus spe&iesD • .1a&2berries CRubus spe&iesD • .read!r$it &Artocarpus incisa' • /as"e% n$t &Anacardium occidental' • / & n$t &1ocos nuci!era' • Man) &/angi!era indica' • (a1ms C5ari $s spe&iesD • (apaya C1arica spe&iesD • S$)ar&ane &Saccharum o!!icinarum' (a)e 1<7 ! 2** .1$eberries CVaccinium spe&iesD • .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army • • 6rain "eads %it" pin2# p$rp1is"# r b1a&2 sp$rs. Learn as m$&" as p ssib1e ab $t t"e p1ant 1i!e ! t"e areas %"ere y $ train re)$1ar1y and %"ere y $ e?pe&t t be tra5e1in) r % r2in).amb C?ambusa and t"er spe&iesD • .$rd &2 &Arctium lappa' • /attai1 CTypha spe&iesD • /"estn$t C1astanea spe&iesD • /"i& ry &1ichorium intybus' • /"$!a &1yperus esculentus' • Dande1i n &Tara+acum o!!icinale' • Day1i1y &(emerocallis !ulva' • Nett1e CUrtica spe&iesD • . TEMPERATE =ONE FOOD PLANTS • Amarant" CAmaranthus retro!le+us and t"er spe&iesD • Arr %r t CSagittaria spe&iesD • Aspara)$s &Asparagus o!!icinalis' • . M re imp rtant# t"ese &riteria %i11 !ten "e1p y $ a5 id p1ants t"at are p tentia11y t ?i& t eat r t $&".a2s CDuercus spe&iesD • (ersimm n &<iospyros virginiana' • (1antain C:lantago spe&iesD • ( 2e%eed &:hytolacca americana' • (ri&21y pear &a&t$s C0puntia spe&iesD • ($rs1ane &:ortulaca oleracea' • Sassa!ras &Sassa!ras albidum' • S"eep s rre1 &Rume+ acetosella' • Stra%berries C-ragaria spe&iesD • +"ist1e C1irsium spe&iesD • 3ater 1i1y and 1 t$s C8uphar" 8elumbo" and t"er spe&iesD • 3i1d ni n and )ar1i& CAllium spe&iesD • 3i1d r se CRosa spe&iesD • 3 d s rre1 C0+alis spe&iesD TROPICAL =ONE FOOD PLANTS • . +"ree-1ea5ed )r %t" pattern. Listed be1 % and 1ater in t"is &"apter are s me ! t"e m st & mm n edib1e and medi&ina1 p1ants.. Detai1ed des&ripti ns and p" t )rap"s ! t"ese and t"er & mm n p1ants are at Appendi? .

Y $ &an dry !res"1y "ar5ested sea%eeds ! r 1ater $se. Many %i1d p1ants are edib1e b$t bare1y pa1atab1e. Sea%eed is a 5a1$ab1e s $r&e ! i dine# t"er minera1s# and 5itamin /. Department ! t"e Army • +ar C1olocasia spe&iesD DESERT =ONE FOOD PLANTS • • • • • A&a&ia &Acacia !arnesiana' A)a5e CAgave spe&iesD /a&t$s C5ari $s spe&iesD Date pa1m &:hoeni+ dactyli!era' Desert amarant" &Amaranths palmeri' Se!2ee($ .ne p1ant y $ s" $1d ne5er 5er1 2 is sea%eed. Lea&"in) is d ne by &r$s"in) t"e ! d C! r e?amp1e# a& rnsD# p1a&in) it in a strainer# and p $rin) b i1in) %ater t"r $)" it r immersin) it in r$nnin) %ater. -dib1e means t"at a p1ant r ! d %i11 pr 5ide y $ %it" ne&essary n$trients# %"i1e pa1atab1e means t"at it a&t$a11y is p1easin) t eat. It is a ! rm ! marine a1)ae ! $nd n r near &ean s" res. i1 t"i&2# 1eat"ery sea%eeds ! r a s" rt time t s !ten t"em. 3"en )at"erin) sea%eeds ! r ! d# !ind 1i5in) p1ants atta&"ed t r &2s r !1 atin) !ree. S me n$ts# s$&" as &"estn$ts# are ) d ra%# b$t taste better r asted. Lea&" a& rns in %ater# i! ne&essary# t rem 5e t"e bitterness. Lar)e 4$antities ! sea%eed in an $na&&$st med st ma&" &an pr d$&e a se5ere 1a?ati5e e!!e&t. Y $ &an eat s me 5arieties ra% a!ter testin) ! r edibi1ity. Met" ds $sed t impr 5e t"e taste ! p1ant ! d in&1$de s a2in)# b i1in)# & 2in)# r 1ea&"in). 3"en "ard r dry# y $ may "a5e t b i1 r )rind t"em int mea1 r !1 $r. (a)e 1<: ! 2** . Y $ &an dry t"in and tender 5arieties in t"e s$n r 5er a !ire $nti1 &risp. SEA*EEDS • • • • • • • D$1se &Rhodymenia palmata' 6reen sea%eed &Ulva lactuca' Iris" m ss &1hondrus crispus' 8e1p &Alaria esculenta' La5er C:orphyra spe&iesD M @aban &Sargassum !ulvellum' S$)ar %ra&2 &Laminaria saccharina' P&ep!&!ti"# "6 P%!#t F""( A1t" $)" s me p1ants r p1ant parts are edib1e ra%# y $ m$st & 2 t"ers t be edib1e r pa1atab1e. Y $ &an eat many )rains and seeds ra% $nti1 t"ey mat$re. i1# ba2e# r r ast t$bers and r ts. i1 1ea5es# stems# and b$ds $nti1 tender# &"an)in) t"e %ater# i! ne&essary# t rem 5e any bitterness.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . . It is a ) d idea t 1earn t identi!y# prepare# and eat %i1d ! ds.S. /r$s" and add t"ese t s $ps r br t"s. Sea%eed %as"ed ns" re any 1en)t" ! time may be sp i1ed r de&ayed. . Its preparati n ! r eatin) depends n t"e type ! sea%eed. Dryin) "e1ps t rem 5e &a$sti& ?a1ates !r m s me r ts 1i2e t" se in t"e Arum !ami1y. -at t"em as a 5e)etab1e r %it" t"er ! ds. +"ere are a1s s me edib1e !res"%ater 5arieties.

Department ! t"e Army +"e sap !r m many trees# s$&" as map1es# bir&"es# %a1n$ts# and sy&am res# & ntains s$)ar. In $sin) p1ants and t"er nat$ra1 remedies# p siti5e identi!i&ati n ! t"e p1ants in5 15ed is as &riti&a1 as in $sin) t"em ! r ! d. Y $ add "erb 1ea! r r t t %ater. Y $ brin) t"em t a s$stained b i1 r simmer t dra% t"eir &"emi&a1s int t"e %ater. Y $ &an a1s $se sa15es made by mi?in) t"e e?pressed @$i&es ! t"ese p1ants in anima1 !at r 5e)etab1e i1s.i6i. Many nat$ra1 remedies % r2 s1 %er t"an t"e medi&ines y $ 2n %. +"ere! re# start %it" sma11er d ses and a11 % m re time ! r t"em t ta2e e!!e&t. Y $ &an a1s $se a tea made !r m b$rd &2 r ts# ma11 % r m$11ein !1 %ers r r ts# r mint 1ea5es. Li4$ids r saps s4$ee'ed !r m p1ant materia1 and eit"er app1ied t t"e % $nd r made int an t"er medi&ine. Use t &1eanse % $nds# s res# r ras"es. Y $ &an a1s st p diarr"ea by eatin) %"ite &1ay r &amp!ire as"es. Te&+$ !#( De6i#iti"#$ +"e ! 11 %in) terms# and t"eir de!initi ns# are ass &iated %it" medi&ina1 p1ant $seI • :oultice. Nat$ra11y# s me %i11 a&t m re rapid1y t"an t"ers. • Itching. Drin2 tea made !r m t"e r ts ! b1a&2berries and t"eir re1ati5es t st p diarr"ea. A11 t"ese medi&ati ns are ! r e?terna1 $se n1y. (a)e 1<. +reat t"ese i11nesses %it" a de& &ti n made !r m eit"er p1antain 1ea5es r %i11 % bar2. • 1olds and sore throats. +"e e?tra&t ! a b i1ed d %n r simmered "erb 1ea! r r t. • Antihemorrhagics. • In!usion or tisane or tea. Ma2e medi&ati ns t st p b1eedin) !r m a p $1ti&e ! t"e p$!!ba11 m$s"r m# !r m p1antain 1ea5es# r m st e!!e&ti5e1y !r m t"e 1ea5es ! t"e & mm n yarr % r % $nd% rt &Achillea mille!olium'. Y $ &an a1s ma2e antisepti&s !r m a de& &ti n ! b$rd &2 r t# ma11 % 1ea5es r r ts# r %"ite a2 bar2. 3"ite a2 bar2 and t"er bar2s & ntainin) tannin are a1s e!!e&ti5e. • Antiseptics. Spe. Re+e(ie$ +"e ! 11 %in) remedies are ! r $se n1y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# n t ! r r $tine $seI • <iarrhea. (r per $se ! t"ese p1ants is e4$a11y imp rtant. • C+pressed $uice. +"e preparati n ! medi&ina1 "erbs ! r interna1 r e?terna1 app1i&ati n. +"e a5era)e rati is ab $t 2: t 96 )rams C1 t 2 $n&esD ! "erb t <. +reat %it" e?terna11y app1ied p $1ti&es ! d &2# p1antain# &"i&2%eed# %i11 % bar2# )ar1i&# r s rre1. +ea made !r m & %berry r &ranberry r "a'e1 1ea5es % r2s t . Y $ p1a&e a sma11 4$antity ! a "erb in a & ntainer# p $r " t %ater 5er it# and 1et it steep C& 5ered r $n& 5eredD be! re $se. Y $ &an ma2e t"em !r m t"e e?pressed @$i&e !r m %i1d ni n r )ar1i&# r e?pressed @$i&e !r m &"i&2%eed 1ea5es r t"e &r$s"ed 1ea5es ! d &2. +"e @e%e1%eed @$i&e %i11 "e1p %"en app1ied t p is n i5y ras"es r inse&t stin)s.9 1iter ! %ater.S. ! 2** . Re1ie5e t"e it&" !r m inse&t bites# s$nb$rn# r p1ant p is nin) ras"es by app1yin) a p $1ti&e ! @e%e1%eed &Impatiens bi!lora' r %it&" "a'e1 1ea5es &(amamelis virginiana'. It ta2es ab $t *9 1iters ! map1e sap t ma2e ne 1iter ! map1e syr$pK PLANTS 'OR 0 . • <ecoction. Y $ may b i1 t"ese saps d %n t a syr$p ! r s%eetenin). It % r2s n s$nb$rn as %e11 as a1 e 5era.ICIN In a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n y $ %i11 "a5e t $se %"at is a5ai1ab1e. • Aches" pains" and sprains.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0 %e5er# $se t"em %it" &a$ti n %"en n t"in) e1se is a5ai1ab1e be&a$se ! p ssib1e ne)ati5e e!!e&ts n t"e 2idneys. • -evers. +"e name )i5en t &r$s"ed 1ea5es r t"er p1ant parts# p ssib1y "eated# t"at y $ app1y t a % $nd r s re eit"er dire&t1y r %rapped in &1 t" r paper. +reat a !e5er %it" a tea made !r m %i11 % bar2# an in!$si n ! e1der !1 %ers r !r$it# 1inden !1 %er tea# r e1m bar2 de& &ti n.

Ma2e !ibers and & rda)e !r m p1ant !ibers. >as and cramps. d !r m pine Ma2e ins$1ati n by !1$!!in) $p !ema1e &attai1 "eads r mi12%eed d %n. 1onstipation. 6et "e1p in !a11in) as1eep by bre%in) a tea made !r m mint 1ea5es r passi n!1 %er 1ea5es. Ma2e a de& &ti n ! %a1n$t 1ea5es r a2 bar2 r a& rns t treat rin)% rm and at"1eteFs ! t. -atin) ra% day1i1y !1 %ers %i11 a1s "e1p. Ma2e !is" p is n by immersin) %a1n$t "$11s in a sma11 area ! 4$iet %ater. Re1ie5e & nstipati n by drin2in) de& &ti ns !r m dande1i n 1ea5es# r se "ips# r %a1n$t bar2. (1ants &an be y $r a11y as 1 n) as y $ $se t"em &a$ti $s1y. orms or intestinal parasites. Ma2e tinder ! r startin) !ires !r m &attai1 !1$!!# &edar bar2# 1i)"ter 2n t % trees# r "ardened sap !r m resin $s % d trees. Use a tea made !r m &arr t seeds as an anti!1at$1entH $se tea made !r m mint 1ea5es t sett1e t"e st ma&". The key to the sa!e use o! plants is positive identi!ication %"et"er y $ $se t"em as ! d r medi&ine r in & nstr$&tin) s"e1ters r e4$ipment. Usin) m derati n# treat %it" tea made !r m tansy &Tanacetum vulgare' r !r m %i1d &arr t 1ea5es. . +"is p is n ma2es it imp ssib1e ! r t"e !is" t breat"e b$t d esnFt ad5erse1y a!!e&t t"eir edibi1ity. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • Sedatives. M st & mm n1y $sed are t"e stems !r m nett1es and mi12%eeds# y$&&a p1ants# and t"e inner bar2 ! trees 1i2e t"e 1inden.ni n s2ins pr d$&e ye11 %# %a1n$t "$11s pr d$&e br %n# and p 2eberries pr 5ide a p$rp1e dye. App1y !re4$ent1y t t"e site# a1ternatin) %it" e?p s$re t dire&t s$n1i)"t. Ma2e inse&t repe11ents by app1yin) t"e e?pressed @$i&e ! %i1d )ar1i& r ni n t t"e s2in# by p1a&in) sassa!ras 1ea5es in y $r s"e1ter# r by b$rnin) r sm$d)in) &attai1 seed "air !ibers. Us$a11y# y $ %i11 "a5e t b i1 t"e p1ants t )et t"e best res$1ts. (a)e 11< ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +reat t"em %it" e?terna1 %as"es !r m e1m bar2 r a2 bar2 tea# !r m t"e e?pressed @$i&e ! p1antain 1ea5es# r !r m a S 1 m nFs sea1 r t de& &ti n. Anti!ungal washes.S. (emorrhoids. MISCELLANEOUS USES OF PLANTS Ma2e dyes !r m 5ari $s p1ants t & 1 r &1 t"in) r t &am $!1a)e y $r s2in.

+"e p int is t"ere is n ne r$1e t aid in identi!yin) p is n $s p1ants. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1> . Y $ m$st ma2e an e!! rt t 1earn as m$&" ab $t t"em as p ssib1e. • ?oil the plant in water and any poisons will be removed. /ertain p1ants are sa!e t eat in &ertain seas ns r sta)es ! )r %t" and p is n $s in t"er sta)es. S me & mm n mis& n&epti ns ab $t p is n $s p1ants are-• atch the animals and eat what they eat. ALL A#OUT PLANTS It is t y $r bene!it t 1earn as m$&" ab $t p1ants as p ssib1e. -5ery p1ant %i11 5ary in t"e am $nt ! t ?ins it & ntains d$e t di!!erent )r %in) & nditi ns and s1i)"t 5ariati ns in s$bspe&ies. 3"en a pers n eats a part ! a p is n $s p1ant. -5ery pers n "as a di!!erent 1e5e1 ! resistan&e t t ?i& s$bstan&es. Anowing poisonous plants is as important to a survivor as knowing edible plants. F r e?amp1e# p is n "em1 &2 appears 5ery simi1ar t %i1d &arr t.O3 PLANTS POISON (1ants )enera11y p is n by-• Ingestion. S me p1ants t"at are red are p is n $s# b$t n t a11. S me pers ns may be m re sensiti5e t a parti&$1ar p1ant. 3"en a pers n ma2es & nta&t %it" a p is n $s p1ant t"at &a$ses any type ! s2in irritati n r dermatitis.S. (1ant p is nin) ran)es !r m min r irritati n t deat".POISONOUS PLANTS Success!ul use o! plants in a survival situation depends on positive identi!ication. • Absorption or inhalation. Many p is n $s p1ants 1 2 1i2e t"eir edib1e re1ati5es r 1i2e t"er edib1e p1ants. M st ! t"e time t"is statement is tr$e# b$t s me anima1s &an eat p1ants t"at are p is n $s t "$mans. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . F r e?amp1e# t"e 1ea5es ! t"e p 2e%eed are edib1e %"en it !irst starts t )r %# b$t it s n be& mes p is n $s. A & mm n 4$esti n as2ed is# J0 % p is n $s is t"is p1antGJ It is di!!i&$1t t say " % p is n $s p1ants are be&a$se-• • • • S me p1ants re4$ire & nta&t %it" a 1ar)e am $nt ! t"e p1ant be! re n ti&in) any ad5erse rea&ti n %"i1e t"ers %i11 &a$se deat" %it" n1y a sma11 am $nt. • :lants with a red color are poisonous. Y $ &an eat s me p1ants and t"eir !r$its n1y %"en t"ey are ripe. • 1ontact. F r e?amp1e# t"e (a)e 111 ! 2** . Anowing the poisonous plants will help you avoid sustaining in$uries !rom them. i1in) rem 5es many p is ns# b$t n t a11. 3"en a pers n eit"er abs rbs t"e p is n t"r $)" t"e s2in r in"a1es it int t"e respirat ry system.

Many times t"is is n t p ssib1e. • 1ontact with or touching plants unnecessarily. D n t eat any p1ant $n1ess y $ "a5e p siti5e1y identi!ied it !irst.IN/ POISONOUS PLANTS Y $r best p 1i&y is t be ab1e t 1 2 at a p1ant and identi!y it %it" abs 1$te &ertainty and t 2n % its $ses r dan)ers. M$s"r m identi!i&ati n is 5ery di!!i&$1t and m$st be pre&ise# e5en m re s t"an %it" t"er p1ants. • ( is n s$ma&. +% )enera1 types ! m$s"r m p is nin) are )astr intestina1 and &entra1 ner5 $s system. • ( is n i5y. CONTACT . IN/ STION POISONIN/ In)esti n p is nin) &an be 5ery seri $s and & $1d 1ead t deat" 5ery 4$i&21y. S me p1ants & ntain b t" edib1e and p is n $s partsH p tat es and t mat es are & mm n p1ant ! ds# b$t t"eir )reen parts are p is n $s. D n t $se dirt i! b1isters "a5e de5e1 ped. I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# %ipe y $r s2in repeated1y %it" dirt r sand. +"e e!!e&ts may be persistent# spread by s&rat&"in)# and are parti&$1ar1y dan)er $s i! t"ere is & nta&t in r ar $nd t"e eyes. Ne5er b$m a & nta&t p is n $s p1ant be&a$se t"e sm 2e may be as "arm!$1 as t"e p1ant. S me m$s"r ms &a$se deat" 5ery 4$i&21y. ( is n $s p1ants t"at &a$se & nta&t dermatitis are-• / %"a)e. I! y $ "a5e 1itt1e r n 2n %1ed)e ! t"e 1 &a1 5e)etati n# $se t"e r$1es t se1e&t p1ants ! r t"e JUni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est. RUL S 'OR AVOI. S me s $r&es ! in! rmati n ab $t p1ants are pamp"1ets# b 2s# !i1ms# nat$re trai1s# b tani&a1 )ardens# 1 &a1 mar2ets# and 1 &a1 nati5es.S. S me p1ants be& me t ?i& a!ter %i1tin). +"ere is a )reater dan)er ! bein) a!!e&ted %"en 5er"eated and s%eatin). 8eep a 1 ) ! a11 p1ants eaten. Y $ &an %as" %it" a tanni& a&id s 1$ti n and &r$s" and r$b @e%e1%eed n t"e a!!e&ted area t treat p1ant-&a$sed ras"es. A!ter y $ "a5e rem 5ed t"e i1# dry t"e area. S me m$s"r ms "a5e n 2n %n antid te. Y $ &an ma2e tanni& a&id !r m a2 bar2. 6at"er and &r ss-re!eren&e in! rmati n !r m as many s $r&es as p ssib1e# be&a$se many s $r&es %i11 n t & ntain a11 t"e in! rmati n needed. • ( is n a2. +"e i1 &an a1s )et n e4$ipment and t"en in!e&t %" e5er t $&"es t"e e4$ipment. Department ! t"e Army ripe !r$it ! mayapp1e is edib1e# b$t a11 t"er parts and t"e )reen !r$it are p is n $s.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3"en y $ !irst & nta&t t"e p is n $s p1ants r t"e !irst sympt ms appear# try t rem 5e t"e i1 by %as"in) %it" s ap and & 1d %ater. +"e in!e&ti n may be 1 &a1 r it may spread 5er t"e b dy. Sympt ms may ta2e !r m a !e% " $rs t se5era1 days t appear. Spe&i!i& preparati n met" ds ma2e s me p1ants edib1e t"at are p is n $s ra%. Si)ns and sympt ms ! in)esti n p is nin) &an in&1$de na$sea# 5 mitin)# diarr"ea# abd mina1 &ramps# depressed "eartbeat and respirati n# "eada&"es# "a11$&inati ns# dry m $t"# $n& ns&i $sness# & ma# and deat". Y $ &an eat t"e t"in1y s1i&ed and t" r $)"1y dried & rms Cdryin) may ta2e a yearD ! t"e @a&2-in-t"e-p$1pit# b$t t"ey are p is n $s i! n t t" r $)"1y dried. • Ren)as tree. • +r$mpet 5ine. +"e prin&ipa1 t ?in ! t"ese p1ants is $s$a11y an i1 t"at )ets n t"e s2in $p n & nta&t %it" t"e p1ant. R0ATITIS / nta&t dermatitis !r m p1ants %i11 $s$a11y &a$se t"e m st tr $b1e in t"e !ie1d. +"e dirt may brea2 pen t"e b1isters and 1ea5e t"e b dy pen t in!e&ti n. Learn t identi!y and $se p1ants be! re a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n.J Remember# a5 id -• All mushrooms. (a)e 112 ! 2** . Si)ns and sympt ms &an in&1$de b$rnin)# reddenin)# it&"in)# s%e11in)# and b1isters. F r e?amp1e# %"en t"e b1a&2 &"erry starts t %i1t# "ydr &yani& a&id de5e1 ps.

• Lantana. • (an)i.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Ind$&e 5 mitin) by ti&21in) t"e ba&2 ! "is t"r at r by )i5in) "im %arm sa1t%ater# i! "e is & ns&i $s. Di1$te t"e p is n by administerin) 1ar)e 4$antities ! %ater r mi12# i! "e is & ns&i $s. • . • ( is n and %ater "em1 &2s.S.1eander. • Man&"inee1. • ("ysi& n$t. • R sary pea. • Stry&"nine tree. • Deat" &amas. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ s$spe&t p1ant p is nin)# try t rem 5e t"e p is n $s materia1 !r m t"e 5i&timFs m $t" and st ma&" as s n as p ssib1e. • /"inaberry. +"e ! 11 %in) p1ants &an &a$se in)esti n p is nin) i! eatenI • /ast r bean. (a)e 11* ! 2** . See Appendi? / ! r p" t )rap"s and des&ripti ns ! t"ese p1ants.

-5en t"e m st dan)er $s spiders rare1y 2i11# and t"e e!!e&ts ! ti&2-b rne diseases are 5ery s1 %-a&tin). A1t" $)" t"eir 5en m &an be 4$ite pain!$1# bee# %asp# and " rnet stin)s rare1y 2i11 a s$r5i5 r $n1ess "e is a11er)i& t t"at parti&$1ar t ?in. @ou should also avoid large gra*ing animals with horns" hooves" and great weight. <o not attract large predators by leaving !ood lying around your camp. To compensate !or their si*e" nature has given many small animals weapons such as !angs and stingers to de!end themselves. These are the animals you are more likely to meet as you unwittingly move into their habitat" or they slip into your environment unnoticed."&pi"#$ Y $ !ind s& rpi ns C?uthotus spe&iesD in deserts# @$n)1es# and ! rests ! tr pi&a1# s$btr pi&a1# and %arm temperate areas ! t"e % r1d. (owever" each year more victims die !rom bites by relatively small venomous snakes than by large dangerous animals. Y $ &an !ind desert s& rpi ns !r m be1 % sea 1e5e1 in Deat" Va11ey t e1e5ati ns as "i)" as *#6<< meters in t"e Andes.S Y $ re& )ni'e and identi!y inse&ts# e?&ept &entipedes and mi11ipedes# by t"eir si? 1e)s %"i1e ara&"nids "a5e ei)"t. @our actions may prevent une+pected meetings. Smaller animals actually present more o! a threat to the survivor than large animals. In en5ir nments 2n %n t "a5e spiders and s& rpi ns# &"e&2 y $r ! t)ear and &1 t"in) e5ery m rnin). Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 11 . 0 %e5er# t"ere are 2<-&entimeter )iants in t"e @$n)1es ! /entra1 Ameri&a# Ne% 6$inea# and s $t"ern A!ri&a.9 &entimeters. Fata1ities !r m s& rpi n stin)s are rare# b$t t"ey &an &&$r in &"i1dren# t"e e1der1y# (a)e 117 ! 2** .DAN1EROUS ANIMALS Animals rarely are as threatening to the survivor as the rest o! the environment. Cach year" a !ew people are bitten by sharks" mauled by alligators" and attacked by bears. -or this reason" we will pay more attention to smaller and potentially more dangerous creatures.NI. A11 t"ese sma11 &reat$res be& me pests %"en t"ey bite# stin)# r irritate y $. INS CTS AN. 1are!ully survey the scene be!ore entering water or !orests. +"ey are m st1y n &t$rna1 in "abit. <o not let curiosity and carelessness kill or in$ure you. 0 %e5er# in a11 &ases# a5 idan&e is t"e best de!ense.s !ault. Use &are %"en t$rnin) 5er r &2s and 1 )s. /ost o! these incidents were in some way the victim. Aeeping a level head and an awareness o! your surroundings will keep you alive i! you use a !ew simple sa!ety procedures. See Appendi? D ! r e?amp1es ! dan)er $s inse&ts and ara&"nids. S. 1ommon sense tells the survivor to avoid encounters with lions" bears" and other large or dangerous animals. +"eir a5era)e si'e is ab $t 2. +ypi&a11y br %n r b1a&2 in m ist areas# t"ey may be ye11 % r 1i)"t )reen in t"e desert.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. ARAC. A1s &"e&2 y $r beddin) and s"e1ter ! r t"em. Cven more victims die !rom allergic reactions to bee stings. /ove care!ully through their environment.

+"ey may be eit"er d mesti&ated r 1i5in) %i1d in &a5es r " 11 % trees. Nat$re mimi&s t"e s& rpi ns %it" %"ip s& rpi ns r 5ine)ar-r ns. -?&ept ! r 2i11er bees# m st bees tend t be m re d &i1e t"an %asps# " rnets# and ye11 % @a&2ets t"at "a5e sm t" stin)ers and are &apab1e ! repeated atta&2s.S.e &are!$1 ! meat-eatin) ye11 % @a&2ets %"en &1eanin) !is" r )ame. Sympt ms ! t"eir bite are simi1ar t t" se ! t"e %id %Fs--se5ere pain a&& mpanied by s%eatin) and s"i5erin)# %ea2ness# and disab1in) epis des t"at &an 1ast a %ee2. Y $ may !ind t"er bees# s$&" as &arpenter bees# in indi5id$a1 nest " 1es in % d# r in t"e )r $nd# 1i2e b$mb1ebees. +" se %" are a11er)i& t bee 5en m "a5e se5ere rea&ti ns in&1$din) anap"y1a&ti& s" &2# & ma# and deat". As its name s$))ests# t"is spider 1i2es t "ide in dar2 p1a&es. Bee$' *!$p$' !#( H"&#et$ 3e are a11 !ami1iar %it" bees# %asps# and " rnets. Y $ !ind members ! t"e %id % !ami1y &Latrodectus species' % r1d%ide# t" $)" t"e b1a&2 %id % ! N rt" Ameri&a is per"aps t"e m st %e11-2n %n. A !e% 5arieties ! &entipedes "a5e a p is n $s bite# b$t in!e&ti n is t"e )reatest dan)er# as t"eir s"arp &1a%s di) in and p$n&t$re t"e s2in. 3"en t"e bee stin)s y $# it rips its stin)er $t ! its abd men a1 n) %it" t"e 5en m sa&# and t"e bee dies. /"$n2y# %it" s" rt 1e)s# t"ey are ab1e t m 5e easi1y $p and d %n t"e & ne-s"aped %ebs !r m %"i&" t"ey )et t"eir name. I! bitten by a tarant$1a# pain and b1eedin) are &ertain# and in!e&ti n is 1i2e1y.)$ +i&2s are & mm n in t"e tr pi&s and temperate re)i ns. +"e a5era)e pers n "as a re1ati5e1y min r and temp rary rea&ti n t bee stin)s and re& 5ers in a & $p1e ! " $rs %"en t"e pain and "eada&"e ) a%ay. Ti. +i&2s re4$ire a b1 d " st t (a)e 119 ! 2** . F $nd in %armer areas ! t"e % r1d# t"e %id %s are sma11# dar2 spiders %it" !ten " $r)1ass-s"aped %"ite# red# r ran)e sp ts n t"eir abd mens. +"ese are "arm1ess and "a5e a tai1 1i2e a %ire r %"ip# rat"er t"an t"e @ inted tai1 and stin)er ! tr$e s& rpi ns. S& rpi ns resemb1e sma11 1 bsters %it" raised# @ inted tai1s bearin) a stin)er in t"e tip. I! anti"istamine medi&ine is n t a5ai1ab1e and y $ &ann t !ind a s$bstit$te# an a11er)y s$!!erer in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n is in )ra5e dan)er. S me S $t" Ameri&an spe&ies d in@e&t a dan)er $s t ?in# b$t m st simp1y pr d$&e a pain!$1 bite. S me tarant$1as &an be as 1ar)e as a dinner p1ate. +"ey a11 "a5e 1ar)e !an)s ! r &apt$rin) ! d s$&" as birds# mi&e# and 1i'ards. +" $)" rare1y !ata1# its bite &a$ses e?&essi5e tiss$e de)enerati n ar $nd t"e % $nd and &an e5en 1ead t amp$tati n ! t"e di)its i! 1e!t $ntreated. +"ere is ne spe&ies in -$r pe# b$t m st & me !r m tr pi&a1 Ameri&a. +"e 1 &a1 p p$1a&e & nsiders t"em dead1y. Department ! t"e Army and i11 pers ns. F$nne1%ebs CAtra+ spe&iesD are 1ar)e# )ray r br %n A$stra1ian spiders. A5 idan&e is t"e best ta&ti& ! r se1!-pr te&ti n. +"e main dan)er !r m bees is t"eir barbed stin)er 1 &ated n t"eir abd mens. + pre5ent s2in p$n&t$res# br$s" t"em !! in t"e dire&ti n t"ey are tra5e1in)# i! y $ !ind t"em &ra%1in) n y $r s2in. Spi(e&$ Y $ re& )ni'e t"e br %n re&1$se r !idd1eba&2 spider ! N rt" Ameri&a &Lo+osceles reclusa' by a pr minent 5i 1in-s"aped 1i)"t sp t n t"e ba&2 ! its b dy. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A5 id t"em as t"ey m 5e ab $t# $s$a11y at ni)"t# in sear&" ! prey. +i&2s are sma11 r $nd ara&"nids %it" ei)"t 1e)s and &an "a5e eit"er a s !t r "ard b dy. +"ey & me in many 5arieties and "a5e a %ide di5ersity ! "abits and "abitats. 3at&" $t ! r !1 %ers r !r$it %"ere bees may be !eedin). Ce#tipe(e$ !#( Mi%%ipe(e$ /entipedes and mi11ipedes are m st1y sma11 and "arm1ess# a1t" $)" s me tr pi&a1 and desert spe&ies may rea&" 29 &entimeters. +arant$1as are 1ar)e# "airy spiders CTheraphosidae and Lycosa spe&iesD best 2n %n be&a$se t"ey are !ten s 1d in pet st res. Y $ re& )ni'e bees by t"eir "airy and $s$a11y t"i&2 b dy# %"i1e t"e %asps# " rnets# and ye11 % @a&2ets "a5e m re s1ender# near1y "air1ess# b dies. +"ey are !ami1iar t m st ! $s. S me bees# s$&" as " neybees# 1i5e in & 1 nies.

Lee&"es &an &ra%1 int sma11 penin)sH t"ere! re# a5 id &ampin) in t"eir "abitats %"en p ssib1e. 3ear pr per ! t)ear# parti&$1ar1y at ni)"t.S. +a2in) s"e1ter in a &a5e &&$pied by bats# " %e5er# presents t"e m$&" )reater "a'ard ! in"a1in) p %dered bat d$n)# r )$an . 3"ere sna2es are p1enti!$1 and p is n $s spe&ies are present# t"e ris2 ! t"eir bites ne)ates t"eir ! d 5a1$e. /"e&2 y $rse1! !re4$ent1y ! r 1ee&"es. S Lee&"es are b1 d-s$&2in) &reat$res %it" a % rm1i2e appearan&e. +"$s# y $ "a5e time t t" r $)"1y inspe&t y $r b dy ! r t"eir presen&e. A1%ays $se inse&t repe11ents# i! p ssib1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Sna2es &ann t &1 se t"eir eyes. +"ey are sma11# a)i1e !1iers t"at 1and n t"eir s1eepin) 5i&tims# m st1y & %s and " rses# t 1ap a b1 d mea1 a!ter bitin) t"eir 5i&tim. +"eir sa1i5a & ntains an anti& a)$1ant t"at 2eeps t"e b1 d s1 %1y !1 %in) %"i1e t"ey !eed. Department ! t"e Army s$r5i5e and repr d$&e. L C. N rma11y# t"ey %i11 !1ee i! )i5en t"e pp rt$nity. L 2 &1 se1y %"en pi&2in) !r$it r m 5in) ar $nd %ater. +"ere are many bat 5arieties % r1d%ide# b$t y $ !ind t"e tr$e 5ampire bats n1y in /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a. Step nt 1 )s rat"er t"an 5er t"em be! re 1 2in) and m 5in) n. S$r5i5 rs "a5e de5e1 ped se5ere in!e&ti ns !r m % $nds inside t"e t"r at r n se %"en s res !r m s%a11 %ed 1ee&"es be&ame in!e&ted. Use e?treme &are i! y $ m$st 2i11 sna2es ! r ! d r sa!ety. +"e best strate)y is t 1ea5e a11 sna2es a1 ne. POISONOUS SNA* S +"ere are n in!a11ib1e r$1es ! r e?pedient identi!i&ati n ! p is n $s sna2es in t"e !ie1d# be&a$se t"e )$ide1ines a11 re4$ire &1 se bser5ati n r manip$1ati n ! t"e sna2eFs b dy. (a)e 116 ! 2** . /are!$11y &"e&2 beddin)# s"e1ter# and &1 t"in).at d$n) &arries many r)anisms t"at &an &a$se diseases. S%a11 %ed r eaten# 1ee&"es &an be a )reat "a'ard. #ATS Despite t"e 1e)ends# bats C<esmodus spe&iesD are a re1ati5e1y sma11 "a'ard t t"e s$r5i5 r. Y $ !ind t"em in t"e tr pi&s and in temperate ' nes. Y $ %i11 &ertain1y en& $nter t"em %"en s%immin) in in!ested %aters r ma2in) e?pedient %ater &r ssin)s. +"ere! re# y $ &ann t te11 i! t"ey are as1eep. +"ere is 1itt1e y $ &an d t treat t"ese diseases n&e & ntra&ted# b$t time is y $r a11y sin&e t"ey are s1 %-a&tin) ai1ments. -atin) t" r $)"1y & 2ed !1yin) ! ?es r t"er bats presents n dan)er !r m rabies and t"er diseases# b$t a)ain# t"e emp"asis is n t" r $)" & 2in). Sna2es &ann t "ear and y $ &an &&asi na11y s$rprise t"em %"en t"ey are s1eepin) r s$nnin). It is t"ere! re essentia1 t treat %ater !r m 4$esti nab1e s $r&es by b i1in) r $sin) &"emi&a1 %ater treatments. A&& rdin) t m st a$t" rities# it ta2es at 1east 6 " $rs ! atta&"ment t t"e " st ! r t"e ti&2 t transmit t"e disease r)anisms.e &a1m %"en y $ en& $nter serpents. . . Y $ &an a1s !ind t"em %"i1e &1eanin) ! d anima1s# s$&" as t$rt1es# ! $nd in !res" %ater. App1y t"e ! 11 %in) sa!ety r$1es %"en tra5e1in) in areas %"ere t"ere are p is n $s sna2esI • • • • • • • • 3a12 &are!$11y and %at&" %"ere y $ step. D n t tease# m 1est# r "arass sna2es. A1t" $)" it is n t & mm n# %arm# s1eepin) "$man b dies &&asi na11y attra&t sna2es. Y $ &an !ind t"em %"en passin) t"r $)" s%ampy# tr pi&a1 5e)etati n and b )s. S me sna2es# s$&" as mambas# & bras# and b$s"masters# %i11 atta&2 a))ressi5e1y %"en & rnered r )$ardin) a nest. +"ey &an &arry t"er diseases and in!e&ti ns and %i11 bite readi1y %"en "and1ed. Use sti&2s t t$rn 1 )s and r &2s. 8eep y $r tr $sers t$&2ed in y $r b ts.n1y a sma11 per&enta)e ! t"ese bats a&t$a11y &arry rabiesH " %e5er# a5 id any si&2 r in@$red bat. +"is ma2es t"em dan)er $s be&a$se t"ey spread diseases 1i2e Lyme disease# R &2y M $ntain sp tted !e5er# en&ep"a1itis# and t"ers t"at &an $1timate1y be disab1in) r !ata1. .e%are ! ti&2s %"en passin) t"r $)" t"e t"i&2 5e)etati n t"ey &1in) t # %"en &1eanin) " st anima1s ! r ! d# and %"en )at"erin) nat$ra1 materia1s t & nstr$&t a s"e1ter. .

t"er areas & nsidered t be !ree ! p is n $s sna2es are Ne% Aea1and# /$ba# 0aiti# >amai&a# ($ert Ri& # Ire1and# ( 1ynesia# and 0a%aii.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. ms1an) &<ispholidus typus' • / bra &8a$a species' • 6ab n 5iper &?itis gabonica' • 6reen tree pit 5iper &Trimeresurus gramineus' • 0ab$ pit 5iper &Trimeresurus !lavoviridis' • 8rait &?ungarus caeruleus' • Ma1ayan pit 5iper &1allaselasma rhodostoma' • Mamba &<endraspis species' • ($!! adder &?itis arietans' • R"in &er s 5iper &?itis nasicornis' • R$sse11F s 5iper &Vipera russellii' • Sand 5iper &1erastes vipera' • Sa%-s&a1ed 5iper &Cchis carinatus' • 3a)1erFs pit 5iper &Trimeresurus wagleri' POISONOUS SNA7ES OF AUSTRALASIA • Deat" adder &Acanthophis antarcticus' • +aipan &0+yuranus scutellatus' • +i)er sna2e &8otechis scutatus' • Ye11 %-be11ied sea sna2e &:elamis platurus' . 1i%! M"#$te& (a)e 117 ! 2** . Department ! t"e Army See Appendi? . .S +"e 6i1a m nster and t"e Me?i&an beaded 1i'ard are dan)er $s and p is n $s 1i'ards.! r detai1ed des&ripti ns ! t"e sna2es 1isted be1 %. POISONOUS SNA7ES OF THE AMERICAS • • • • • • Ameri&an / pper"ead &Agkistrodon contortri+' .$s"master &Lachesis mutus' / ra1 sna2e &/icrurus !ulvius' / tt nm $t" &Agkistrodon piscivorus' Fer-de-1an&e &?othrops atro+' Ratt1esna2e &1rotalus species' POISONOUS SNA7ES OF EUROPE • / mm n adder &Vipers berus' • (a11asF 5iper &Agkistrodon halys' POISONOUS SNA7ES OF AFRICA AND ASIA • .AN/ ROUS LI8AR.S. S#!)e-F&ee A&e!$ +"e p 1ar re)i ns are !ree ! sna2es d$e t t"eir in" spitab1e en5ir nments.

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

+"e 6i1a m nster &(eloderma suspectrum' ! t"e Ameri&an s $t"%est# in&1$din) Me?i& # is a 1ar)e 1i'ard %it" dar2# "i)"1y te?t$red s2in mar2ed by pin2is" m tt1in). It a5era)es *9 t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t" and "as a t"i&2# st$mpy tai1. Un1i2e1y t bite $n1ess m 1ested# it "as a p is n $s bite.

Me5i.!# Be!(e( Liz!&(
+"e Me?i&an beaded 1i'ard &(eloderma horridum' resemb1es its re1ati5e# t"e 6i1a m nster. It "as m re $ni! rm sp ts rat"er t"an bands ! & 1 r Ct"e 6i1a m nsterD. It a1s is p is n $s and "as a d &i1e nat$re. Y $ !ind it !r m Me?i& t /entra1 Ameri&a.

7"+"(" D&!0"#
+"is )iant 1i'ard &Varanus komodoensis' )r %s t m re t"an * meters in 1en)t" and &an be dan)er $s i! y $ try t &apt$re it. +"is Ind nesian 1i'ard &an %ei)" m re t"an 1*9 2i1 )rams.

,AN/ RS IN RIV RS
/ mm n sense %i11 te11 y $ t a5 id & n!r ntati ns %it" "ipp p tami# a11i)at rs# &r & di1es# and t"er 1ar)e ri5er &reat$res. +"ere are# " %e5er# a !e% sma11er ri5er &reat$res %it" %"i&" y $ s" $1d be &a$ti $s.

E%e.t&i. Ee%
-1e&tri& ee1s &Clectrophorus electricus' may rea&" 2 meters in 1en)t" and 2< &entimeters in diameter. A5 id t"em. +"ey are &apab1e ! )eneratin) $p t 9<< 5 1ts ! e1e&tri&ity in &ertain r)ans in t"eir b dy. +"ey $se t"is s" &2 t st$n prey and enemies. N rma11y# y $ !ind t"ese ee1s in t"e .rin & and Ama' n Ri5er systems in S $t" Ameri&a. +"ey seem t pre!er s"a11 % %aters t"at are m re "i)"1y ?y)enated and pr 5ide m re ! d. +"ey are b$12ier t"an $r nati5e ee1s. +"eir $pper b dy is dar2 )ray r b1a&2# %it" a 1i)"ter-& 1 red $nderbe11y.

Pi&!#h!
(iran"as CSerrasalmo spe&iesD are an t"er "a'ard ! t"e .rin & and Ama' n Ri5er systems# as %e11 as t"e (ara)$ay Ri5er ,asin# %"ere t"ey are nati5e. +"ese !is" 5ary )reat1y in si'e and & 1 rati n# b$t $s$a11y "a5e a & mbinati n ! ran)e $ndersides and dar2 t ps. +"ey "a5e %"ite# ra' r-s"arp teet" t"at are &1ear1y 5isib1e. +"ey may be as 1 n) as 9< &entimeters. Use )reat &are %"en &r ssin) %aters %"ere t"ey 1i5e. ,1 d attra&ts t"em. +"ey are m st dan)er $s in s"a11 % %aters d$rin) t"e dry seas n.

T &t%e
,e &are!$1 %"en "and1in) and &apt$rin) 1ar)e !res"%ater t$rt1es# s$&" as t"e snappin) t$rt1es and s !ts"e11ed t$rt1es ! N rt" Ameri&a and t"e matamata and t"er t$rt1es ! S $t" Ameri&a. A11 ! t"ese t$rt1es %i11 bite in se1!-de!ense and &an amp$tate !in)ers and t es.

P%!t3p $
+"e p1atyp$s r d$&2bi11 &0rnithorhyncus anatinus' is t"e n1y member ! its !ami1y and is easi1y re& )ni'ed. It "as a 1 n) b dy & 5ered %it" )rayis"# s" rt "air# a tai1 1i2e a bea5er# and a bi11 1i2e a d$&2. 6r %in) $p t 6< &entimeters in 1en)t"# it may appear t be a ) d ! d s $r&e# b$t t"is e))-1ayin) mamma1# t"e n1y ne in t"e % r1d# is 5ery dan)er $s. +"e ma1e "as a p is n $s sp$r n ea&" "ind ! t t"at &an in!1i&t intense1y pain!$1 % $nds. Y $ !ind t"e p1atyp$s n1y in A$stra1ia# main1y a1 n) m$d ban2s n %ater%ays.
(a)e 11: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

,AN/ RS IN #AYS AN, STUARI S
In areas %"ere seas and ri5ers & me t )et"er# t"ere are dan)ers ass &iated %it" b t" !res" and sa1t %ater. In s"a11 % sa1t %aters# t"ere are many &reat$res t"at &an in!1i&t pain and &a$se in!e&ti n t de5e1 p. Steppin) n sea $r&"ins# ! r e?amp1e# &an pr d$&e pain and in!e&ti n. 3"en m 5in) ab $t in s"a11 % %ater# %ear s me ! rm ! ! t)ear and s"$!!1e y $r !eet a1 n) t"e b tt m# rat"er t"an pi&2in) $p y $r !eet and steppin). Stin)rays C<asyatidae spe&iesD are a rea1 "a'ard in s"a11 % %aters# espe&ia11y tr pi&a1 %aters. +"e type ! b tt m appears t be irre1e5ant. +"ere is a )reat 5arian&e bet%een spe&ies# b$t a11 "a5e a s"arp spi2e in t"eir tai1 t"at may be 5en m $s and &an &a$se e?treme1y pain!$1 % $nds i! stepped n. A11 rays "a5e a typi&a1 s"ape t"at resemb1es a 2ite. Y $ !ind t"em a1 n) t"e & asts ! t"e Ameri&as# A!ri&a# and A$stra1asia.

SALT3AT R ,AN/ RS
+"ere are se5era1 !is" t"at y $ s" $1d n t "and1e# t $&"# r & nta&t. +"ere are t"ers t"at y $ s" $1d n t eat.

Fi$h D!#0e&" $ t" H!#(%e' T" .h' "& C"#t!.t
+"ere are se5era1 !is" y $ s" $1d n t "and1e# t $&"# r & nta&t t"at are identi!ied be1 %. SharS"ar2s are t"e m st !eared anima1 in t"e sea. Us$a11y# s"ar2 atta&2s &ann t be a5 ided and are & nsidered a&&idents. Y $# as a s$r5i5 r# s" $1d ta2e e5ery pre&a$ti n t a5 id any & nta&t %it" s"ar2s. +"ere are many s"ar2 spe&ies# b$t in )enera1# dan)er $s s"ar2s "a5e %ide m $t"s and 5isib1e teet"# %"i1e re1ati5e1y "arm1ess nes "a5e sma11 m $t"s n t"e $nderside ! t"eir "eads. 0 %e5er# any s"ar2 &an in!1i&t pain!$1 and !ten !ata1 in@$ries# eit"er t"r $)" bites r t"r $)" abrasi ns !r m t"eir r $)" s2in. Ra66it$ish Rabbit!is" r spine! t CSiganidae spe&iesD &&$r main1y n & ra1 ree!s in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans. +"ey "a5e 5ery s"arp# p ssib1y 5en m $s spines in t"eir !ins. 0and1e t"em %it" &are# i! at a11. +"is !is"# 1i2e many t"ers ! t"e dan)er $s !is" in t"is se&ti n# is & nsidered edib1e by nati5e pe p1es %"ere t"e !is" are ! $nd# b$t deat"s &&$r !r m &are1ess "and1in). See2 t"er n np is n $s !is" t eat i! at a11 p ssib1e. Tang +an) r s$r)e n!is" CAcanthuridae spe&iesD a5era)e 2< t 29 &entimeters in 1en)t" and !ten are bea$ti!$11y & 1 red. +"ey are &a11ed s$r)e n!is" be&a$se ! t"e s&a1pe11i2e spines 1 &ated in t"e tai1. +"e % $nds in!1i&ted by t"ese spines &an brin) ab $t deat" t"r $)" in!e&ti n# en5en mati n# and 1 ss ! b1 d# %"i&" may in&identa11y attra&t s"ar2s. Toad$ish + ad!is" C,atra&" ididae spe&iesD &&$r in tr pi&a1 %aters !! t"e 6$1! / ast ! t"e United States and a1 n) b t" & asts ! /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a. +"ese d$11y & 1 red !is" a5era)e 1: t 29 &entimeters in 1en)t". +"ey typi&a11y b$ry t"emse15es in t"e sand t a%ait !is" and t"er prey. +"ey "a5e s"arp# 5ery t ?i& spines a1 n) t"eir ba&2s. Scorpion 'ish ( is n $s s& rpi n !is" r 'ebra !is" CScorpaenidae spe&iesD are m st1y ar $nd ree!s in t"e tr pi&a1 Indian and (a&i!i& &eans and &&asi na11y in t"e Mediterranean and Ae)ean seas. +"ey a5era)e *< t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t". +"eir & 1 rati n is "i)"1y 5ariab1e# !r m reddis" br %n t a1m st p$rp1e r br %nis" ye11 %. +"ey "a5e 1 n)# %a5y !ins and spines and t"eir stin) is intensi5e1y pain!$1. Less p is n $s re1ati5es 1i5e in t"e At1anti& .&ean. Stone$ish St ne!is" CSynance$a spe&iesD are in t"e (a&i!i& and Indian &eans. +"ey &an in@e&t a pain!$1 5en m !r m t"eir d rsa1 spines %"en stepped n r "and1ed &are1ess1y. +"ey are a1m st imp ssib1e t see be&a$se ! t"eir 1$mpy s"ape and drab & 1 rs. +"ey ran)e in si'e $p t 7< &entimeters. 3ee(er 'ish
(a)e 11; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

3ee5er !is" CTrachinidae spe&iesD a5era)e *< &entimeters 1 n). +"ey are "ard t see as t"ey 1ie b$ried in t"e sand !! t"e & asts ! -$r pe# A!ri&a# and t"e Mediterranean. +"eir & 1 r is $s$a11y a d$11 br %n. +"ey "a5e 5en m $s spines n t"e ba&2 and )i11s. See Appendi? F ! r m re detai1s n t"ese 5en m $s !is".

A#i+!%$ !#( Fi$h P"i$"#" $ t" E!t
S$r5i5a1 man$a1s !ten menti n t"at t"e 1i5ers ! p 1ar bears are t ?i& d$e t t"eir "i)" & n&entrati ns ! 5itamin A. F r t"is reas n# %e menti n t"e &"an&e ! deat" a!ter eatin) t"is r)an. An t"er t ?i& meat is t"e !1es" ! t"e "a%2sbi11 t$rt1e. Y $ re& )ni'e t"em by t"eir d %n-t$rned bi11 and ye11 % p 12a d ts n t"eir ne&2 and !r nt !1ippers. +"ey %ei)" m re t"an 279 2i1 )rams and are $n1i2e1y t be &apt$red. Many !is" 1i5in) in ree!s near s" re# r in 1a) ns and est$aries# are p is n $s t eat# t" $)" s me are n1y seas na11y dan)er $s. +"e ma@ rity are tr pi&a1 !is"H " %e5er# be %ary ! eatin) any $nidenti!iab1e !is" %"ere5er y $ are. S me predat ry !is"# s$&" as barra&$da and snapper# may be& me t ?i& i! t"e !is" t"ey !eed n in s"a11 % %aters are p is n $s. +"e m st p is n $s types appear t "a5e parr t1i2e bea2s and "ard s"e11-1i2e s2ins %it" spines and !ten &an in!1ate t"eir b dies 1i2e ba11 ns. 0 %e5er# at &ertain times ! t"e year# indi)en $s p p$1ati ns & nsider t"e p$!!er a de1i&a&y. #lo%$ish ,1 %!is" r p$!!er CTetraodontidae spe&iesD are m re t 1erant ! & 1d %ater. Y $ !ind t"em a1 n) tr pi&a1 and temperate & asts % r1d%ide# e5en in s me ! t"e ri5ers ! S $t"east Asia and A!ri&a. St $t-b died and r $nd# many ! t"ese !is" "a5e s" rt spines and &an in!1ate t"emse15es int a ba11 %"en a1armed r a)itated. +"eir b1 d# 1i5er# and ) nads are s t ?i& t"at as 1itt1e as 2: mi11i)rams C1 $n&eD &an be !ata1. +"ese !is" 5ary in & 1 r and si'e# )r %in) $p t 79 &entimeters in 1en)t". Trigger$ish +"e tri))er!is" C?alistidae spe&iesD &&$r in )reat 5ariety# m st1y in tr pi&a1 seas. +"ey are deep-b died and & mpressed# resemb1in) a sea) in) pan&a2e $p t 6< &entimeters in 1en)t"# %it" 1ar)e and s"arp d rsa1 spines. A5 id t"em a11# as many "a5e p is n $s !1es". #arracuda A1t" $)" m st pe p1e a5 id t"em be&a$se ! t"eir !er &ity# t"ey &&asi na11y eat barra&$da &Sphyraena barracuda'. +"ese predat rs ! m st1y tr pi&a1 seas &an rea&" a1m st 1.9 meters in 1en)t" and "a5e atta&2ed "$mans %it" $t pr 5 &ati n. +"ey &&asi na11y &arry t"e p is n &i)$atera in t"eir !1es"# ma2in) t"em dead1y i! & ns$med. See Appendi? F ! r m re detai1s n t ?i& !is" and t ?i& m 11$s2s.

Othe& D!#0e&" $ Se! C&e!t &e$
+"e b1$e-rin)ed &t p$s# @e11y!is"# and t"e & ne and a$)er s"e11s are t"er dan)er $s sea &reat$res. #lue5Ringed Octopus M st &t pi are e?&e11ent %"en pr per1y prepared. 0 %e5er# t"e b1$erin)ed &t p$s &(apalochlaena lunulata' &an in!1i&t a dead1y bite !r m its parr t1i2e bea2. F rt$nate1y# it is restri&ted t t"e 6reat ,arrier Ree! ! A$stra1ia and is 5ery sma11. It is easi1y re& )ni'ed by its )rayis" %"ite 5era11 & 1 r and irides&ent b1$e rin)s. A$t" rities %arn t"at a11 tr pi&a1 &t p$s spe&ies s" $1d be treated %it" &a$ti n# sin&e many "a5e p is n $s bites# a1t" $)" t"e !1es" is edib1e. 2elly$ish >e11y!is"-re1ated deat"s are rare# b$t t"e stin) t"ey in!1i&t is e?treme1y pain!$1. +"e ( rt$)$ese man- !%ar resemb1es a 1ar)e pin2 r p$rp1e ba11 n !1 atin) n t"e sea. It "as p is n $s tenta&1es "an)in) $p t 12 meters be1 % its b dy. +"e "$)e tenta&1es are a&t$a11y & 1 nies ! stin)in) &e11s. M st 2n %n deat"s !r m @e11y!is" are attrib$ted t t"e man- !-%ar. .t"er @e11y!is" &an in!1i&t 5ery pain!$1 stin)s as %e11. A5 id t"e 1 n) tenta&1es ! any @e11y!is"# e5en t" se %as"ed $p n t"e bea&" and apparent1y dead. Cone Shell +"e s$btr pi&a1 and tr pi&a1 & ne s"e11s C1onidae spe&iesD "a5e a 5en m $s "arp n1i2e barb. A11 are & ne-s"aped and "a5e a !ine net1i2e pattern n t"e s"e11. A membrane may p ssib1y bs&$re t"is & 1 rati n. +"ere are s me 5ery p is n $s & ne s"e11s# e5en s me 1et"a1 nes in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans. A5 id any s"e11 s"aped 1i2e an i&e &ream & ne.
(a)e 12< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Auger Shell +"e a$)er s"e11 r terebra CTerebridae spe&iesD are m$&" 1 n)er and t"inner t"an t"e & ne s"e11s# b$t &an be near1y as dead1y as t"e & ne s"e11s. +"ey are ! $nd in temperate and tr pi&a1 seas. +" se in t"e Indian and (a&i!i& &eans "a5e a m re t ?i& 5en m in t"eir stin)in) barb. D n t eat t"ese snai1s# as t"eir !1es" may be p is n $s.

(a)e 121 ! 2**

Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 12 . As a !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n# t"e &1$b d es n t pr te&t y $ !r m enemy s 1diers. I! y $ &ann t !ind a s$itab1y s"aped st ne# y $ m$st !as"i n a )r 5e r &"anne1 int t"e st ne by a te&"ni4$e 2n %n as pe&2in). @ou might even be without a kni!e. C+amples o! tools and e)uipment that could make your li!e much easier are ropes" rucksacks" clothes" nets" and so on. . Imagine being in a survival situation without any weapons" tools" or e)uipment e+cept your kni!e. A st ne %it" a s1i)"t " $r)1ass s"ape % r2s %e11.FIELD-E?PEDIENT *EAPONS' TOOLS' AND E@UIPMENT As a soldier you know the importance o! proper care and use o! your weapons" tools" and e)uipment. CLU#S Y $ " 1d &1$bs# y $ d n t t"r % t"em. A kni!e is your most valuable tool in a survival situation. + ma2e a %ei)"ted &1$b# !irst !ind a st ne t"at "as a s"ape t"at %i11 a11 % y $ t 1as" it se&$re1y t t"e &1$b. eapons serve a dual purpose. @ou must always keep it sharp and ready to use. It could happen. Its diameter s" $1d !it & m! rtab1y in y $r pa1m# b$t it s" $1d n t be s t"in as t a11 % t"e &1$b t brea2 easi1y $p n impa&t. +"e %ei)"t may be a nat$ra1 %ei)"t# s$&" as a 2n t n t"e % d# r s met"in) added# s$&" as a st ne 1as"ed t t"e &1$b. In survival situations" you may have to !ashion any number and type o! !ield%e+pedient tools and e)uipment to survive. +"ere are t"ree basi& types ! &1$bs. A simp1e &1$b is a sta!! r bran&". Si+p%e C% . It m$st be s" rt en $)" ! r y $ t s%in) easi1y# b$t 1 n) en $)" and str n) en $)" ! r y $ t dama)e %"ate5er y $ "it. @ou would probably !eel helpless" but with the proper knowledge and skills" you can easily improvise needed items. It a1s ser5es t in&rease t"e ! r&e ! a b1 % %it" $t in@$rin) y $rse1!. It &an# " %e5er# e?tend y $r area ! de!ense bey nd y $r !in)ertips. A %ei)"ted &1$b is any simp1e &1$b %it" a %ei)"t n ne end. A weapon can also give you a !eeling o! security and provide you with the ability to hunt on the move. *ei0hte( C% .y repeated1y rappin) t"e &1$b st ne %it" a sma11er "ard st ne# y $ &an )et t"e desired s"ape. @ou use them to obtain and prepare !ood and to provide sel!%de!ense. This is especially true o! your kni!e. (a)e 122 ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. A strai)"t-)rained "ard% d is best i! y $ &an !ind it. +"ey are t"e simp1e# %ei)"ted# and s1in) &1$b.

Fina11y# 1as" t"e st ne t t"e "and1e. See Fi)$re 12-1. +"ere are t"ree te&"ni4$es ! r 1as"in) t"e st ne t t"e "and1eI sp1it "and1e# ! r2ed bran&"# and %rapped "and1e. S%i#0 C% . +"e 1en)t" ! t"e % d s" $1d !ee1 & m! rtab1e in re1ati n t t"e %ei)"t ! t"e st ne.S. +"e te&"ni4$e y $ $se %i11 depend n t"e type ! "and1e y $ &" se. Department ! t"e Army Ne?t# !ind a pie&e ! % d t"at is t"e ri)"t 1en)t" ! r y $. A %ei)"t "an)s : t 1< &entimeters !r m t"e "and1e by a str n)# !1e?ib1e 1as"in) CFi)$re 12-2D. (a)e 12* ! 2** . +"is type ! &1$b b t" e?tends t"e $serFs rea&" and m$1tip1ies t"e ! r&e ! t"e b1 %. A strai)"t-)rained "ard% d is best.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A s1in) &1$b is an t"er type ! %ei)"ted &1$b.

A 2ni!e is a1s an in5a1$ab1e t 1 $sed t & nstr$&t t"er s$r5i5a1 items.S. 3 APONS 8ni5es# spear b1ades# and arr % p ints !a11 $nder t"e &ate) ry ! ed)ed %eap ns./ . A &"ippin) t 1 is a 1i)"t# b1$nt-ed)ed t 1 $sed t brea2 !! sma11 pie&es ! st ne. (a)e 127 ! 2** . +"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"s %i11 dis&$ss t"e ma2in) ! s$&" %eap ns. Y $ &an ma2e a &"ippin) t 1 !r m % d# b ne# r meta1# and a !1a2in) t 1 !r m b ne# ant1er tines# r s !t ir n CFi)$re 12-*D. A !1a2in) t 1 is a p inted t 1 $sed t brea2 !! t"in# !1attened pie&es ! st ne. It &an p$n&t$re# s1as" r &" p# and &$t. + impr 5ise y $ &an $se st ne# b ne# % d# r meta1 t ma2e a 2ni!e r spear b1ade. 7#i/e$ A 2ni!e "as t"ree basi& !$n&ti ns.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army . Stone + ma2e a st ne 2ni!e# y $ %i11 need a s"arp-ed)ed pie&e ! st ne# a &"ippin) t 1# and a !1a2in) t 1. Y $ may !ind y $rse1! %it" $t a 2ni!e r y $ may need an t"er type 2ni!e r a spear.

Se1e&t a s$itab1e pie&e ! "ard% d ! r a "and1e and 1as" t"e b ne sp1inter se&$re1y t it. Las" t"e b1ade t s me type ! "i1t CFi)$re 12-*D. Some stones such as chert or !lint can have very !ine edges. S"atter t"e b ne by "ittin) it %it" a "ea5y b@e&t# s$&" as a r &2. Fr m t"e pie&es# se1e&t a s$itab1e p inted sp1inter. +"en# $sin) t"e !1a2in) t 1# press it a)ainst t"e ed)es. (a)e 129 ! 2** . Use t"e !1a2in) t 1 a1 n) t"e entire 1en)t" ! t"e ed)e y $ need t s"arpen. +ry t ma2e t"e 2ni!e !air1y t"in.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army Start ma2in) t"e 2ni!e by r $)"in) $t t"e desired s"ape n y $r s"arp pie&e ! st ne# $sin) t"e &"ippin) t 1. I! t"e pie&e is t sma11 t "and1e# y $ &an sti11 $se it by addin) a "and1e t it. Lay t"e b ne $p n an t"er "ard b@e&t. +"is a&ti n %i11 &a$se !1a2es t & me !! t"e pp site side ! t"e ed)e# 1ea5in) a ra' r s"arp ed)e.S. First# y $ %i11 need t se1e&t a s$itab1e b ne. #one Y $ &an a1s $se b ne as an e!!e&ti5e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap n. -5ent$a11y# y $ %i11 "a5e a 5ery s"arp &$ttin) ed)e t"at y $ &an $se as a 2ni!e. 8ote9 Use the bone kni!e only to puncture. 8ote9 Stone will make an e+cellent puncturing tool and a good chopping tool but will not hold a !ine edge. It will not hold an edge and it may !lake or break i! used di!!erently. Y $ &an !$rt"er s"ape and s"arpen t"is sp1inter by r$bbin) it n a r $)"-s$r!a&ed r &2. +"e 1ar)er b nes# s$&" as t"e 1e) b ne ! a deer r an t"er medi$m-si'ed anima1# are best.

Meta1# %"en pr per1y desi)ned# &an !$1!i11 a 2ni!eFs t"ree $ses--p$n&t$re# s1i&e r &" p# and &$t. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. + ma2e a 2ni!e $sin) % d# !irst se1e&t a strai)"t-)rained pie&e ! "ard% d t"at is ab $t *< &entimeters 1 n) and 2. Rem 5a1 is d ne t"is %ay be&a$se bamb Fs "ardest part is its $ter 1ayer. +"e 1en)t" s" $1d a11 % y $ t "and1e t"e spear easi1y and e!!e&ti5e1y. Ma2e a 2ni!e "and1e !r m % d# b ne# r t"er materia1 t"at %i11 pr te&t y $r "and.2 t 1. 61ass "as a nat$ra1 ed)e b$t is 1ess d$rab1e ! r "ea5y % r2. Use t"ese n1y t p$n&t$re. . Se1e&t a 1.9 meters 1 n). Se1e&t a pie&e 1. Fas"i n t"e b1ade ab $t 19 &entimeters 1 n). Dependin) n t"e si'e and ri)ina1 s"ape# y $ &an btain a p int and &$ttin) ed)e by r$bbin) t"e meta1 n a r $)"-s$r!a&ed st ne. Atta&" t"e spear b1ade t t"e s"a!t $sin) 1as"in). Department ! t"e Army 3ood Y $ &an ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap ns !r m % d. A&&"2 P"i#t$ (a)e 126 ! 2** . Startin) : t 1< &entimeters ba&2 !r m t"e end $sed as t"e p int# s"a5e d %n t"e end at a 79-de)ree an)1e CFi)$re 12-7D.S. I! p ssib1e# !ire "arden t"e p int. Use a s$itab1e !1at# "ard s$r!a&e as an an5i1 and a sma11er# "arder b@e&t ! st ne r meta1 as a "ammer t "ammer $t t"e ed)e. Remember# t s"arpen t"e ed)es# s"a5e n1y t"e inner p rti n. +"en se1e&t a s"a!t Ca strai)"t sap1in)D 1. +"e drier t"e % d# t"e "arder t"e p int. 61ass is a ) d a1ternati5e t an ed)ed %eap n r t 1# i! n t"er materia1 is a5ai1ab1e. Y $ &an $se t"er materia1s %it" $t addin) a b1ade. First# se1e&t a s$itab1e pie&e ! meta1# ne t"at m st resemb1es t"e desired end pr d$&t. Use n1y t"e strai)"t-)rained p rti ns ! t"e % d. S"a5e it d %n t a p int. D n t $se t"e & re r pit"# as it % $1d ma2e a %ea2 p int.btain a s$itab1e pie&e in t"e same manner as des&ribed ! r b ne. I! t"e meta1 is s !t en $)"# y $ &an "ammer $t ne ed)e %"i1e t"e meta1 is & 1d.9-meter 1 n) strai)"t "ard% d s"a!t and s"a5e ne end t a p int. I! a !ire is p ssib1e# dry t"e b1ade p rti n 5er t"e !ire s1 %1y $nti1 1i)"t1y &"arred.t"er Materia1s Y $ &an $se t"er materia1s t pr d$&e ed)ed %eap ns.amb is t"e n1y % d t"at %i11 " 1d a s$itab1e ed)e. Y $ &an a1s s"arpen p1asti&--i! it is t"i&2 en $)" r "ard en $)"--int a d$rab1e p int ! r p$n&t$rin). 8eep as m$&" ! t"is 1ayer as p ssib1e t ens$re t"e "ardest b1ade p ssib1e. +"e pre!erred met" d is t sp1it t"e "and1e# insert t"e b1ade# t"en %rap r 1as" it ti)"t1y.amb a1s ma2es an e?&e11ent spear. Spe!& B%!(e$ + ma2e spears# $se t"e same pr &ed$res t ma2e t"e b1ade t"at y $ $sed t ma2e a 2ni!e b1ade.9 &entimeters in diameter.9 meters 1 n). A!ter 1i)"t1y &"arrin) t"e b1ade p rti n# s"arpen it n a & arse st ne. 3"en &"arrin) bamb 5er a !ire# &"ar n1y t"e inside % dH d n t &"ar t"e $tside. Meta1 Meta1 is t"e best materia1 t ma2e !ie1d-e?pedient ed)ed %eap ns. I! $sin) bamb and a!ter !as"i nin) t"e b1ade# rem 5e any t"er % d t ma2e t"e b1ade t"inner !r m t"e inside p rti n ! t"e bamb . 0arden t"e p int by a pr &ess 2n %n as !ire "ardenin).2-t 1.2 t 1. . .

Th&"2i#0 Sti.he&3 E.S.ip+e#t Y $ &an ma2e a b % and arr % CFi)$re 12-6D !r m materia1s a5ai1ab1e in y $r s$r5i5a1 area. + ma2e a b %# $se t"e pr &ed$re des&ribed $nder 8i11in) De5i&es in /"apter :. Y $ &an !as"i n b ne 1i2e st ne--by !1a2in). Se1e&t a sti&2 %it" t"e desired an)1e !r m "ea5y "ard% d s$&" as a2.I NT 3 APONS Y $ &an ma2e t"er !ie1d-e?pedient %eap ns s$&" as t"e t"r %in) sti&2# ar&"ery e4$ipment# and t"e b 1a. A&.rin) t"e t"r %in) arm ! r%ard $nti1 it is @$st s1i)"t1y ab 5e and para11e1 t t"e n nt"r %in) arm. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e t"e t"r %in) te&"ni4$e ! r a&&$ra&y and speed. /"ert# !1int# and s"e11type st nes are best ! r arr % p ints. +"is %i11 be t"e t"r %in) sti&2Fs re1ease p int.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. First# a1i)n t"e tar)et by e?tendin) t"e n nt"r %in) arm in 1ine %it" t"e mid t 1 %er se&ti n ! t"e tar)et. (a)e 127 ! 2** . S1 %1y and repeated1y raise t"e t"r %in) arm $p and ba&2 $nti1 t"e t"r %in) sti&2 &r sses t"e ba&2 at ab $t a 79-de)ree an)1e r is in 1ine %it" t"e n nt"r %in) "ip. (ra&ti&e s1 %1y and repeated1y t attain a&&$ra&y. Y $ &an ma2e an e!!i&ient arr % p int $sin) br 2en )1ass. . OT. Department ! t"e Army + ma2e an arr % p int# $se t"e same pr &ed$res ! r ma2in) a st ne 2ni!e b1ade. S"a5e !! t% pp site sides s t"at t"e sti&2 is !1at 1i2e a b meran) CFi)$re 12-9D.) +"e t"r %in) sti&2# & mm n1y 2n %n as t"e rabbit sti&2# is 5ery e!!e&ti5e a)ainst sma11 )ame Cs4$irre1s# &"ipm$n2s# and rabbitsD. +"e rabbit sti&2 itse1! is a b1$nt sti&2# nat$ra11y &$r5ed at ab $t a 79-de)ree an)1e. R 9P .

S. +"ese & rds %i11 %rap ar $nd and imm bi1i'e t"e ! %1 r anima1 t"at y $ "it. Department ! t"e Army 3"i1e it may be re1ati5e1y simp1e t ma2e a b % and arr %# it is n t easy t $se ne.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A1s # a !ie1d-e?pedient b % %i11 n t 1ast 5ery 1 n) be! re y $ "a5e t ma2e a ne% ne. F r t"e time and e!! rt in5 15ed# y $ may %e11 de&ide t $se an t"er type ! !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n. 3"en y $ re1ease t"e b 1a# t"e %ei)"ted & rds %i11 separate. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e $sin) it a 1 n) time t be reas nab1y s$re t"at y $ %i11 "it y $r tar)et. + $se t"e b 1a# " 1d it by t"e &enter 2n t and t%ir1 it ab 5e y $r "ead. Re1ease t"e 2n t s t"at t"e b 1a !1ies t %ard y $r tar)et. B"%! +"e b 1a is an t"er !ie1d-e?pedient %eap n t"at is easy t ma2e CFi)$re 12-7D. (a)e 12: ! 2** . It is espe&ia11y e!!e&ti5e ! r &apt$rin) r$nnin) )ame r 1 %-!1yin) ! %1 in a !1 &2.

! 2** . 3"en y $ $se sine% ! r sma11 1as"in)s# y $ d n t need 2n ts as t"e m istened sine% is sti&2y and it "ardens %"en dry. S a2 t"e ra%"ide ! r 2 t 7 " $rs r $nti1 it is s !t. Y $ d n t need t stret&" it as 1 n) as t"ere are n ! 1ds t trap m ist$re. /$t t"e s2in %"i1e it is dry. Many are 5ery e1ab rate# b$t t" se t"at are simp1e and easy are !ten t"e m st readi1y made in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Ma2e ra%"ide !r m t"e s2ins ! medi$m r 1ar)e )ame. First# p$11 n a 1en)t" ! t"e materia1 t test ! r stren)t". A!ter s2innin) t"e anima1# rem 5e any e?&ess !at and any pie&es ! meat !r m t"e s2in.ti"# . Department ! t"e Army LAS. Smas" t"e dried tend ns s t"at t"ey separate int !ibers.A/ Many materia1s are str n) en $)" ! r $se as 1as"in) and & rda)e. I! t"e 2n t d es n t brea2# t"e materia1 is $sab1e. Y $ &an $se ra%"ide ! r 1ar)er 1as"in) @ bs. Y $ d n t "a5e t rem 5e t"e "air !r m t"e s2in. Y $ &an $se % d# bamb # r pe# p1ant !iber# &1 t"in)# anima1 s2ins# &an5as# and many t"er materia1s t ma2e a pa&2. F r e?amp1e# y $ &an ma2e a & tt n %eb be1t m$&" m re $se!$1 by $nra5e1in) it. (a)e 12. Y $ &an ma2e t"ese materia1s str n)er by braidin) se5era1 strands t )et"er. Y $ &an ma2e sine% !r m t"e tend ns ! 1ar)e )ame# s$&" as deer.S. L!$hi#0 M!te&i!% +"e best nat$ra1 materia1 ! r 1as"in) sma11 b@e&ts is sine%. I! it %it"stands t"is "and1in) and d es n t snap apart# tie an 5er"and 2n t %it" t"e !ibers and )ent1y ti)"ten.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ &an $se t"e 1inden# e1m# "i&2 ry# %"ite a2# m$1berry# &"estn$t# and red and %"ite &edar trees. COR. It %i11 be str n) and d$rab1e %"en it dries.IN/ AN. Fi)$re 12-: s" %s 5ari $s met" ds ! ma2in) & rda)e.e! re ma2in) & rda)e# t"ere are a !e% simp1e tests y $ &an d t determine y $ materia1Fs s$itabi1ity. Ma2e &$ts ab $t 6 mi11imeters %ide. Ne?t# t%ist it bet%een y $r !in)ers and r 11 t"e !ibers t )et"er. Y $ &an s"red and braid p1ant !ibers !r m t"e inner bar2 ! s me trees t ma2e & rd. N!t &!% C"&(!0e Se%e. RUC*SAC* CONSTRUCTION +"e materia1s ! r & nstr$&tin) a r$&2sa&2 r pa&2 are a1m st 1imit1ess. I! y $ need str n)er 1as"in) materia1# y $ &an braid t"e strands. Use it %et# stret&"in) it as m$&" as p ssib1e %"i1e app1yin) it. Dry t"e s2in & mp1ete1y. A!ter y $ ma2e t"e & rd# test it t be s$re it is str n) en $)" ! r y $r p$rp se. +"ere are se5era1 & nstr$&ti n te&"ni4$es ! r r$&2sa&2s. A n$mber ! nat$ra1 and man-made materia1s are a5ai1ab1e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Rem 5e t"e tend ns !r m t"e )ame and dry t"em & mp1ete1y. Start !r m t"e &enter ! t"e "ide and ma2e ne & ntin$ $s &ir&$1ar &$t# % r2in) &1 &2%ise t t"e "ideFs $ter ed)e. M isten t"e !ibers and t%ist t"em int a & ntin$ $s strand. Y $ &an t"en $se t"e strin) ! r t"er p$rp ses C!is"in) 1ine# t"read ! r se%in)# and 1as"in)D.

t"er%ise# y $ m$st !irst ma2e & rda)e. (a)e 1*< ! 2** . + ma2e t"is pa&2# & nstr$&t a s4$are !rame !r m bamb # 1imbs# r sti&2s.) +"is pa&2 is simp1e t ma2e and $se and re1ati5e1y & m! rtab1e t &arry 5er ne s" $1der. Lay a5ai1ab1e s4$are-s"aped materia1# s$&" as p n&" # b1an2et# r &an5as# !1at n t"e )r $nd. R 11 t"e materia1 C%it" t"e itemsD t %ard t"e pp site ed)e and tie b t" ends se&$re1y. Si'e %i11 5ary ! r ea&" pers n and t"e am $nt ! e4$ipment &arried CFi)$re 12-1<D. Y $ &an drape t"e pa&2 5er ne s" $1der %it" a 1ine & nne&tin) t"e t% ends CFi)$re 12-.D.!&e P!.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (ad t"e "ard items.S. .) +"is pa&2 is easy t & nstr$&t i! r pe r & rda)e is a5ai1ab1e. Department ! t"e Army H"&$e$h"e P!. Add e?tra ties a1 n) t"e 1en)t" ! t"e b$nd1e. Lay items n ne ed)e ! t"e materia1. S.

P%!#t Fi.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"ey may e?p1 de %"i1e "eatin) in t"e !ire. 0 %e5er# i! t"ere is an ab$ndan&e ! %i1d1i!e# se1e&t t"e "ides ! 1ar)er anima1s %it" "ea5ier & ats and 1ar)e !at & ntent. 3ear t"e "ide %it" t"e !$r t t"e inside ! r its ins$1atin) !a&t r.e! re disassemb1in) t"e para&"$te# & nsider a11 ! y $r s$r5i5a1 re4$irements and p1an t $se di!!erent p rti ns ! t"e para&"$te a&& rdin)1y. t" man-made materia1s# s$&" as para&"$tes# and nat$ra1 materia1s# s$&" as s2ins and p1ant materia1s# are a5ai1ab1e and !!er si)ni!i&ant pr te&ti n. P!&!.IN/ AN. /attai1 is a mars"1and p1ant ! $nd a1 n) 1a2es# p nds# and t"e ba&2%aters ! ri5ers. B"2%$ Use % d# b ne# " rn# bar2# r t"er simi1ar materia1 t ma2e b %1s. 0 %e5er# t"ese & ntainers %i11 b$rn ab 5e t"e %ater1ine $n1ess y $ 2eep t"em m ist r 2eep t"e !ire 1 %. COO*IN/ AN.e&a$se ! t"ese pests# $se %ater t t" r $)"1y &1ean any s2in btained !r m any anima1. +"e "$s2 !ibers !r m & & n$ts are 5ery ) d ! r %ea5in) r pes and# %"en dried# ma2e e?&e11ent tinder and ins$1ati n. I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# at 1east s"a2e $t t"e s2in t" r $)"1y. . . Department ! t"e Army CLOT.%3 / nsider t"e entire para&"$te assemb1y as a res $r&e. As %it" ra%"ide# 1ay $t t"e s2in# and rem 5e a11 !at and meat.e&$ Se5era1 p1ants are s $r&es ! ins$1ati n !r m & 1d. Rem 5e t"e r &2s as t"ey & 1 and add m re " t r &2s $nti1 y $r ! d is & 2ed. INSULATION Y $ &an $se many materia1s ! r &1 t"in) and ins$1ati n. + ma2e % den b %1s# $se a " 11 %ed $t pie&e ! % d t"at %i11 " 1d y $r ! d and en $)" %ater t & 2 it in. Sin&e t"ey 1i5e in t"e %i1d# anima1s are &arriers ! pests s$&" as ti&2s# 1i&e# and !1eas.S. +"e !$'' n t"e t ps ! t"e sta12s ! rms dead air spa&es and ma2es a ) d d %n-1i2e ins$1ati n %"en p1a&ed bet%een t% pie&es ! materia1. A#i+!% S)i#$ +"e se1e&ti n ! anima1 s2ins in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n %i11 m st !ten be 1imited t %"at y $ mana)e t trap r "$nt. CAUTION D n t $se r &2s %it" air p &2ets# s$&" as 1imest ne and sandst ne.h te A$$e+. D n t $se t"e s2ins ! in!e&ted r diseased anima1s i! at a11 p ssib1e. (a)e 1*1 ! 2** . Dry t"e s2in & mp1ete1y. ATIN/ UT NSILS Many materia1s may be $sed t ma2e e4$ipment ! r t"e & 2in)# eatin)# and st rin) ! ! d. . F r e?amp1e# & nsider s"e1ter re4$irements# need ! r a r$&2sa&2# and s n# in additi n t &1 t"in) r ins$1ati n needs. Use t"e "ind 4$arter @ int areas t ma2e s" es and mittens r s &2s. A se&ti n ! bamb % r2s 5ery %e11# i! y $ &$t $t a se&ti n bet%een t% sea1ed @ ints CFi)$re 12-11D. Y $ &an a1s $se t"is met" d %it" & ntainers made ! bar2 r 1ea5es. Mi12%eed "as p 11en1i2e seeds t"at a&t as ) d ins$1ati n. Use e5ery pie&e ! materia1 and "ard%are# t in&1$de t"e &an py# s$spensi n 1ines# & nne&t r snaps# and para&"$te "arness. 0an) t"e % den & ntainer 5er t"e !ire and add " t r &2s t t"e %ater and ! d.

. *!te& B"tt%e$ Ma2e %ater b tt1es !r m t"e st ma&"s ! 1ar)er anima1s. P"t$ Y $ &an ma2e p ts !r m t$rt1e s"e11s r % d. 8ote9 <o not use those trees that secrete a syrup or resinlike li)uid on the bark or when cut. +"en $se it t "eat ! d and %ater 5er a !1ame CFi)$re 12-11D. (a)e 1*2 ! 2** . + $se t$rt1e s"e11s# !irst t" r $)"1y b i1 t"e $pper p rti n ! t"e s"e11.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Lea5e t"e t p pen# %it" s me means ! !astenin) it &1 sed. Department ! t"e Army CAUTION A sea1ed se&ti n ! bamb %i11 e?p1 de i! "eated be&a$se ! trapped air and %ater in t"e se&ti n.amb is t"e best % d ! r ma2in) & 2in) & ntainers. +" r $)"1y !1$s" t"e st ma&" $t %it" %ater# t"en tie !! t"e b tt m. As des&ribed %it" b %1s# $sin) " t r &2s in a " 11 %ed $t pie&e ! % d is 5ery e!!e&ti5e. N nresin $s % ds in&1$de a2# bir&"# and t"er "ard% d trees. F"&)$' 7#i/e$' !#( Sp""#$ /ar5e ! r2s# 2ni5es# and sp ns !r m n nresin $s % ds s t"at y $ d n t )et a % d resin a!tertaste r d n t taint t"e ! d.

3ater rapid1y e5ap rates# 1ea5in) t"e 1and as barren as be! re# a1t" $)" t"ere may be s" rt-1i5ed 5e)etati n. • Sa1t mars"es. • . A1t" $)" t"eir !1at b tt ms may be s$per!i&ia11y attra&ti5e as assemb1y areas# t"e narr %er 5a11eys &an be e?treme1y dan)er $s t men and materia1 d$e t !1as" !1 din) a!ter rains. +"e !i5e basi& desert terrain types are-• M $ntain $s C0i)" A1tit$deD. @our survival will depend upon your knowledge o! the terrain" basic climatic elements" your ability to cope with these elements" and your will to survive. +"e 6 1an 0ei)"ts is an e?amp1e ! a r &2y p1atea$ desert. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 18 . (a)e 1** ! 2** . R". 0i)" )r $nd may rise )rad$a11y r abr$pt1y !r m !1at areas t se5era1 t" $sand meters ab 5e sea 1e5e1.DESERT SURVIVAL To survive and evade in arid or desert areas" you must understand and prepare !or the environment you will !ace. M st ! t"e in!re4$ent rain!a11 &&$rs n "i)" )r $nd and r$ns !! rapid1y in t"e ! rm ! !1as" !1 ds. / 5er and & n&ea1ment may be 5ery 1imitedH t"ere! re# t"e t"reat ! e?p s$re t t"e enemy remains & nstant. Land na5i)ati n %i11 be e?treme1y di!!i&$1t as t"ere may be 5ery !e% 1andmar2s. I! en $)" %ater enters t"e basin t & mpensate ! r t"e rate ! e5ap rati n# s"a11 % 1a2es may de5e1 p# s$&" as t"e 6reat Sa1t La2e in Uta"# r t"e Dead Sea. T RRAIN M st arid areas "a5e se5era1 types ! terrain. @ou must determine your e)uipment needs" the tactics you will use" and how the environment will a!!ect you and your tactics. +"ere may be steep-%a11ed# er ded 5a11eys# 2n %n as %adis in t"e Midd1e -ast and arr y s r &any ns in t"e United States and Me?i& . M" #t!i# De$e&t$ S&attered ran)es r areas ! barren "i11s r m $ntains separated by dry# !1at basins &"ara&teri'e m $ntain deserts.S. +"ese !1 d%aters er de deep )$11ies and ra5ines and dep sit sand and )ra5e1 ar $nd t"e ed)es ! t"e basins.)3 P%!te! De$e&t$ R &2y p1atea$ deserts "a5e re1ati5e1y s1i)"t re1ie! interspersed %it" e?tensi5e !1at areas %it" 4$antities ! s 1id r br 2en r &2 at r near t"e s$r!a&e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. M st ! t"ese 1a2es "a5e a "i)" sa1t & ntent. • R &2y p1atea$. • Sand d$nes. Desert terrain ma2es m 5ement di!!i&$1t and demandin).r 2en# disse&ted terrain CJ)ebe1J r J%adiJD.

L"2 R!i#6!%% L % rain!a11 is t"e m st b5i $s en5ir nmenta1 !a&t r in an arid area. Department ! t"e Army S!#(3 "& D #e De$e&t$ Sandy r d$ne deserts are e?tensi5e !1at areas & 5ered %it" sand r )ra5e1. • Sandst rms. A ) d e?amp1e is t"e S"at-e1-Arab %ater%ay a1 n) t"e Iran-Ira4 b rder. Air temperat$re &an rise as "i)" as 6< de)rees / C17< de)rees FD d$rin) t"e day. • Sparse 5e)etati n. • Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat. • 0i)" minera1 & ntent near )r $nd s$r!a&e. In arid areas t"ere are sa1t mars"es "$ndreds ! 2i1 meters s4$are. +"e %ater is s sa1ty it is $ndrin2ab1e. . It t%ists and t$rns and ! rms a ma'e1i2e pattern. A5 id sa1t mars"es. A %adi may ran)e !r m * meters %ide and 2 meters deep t se5era1 "$ndred meters %ide and deep. 0eat )ain res$1ts !r m dire&t s$n1i)"t# " t b1 %in) %inds# re!1e&ti5e "eat (a)e 1*7 ! 2** .9 t *< &entimeters t"i&2 ! rms 5er t"e sa1t%ater.S. • 3ide temperat$re ran)e. +"e dire&ti n it ta2es 5aries as m$&" as its %idt" and dept". -?amp1es ! t"is type ! desert in&1$de t"e ed)es ! t"e Sa"ara# t"e empty 4$arter ! t"e Arabian Desert# areas ! /a1i! rnia and Ne% Me?i& # and t"e 8a1a"ari in S $t" A!ri&a. Y $ &ann t s$r5i5e 1 n) %it" $t %ater in "i)" desert temperat$res. S!%t M!&$he$ Sa1t mars"es are !1at# des 1ate areas# s metimes st$dded %it" &1$mps ! )rass b$t de5 id ! t"er 5e)etati n. +"is type ! terrain is "i)"1y & rr si5e t b ts# &1 t"in)# and s2in. • Mira)es. In a desert area t"ere are se5en en5ir nmenta1 !a&t rs t"at y $ m$st & nsider-• L % rain!a11. S me desert areas re&ei5e 1ess t"an 1< &entimeters ! rain ann$a11y# and t"is rain & mes in brie! t rrents t"at 4$i&21y r$n !! t"e )r $nd s$r!a&e. +"ese areas $s$a11y s$pp rt many inse&ts# m st ! %"i&" bite. A &r$st t"at may be 2. (1ant 1i!e may 5ary !r m n ne t s&r$b 5er 2 meters "i)". Rainst rms t"at er de s !t sand and &ar5e $t &any ns ! rm t"is terrain. NVIRON0 NTAL 'ACTORS S$r5i5in) and e5adin) t"e enemy in an arid area depends n %"at y $ 2n % and " % prepared y $ are ! r t"e en5ir nmenta1 & nditi ns y $ %i11 !a&e. +ra!!i&abi1ity in s$&" terrain %i11 depend n t"e %ind%ard r 1ee%ard s1 pe ! t"e d$nes and t"e te?t$re ! t"e sand. B&")e# Te&&!i# A11 arid areas & ntain br 2en r "i)"1y disse&ted terrain. A %adi %i11 )i5e y $ ) d & 5er and & n&ea1ment# b$t d n t try t m 5e t"r $)" it be&a$se it is 5ery di!!i&$1t terrain t ne) tiate. Determine %"at e4$ipment y $ %i11 need# t"e ta&ti&s y $ %i11 $se# and t"e en5ir nmentFs impa&t n t"em and y $.t"er areas# " %e5er# may be !1at ! r *#<<< meters and m re. JF1atJ is a re1ati5e term# as s me areas may & ntain sand d$nes t"at are 5er *<< meters "i)" and 16 t 27 2i1 meters 1 n). +"ey &&$r in arid areas %"ere rain%ater "as & 11e&ted# e5ap rated# and 1e!t 1ar)e dep sits ! a12a1i sa1ts and %ater %it" a "i)" sa1t & n&entrati n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In a desert s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ m$st !irst & nsider J0 % m$&" %ater d I "a5eGJ and J3"ere are t"er %ater s $r&esGJ I#te#$e S #%i0ht !#( He!t Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat are present in a11 arid areas.

F r instan&e# %"en t"e air temperat$re is 7* de)rees / C11< de)rees FD# t"e sand temperat$re may be 6< de)rees / C17< de)rees FD. Department ! t"e Army Ct"e s$nFs rays b $n&in) !! t"e sandD# and & nd$&ti5e "eat !r m dire&t & nta&t %it" t"e desert sand and r &2 CFi)$re 1*-1D. (a)e 1*9 ! 2** . +"e dr p in temperat$re at ni)"t &&$rs rapid1y and %i11 &"i11 a pers n %" 1a&2s %arm &1 t"in) and is $nab1e t m 5e ab $t. Intense s$n1i)"t and "eat in&rease t"e b dyFs need ! r %ater. +"e & 1 e5enin)s and ni)"ts are t"e best times t % r2 r tra5e1. *i(e Te+pe&!t &e R!#0e +emperat$res in arid areas may )et as "i)" as 99 de)rees / d$rin) t"e day and as 1 % as 1< de)rees / d$rin) t"e ni)"t. Radi s and sensiti5e items ! e4$ipment e?p sed t dire&t intense s$n1i)"t %i11 ma1!$n&ti n. Y $ %i11 t"ere! re "a5e tr $b1e !indin) s"e1ter and &am $!1a)in) y $r m 5ements. Sp!&$e Ve0et!ti"# Ve)etati n is sparse in arid areas. +ra5e1 at ni)"t t 1essen y $r $se ! %ater.S. + & nser5e y $r b dy !1$ids and ener)y# y $ %i11 need a s"e1ter t red$&e y $r e?p s$re t t"e "eat ! t"e day.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. D$rin) day1i)"t " $rs 1ar)e areas ! terrain are 5isib1e and easi1y & ntr 11ed by a sma11 pp sin) ! r&e. I! y $r p1an is t rest at ni)"t# y $ %i11 !ind a % 1 s%eater# 1 n) $nder%ear# and a % 1 st &2in) &ap e?treme1y "e1p!$1. +"e temperat$re ! desert sand and r &2 a5era)es 16 t 22 de)rees / C*< t 7< de)rees FD m re t"an t"at ! t"e air.

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

I! tra5e1in) in " sti1e territ ry# ! 11 % t"e prin&ip1es ! desert &am $!1a)e-• 0ide r see2 s"e1ter in dry %as"es C%adisD %it" t"i&2er )r %t"s ! 5e)etati n and & 5er !r m b1i4$e bser5ati n. • Use t"e s"ad %s &ast !r m br$s"# r &2s# r $t&r ppin). +"e temperat$re in s"aded areas %i11 be 11 t 17 de)rees / & 1er t"an t"e air temperat$re. • / 5er b@e&ts t"at %i11 re!1e&t t"e 1i)"t !r m t"e s$n. ,e! re m 5in)# s$r5ey t"e area ! r sites t"at pr 5ide & 5er and & n&ea1ment. Y $ %i11 "a5e tr $b1e estimatin) distan&e. +"e emptiness ! desert terrain &a$ses m st pe p1e t $nderestimate distan&e by a !a&t r ! t"reeI 3"at appears t be 1 2i1 meter a%ay is rea11y * 2i1 meters a%ay.

Hi0h Mi#e&!% C"#te#t
A11 arid re)i ns "a5e areas %"ere t"e s$r!a&e s i1 "as a "i)" minera1 & ntent Cb ra?# sa1t# a12a1i# and 1imeD. Materia1 in & nta&t %it" t"is s i1 %ears $t 4$i&21y# and %ater in t"ese areas is e?treme1y "ard and $ndrin2ab1e. 3ettin) y $r $ni! rm in s$&" %ater t & 1 !! may &a$se a s2in ras". +"e 6reat Sa1t La2e area in Uta" is an e?amp1e ! t"is type ! minera1-1aden %ater and s i1. +"ere is 1itt1e r n p1ant 1i!eH t"ere-! re# s"e1ter is "ard t !ind. A5 id t"ese areas i! p ssib1e.

S!#($t"&+$
Sandst rms Csand-1aden %indsD &&$r !re4$ent1y in m st deserts. +"e JSeistanJ desert %ind in Iran and A!)"anistan b1 %s & nstant1y ! r $p t 12< days. 3it"in Sa$di Arabia# %inds a5era)e *.2 t 7.: 2i1 meters per " $r C2p"D and &an rea&" 112 t 12: 2p" in ear1y a!tern n. -?pe&t ma@ r sandst rms and d$st st rms at 1east n&e a %ee2. +"e )reatest dan)er is )ettin) 1 st in a s%ir1in) %a11 ! sand. 3ear ) ))1es and & 5er y $r m $t" and n se %it" &1 t". I! nat$ra1 s"e1ter is $na5ai1ab1e# mar2 y $r dire&ti n ! tra5e1# 1ie d %n# and sit $t t"e st rm. D$st and %ind-b1 %n sand inter!ere %it" radi transmissi ns. +"ere! re# be ready t $se t"er means ! r si)na1in)# s$&" as pyr te&"ni&s# si)na1 mirr rs# r mar2er pane1s# i! a5ai1ab1e.

Mi&!0e$
Mira)es are pti&a1 p"en mena &a$sed by t"e re!ra&ti n ! 1i)"t t"r $)" "eated air risin) !r m a sandy r st ny s$r!a&e. +"ey &&$r in t"e interi r ! t"e desert ab $t 1< 2i1 meters !r m t"e & ast. +"ey ma2e b@e&ts t"at are 1.9 2i1 meters r m re a%ay appear t m 5e. +"is mira)e e!!e&t ma2es it di!!i&$1t ! r y $ t identi!y an b@e&t !r m a distan&e. It a1s b1$rs distant ran)e & nt $rs s m$&" t"at y $ !ee1 s$rr $nded by a s"eet ! %ater !r m %"i&" e1e5ati ns stand $t as Jis1ands.J +"e mira)e e!!e&t ma2es it "ard ! r a pers n t identi!y tar)ets# estimate ran)e# and see b@e&ts &1ear1y. 0 %e5er# i! y $ &an )et t "i)" )r $nd C* meters r m re ab 5e t"e desert !1 rD# y $ &an )et ab 5e t"e s$per"eated air &1 se t t"e )r $nd and 5er& me t"e mira)e e!!e&t. Mira)es ma2e 1and na5i)ati n di!!i&$1t be&a$se t"ey bs&$re nat$ra1 !eat$res. Y $ &an s$r5ey t"e area at da%n# d$s2# r by m n1i)"t %"en t"ere is 1itt1e 1i2e1i" d ! mira)e. Li)"t 1e5e1s in desert areas are m re intense t"an in t"er )e )rap"i& areas. M n1it ni)"ts are $s$a11y &rysta1 &1ear# %inds die d %n# "a'e and )1are disappear# and 5isibi1ity is e?&e11ent. Y $ &an see 1i)"ts# red !1as"-1i)"ts# and b1a&2 $t 1i)"ts at )reat distan&es. S $nd &arries 5ery !ar. / n5erse1y# d$rin) ni)"ts %it" 1itt1e m n1i)"t# 5isibi1ity is e?treme1y p r. +ra5e1in) is e?treme1y "a'ard $s. Y $ m$st a5 id )ettin) 1 st# !a11in) int ra5ines# r st$mb1in) int enemy p siti ns. M 5ement d$rin) s$&" a ni)"t is pra&ti&a1 n1y i! y $ "a5e a & mpass and "a5e spent t"e day in a s"e1ter# restin)# bser5in) and mem ri'in) t"e terrain# and se1e&tin) y $r r $te.

(a)e 1*6 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

N

, 'OR 3AT R

+"e s$b@e&t ! man and %ater in t"e desert "as )enerated & nsiderab1e interest and & n!$si n sin&e t"e ear1y days ! 3 r1d 3ar II %"en t"e U. S. Army %as preparin) t !i)"t in N rt" A!ri&a. At ne time t"e U. S. Army t" $)"t it & $1d & nditi n men t d %it" 1ess %ater by pr )ressi5e1y red$&in) t"eir %ater s$pp1ies d$rin) trainin). +"ey &a11ed it %ater dis&ip1ine. It &a$sed "$ndreds ! "eat &as$a1ties. A 2ey !a&t r in desert s$r5i5a1 is $nderstandin) t"e re1ati ns"ip bet%een p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity# air temperat$re# and %ater & ns$mpti n. +"e b dy re4$ires a &ertain am $nt ! %ater ! r a &ertain 1e5e1 ! a&ti5ity at a &ertain temperat$re. F r e?amp1e# a pers n per! rmin) "ard % r2 in t"e s$n at 7* de)rees / re4$ires 1; 1iters ! %ater dai1y. La&2 ! t"e re4$ired am $nt ! %ater &a$ses a rapid de&1ine in an indi5id$a1Fs abi1ity t ma2e de&isi ns and t per! rm tas2s e!!i&ient1y. Y $r b dyFs n rma1 temperat$re is *6.; de)rees / C;:.6 de)rees FD. Y $r b dy )ets rid ! e?&ess "eat C& 1s !!D by s%eatin). +"e %armer y $r b dy be& mes--%"et"er &a$sed by % r2# e?er&ise# r air temperat$re--t"e m re y $ s%eat. +"e m re y $ s%eat# t"e m re m ist$re y $ 1 se. S%eatin) is t"e prin&ipa1 &a$se ! %ater 1 ss. I! a pers n st ps s%eatin) d$rin) peri ds ! "i)" air temperat$re and "ea5y % r2 r e?er&ise# "e %i11 4$i&21y de5e1 p "eat str 2e. +"is is an emer)en&y t"at re4$ires immediate medi&a1 attenti n. Fi)$re 1*-2 s" %s dai1y %ater re4$irements ! r 5ari $s 1e5e1s ! % r2. Understandin) " % t"e air temperat$re and y $r p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity a!!e&t y $r %ater re4$irements a11 %s y $ t ta2e meas$res t )et t"e m st !r m y $r %ater s$pp1y. +"ese meas$res are-• Find s"adeK 6et $t ! t"e s$nK • (1a&e s met"in) bet%een y $ and t"e " t )r $nd. • Limit y $r m 5ementsK • / nser5e y $r s%eat. 3ear y $r & mp1ete $ni! rm t in&1$de +-s"irt. R 11 t"e s1ee5es d %n# & 5er y $r "ead# and pr te&t y $r ne&2 %it" a s&ar! r simi1ar item. +"ese steps %i11 pr te&t y $r b dy !r m " t-b1 %in) %inds and t"e dire&t rays ! t"e s$n. Y $r &1 t"in) %i11 abs rb y $r s%eat# 2eepin) it a)ainst y $r s2in s t"at y $ )ain its !$11 & 1in) e!!e&t. ,y stayin) in t"e s"ade 4$iet1y# !$11y &1 t"ed# n t ta12in)# 2eepin) y $r m $t" &1 sed# and breat"in) t"r $)" y $r n se# y $r %ater re4$irement ! r s$r5i5a1 dr ps dramati&a11y. • I! %ater is s&ar&e# d n t eat. F d re4$ires %ater ! r di)esti nH t"ere! re# eatin) ! d %i11 $se %ater t"at y $ need ! r & 1in).

(a)e 1*7 ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

Thirst is not a reliable guide !or your need !or water. A pers n %" $ses t"irst as a )$ide %i11 drin2 n1y t% -t"irds ! "is dai1y %ater re4$irement. + pre5ent t"is J5 1$ntaryJ de"ydrati n# $se t"e ! 11 %in) )$ideI • At temperat$res be1 % *: de)rees /# drin2 <.9 1iter ! %ater e5ery " $r. • At temperat$res ab 5e *: de)rees /# drin2 1 1iter ! %ater e5ery " $r. Drin2in) %ater at re)$1ar inter5a1s "e1ps y $r b dy remain & 1 and de&reases s%eatin). -5en %"en y $r %ater s$pp1y is 1 %# sippin) %ater & nstant1y %i11 2eep y $r b dy & 1er and red$&e %ater 1 ss t"r $)" s%eatin). / nser5e y $r !1$ids by red$&in) a&ti5ity d$rin) t"e "eat ! day. D" #"t rati n y $r %aterK I! y $ try t rati n %ater# y $ stand a ) d &"an&e ! be& min) a "eat &as$a1ty.

. AT CASUALTI S
Y $r &"an&es ! be& min) a "eat &as$a1ty as a s$r5i5 r are )reat# d$e t in@$ry# stress# and 1a&2 ! &riti&a1 items ! e4$ipment. F 11 %in) are t"e ma@ r types ! "eat &as$a1ties and t"eir treatment when little water and no medical help are available.
(a)e 1*: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

He!t C&!+p$
+"e 1 ss ! sa1t d$e t e?&essi5e s%eatin) &a$ses "eat &ramps. Sympt ms are m derate t se5ere m$s&1e &ramps in 1e)s# arms# r abd men. +"ese sympt ms may start as a mi1d m$s&$1ar dis& m! rt. Y $ s" $1d n % st p a11 a&ti5ity# )et in t"e s"ade# and drin2 %ater. I! y $ !ai1 t re& )ni'e t"e ear1y sympt ms and & ntin$e y $r p"ysi&a1 a&ti5ity# y $ %i11 "a5e se5ere m$s&1e &ramps and pain. +reat as ! r "eat e?"a$sti n# be1 %.

He!t E5h! $ti"#
A 1ar)e 1 ss ! b dy %ater and sa1t &a$ses "eat e?"a$sti n. Sympt ms are "eada&"e# menta1 & n!$si n# irritabi1ity# e?&essi5e s%eatin)# %ea2ness# di''iness# &ramps# and pa1e# m ist# & 1d C&1ammyD s2in. Immediate1y )et t"e patient $nder s"ade. Ma2e "im 1ie n a stret&"er r simi1ar item ab $t 79 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. L sen "is &1 t"in). Sprin21e "im %it" %ater and !an "im. 0a5e "im drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater e5ery * min$tes. -ns$re "e stays 4$iet and rests.

He!t St&")e
A se5ere "eat in@$ry &a$sed by e?treme 1 ss ! %ater and sa1t and t"e b dyFs inabi1ity t & 1 itse1!. +"e patient may die i! n t & 1ed immediate1y. Sympt ms are t"e 1a&2 ! s%eat# " t and dry s2in# "eada&"e# di''iness# !ast p$1se# na$sea and 5 mitin)# and menta1 & n!$si n 1eadin) t $n& ns&i $sness. Immediate1y )et t"e pers n t s"ade. Lay "im n a stret&"er r simi1ar item ab $t 79 &entimeters !! t"e )r $nd. L sen "is &1 t"in). ( $r %ater n "im Cit d es n t matter i! t"e %ater is p 11$ted r bra&2is"D and !an "im. Massa)e "is arms# 1e)s# and b dy. I! "e re)ains & ns&i $sness# 1et "im drin2 sma11 am $nts ! %ater e5ery * min$tes.

PR CAUTIONS
In a desert s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n sit$ati n# it is $n1i2e1y t"at y $ %i11 "a5e a medi& r medi&a1 s$pp1ies %it" y $ t treat "eat in@$ries. +"ere! re# ta2e e?tra &are t a5 id "eat in@$ries. Rest d$rin) t"e day. 3 r2 d$rin) t"e & 1 e5enin)s and ni)"ts. Use a b$ddy system t %at&" ! r "eat in@$ry# and bser5e t"e ! 11 %in) )$ide1inesI • Ma2e s$re y $ te11 s me ne %"ere y $ are ) in) and %"en y $ %i11 ret$rn. • 3at&" ! r si)ns ! "eat in@$ry. I! s me ne & mp1ains ! tiredness r %anders a%ay !r m t"e )r $p# "e may be a "eat &as$a1ty. • Drin2 %ater at 1east n&e an " $r. • 6et in t"e s"ade %"en restin)H d n t 1ie dire&t1y n t"e )r $nd. • D n t ta2e !! y $r s"irt and % r2 d$rin) t"e day. • /"e&2 t"e & 1 r ! y $r $rine. A 1i)"t & 1 r means y $ are drin2in) en $)" %ater# a dar2 & 1 r means y $ need t drin2 m re.

, S RT .A8AR,S
+"ere are se5era1 "a'ards $ni4$e t desert s$r5i5a1. +"ese in&1$de inse&ts# sna2es# t" rned p1ants and &a&ti# & ntaminated %ater# s$nb$rn# eye irritati n# and &1imati& stress. Inse&ts ! a1m st e5ery type ab $nd in t"e desert. Man# as a s $r&e ! %ater and ! d# attra&ts 1i&e# mites# %asps# and !1ies. +"ey are e?treme1y $np1easant and may &arry diseases. .1d b$i1din)s# r$ins# and &a5es are !a5 rite "abitats ! spiders# s& rpi ns# &entipedes# 1i&e# and mites. +"ese areas pr 5ide pr te&ti n !r m t"e e1ements and a1s attra&t t"er %i1d-1i!e. +"ere! re# ta2e e?tra &are %"en stayin) in t"ese areas. 3ear )1 5es at a11 times in t"e desert. D n t p1a&e y $r "ands any%"ere %it" $t !irst 1 2in) t see %"at is t"ere. Vis$a11y inspe&t an area be! re sittin) r 1yin) d %n. 3"en y $ )et $p# s"a2e $t and inspe&t y $r b ts and &1 t"in). A11 desert areas "a5e sna2es. +"ey in"abit r$ins# nati5e 5i11a)es# )arba)e d$mps# &a5es# and nat$ra1 r &2 $t&r ppin) t"at !!er s"ade. Ne5er ) bare! t r %a12 t"r $)" t"ese areas %it" $t &are!$11y inspe&tin) t"em ! r sna2es. (ay attenti n t %"ere y $ p1a&e y $r
(a)e 1*; ! 2**

.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. M st sna2ebites res$1t !r m steppin) n r "and1in) sna2es. A5 id t"em. Department ! t"e Army !eet and "ands.S.n&e y $ see a sna2e# )i5e it a %ide bert". (a)e 17< ! 2** .

+"e tr pi&a1 area may be any ! t"e ! 11 %in)I • Rain ! rests. +"e rain "as a & 1in) e!!e&t# b$t %"en it st ps# t"e temperat$re s ars.S. (a)e 171 ! 2** . Actually" over hal! o! the land in the tropics is cultivated in some way. <o not be a!raid o! being alone in the $ungle# !ear will lead to panic.&ean brin) t"e m ns n# b$t it is dry %"en t"e %ind b1 %s !r m t"e 1andmass ! /"ina. +"e dry seas n "as rain n&e a day and t"e m ns n "as & ntin$ $s rain. At a1tit$des 5er 1#9<< meters# i&e !ten ! rms at ni)"t. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 19 .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0$rri&anes# &y&1 nes# and typ" ns de5e1 p 5er t"e sea and r$s" in1and# &a$sin) tida1 %a5es and de5astati n as" re. 8ature will provide water" !ood" and plenty o! materials to build shelters. Cverything in the $ungle thrives" including disease germs and parasites that breed at an alarming rate. >$st as s$dden1y# t"e rain st ps. Vi 1ent st rms may &&$r# $s$a11y t %ard t"e end ! t"e s$mmer m nt"s. • S&r$b and t" rn ! rests. A knowledge o! !ield skills" the ability to improvise" and the application o! the principles o! survival will increase the prospects o! survival. At 1 % a1tit$des# temperat$re 5ariati n is se1d m 1ess t"an 1< de)rees / and is !ten m re t"an *9 de)rees /. In &" sin) &ampsites# ma2e s$re y $ are ab 5e any p tentia1 !1 din). • Semie5er)reen seas na1 and m ns n ! rests. (owever" it will take an outsider some time to get used to the conditions and the nonstop activity o! tropical survival. 2UN/L TYP S +"ere is n standard @$n)1e. TROPICAL 3 AT. Indigenous peoples have lived !or millennia by hunting and gathering. S$dden rain beats n t"e tree &an py# t$rnin) tri&21es int ra)in) t rrents and &a$sin) ri5ers t rise. :anic will lead to e+haustion and decrease your chance o! survival. • Se& ndary @$n)1es. R 0i)" temperat$res# "ea5y rain!a11# and ppressi5e "$midity &"ara&teri'e e4$at ria1 and s$btr pi&a1 re)i ns# e?&ept at "i)" a1tit$des.TROPICAL SURVIVAL /ost people think o! the tropics as a huge and !orbidding tropical rain !orest through which every step taken must be hacked out" and where every inch o! the way is crawling with danger. In S $t"east Asia# %inds !r m t"e Indian . Dar2ness !a11s 4$i&21y and daybrea2 is @$st as s$dden. +r pi&a1 day and ni)"t are ! e4$a1 1en)t". (re5ai1in) %inds 5ary bet%een %inter and s$mmer. Rain!a11 is "ea5y# !ten %it" t"$nder and 1i)"tnin).

.9 meters ! rain !a11 e5en1y t"r $)" $t t"e year. +"ese &"ara&teristi&s are-• +"eir trees !a11 int t% st ries ! tree strata.9 meter. 3"ere $nt $&"ed by man# @$n)1e trees rise !r m b$ttress r ts t "ei)"ts ! 6< meters. Y $ !ind t"ese ! rests a&r ss t"e e4$at r in t"e Ama' n and / n) basins# parts ! Ind nesia# and se5era1 (a&i!i& is1ands. • +"e diameter ! t"e trees a5era)es <. Fres"%ater s%amps. • +"eir 1ea5es !a11 d$rin) a seas na1 dr $)"t. (r 1i!i& )r %t"# %"ere s$n1i)"t penetrates t t"e @$n)1e !1 r# typi!ies t"is type ! ! rest. Se+ie/e&0&ee# Se!$"#!% !#( M"#$""# F"&e$t$ +"e &"ara&teristi&s ! t"e Ameri&an and A!ri&an semie5er)reen seas na1 ! rests & rresp nd %it" t" se ! t"e Asian m ns n ! rests. Up t *.e1 % t"em# sma11er trees pr d$&e a &an py s t"i&2 t"at 1itt1e 1i)"t rea&"es t"e @$n)1e !1 r. Seed1in)s str$))1e beneat" t"em t rea&" 1i)"t# and masses ! 5ines and 1ianas t%ine $p t t"e s$n. 3"en aband ned# tan)1ed masses ! 5e)etati n 4$i&21y re&1aim t"ese &$1ti5ated areas. . -?&ept ! r t"e sa) # nipa# and & & n$t pa1ms# t"e same edib1e p1ants )r % in t"ese areas as in t"e tr pi&a1 rain ! rests. (a)e 172 ! 2** .e&a$se ! t"e 1a&2 ! 1i)"t n t"e @$n)1e !1 r# t"ere is 1itt1e $nder)r %t" t "amper m 5ement# b$t dense )r %t" 1imits 5isibi1ity t ab $t 9< meters.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. T&"pi. Y $ &an !ten !ind &$1ti5ated ! d p1ants am n) t"is 5e)etati n.!% R!i# F"&e$t$ +"e &1imate 5aries 1itt1e in rain ! rests."#(!&3 A #0%e$ Se& ndary @$n)1e is 5ery simi1ar t rain ! rest. +"ere are !i5e 1ayers ! 5e)etati n in t"is @$n)1e CFi)$re 17-1D. Department ! t"e Army • • • Sa5annas. Y $ &an easi1y 1 se y $r sense ! dire&ti n in t"is @$n)1e# and it is e?treme1y "ard ! r air&ra!t t see y $. +" se in t"e $pper st ry a5era)e 1: t 27 metersH t" se in t"e 1 %er st ry a5era)e 7 t 1* meters. S$&" )r %t" "appens main1y a1 n) ri5er ban2s# n @$n)1e !rin)es# and %"ere man "as &1eared rain ! rest. Ferns# m sses# and "erba&e $s p1ants p$s" t"r $)" a t"i&2 &arpet ! 1ea5es# and a )reat 5ariety ! !$n)i )r % n 1ea5es and !a11en tree tr$n2s. Sa1t%ater s%amps. +emperat$res ran)e !r m ab $t *2 de)rees / in t"e day t 21 de)rees / at ni)"t.S. Se.

In A!ri&a# y $ !ind t"em in t"e s $t"ern Sa"ara Cn rt"-&entra1 /amer n and 6ab n and s $t"ern S$danD# . • It )r %s s&attered trees t"at $s$a11y appear st$nted and )nar1ed 1i2e app1e trees. Visibi1ity in t"is type ! s%amp is p r# and m 5ement is e?treme1y di!!i&$1t. Department ! t"e Army Y $ !ind t"ese ! rests in p rti ns ! / 1$mbia and Vene'$e1a and t"e Ama' n basin in S $t" Ameri&aH in p rti ns ! s $t"east & asta1 8enya# +an'ania# and M 'ambi4$e in A!ri&aH in N rt"eastern India# m$&" ! . F&e$h2!te& S2!+p$ Y $ !ind !res"%ater s%amps in 1 %-1yin) in1and areas. S!%t2!te& S2!+p$ Sa1t%ater s%amps are & mm n in & asta1 areas s$b@e&t t tida1 !1 din). D$rin) t"e rainy seas n# p1ants are & nsiderab1y m re ab$ndant. • (1ants %it" t" rns pred minate. Y $ !ind tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rests n t"e %est & ast ! Me?i& # Y$&atan penins$1a# Vene'$e1a# .ra'i1# and t"e 6$ianas in S $t" Ameri&a. S metimes# streams t"at y $ &an ra!t ! rm &"anne1s# b$t y $ $s$a11y m$st tra5e1 n ! t t"r $)" t"is s%amp.& . • +"e )r $nd is bare e?&ept ! r a !e% t$!ted p1ants in b$n&"esH )rasses are $n& mm n. Y $ !ind sa5annas in parts ! Vene'$e1a# . • It 1 2s 1i2e a br ad# )rassy mead %# %it" trees spa&ed at %ide inter5a1s.!% S. I! t"ere are %ater &"anne1s t"r $)" it# y $ may be ab1e t $se a ra!t t es&ape. +ides in sa1t%ater s%amps &an 5ary as m$&" as 12 meters. Man)r 5e trees &an rea&" "ei)"ts ! 12 meters# and t"eir tan)1ed r ts are an bsta&1e t m 5ement.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. T&"pi. 3it"in t"e tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rest areas# y $ %i11 !ind it "ard t btain ! d p1ants d$rin) t"e dry seas n.rin & and Ama' n ri5ers and ri5ers ! 6$yana & nsist ! m$d and trees t"at !!er 1itt1e s"ade. T&"pi. (a1ms a1s &&$r n sa5annas. -5eryt"in) in a sa1t%ater s%amp may appear " sti1e t y $# !r m 1ee&"es and inse&ts t &r & di1es and &aimans.$rma# +"ai1and# Ind &"ina# >a5a# and parts ! t"er Ind nesian is1ands in Asia.S. • It !re4$ent1y "as red s i1.!% S!/!##!$ 6enera1 &"ara&teristi&s ! t"e sa5anna are-• It is ! $nd %it"in t"e tr pi&a1 ' nes in S $t" Ameri&a and A!ri&a. A5 id t"is s%amp a1t )et"er i! y $ &an. (a)e 17* ! 2** . +"e s%amps at t"e m $t"s ! t"e . Man)r 5e trees t"ri5e in t"ese s%amps.enin# + ) # m st ! Ni)eria# n rt"eastern Aaire# n rt"ern U)anda# %estern 8enya# part ! Ma1a%i# part ! +an'ania# s $t"ern Aimbab%e# M 'ambi4$e# and %estern Mada)as&ar. Y $ !ind sa1t%ater s%amps in 3est A!ri&a# Mada)as&ar# Ma1aysia# t"e (a&i!i& is1ands# /entra1 and S $t" Ameri&a# and at t"e m $t" ! t"e 6an)es Ri5er in India. A5 id t"e dan)er $s anima1s in t"is s%amp. !#( Th"&# F"&e$t$ +"e &"ie! &"ara&teristi&s ! tr pi&a1 s&r$b and t" rn ! rests are-• +"ere is a de!inite dry seas n. • +rees are 1ea!1ess d$rin) t"e dry seas n. • Fires &&$r !re4$ent1y.ra'i1H n t"e n rt"%est & ast and &entra1 parts ! A!ri&aH and in Asia# in +$r2estan and India. +"eir &"ara&teristi&s are masses ! t" rny $nder)r %t"# reeds# )rasses# and &&asi na1 s" rt pa1ms t"at red$&e 5isibi1ity and ma2e tra5e1 di!!i&$1t.

M 5e in ne dire&ti n# b$t n t ne&essari1y in a strai)"t 1ine. (r mpt1y treat any % $nd# n matter " % min r. 8n % %"at dire&ti n y $ are ta2in). 3i1d1i!e is ab$ndant in t"ese s%amps. (a)e 177 ! 2** . Us$a11y# t"e ri)"t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. +"ese trai1s %ind and &r ss# b$t !re4$ent1y 1ead t %ater r &1earin)s. Use t"ese trai1s i! t"ey 1ead in y $r desired dire&ti n ! tra5e1. + m 5e easi1y# y $ m$st de5e1 p J@$n)1e eye#J t"at is# y $ s" $1d n t & n&entrate n t"e pattern ! b$s"es and trees t y $r immediate !r nt.!-%ay is &1ear en $)" t a11 % easy tra5e1. +a2e st &2 ! %ater s$pp1ies and e4$ipment. Y $ m$st ! &$s n t"e @$n)1e !$rt"er $t and !ind nat$ra1 brea2s in t"e ! 1ia)e. I! y $ d n t "a5e a & mpass# $se a !ie1d-e?pedient dire&ti n !indin) met" d.IAT CONSI. TRAV L T. Many @$n)1e and ! rest anima1s ! 11 % )ame trai1s. 3"en tra5e1in) a1 n) t"ese 1ines# be &are!$1 as y $ appr a&" trans! rmer and re1ay stati ns. I00 . +$rn y $r s" $1ders# s"i!t y $r "ips# bend y $r b dy# and s" rten r 1en)t"en y $r stride as ne&essary t s1ide bet%een t"e $nder)r %t". RATIONS +"ere is 1ess 1i2e1i" d ! y $r res&$e !r m beneat" a dense @$n)1e &an py t"an in t"er s$r5i5a1 sit$ati ns. +"is a&ti n may re5ea1 )ame trai1s t"at y $ &an ! 11 %. I! $sin) a ma&"ete# str 2e $p%ard %"en &$ttin) 5ines t red$&e n ise be&a$se s $nd &arries 1 n) distan&es in t"e @$n)1e. Department ! t"e Army +"ere are !ten is1ands t"at d t t"ese s%amps# a11 %in) y $ t )et $t ! t"e %ater. D n t b1$nder t"r $)" it sin&e y $ %i11 )et many &$ts and s&rat&"es. Use y $r & mpass. A1%ays %ear 1 n) s1ee5es t a5 id &$ts and s&rat&"es.ROU/. I! y $ are t"e 5i&tim ! an air&ra!t &ras"# t"e m st imp rtant items t ta2e %it" y $ !r m t"e &ras" site are a ma&"ete# a & mpass# a !irst aid 2it# and a para&"$te r t"er materia1 ! r $se as m s4$it nettin) and s"e1ter. TRAVEL TIPS (inp int y $r initia1 1 &ati n as a&&$rate1y as p ssib1e t determine a )enera1 1ine ! tra5e1 t sa!ety. Ma1aria-&arryin) m s4$it es and t"er inse&ts are immediate dan)ers# s pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst bites. St p peri di&a11y t 1isten and ta2e y $r bearin)s. 2UN/L AR AS 3it" pra&ti&e# m 5ement t"r $)" t"i&2 $nder)r %t" and @$n)1e &an be d ne e!!i&ient1y. Stay a1ert and m 5e s1 %1y and steadi1y t"r $)" dense ! rest r @$n)1e. +a2e s"e1ter !r m tr pi&a1 rain# s$n# and inse&ts. In enemy territ ry# t"ey may be )$arded. In many & $ntries# e1e&tri& and te1ep" ne 1ines r$n ! r mi1es t"r $)" sparse1y in"abited areas. Y $ %i11 pr bab1y "a5e t tra5e1 t rea&" sa!ety. A5 id bsta&1es. D" #"t )rasp at br$s" r 5ines %"en &1imbin) s1 pesH t"ey may "a5e irritatin) spines r s"arp t" rns. L 2 through t"e @$n)1e# n t at it. D n t 1ea5e t"e &ras" area %it" $t &are!$11y b1a'in) r mar2in) y $r r $te. Usin) a sti&2 %i11 a1s "e1p dis1 d)e bitin) ants# spiders# r sna2es. Use a sti&2 t part t"e 5e)etati n. In t"e tr pi&s# e5en t"e sma11est s&rat&" &an 4$i&21y be& me dan)er $s1y in!e&ted. St p and st p d %n &&asi na11y t 1 2 a1 n) t"e @$n)1e !1 r. In enemy territ ry# ta2e ad5anta)e ! nat$ra1 & 5er and & n&ea1ment. Use a ma&"ete t &$t t"r $)" dense 5e)etati n# b$t d n t &$t $nne&essari1y r y $ %i11 4$i&21y %ear y $rse1! $t. M 5e sm t"1y t"r $)" t"e @$n)1e.

Inse&ts &an be ) d indi&at rs ! %ater# espe&ia11y bees. S me may e5en "a5e a p is n $s sap. +"ey drin2 at da%n and d$s2. / n5er)in) )ame trai1s !ten 1ead t %ater. 3ater %i11 seep int t"e " 1e. Roots In A$stra1ia# t"e %ater tree# desert a2# and b1 d% d "a5e r ts near t"e s$r!a&e. A & 1$mn ! ants mar&"in) $p a tree is ) in) t a sma11 reser5 ir ! trapped %ater. Department ! t"e Army 3AT R PROCUR 0 NT -5en t" $)" %ater is ab$ndant in m st tr pi&a1 en5ir nments# y $ may# as a s$r5i5 r# "a5e tr $b1e !indin) it. (re!erab1y# $se s me type ! & ntainer. I! y $ d !ind %ater# it may n t be sa!e t drin2. (ry t"ese r ts $t ! t"e )r $nd and &$t t"em int *<-&entimeter 1en)t"s. Use t"e pr &ed$re des&ribed in /"apter 6 t btain %ater !r m a 5ine. 3"en t"ey !1y strai)"t and 1 %# t"ey are "eadin) ! r %ater. A#i+!%$ !$ Si0#$ "6 *!te& Anima1s &an !ten 1ead y $ t %ater. +"ey !1y 1 n) distan&es %it" $t st ppin). . Y $ m$st 1earn by e?perien&e %"i&" are t"e %ater-bearin) 5ines# be&a$se n t a11 "a5e drin2ab1e %ater. S me 5ines &a$se a s2in irritati n n & nta&tH t"ere! re 1et t"e 1i4$id drip int y $r m $t"# rat"er t"an p$t y $r m $t" t t"e 5ine. Ants need %ater. S&r$b r r &2s may & 5er it t red$&e e5ap rati n. Pal" Trees +"e b$ri# & & n$t# and nipa pa1ms a11 & ntain a s$)ary !1$id t"at is 5ery ) d t drin2.!ten y $ &an )et near1y &1ear %ater !r m m$ddy streams r 1a2es by di))in) a " 1e in sandy s i1 ab $t 1 meter !r m t"e ban2.S. Y $ m$st p$ri!y any %ater btained in t"is manner. *!te& F&"+ P%!#t$ (1ants s$&" as 5ines# r ts# and pa1m trees are ) d s $r&es ! %ater. Mi12 !r m & & n$ts "as a 1ar)e %ater & ntent# b$t may (a)e 179 ! 2** . S me ! t"e many s $r&es are 5ines# r ts# pa1m trees# and & ndensati n.n )r %n trees ! t"er spe&ies# y $ may "a5e t &1imb t"em t rea&" a !1 %erin) sta12. N np is n $s 5ines %i11 )i5e a &1ear !1$id. 6rain eaters# s$&" as !in&"es and pi)e ns# are ne5er !ar !r m %ater. Nipa pa1m s" ts )r % !r m t"e base# s t"at y $ &an % r2 at )r $nd 1e5e1. . 6ra'in) anima1s s$&" as deer# are $s$a11y ne5er !ar !r m %ater and $s$a11y drin2 at da%n and d$s2. M st anima1s re4$ire %ater re)$1ar1y. + btain t"e 1i4$id# bend a !1 %erin) sta12 ! ne ! t"ese pa1ms d %n%ard# and &$t !! its tip.ees se1d m ran)e m re t"an 6 2i1 meters !r m t"eir nests r "i5es. . Rep1a&e t"e & 5er a!ter $se. Vines Vines %it" r $)" bar2 and s" ts ab $t 9 &entimeters t"i&2 &an be a $se!$1 s $r&e ! %ater. 3"en ret$rnin) !r m %ater# t"ey are !$11 and %i11 !1y !r m tree t tree# restin) !re4$ent1y.irds &an s metimes a1s 1ead y $ t %ater. Rem 5e t"e bar2 and s$&2 $t t"e m ist$re# r s"a5e t"e r t t a p$1p and s4$ee'e it 5er y $r m $t".FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0a%2s# ea)1es# and t"er birds ! prey )et 1i4$ids !r m t"eir 5i&timsH y $ &ann t $se t"em as a %ater indi&at r. I! y $ &$t a t"in s1i&e !! t"e sta12 e5ery 12 " $rs# t"e !1 % %i11 rene%# ma2in) it p ssib1e t & 11e&t $p t a 1iter per day. D n t re1y n %ater birds t 1ead y $ t %ater. Y $ &an s metimes ! 11 % anima1s t %ater. M st !1ies stay %it"in 1<< meters ! %ater# espe&ia11y t"e -$r pean mas n !1y# easi1y re& )ni'ed by its irides&ent )reen b dy. /arni5 res Cmeat eatersD are n t re1iab1e indi&at rs ! %ater. Y $ !ind s$&" reser5 irs e5en in arid areas. . +"e p is n $s nes yie1d a sti&2y# mi12y sap %"en &$t. 0$man tra&2s %i11 $s$a11y 1ead t a %e11# b re " 1e# r s a2. +"ey )et m ist$re !r m t"e anima1s t"ey eat and &an ) %it" $t %ater ! r 1 n) peri ds. +"ey $s$a11y %i11 "a5e a %ater s $r&e in t"is ran)e.

In additi n t anima1 ! d# y $ %i11 "a5e t s$pp1ement y $r diet %it" edib1e p1ants. Drin2in) t t"an y $ drin2. +yin) a &1ear p1asti& ba) ar $nd a )reen 1ea!y bran&" %i11 &a$se %ater in t"e 1ea5es t e5ap rate and & ndense in t"e ba). TROPICAL =ONE FOOD PLANTS • .read!r$it &Artrocarpus incisa' • / & n$t pa1m &1ocos nuci!era' • Fis"tai1 pa1m &1aryota urens' • 0 rseradis" tree &/oringa pterygosperma' • L t$s C8elumbo spe&iesD • Man) &/angi!era indica' • Mani & &/anihot utillissima' • Nipa pa1m &8ipa !ruticans' • (apaya &1arica papaya' • (ersimm n &<iospyros virginiana' • Rattan pa1m C1alamus spe&iesD • Sa) pa1m &/etro+ylon sagu' • Ster&$1ia &Sterculia !oetida' • S$)ar&ane &Saccharum o!!icinarum' • S$)ar pa1m &Arenga pinnata' • S%eets p &Annona s)uamosa' • +ar C1olocasia and Alocasia spe&iesD • 3ater 1i1y &8ymphaea odorata' • 3i1d !i) C-icus spe&iesD • 3i1d ri&e &Ei*ania a)uatica' • Yam C<ioscorea spe&iesD (a)e 176 ! 2** . F d is $s$a11y ab$ndant in a tr pi&a1 s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Lea5e ! d n t"e )r %in) p1ant $nti1 y $ need it# and eat it !res". D n t pi&2 m re ! d t"an y $ need. +"ere are an a1m st $n1imited n$mber ! edib1e p1ants !r m %"i&" t &" se. +"e 1ist be1 % identi!ies s me ! t"e m st & mm n ! ds. 'OO..S.i)nay &Antidesma bunius' • . I! y $ are %ea2# d n t e?pend ener)y &1imbin) r !e11in) a tree ! r ! d. It may be easier t 1et a p1ant pr d$&e %ater ! r y $ in t"e ! rm ! & ndensati n. +"e best p1a&es t ! ra)e are t"e ban2s ! streams and ri5ers. m$&" ! t"is mi12 may &a$se y $ t 1 se m re !1$id *!te& F&"+ C"#(e#$!ti"# .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is is a s 1ar sti11 Csee /"apter 6D. Un1ess y $ &an p siti5e1y identi!y t"ese p1ants# it may be sa!er at !irst t be)in %it" pa1ms# bamb s# and & mm n !r$its.ae1 !r$it &Aegle marmelos' • . + btain anima1 ! d# $se t"e pr &ed$res $t1ined in /"apter :.amb C5ari $s spe&iesD • . (1a&in) &$t 5e)etati n in a p1asti& ba) %i11 a1s pr d$&e & ndensati n. F d sp i1s rapid1y in tr pi&a1 & nditi ns. Department ! t"e Army & ntain a str n) 1a?ati5e in ripe n$ts.!ten it re4$ires t m$&" e!! rt t di) ! r r ts & ntainin) %ater. +"ere are m re easi1y btained s $r&es ! ! d nearer t"e )r $nd. Detai1ed des&ripti ns and p" t )rap"s are at Appendi? . 3"ere5er t"e s$n penetrates t"e @$n)1e# t"ere %i11 be a mass ! 5e)etati n# b$t ri5er ban2s may be t"e m st a&&essib1e areas.anana r p1antain C/usa spe&iesD • .

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0 %e5er# it may appear t"at m st p1ants in t"e tr pi&s are p is n $s be&a$se ! t"e )reat density ! p1ant )r %t" in s me tr pi&a1 areas. Department ! t"e Army POISONOUS PLANTS +"e pr p rti n ! p is n $s p1ants in tr pi&a1 re)i ns is n )reater t"an in any t"er area ! t"e % r1d. See Appendi? /.S. (a)e 177 ! 2** .

. 1old is an insidious enemy# as it numbs the mind and body" it subdues the will to survive. R /IONS AN. :repare yoursel! to adapt to bli**ard conditions even during sunny and clear weather. 8n %in) in %"i&" en5ir nment y $r area ! perati ns !a11s %i11 a!!e&t p1annin) and e?e&$ti n ! a & 1d %eat"er perati n. -1e5ati n a1s "as a mar2ed e!!e&t n de!inin) & 1d re)i ns. In t"ese & nditi ns# y $ need m re 1ayers ! inner &1 t"in) t (a)e 17: ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.COLD *EATHER SURVIVAL 0ne o! the most di!!icult survival situations is a cold weather scenario. COL. It decreases your ability to think and weakens your will to do anything e+cept to get warm. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1: . 1old is a !ar greater threat to survival than it appears. LOCATIONS / 1d re)i ns in&1$de ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& areas and areas immediate1y ad@ inin) t"em.&ean &$rrents a!!e&t & 1d %eat"er and &a$se 1ar)e areas n rma11y in&1$ded in t"e temperate ' ne t !a11 %it"in t"e & 1d re)i ns d$rin) %inter peri ds. 1old makes it very easy to !orget your ultimate goal%%to survive. Cvery time you venture into the cold" you are pitting yoursel! against the elements. D&3 C"%( *e!the& E#/i&"#+e#t$ Dry & 1d %eat"er & nditi ns e?ist %"en t"e a5era)e temperat$re in a 27-" $r peri d remains be1 % -1< de)rees /. *et C"%( *e!the& E#/i&"#+e#t$ 3et & 1d %eat"er & nditi ns e?ist %"en t"e a5era)e temperat$re in a 27-" $r peri d is -1< de)rees / r ab 5e. -5en t" $)" t"e temperat$res are %armer d$rin) t"is & nditi n# t"e terrain is $s$a11y 5ery s1 ppy d$e t s1$s" and m$d. Y $ m$st & n&entrate n pr te&tin) y $rse1! !r m t"e %et )r $nd and !r m !ree'in) rain r %et sn %.S. Remember" cold weather is an adversary that can be as dangerous as an enemy soldier. Remember" winter weather is highly variable. As you remove one or more o! these !actors" survival becomes increasingly di!!icult. 3it"in t"e & 1d %eat"er re)i ns# y $ may !a&e t% types ! & 1d %eat"er en5ir nments--%et r dry. -5en t" $)" t"e temperat$res in t"is & nditi n are m$&" 1 %er t"an n rma1# y $ d n t "a5e t & ntend %it" t"e !ree'in) and t"a%in). ith a little knowledge o! the environment" proper plans" and appropriate e)uipment" you can overcome the elements. Y $ &an &1assi!y ab $t 7: per&ent ! t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ereFs t ta1 1andmass as a & 1d re)i n d$e t t"e in!1$en&e and e?tent ! air temperat$res. /"ara&teristi&s ! t"is & nditi n are !ree'in) d$rin) t"e & 1der ni)"t " $rs and t"a%in) d$rin) t"e day.

3IN.:-2p" C19-2n tD %ind and a temperat$re ! -1< de)rees /# t"e e4$i5a1ent %ind&"i11 temperat$re is -2* de)rees /. -?treme1y "a'ard $s & nditi ns e?ist %"en %ind and 1 % temperat$re & mbine. (a)e 17. Department ! t"e Army pr te&t y $ !r m temperat$res as 1 % as -6< de)rees /. Fi)$re 19-1 )i5es t"e %ind&"i11 !a&t rs ! r 5ari $s temperat$res and %ind speeds. 3ind&"i11 is t"e e!!e&t ! m 5in) air n e?p sed !1es". Remember# e5en %"en t"ere is n %ind# y $ %i11 &reate t"e e4$i5a1ent %ind by s2iin)# r$nnin)# bein) t %ed n s2is be"ind a 5e"i&1e# % r2in) ar $nd air&ra!t t"at pr d$&e %ind b1asts.ILL 3ind&"i11 in&reases t"e "a'ards in & 1d re)i ns.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. ! 2** .S. F r instan&e# %it" a 27.C.

.LD-/ . R SURVIVAL It is m re di!!i&$1t ! r y $ t satis!y y $r basi& %ater# ! d# and s"e1ter needs in a & 1d en5ir nment t"an in a %arm en5ir nment.S. In %inter# it is a1s imp rtant !r m t"e standp int ! %armt". Ad@$st y $r &1 t"in) s t"at y $ d n t s%eat. I! n t# t"en y $r &1 t"in) s" $1d be entire1y % 1# %it" t"e p ssib1e e?&epti n ! a %indbrea2er. 0eat &an es&ape m re easi1y !r m t"e b dy t"r $)" t"e &1 t"in)Fs &r$s"ed r !i11ed $p air p &2ets. Y $ may e5en be ab1e t dry ea&" item by " 1din) it be! re an pen !ire. It %i11 s"ed m st ! t"e %ater & 11e&ted !r m me1tin) sn % and !r st. . S metimes in !ree'in) temperat$res# t"e %ind and s$n %i11 dry t"is &1 t"in). F r e?amp1e# a1%ays 2eep y $r "ead & 5ered. Y $ &an 1 se 7< t 79 per&ent ! b dy "eat !r m an $npr te&ted "ead and e5en m re !r m t"e $npr te&ted ne&2# %rist# and an21es. / n5erse1y# t"is %i11 "as s$stained indi5id$a1s 1ess %e11trained and e4$ipped. A1s # 1ayers ! &1 t"in) a11 % y $ t ta2e !! r add &1 t"in) 1ayers t pre5ent e?&essi5e s%eatin) r t in&rease %armt". 3 AT. . D . +"is a!!e&ts y $r %armt" in t% %aysI dampness de&reases t"e ins$1ati n 4$a1ity ! &1 t"in)# and as s%eat e5ap rates# y $r b dy & 1s.e&a$se t"ere is m$&" b1 d &ir&$1ati n in t"e "ead# m st ! %"i&" is n t"e s$r!a&e# y $ &an 1 se "eat 4$i&21y i! y $ d n t & 5er y $r "ead.n t"e mar&"# "an) y $r damp mittens and s &2s n y $r r$&2sa&2. Department ! t"e Army #ASIC PRINCIPL S O' COL.R-+-B $ter%ear and b ts# and t"er spe&ia1 e4$ipment. +"e "ead and "ands a&t as e!!i&ient "eat dissipaters %"en 5er"eated. Lear your clothing loose and in layers. Y $ m$st n t n1y "a5e en $)" &1 t"in) t pr te&t y $ !r m t"e & 1d# y $ m$st a1s 2n % " % t ma?imi'e t"e %armt" y $ )et !r m it. +"e dead-air spa&e pr 5ides e?tra ins$1ati n.3ear &1 t"es loose and in layers. Y $ &an a1s p1a&e damp s &2s r mittens# $n! 1ded# near y $r b dy s t"at y $r b dy "eat &an dry t"em. Spe&ia1i'ed $nits may "a5e a&&ess t ne%er# 1i)"t%ei)"t )ear s$&" as p 1ypr py1ene $nder%ear# 6.8eep &1 t"in) dry. It a1s de&reases t"e 5 1$me ! air trapped bet%een t"e 1ayers# red$&in) its ins$1atin) 5a1$e.8eep &1 t"in) clean. +"e brain is 5ery s$s&eptib1e t & 1d and &an stand t"e 1east am $nt ! & 1in). 3"en y $ )et t " t# y $ s%eat and y $r &1 t"in) abs rbs t"e m ist$re. +"is prin&ip1e is a1%ays imp rtant ! r sanitati n and & m! rt. Dry 1eat"er items s1 %1y. 3ear %ater repe11ent $ter &1 t"in)# i! a5ai1ab1e. +"ere are ! $r basi& prin&ip1es t ! 11 % t 2eep %arm. Despite t"e pre&a$ti ns y $ ta2e# t"ere %i11 be times %"en y $ &ann t 2eep !r m )ettin) %et. .e! re enterin) a "eated s"e1ter# br$s" !! t"e sn % and !r st. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. /Aeep clothing clean. At s$&" times# dryin) y $r &1 t"in) may be& me a ma@ r pr b1em. In a &ampsite# "an) damp &1 t"in) inside t"e s"e1ter near t"e t p# $sin) dryin) 1ines r impr 5ised ra&2s. 3earin) ti)"t &1 t"in) and ! t)ear restri&ts b1 d &ir&$1ati n and in5ites & 1d in@$ry. Remember# " %e5er# t"e 1der )ear %i11 2eep y $ %arm as 1 n) as y $ app1y a !e% & 1d %eat"er prin&ip1es. D t"is by partia11y penin) y $r par2a r @a&2et# by rem 5in) an inner 1ayer ! &1 t"in)# by rem 5in) "ea5y $ter mittens# r by t"r %in) ba&2 y $r par2a " d r &"an)in) t 1i)"ter "ead)ear. An easy %ay t remember t"ese basi& prin&ip1es is t $se t"e % rd /. +"ere "a5e been in&idents %"en trained and %e11-e4$ipped indi5id$a1s "a5e n t s$r5i5ed & 1d %eat"er sit$ati ns be&a$se t"ey 1a&2ed t"e %i11 t 1i5e. I! n t"er means are (a)e 19< ! 2** . +"ere are many di!!erent items ! & 1d %eat"er e4$ipment and &1 t"in) iss$ed by t"e U. DAeep clothing dry.Avoid overheating. .S. L . /1 t"es matted %it" dirt and )rease 1 se m$&" ! t"eir ins$1ati n 5a1$e.A5 id overheating. +"ese areas ! t"e b dy are ) d radiat rs ! "eat and "a5e 5ery 1itt1e ins$1atin) !at. Se5era1 1ayers ! 1i)"t%ei)"t &1 t"in) are better t"an ne e4$a11y t"i&2 1ayer ! &1 t"in)# be&a$se t"e 1ayers "a5e dead-air spa&e bet%een t"em. +"e %i11 t s$r5i5e is as imp rtant as t"e basi& needs. I! t"e ne%er types ! &1 t"in) are a5ai1ab1e# $se t"em. In & 1d temperat$res# y $r inner 1ayers ! &1 t"in) &an be& me %et !r m s%eat and y $r $ter 1ayer# i! n t %ater repe11ent# &an be& me %et !r m sn % and !r st me1ted by b dy "eat. -5en i! y $ "a5e t"e basi& re4$irements# y $ m$st a1s "a5e ade4$ate pr te&ti5e &1 t"in) and t"e %i11 t s$r5i5e. Army t day.

0 . Air m 5ement ar $nd y $r b dy a!!e&ts "eat 1 ss. (1a&e t"e dry materia1 bet%een t% 1ayers ! t"e materia1. . COL. 3as"in) "e1ps pre5ent s2in ras"es t"at &an de5e1 p int m re seri $s pr b1ems. I! p ssib1e# %as" y $r !eet dai1y and p$t n &1ean# dry s &2s. . . 0 %e5er# "e &anFt s"i5er ! re5er. I! y $r &1 t"in) "as be& me in!ested# $se inse&ti&ide p %der i! y $ "a5e any.6 de)rees FD. It "as been &a1&$1ated t"at a na2ed man e?p sed t sti11 air at r ab $t < de)rees / &an maintain a "eat ba1an&e i! "e s"i5ers as "ard as "e &an. -ns$re t"e d %n remains dry. /"an)e y $r $nder%ear at 1east t%i&e a %ee2. H3p"the&+i! (a)e 191 ! 2** .Y/I N A1t" $)" %as"in) y $rse1! may be impra&ti&a1 and $n& m! rtab1e in a & 1d en5ir nment# y $ m$st d s . It "as a1s been &a1&$1ated t"at a man at rest %earin) t"e ma?im$m ar&ti& &1 t"in) in a & 1d en5ir nment &an 2eep "is interna1 "eat ba1an&e d$rin) temperat$res %e11 be1 % !ree'in).t"er%ise# "an) y $r &1 t"es in t"e & 1d# t"en beat and br$s" t"em. In s me sit$ati ns# y $ may be ab1e t ta2e a sn % bat". It a1s &a$ses !ati)$e t"at# in t$rn# 1eads t a dr p in b dy temperat$re. I! y $ d n t "a5e a s1eepin) ba)# y $ &an ma2e ne $t ! para&"$te &1 t" r simi1ar materia1 and nat$ra1 dry materia1# s$&" as 1ea5es# pine need1es# r m ss. IN2URI S +"e best %ay t dea1 %it" in@$ries and si&2nesses is t ta2e meas$res t pre5ent t"em !r m "appenin) in t"e !irst p1a&e.t"er imp rtant s$r5i5a1 items are a 2ni!eH %aterpr ! mat&"es in a %aterpr ! & ntainer# pre!erab1y ne %it" a !1int atta&"edH a d$rab1e & mpassH mapH %at&"H %aterpr ! )r $nd &1 t" and & 5erH !1as"1i)"tH bin &$1arsH dar2 )1assesH !atty emer)en&y ! dsH ! d )at"erin) )earH and si)na1in) items. +"is %i11 "e1p )et rid ! t"e 1i&e# b$t n t t"e e))s. I! %et# it 1 ses a 1 t ! its ins$1ati n 5a1$e. Y $r b dy "eat %i11 "e1p t dry t"e 1eat"er. Ma?im$m s%eatin) %i11 )et rid ! "eat ab $t as !ast as ma?im$m e?erti n pr d$&es it. Y $r b dy "as a & ntr 1 system t"at 1ets it rea&t t temperat$re e?tremes t maintain a temperat$re ba1an&e.S.n&e y $ "a5e se1e&ted items t"at are essentia1 ! r y $r s$r5i5a1# d n t 1 se t"em a!ter y $ enter a & 1d %eat"er en5ir nment. 6i5e a ) d dea1 ! t" $)"t t se1e&tin) t"e ri)"t e4$ipment ! r s$r5i5a1 in t"e & 1d. + %it"stand rea11y & 1d & nditi ns ! r any 1en)t" ! time# " %e5er# "e %i11 "a5e t be& me a&ti5e r s"i5er. S"i5erin) &a$ses t"e b dy t pr d$&e "eat. +reat any in@$ry r si&2ness t"at &&$rs as s n as p ssib1e t pre5ent it !r m % rsenin). +"is %i11 )i5e y $r s2in a &"an&e t re& 5er be! re e?p sin) it t t"e e1ements. I! y $ are $nab1e t %as" y $r $nder%ear# ta2e it !!# s"a2e it# and 1et it air $t ! r an " $r r t% . +a2e a "and!$1 ! sn % and %as" y $r b dy %"ere s%eat and m ist$re a&&$m$1ate# s$&" as $nder t"e arms and bet%een t"e 1e)s# and t"en %ipe y $rse1! dry.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ s"a5e# try t d s be! re ) in) t bed. +"e 2n %1ed)e ! si)ns and sympt ms and t"e $se ! t"e b$ddy system are &riti&a1 in maintainin) "ea1t". S%eatin) "e1ps t & ntr 1 t"e "eat ba1an&e. I! $ns$re ! an item y $ "a5e ne5er $sed# test it in an J 5erni)"t ba&2yardJ en5ir nment be! re 5ent$rin) !$rt"er. Y $r b dy &an )et rid ! "eat better t"an it &an pr d$&e it.ICAL ASP CTS 3"en y $ are "ea1t"y# y $r inner & re temperat$re Ct rs temperat$reD remains a1m st & nstant at *7 de)rees / C. Sin&e y $r 1imbs and "ead "a5e 1ess pr te&ti5e b dy tiss$e t"an y $r t rs # t"eir temperat$res 5ary and may n t rea&" & re temperat$re. . F 11 %in) are & 1d in@$ries t"at &an &&$r. Department ! t"e Army a5ai1ab1e ! r dryin) y $r b ts# p$t t"em bet%een y $r s1eepin) ba) s"e11 and 1iner. A "ea5y# d %n-1ined s1eepin) ba) is a 5a1$ab1e pie&e ! s$r5i5a1 )ear in & 1d %eat"er. Remember# a & 1d %eat"er en5ir nment &an be 5ery "ars".:. +"ere are t"ree main !a&t rs t"at a!!e&t t"is temperat$re ba1an&e--"eat pr d$&ti n# "eat 1 ss# and e5ap rati n. I! y $ are $sin) a pre5i $s1y $sed s"e1ter# &"e&2 y $r b dy and &1 t"in) ! r 1i&e ea&" ni)"t. +"e di!!eren&e bet%een t"e b dyFs & re temperat$re and t"e en5ir nmentFs temperat$re ) 5erns t"e "eat pr d$&ti n rate.

+"e best !r stbite pre5enti n# %"en y $ are %it" t"ers# is t $se t"e b$ddy system. Department ! t"e Army 0yp t"ermia is t"e 1 %erin) ! t"e b dy temperat$re at a rate !aster t"an t"e b dy &an pr d$&e "eat. 3arm by p1a&in) y $r "ands &1 se t y $r b dy. +"e tiss$es be& me s 1id and imm 5ab1e. /"e&2 y $r b$ddyFs !a&e !ten and ma2e s$re t"at "e &"e&2s y $rs.* de)rees / C1<< t 11< de)rees FD. +"e initia1 sympt m is s"i5erin). Deep !r stbite e?tends t a dept" be1 % t"e s2in. • -eet. • Cars. I! t"ere are means a5ai1ab1e# re%arm t"e pers n by !irst immersin) t"e tr$n2 area n1y in %arm %ater ! *7. CAUTION D n t ! r&e an $n& ns&i $s pers n t drin2. CAUTION +"e indi5id$a1 p1a&ed in t"e s1eepin) ba) %it" 5i&tim & $1d a1s be& me a "yp t"ermia 5i&tim i! 1e!t in t"e ba) t 1 n). (a)e 192 ! 2** .J Re%armin) t rapid1y &an &a$se t"e 5i&tim t "a5e &ir&$1at ry pr b1ems# res$1tin) in "eart !ai1$re. I! t"e 5i&timFs & re temperat$re !a11s be1 % 29 de)rees / C77 de)rees FD# deat" is a1m st &ertain. / n&entratin) n %armin) t"e & re area and stim$1atin) perip"era1 &ir&$1ati n %i11 1essen t"e e!!e&ts ! a!ter dr p. I! y $ are a1 ne# peri di&a11y & 5er y $r n se and 1 %er part ! y $r !a&e %it" y $r mittened "and. +"is be)ins %"en t"e b dyFs & re Cre&ta1D temperat$re !a11s t ab $t *9. / re temperat$res ! *2 t *< de)rees / C. S$&" an a&ti n# " %e5er# may n t be p ssib1e in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. Immersin) t"e t rs in a %arm bat"# i! p ssib1e# is t"e best treatment.9 t . M 5e y $r "ands inside y $r )1 5es.7 t 7*. I! t"e pers n is & ns&i $s# )i5e "im " t# s%eetened !1$ids.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . • (ands. +"ere are t% dan)ers in treatin) "yp t"ermia--re%armin) t rapid1y and Ja!ter dr p. An t"er met" d is t %rap t"e 5i&tim in a %armed s1eepin) ba) %it" an t"er pers n %" is a1ready %armH b t" s" $1d be na2ed. Its pr bab1e m$se is t"e ret$rn ! pre5i $s1y sta)nant 1imb b1 d t t"e & re Cinner t rs D area as re&ir&$1ati n &&$rs.ne ! t"e 4$i&2est %ays t )et "eat t t"e inner & re is t )i5e %arm %ater enemas.6 de)rees FD. +"e ! 11 %in) p inters %i11 aid y $ in 2eepin) %arm and pre5entin) !r stbite %"en it is e?treme1y & 1d r %"en y $ "a5e 1ess t"an ade4$ate &1 t"in)I • -ace. 3"en t"e & re temperat$re rea&"es *9 t *2 de)rees / C. Li)"t !r stbite in5 15es n1y t"e s2in t"at ta2es n a d$11 %"itis" pa11 r. A!ter dr p is t"e s"arp b dy & re temperat$re dr p t"at &&$rs %"en ta2in) t"e 5i&tim !r m t"e %arm %ater. . 3i))1e and m 5e y $r ears.ne ! t"e best s $r&es ! &a1 ries is " ney r de?tr seH i! $na5ai1ab1e# $se s$)ar# & & a# r a simi1ar s 1$b1e s%eetener. + treat "yp t"ermia# re%arm t"e entire b dy. +"is s"i5erin) may pr )ress t t"e p int t"at it is $n& ntr 11ab1e and inter!eres %it" an indi5id$a1Fs abi1ity t &are ! r "imse1!. /a$ses ! "yp t"ermia may be )enera1 e?p s$re r t"e s$dden %ettin) ! t"e b dy by !a11in) int a 1a2e r sprayin) %it" !$e1 r t"er 1i4$ids.< t :6 de)rees FD and be1 % res$1t in m$s&1e ri)idity# $n& ns&i $sness# and bare1y dete&tab1e si)ns ! 1i!e.< de)rees FD# s1$))is" t"in2in)# irrati na1 reas nin)# and a !a1se !ee1in) ! %armt" may &&$r. M 5e y $r !eet and %i))1e y $r t es inside y $r b ts. Maintain &ir&$1ati n by t%it&"in) and %rin21in) t"e s2in n y $r !a&e ma2in) !a&es.ite +"is in@$ry is t"e res$1t ! !r 'en tiss$es. 3arm %it" y $r "ands. 3arm %it" y $r "ands. CAUTION Re%armin) t"e t ta1 b dy in a %arm %ater bat" s" $1d be d ne n1y in a " spita1 en5ir nment be&a$se ! t"e in&reased ris2 ! &ardia& arrest and re%armin) s" &2. Y $r !eet# "ands# and e?p sed !a&ia1 areas are parti&$1ar1y 5$1nerab1e t !r stbite. F&"$t.S.9 de)rees / C.

Fi)$re 19-2 1ists s me d Fs and d nFts re)ardin) !r stbite. +"e sympt ms are a sensati n ! pins and need1es# tin)1in)# n$mbness# and t"en pain. +"e best pre5enti n is t 2eep y $r !eet dry. Deh3(&!ti"# 3"en b$nd1ed $p in many 1ayers ! &1 t"in) d$rin) & 1d %eat"er# y $ may be $na%are t"at y $ are 1 sin) b dy m ist$re. C"%( Di &e$i$ -?p s$re t & 1d in&reases $rine $tp$t. A deep !r stbite in@$ry# i! t"a%ed and re!r 'en# %i11 &a$se m re dama)e t"an a n nmedi&a11y trained pers n &an "and1e. I! it ma2es t"e sn % 1i)"t ye11 % t n & 1 r# y $r b dy !1$ids "a5e a m re n rma1 ba1an&e.S. I! y $ "a5e 1 st !ee1in) ! r n1y a s" rt time# t"e !r stbite is pr bab1y 1i)"t. -?p s$re t t"e s$n res$1ts in s$nb$rn m re 4$i&21y at "i)" a1tit$des t"an at 1 % a1tit$des. (1a&e y $r "ands $nder y $r armpits. +"e s2in %i11 initia11y appear %et# s ))y# %"ite# and s"ri5e1ed. (1a&e y $r !eet ne?t t y $r b$ddyFs st ma&". +"e !eet be& me & 1d# s% 11en# and "a5e a %a?y appearan&e. . It a1s de&reases b dy !1$ids t"at y $ m$st rep1a&e. + re%arm a 1i)"t !r stbite# $se y $r "ands r mittens t %arm y $r !a&e and ears. S #. I! y $r $rine ma2es t"e sn % dar2 ye11 %# y $ are be& min) de"ydrated and need t rep1a&e b dy !1$ids. . 3as" y $r !eet and p$t n dry s &2s dai1y. As it pr )resses and dama)e appears# t"e s2in %i11 ta2e n a red and t"en a b1$is" r b1a&2 dis& 1 rati n. T&e#.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $r need ! r %ater is as )reat in a & 1d en5ir nment as it is in a %arm en5ir nment C/"apter 1*D. /arry e?tra s &2s %it" y $ in a %aterpr ! pa&2et. Y $ &an dry %et s &2s a)ainst y $r t rs Cba&2 r &"estD. +"e ner5es and m$s&1es s$stain t"e main dama)e# b$t )an)rene &an &&$r. Y $ m$st drin2 %ater t rep1a&e t"is 1 ss ! !1$id. Y $r "ea5y &1 t"in) abs rbs t"e m ist$re t"at e5ap rates in t"e air.ne %ay t te11 i! y $ are be& min) de"ydrated is t &"e&2 t"e & 1 r ! y $r $rine n sn %.t"er%ise# ass$me t"e !r stbite is deep. &# -?p sed s2in &an be& me s$nb$rned e5en %"en t"e air temperat$re is be1 % !ree'in). 3a12in) be& mes di!!i&$1t and t"e !eet !ee1 "ea5y and n$mb. +"e s$nFs rays re!1e&t at a11 an)1es !r m sn %# i&e# and %ater# "ittin) sensiti5e areas ! s2in--1ips# n stri1s# and eye1ids. S#"2 B%i#(#e$$ (a)e 19* ! 2** . App1y s$nb$rn &ream r 1ip sa15e t y $r !a&e %"en in t"e s$n. Department ! t"e Army A 1 ss ! !ee1in) in y $r "ands and !eet is a si)n ! !r stbite.h F""t !#( I++e&$i"# F""t +"ese & nditi ns res$1t !r m many " $rs r days ! e?p s$re t %et r damp & nditi ns at a temperat$re @$st ab 5e !ree'in). In e?treme &ases# t"e !1es" dies and it may be& me ne&essary t "a5e t"e ! t r 1e) amp$tated.

+ treat sn % b1indness# banda)e y $r eyes $nti1 t"e sympt ms disappear.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A1t" $)" n t disab1in)# & nstipati n &an &a$se s me dis& m! rt. (a)e 197 ! 2** . /$t s1its in a pie&e ! &ardb ard# t"in % d# tree bar2# r t"er a5ai1ab1e materia1 CFi)$re 19-*D. S"e1ters made !r m i&e r sn % $s$a11y re4$ire t 1s s$&" as i&e a?es r sa%s. Department ! t"e Army +"e re!1e&ti n ! t"e s$nFs $1tra5i 1et rays !! a sn %-& 5ered area &a$ses t"is & nditi n. +"is %i11 red$&e t"e am $nt ! spa&e t "eat. De1ayin) re1ie5in) y $rse1! be&a$se ! t"e & 1d# eatin) de"ydrated ! ds# drin2in) t 1itt1e 1i4$id# and irre)$1ar eatin) "abits &an &a$se y $ t be& me & nstipated. I! y $ d nFt "a5e s$n)1asses# impr 5ise. 3 ded areas $s$a11y pr 5ide t"e best 1 &ati n# %"i1e barren areas "a5e n1y sn % as b$i1din) materia1. / nstr$&t a s"e1ter n 1ar)er t"an needed. 3 ded areas pr 5ide timber ! r s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n# % d ! r !ire# & n&ea1ment !r m bser5ati n# and pr te&ti n !r m t"e %ind. Y $ &an pre5ent sn % b1indness by %earin) s$n)1asses. LT RS Y $r en5ir nment and t"e e4$ipment y $ &arry %it" y $ %i11 determine t"e type ! s"e1ter y $ &an b$i1d.e s$re t 5enti1ate an en&1 sed s"e1ter# espe&ia11y i! y $ intend t b$i1d a !ire in it. In&rease y $r !1$id inta2e t at 1east 2 1iters ab 5e y $r n rma1 2 t * 1iters dai1y inta2e and# i! a5ai1ab1e# eat !r$it and t"er ! ds t"at %i11 1 sen t"e st 1. A !ata1 err r in & 1d %eat"er s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n is ma2in) t"e s"e1ter s 1ar)e t"at it stea1s b dy "eat rat"er t"an sa5in) it.t Bite$ Inse&t bites &an be& me in!e&ted t"r $)" & nstant s&rat&"in). Y $ &an b$i1d s"e1ters in % ded areas# pen & $ntry# and barren areas. I#$e. D n t de1ay be&a$se ! t"e & 1d & nditi n. S. F1ies &an &arry 5ari $s disease-pr d$&in) )erms. . The metal will conduct away !rom the shelter what little heat you can generate. + pre5ent inse&t bites# $se inse&t repe11ent# nettin)# and %ear pr per &1 t"in). See /"apter 11 ! r in! rmati n n inse&t bites and /"apter 7 ! r treatment. Use a r$&2sa&2 r sn % b1 &2. +"e sympt ms ! sn % b1indness are a sensati n ! )rit in t"e eyes# pain in and 5er t"e eyes t"at in&reases %it" eyeba11 m 5ement# red and teary eyes# and a "eada&"e t"at intensi!ies %it" & ntin$ed e?p s$re t 1i)"t.S. 8eep s"e1ter spa&e sma11. (r 1 n)ed e?p s$re t t"ese rays &an res$1t in permanent eye dama)e. A1%ays b1 &2 a s"e1terFs entran&e# i! p ssib1e# t 2eep t"e "eat in and t"e %ind $t. C"#$tip!ti"# It is 5ery imp rtant t re1ie5e y $rse1! %"en needed. Y $ m$st a1s e?pend m$&" time and ener)y t b$i1d s$&" a s"e1ter. 8ote9 In e+treme cold" do not use metal" such as an aircra!t !uselage" !or shelter. ($ttin) s t $nder y $r eyes %i11 "e1p red$&e s"ine and )1are.

Ne5er !a11 as1eep %it" $t t$rnin) $t y $r st 5e r 1amp.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Separate t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm !r m t"e sn % &a5eFs %a11s r di) a sma11 tren&" bet%een t"e p1at! rm and t"e %a11. . Us$a11y# t"ere are n sympt ms. -ns$re t"e r ! is "i)" en $)" s t"at y $ &an sit $p n t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm. Lay d %n s me pine b $)"s# )rass# r t"er ins$1atin) materia1 t 2eep t"e )r $nd !r m abs rbin) y $r b dy "eat. Remember t"at it ta2es time and ener)y t b$i1d and t"at y $ %i11 )et %et %"i1e b$i1din) it. +"ere are se5era1 types ! !ie1d-e?pedient s"e1ters y $ &an 4$i&21y b$i1d r emp1 y. /arb n m n ?ide p is nin) &an res$1t !r m a !ire b$rnin) in an $n5enti1ated s"e1ter. Department ! t"e Army Ne5er s1eep dire&t1y n t"e )r $nd. +"e ne &"ara&teristi&# 5isib1e si)n ! &arb n m n ?ide p is nin) is a &"erry red & 1 rin) in t"e tiss$es ! t"e 1ips# m $t"# and inside ! t"e eye1ids. S#"2 C!/e She%te& +"e sn % &a5e s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D is a m st e!!e&ti5e s"e1ter be&a$se ! t"e ins$1atin) 4$a1ities ! sn %. /arb n m n ?ide is a )reat dan)er.1 &2 t"e entran&e %it" a sn % b1 &2 r t"er materia1 and $se t"e 1 %er entran&e area ! r & 2in). Un& ns&i $sness and deat" &an &&$r %it" $t %arnin). S metimes# " %e5er# press$re at t"e temp1es# b$rnin) ! t"e eyes# "eada&"e# p $ndin) p$1se# dr %siness# r na$sea may &&$r. +"e %a11s and &ei1in) s" $1d be at 1east *< &entimeters t"i&2. It is & 1 r1ess and d r1ess. 3"i1e b$i1din) t"is s"e1ter# 2eep t"e r ! ar&"ed ! r stren)t" and t a11 % me1ted sn % t drain d %n t"e sides. . +"is & nstr$&ti n is espe&ia11y imp rtant i! y $ "a5e a ) d s $r&e ! "eat in t"e sn % &a5e. (a)e 199 ! 2** . -5en in a 5enti1ated s"e1ter# in& mp1ete & mb$sti n &an &a$se &arb n m n ?ide p is nin). First# y $ need t !ind a dri!t ab $t * meters deep int %"i&" y $ &an di). I! y $ d n t "a5e a dri!t 1ar)e en $)" t b$i1d a sn % &a5e# y $ &an ma2e a 5ariati n ! it by pi1in) sn % int a m $nd 1ar)e en $)" t di) $t.S. A1%ays &"e&2 y $r 5enti1ati n.$i1d t"e s1eepin) p1at! rm "i)"er t"an t"e entran&e. Insta11 a 5enti1ati n s"a!t. +"is p1at! rm %i11 pre5ent t"e me1tin) sn % !r m %ettin) y $ and y $r e4$ipment. Many $se sn % ! r ins$1ati n. Any time y $ "a5e an pen !1ame# it may )enerate &arb n m n ?ide. 6et int !res" air at n&e i! y $ "a5e any ! t"ese sympt ms.

h te She%te& Use sn % b1 &2s ! r t"e sides and para&"$te materia1 ! r 5er"ead & 5er CFi)$re 19-7D.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ are in an area ! & mpa&ted sn %# &$t sn % b1 &2s and $se t"em as 5er"ead & 5er.$i1d n1y ne entran&e and $se a sn % b1 &2 r r$&2sa&2 as a d r.S. I! n t# y $ &an $se a p n&" r t"er materia1.h She%te& +"e idea be"ind t"is s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D is t )et y $ be1 % t"e sn % and %ind 1e5e1 and $se t"e sn %Fs ins$1atin) 4$a1ities. . (a)e 196 ! 2** . I! sn %!a11 is "ea5y# y $ %i11 "a5e t &1ear sn % !r m t"e t p at re)$1ar inter5a1s t pre5ent t"e & 11apse ! t"e para&"$te materia1. S#"2 B%". Department ! t"e Army S#"2 T&e#.) !#( P!&!.

Le!#-T" She%te& / nstr$&t t"is s"e1ter in t"e same manner as ! r t"er en5ir nmentsH " %e5er# pi1e sn % ar $nd t"e sides ! r ins$1ati n CFi)$re 19-9D. +"ey are e!!i&ient s"e1ters b$t re4$ire s me pra&ti&e t ma2e t"em pr per1y. A1s # y $ m$st be in an area t"at is s$itab1e ! r &$ttin) sn % b1 &2s and "a5e t"e e4$ipment t &$t t"em Csn % sa% r 2ni!eD. Department ! t"e Army S#"2 H" $e "& I0%"" In &ertain areas# t"e nati5es !re4$ent1y $se t"is type ! s"e1ter CFi)$re 19-7D as "$ntin) and !is"in) s"e1ters. F!%%e# T&ee She%te& + b$i1d t"is s"e1ter# !ind a !a11en tree and di) $t t"e sn % $nderneat" it CFi)$re 19-6D. I! y $ m$st rem 5e bran&"es !r m t"e inside# $se t"em t 1ine t"e !1 r. +"e sn % %i11 n t be deep $nder t"e tree.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. T&ee-Pit She%te& (a)e 197 ! 2** .

I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# remember t"at t"e sm 2e# sme11# and 1i)"t !r m y $r !ire may re5ea1 y $r 1 &ati n. Department ! t"e Army Di) sn % $t !r m $nder a s$itab1e 1ar)e tree. • . 3it" $t its need1es# it 1 2s 1i2e a dead spr$&e# b$t it "as many 2n bby b$ds and & nes n its bare bran&"es. Y $ may !ind s me )rasses and m ss# b$t 5ery 1itt1e. 0 %e5er# it b$rns a1m st sm 2e-!ree in 1ate !a11 and %inter. It is t"e n1y tree ! t"e pine !ami1y t"at 1 ses its need1es in t"e !a11. I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# &$t 1 % tree b $)"s rat"er t"an t"e entire tree ! r !ire% d. As a & ni!er# spr$&e ma2es a 1 t ! sm 2e %"en b$rned in t"e sprin) and s$mmer m nt"s. It %i11 n t be as deep near t"e base ! t"e tree. A11 % d %i11 b$rn# b$t s me types ! % d &reate m re sm 2e t"an t"ers.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • 3i11 % and a1der )r % in ar&ti& re)i ns# n rma11y in mars" areas r near 1a2es and streams. Use t"e &$t bran&"es t 1ine t"e s"e1ter. +"e 1i4$id state ! (a)e 19: ! 2** . Use a )r $nd s"eet as 5er"ead & 5er t pre5ent sn % !r m !a11in) !! t"e tree int t"e s"e1ter. Li)"t re!1e&ts !r m s$rr $ndin) trees r r &2s# ma2in) e5en indire&t 1i)"t a s $r&e ! dan)er. S& p $p t"e !$e1 as y $ need it. F r instan&e# & ni!er $s trees t"at & ntain resin and tar &reate m re and dar2er sm 2e t"an de&id$ $s trees. CAUTION D n t e?p se !1es" t petr 1e$m# i1# and 1$bri&ants in e?treme1y & 1d temperat$res.i1 & n)ea1s in e?treme1y & 1d temperat$res# t"ere! re# drain it !r m t"e 5e"i&1e r air&ra!t %"i1e sti11 %arm i! t"ere is n dan)er ! e?p1 si n r !ire. D n t 1et 1ar)e am $nts ! sn % b$i1d $p n t"e 5er"ead pr te&ti n. It n t n1y pr 5ides a means t prepare ! d# b$t a1s t )et %arm and t me1t sn % r i&e ! r %ater. +"ese % ds b$rn " t and !ast %it" $t m$&" sm 2e.y b$nd1in) r t%istin) )rasses r t"er s&r$b 5e)etati n t ! rm a 1ar)e# s 1id mass# y $ %i11 "a5e a s1 %er b$rnin)# m re pr d$&ti5e !$e1. Y $ &an $se it as a s"e1ter. +"ere are !e% materia1s t $se ! r !$e1 in t"e "i)" m $ntain $s re)i ns ! t"e ar&ti&. Use t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter 7 t b$i1d and 1i)"t y $r !ire. Dried m ss# )rass# and s&r$b %i11 % are t"er materia1s y $ &an $se ! r !$e1. .ir&" trees are de&id$ $s and t"e % d b$rns " t and !ast# as i! s a2ed %it" i1 r 2er sene. 'IR Fire is espe&ia11y imp rtant in & 1d %eat"er. Lea5e t"e !$e1 in t"e tan2 ! r st ra)e# dra%in) n t"e s$pp1y n1y as y $ need it. Y $ may !ind s me s&r$b %i11 % and sma11# st$nted spr$&e trees ab 5e t"e tree 1ine.S. Air F r&e air&ra!t.n sea i&e# !$e1s are seemin)1y n ne?istent. +"e 1 %er t"e e1e5ati n# t"e m re !$e1 a5ai1ab1e. I! !$e1 r i1 is a5ai1ab1e !r m a %re&2ed 5e"i&1e r d %ned air&ra!t# $se it ! r !$e1. I! y $ "a5e n & ntainer# 1et t"e i1 drain nt t"e sn % r i&e. In %armer %eat"er# espe&ia11y in a % ded area# sm 2e tends t "$) t"e )r $nd# ma2in) it 1ess 5isib1e in t"e day# b$t ma2in) its d r spread. I! p1a&ed in an pen area# it a1s ser5es as a ) d si)na1 t 5er"ead air&ra!t.S. +"ese are $s$a11y p1enti!$1 near streams in t$ndras C pen# tree1ess p1ainsD. M st bir&"es )r % near streams and 1a2es# b$t &&asi na11y y $ %i11 !ind a !e% n "i)"er )r $nd and a%ay !r m %ater. It a1s pr 5ides y $ %it" a si)ni!i&ant psy&" 1 )i&a1 b st by ma2in) y $ !ee1 a 1itt1e m re se&$re in y $r sit$ati n. Fa11en trees are easi1y seen !r m t"e air. 3"en b$rnin)# tamara&2 % d ma2es a 1 t ! sm 2e and is e?&e11ent ! r si)na1in) p$rp ses. I! b$i1t pr per1y# y $ &an "a5e *6<-de)ree 5isibi1ity CFi)$re 9-12# /"apter 9D. Ab$ndant !$e1s %it"in t"e tree 1ine are-• Spr$&e trees are & mm n in t"e interi r re)i ns. • +"e tamara&2 tree is a1s a & ni!er. 2>-M!# Li6e R!6t +"is ra!t is t"e standard 5er%ater ra!t n U. Sm 2e tends t ) strai)"t $p in & 1d# &a1m %eat"er# ma2in) it a bea& n d$rin) t"e day# b$t "e1pin) t & n&ea1 t"e sme11 at ni)"t. Dri!t% d r !ats may be t"e n1y !$e1s a5ai1ab1e t a s$r5i5 r n t"e barren & ast1ines in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns. . .

• In sn % s"e1ters# e?&essi5e "eat %i11 me1t t"e ins$1atin) 1ayer ! sn % t"at may a1s be y $r &am $!1a)e. F r "eatin) p$rp ses# a sin)1e &and1e pr 5ides en $)" "eat t %arm an en&1 sed s"e1ter.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. F r e?amp1e# a p1asti& sp n %i11 b$rn ! r ab $t 1< min$tes. D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s# t"e best nat$ra1 s $r&es ! %ater are !res"%ater 1a2es# streams# p nds# ri5ers# and sprin)s. 3ater s $r&es in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns are m re sanitary t"an in t"er re)i ns d$e t t"e &1imati& and en5ir nmenta1 & nditi ns.S. A " b st 5e CFi)$re 19-7D is parti&$1ar1y s$itab1e t t"e ar&ti&. It re4$ires 5ery 1itt1e !$e1# yet it )enerates & nsiderab1e %armt" and is " t en $)" t %arm 1i4$ids. Y $r 1 &ati n and t"e seas n ! t"e year %i11 determine %"ere and " % y $ btain %ater. A simp1e &rane pr pped n a ! r2ed sti&2 %i11 " 1d a & 2in) & ntainer 5er a !ire. 0 %e5er# always puri!y t"e %ater be! re drin2in) it. 3AT R +"ere are many s $r&es ! %ater in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti&. In )enera1# a sma11 !ire and s me type ! st 5e is t"e best & mbinati n ! r & 2in) p$rp ses. It is easy t ma2e $t ! a tin &an# and it & nser5es !$e1. • A pers n tryin) t )et %arm r t dry &1 t"es may be& me &are1ess and b$rn r s& r&" "is &1 t"in) and e4$ipment. In & 1d %eat"er re)i ns# t"ere are s me "a'ards in $sin) !ires# %"et"er t 2eep %arm r t & 2. (a)e 19. Department ! t"e Army t"ese pr d$&ts is de&epti5e in t"at it &an &a$se !r stbite. F r e?amp1e-• Fires "a5e been 2n %n t b$rn $nder)r $nd# res$r!a&in) nearby. 3ater !r m p nds r 1a2es may be s1i)"t1y sta)nant# b$t sti11 $sab1e. +"ey %i11 a1s b$rn 1 n) en $)" t "e1p start a !ire.sp ns# "e1met 5is rs# 5is r " $sin)s# aid ! am r$bber %i11 i)nite 4$i&21y !r m a b$rnin) mat&". +"ere! re# d n t b$i1d a !ire t &1 se t a s"e1ter. ! 2** . A bed ! " t & a1s pr 5ides t"e best & 2in) "eat. R$nnin) %ater in streams# ri5ers# and b$bb1in) sprin)s is $s$a11y !res" and s$itab1e ! r drin2in). / a1s !r m a &riss&r ss !ire %i11 sett1e $ni! rm1y. Ma2e t"is type ! !ire by &riss&r ssin) t"e !ire% d. A sma11 !ire ab $t t"e si'e ! a manFs "and is idea1 ! r $se in enemy territ ry. S me p1asti& pr d$&ts# s$&" as MR. • Me1tin) 5er"ead sn % may )et y $ %et# b$ry y $ and y $r e4$ipment# and p ssib1y e?tin)$is" y $r !ire. • A !ire inside a s"e1ter 1a&2in) ade4$ate 5enti1ati n &an res$1t in &arb n m n ?ide p is nin).

e)in %it" a sma11 am $nt ! i&e r sn % in t"e & ntainer and# as it t$rns t %ater# add m re i&e r sn %. 8ote9 <o not waste !uel to melt ice or snow when drinkable water is available !rom other sources. I! n r near pa&2 i&e in t"e sea# y $ &an $se 1d sea i&e t me1t ! r %ater. Use t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter : t &at&" !is". +"e e))s are bri)"t ye11 % in & 1 r.e A#i+!%$ (a)e 16< ! 2** . / mp1ete1y me1t b t" be! re p$ttin) t"em in y $r m $t". An t"er %ay t me1t i&e r sn % is by p$ttin) it in a ba) made !r m p r $s materia1 and s$spendin) t"e ba) near t"e !ire. . M st n rt"ern !is" and !is" e))s are edib1e. +"e e))s ! t"e spiny sea $r&"in t"at 1i5es in t"e %aters ar $nd t"e A1e$tian Is1ands and s $t"ern A1as2a are e?&e11ent ! d. 0 %e5er# y $ may "a5e t !i1ter t"e %ater be! re p$ri!yin) it.rea2 t"e s"e11 by p1a&in) it bet%een t% st nes. L 2 in tida1 p 1s and n !!s" re ree!s.n&e y $ "a5e %ater# 2eep it ne?t t y $ t pre5ent re!ree'in). A1s # d n t !i11 y $r &anteen & mp1ete1y. Di) in t"e sand n t"e tida1 !1ats. Department ! t"e Army +"e br %nis" s$r!a&e %ater ! $nd in a t$ndra d$rin) t"e s$mmer is a ) d s $r&e ! %ater. +"e sea &$&$mber is an t"er edib1e sea anima1. Inside its b dy are !i5e 1 n) %"ite m$s&1es t"at taste m$&" 1i2e &1am meat. Y $ &an me1t i&e r sn % in a %ater ba)# MR. 3"en i&e is a5ai1ab1e# me1t it# rat"er t"an sn %. D$rin) & 1d %eat"er# a5 id drin2in) a 1 t ! 1i4$id be! re ) in) t bed. +"e type ! ! d--!is"# anima1# ! %1# r p1ant--and t"e ease in btainin) it depend n t"e time ! t"e year and y $r 1 &ati n. S metimes y $ &an s& p t"em $p %it" y $r "ands. +"is is a s1 % pr &ess# b$t y $ &an $se it n t"e m 5e r %"en y $ "a5e n !ire. . + ?ins s metimes ! $nd in t"e m$sse1Fs tiss$e are as dan)er $s as stry&"nine. 8e1p# t"e 1 n) ribb n1i2e sea%eed# and t"er sma11er sea%eed t"at )r % am n) !!s" re r &2s are a1s edib1e. /ra%1in) $t ! a %arm s1eepin) ba) at ni)"t t re1ie5e y $rse1! means 1ess rest and m re e?p s$re t t"e & 1d. +"e bi5a15es# s$&" as &1ams and m$sse1s# are $s$a11y m re pa1atab1e t"an spira1-s"e11ed sea! d# s$&" as snai1s. In ear1y s$mmer# sme1t spa%n in t"e bea&" s$r!. Y $ &an easi1y !ind &ra%!is"# snai1s# &1ams# ysters# and 2in) &rab. In time# sea i&e 1 ses its sa1inity. *ARNIN1 +"e b1a&2 m$sse1# a & mm n m 11$s2 ! t"e !ar n rt"# may be p is n $s in any seas n. L 2 ! r t"e sea $r&"ins in tida1 p 1s. Y $ &an me1t !res"%ater i&e and sn % ! r %ater.S. . In areas %"ere t"ere is a sma11 di!!eren&e bet%een t"e "i)".FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A11 %in) t"e %ater t s1 s" ar $nd %i11 "e1p 2eep it !r m !ree'in). Y $ &an !ten !ind "errin) e))s n t"e sea%eed in mids$mmer. Y $ &an identi!y t"is i&e by its r $nded & rners and b1$is" & 1 r. Y $ &an $se b dy "eat t me1t sn %. +"ere are se5era1 s $r&es ! ! d in t"e ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns. (1a&e a & ntainer $nder t"e ba) t &at&" t"e %ater. I&e a1s ta2es 1ess time t me1t. +ryin) t me1t i&e r sn % in y $r m $t" ta2es a%ay b dy "eat and may &a$se interna1 & 1d in@$ries. In areas %"ere t"ere is a )reat di!!eren&e bet%een t"e "i)" and 1 % tide %ater 1e5e1s# y $ &an easi1y !ind s"e11!is" at 1 % tide. -?&epti ns are t"e meat ! t"e ar&ti& s"ar2 and t"e e))s ! t"e s&$1pins. 'OO.and 1 %-tide %ater 1e5e1s# st rm %a5es !ten %as" s"e11!is" nt t"e bea&"es. .ne &$p ! i&e yie1ds m re %ater t"an ne &$p ! sn %. Fi$h D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s# y $ &an easi1y )et !is" and t"er %ater 1i!e !r m & asta1 %aters# streams# ri5ers# and 1a2es. +"e N rt" At1anti& and N rt" (a&i!i& & asta1 %aters are ri&" in sea! d. (1a&e t"e sn % in a %ater ba) and p1a&e t"e ba) bet%een y $r 1ayers ! &1 t"in). Se! I.rati n ba)# tin &an# r impr 5ised & ntainer by p1a&in) t"e & ntainer near a !ire.

D$rin) t"e %inter# )ame !ree'es 4$i&21y i! 1e!t in t"e pen. -ar1ess sea1 meat is s me ! t"e best meat a5ai1ab1e. D$rin) t"e s$mmer m nt"s a11 ar&ti& birds "a5e a 2. R &2 ptarmi)ans tra5e1 in pairs and y $ &an easi1y appr a&" t"em. 3i11 % ptarmi)ans 1i5e am n) %i11 % &1$mps in b tt m-1ands. +"ey are t"e m st dan)er $s ! a11 bears. +ry t rea&" t"e sea1 be! re it s1ips int t"e %ater. Y $ need & nsiderab1e s2i11# " %e5er# t )et &1 se en $)" t an ear1ess sea1 t 2i11 it. CAUTION D n t eat p 1ar bear 1i5er as it & ntains a t ?i& & n&entrati n ! 5itamin A. ! r des&ripti nsD. P%!#t$ A1t" $)" t$ndras s$pp rt a 5ariety ! p1ants d$rin) t"e %arm m nt"s# a11 are sma11# " %e5er# %"en & mpared t p1ants in %armer &1imates. +"ey )at"er in 1ar)e !1 &2s and y $ &an easi1y snare t"em. (tarmi)ans# %"i&" &"an)e & 1 r t b1end %it" t"eir s$rr $ndin)s# are "ard t sp t. A1%ays & 2 p 1ar bear meat be! re eatin) it.S. I! it m 5es# st p and imitate its m 5ements by 1yin) !1at n t"e i&e# raisin) y $r "ead $p and d %n# and %ri))1in) y $r b dy s1i)"t1y. +"ey are s&ar&e n rt" ! t"e tree 1ine. 8eep in mind t"at %"ere t"ere are sea1s# t"ere are $s$a11y p 1ar bears# and p 1ar bears "a5e sta12ed and 2i11ed sea1 "$nters. Department ! t"e Army Y $ !ind p 1ar bears in pra&ti&a11y a11 ar&ti& & asta1 re)i ns# b$t rare1y in1and. I! time a11 %s# &$t t"e meat int $sab1e pie&es and !ree'e ea&" separate1y s t"at y $ &an $se t"e pie&es as needed. + appr a&" a sea1# d as t"e -s2im s d --stay d %n%ind !r m it# &a$ti $s1y m 5in) &1 ser %"i1e it s1eeps. D$rin) t"e s$mmer# y $ &an st re it in $nder)r $nd i&e " 1es. A5 id t"em i! p ssib1e. Y $ & $1d )et Jspe22-!in)er#J t"at is# a rea&ti n t"at &a$ses t"e "ands t be& me bad1y s% 11en.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Lea5e t"e !at n a11 anima1s e?&ept sea1s. Aim ! r t"e brainH a b$11et e1se%"ere %i11 rare1y 2i11 ne. In sprin)# sea1s !ten bas2 n t"e i&e beside t"eir breat"in) " 1es. +"ey raise t"eir "eads ab $t e5ery *< se& nds# " %e5er# t 1 2 ! r t"eir enemy# t"e p 1ar bear. Use ne ! t"e te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter : t &at&" t"em. ( r&$pines !eed n bar2H i! y $ !ind tree 1imbs stripped bare# y $ are 1i2e1y t !ind p r&$pines in t"e area. +"e ! 11 %in) is a 1ist ! s me p1ant ! ds ! $nd in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns Csee Appendi? . I! y $ m$st 2i11 ne ! r ! d# appr a&" it &a$ti $s1y. In %inter# a dead sea1 %i11 $s$a11y !1 at# b$t it is di!!i&$1t t retrie5e !r m t"e %ater.earberry • /ranberry • /r %berry • Dande1i n • -s2im p tat • Fire%eed (a)e 161 ! 2** . F r instan&e# t"e ar&ti& %i11 % and bir&" are s"r$bs rat"er t"an trees. (tarmi)ans# %1s# /anadian @ays# )r $se# and ra5ens are t"e n1y birds t"at remain in t"e ar&ti& d$rin) t"e %inter. Ra5ens are t t"in t be % rt" t"e e!! rt it ta2es t &at&" t"em. +"e i&e at t"e ed)e ! t"e breat"in) " 1e is $s$a11y sm t" and at an in&1ine# s t"e 1east m 5ement ! t"e sea1 may &a$se it t s1ide int t"e %ater. S2in and b$t&"er )ame Csee /"apter :D %"i1e it is sti11 %arm.t *-%ee2 m 1tin) peri d d$rin) %"i&" t"ey &ann t !1y and are easy t &at&". Y $ &an !ind p r&$pines in s $t"ern s$bar&ti& re)i ns %"ere t"ere are trees. I! y $ d n t "a5e time t s2in t"e )ame# at 1east rem 5e its entrai1s# m$s2 )1ands# and )enita1s be! re st rin). Appr a&" t"e sea1 %it" y $r b dy side-%ays t it and y $r arms &1 se t y $r b dy s t"at y $ 1 2 as m$&" 1i2e an t"er sea1 as p ssib1e. +"ey are tire1ess# &1e5er "$nters %it" ) d si)"t and an e?tra rdinary sense ! sme11. (tarmi)ans and %1s are as ) d ! r ! d as any )ame bird. 8eep t"e sea1 b1$bber and s2in !r m & min) int & nta&t %it" any s&rat&" r br 2en s2in y $ may "a5e. +"ere! re# try t )et %it"in 22 t 79 meters ! t"e sea1 and 2i11 it instant1y Caim ! r t"e brainD. ARCTIC FOOD PLANTS • Ar&ti& raspberry and b1$eberry • Ar&ti& %i11 % • .

I! y $ m$st tra5e1 in deep sn %# a5 id sn %-& 5ered streams. 3"en in d $bt# ! 11 % t"e Uni5ersa1 -dibi1ity +est in /"apter . TRAV L As a s$r5i5 r r an e5ader in an ar&ti& r s$bar&ti& re)i n# y $ %i11 !a&e many bsta&1es. • Ma2e &amp ear1y s t"at y $ "a5e p1enty ! time t b$i1d a s"e1ter. . +ra5e1 in t"e ear1y m rnin) in areas %"ere t"ere is dan)er ! a5a1an&"es. C%" ($ (a)e 162 ! 2** .-9.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • /r ss streams %"en t"e %ater 1e5e1 is 1 %est. • D n t tra5e1 in J%"ite $tJ & nditi ns.9 meters per day. Y $r 1 &ati n and t"e time ! t"e year %i11 determine t"e types ! bsta&1es and t"e in"erent dan)ers. Y $ m re !re4$ent1y $nderestimate t"an 5erestimate distan&es. Rapid1y s"i!tin) %inds indi&ate an $nsett1ed atm sp"ere and a 1i2e1y &"an)e in t"e %eat"er. It ma2es estimatin) distan&e di!!i&$1t. *i#( Y $ &an determine %ind dire&ti n by dr ppin) a !e% 1ea5es r )rass r by %at&"in) t"e treet ps. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • I&e1and m ss Mars" mari) 1d Reindeer m ss R &2 tripe Spatterd &2 +"ere are s me p1ants )r %in) in ar&ti& and s$bar&ti& re)i ns t"at are p is n $s i! eaten Csee Appendi? /D. Sn % *< r m re &entimeters deep ma2es tra5e1in) di!!i&$1t. • Use sn %s" es i! y $ are tra5e1in) 5er sn %-& 5ered terrain. 0 %e5er# s me ri5ers t"at appear !r 'en may "a5e s !t# pen areas t"at ma2e tra5e1 5ery di!!i&$1t r may n t a11 % %a12in)# s2iin)# r s1eddin). +ra5e1in) by ! t 1ea5es a %e11mar2ed trai1 ! r any p$rs$ers t ! 11 %. Use t"e p1ants t"at y $ 2n % are edib1e.S. In "i11y terrain# a5 id areas %"ere a5a1an&"es appear p ssib1e. +"is 5arian&e may &&$r any time d$rin) t"e day# dependin) n t"e distan&e !r m a )1a&ier# t"e temperat$re# and t"e terrain. • A1%ays &r ss a sn % brid)e at ri)"t an)1es t t"e bsta&1e it &r sses.# Fi)$re . / nsider t"is 5ariati n in %ater 1e5e1 %"en se1e&tin) a &ampsite near a stream. • / nsider t"e &1ear ar&ti& air. Find t"e str n)est part ! t"e brid)e by p 2in) a"ead ! y $ %it" a p 1e r i&e a?e. Distrib$te y $r %ei)"t by &ra%1in) r by %earin) sn %s" es r s2is. I! y $ d n t "a5e sn %s" es# ma2e a pair $sin) %i11 %# strips ! &1 t"# 1eat"er# r t"er s$itab1e materia1. . +"ese !ten e?tend !ar $t !r m t"e rid)e and may brea2 1 se i! stepped n. 3 AT. +"e sn %# %"i&" a&ts as an ins$1at r# may "a5e pre5ented i&e !r m ! rmin) 5er t"e %ater. +"e 1a&2 ! & ntrastin) & 1 rs ma2es it imp ssib1e t @$d)e t"e nat$re ! t"e terrain. • / nsider !r 'en r $n!r 'en ri5ers as a5en$es ! tra5e1. Distrib$te y $r %ei)"t by 1yin) !1at and &ra%1in). It is a1m st imp ssib1e t tra5e1 in deep sn % %it" $t sn %s" es r s2is.n rid)es# sn % )at"ers n t"e 1ee side in 5er"an)in) pi1es &a11ed & rni&es. N rma1 !ree'in) and t"a%in) a&ti n may &a$se a stream 1e5e1 t 5ary as m$&" as 2 t 2. • +a2e &are %"en &r ssin) t"in i&e. R SI/NS +"ere are se5era1 ) d indi&at rs ! &1imati& &"an)es. Y $ s" $1d-• A5 id tra5e1in) d$rin) a b1i''ard.n&e y $ determine t"e %ind dire&ti n# y $ &an predi&t t"e type ! %eat"er t"at is imminent.

(a)e 16* ! 2** . A )enera1 2n %1ed)e ! &1 $ds and t"e atm sp"eri& & nditi ns t"ey indi&ate &an "e1p y $ predi&t t"e %eat"er. L % risin) r J!1attened $tJ sm 2e indi&ates st rmy %eat"er.S. M st inse&t a&ti5ity in&reases be! re a st rm# b$t bee a&ti5ity in&reases be! re !air %eat"er. S$&" a !r nt pr mises bad %eat"er t"at %i11 pr bab1y 1in)er ! r se5era1 days. S$&" !1i)"t indi&ates t"at rain is 1i2e1y. L"2-P&e$$ &e F&"#t S1 %-m 5in) r imper&eptib1e %inds and "ea5y# "$mid air !ten indi&ate a 1 %-press$re !r nt. See Appendi? 6 ! r detai1s. Y $ &an Jsme11J and J"earJ t"is !r nt.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Bi&($ !#( I#$e.t$ . Department ! t"e Army /1 $ds & me in a 5ariety ! s"apes and patterns. S+")e Sm 2e risin) in a t"in 5erti&a1 & 1$mn indi&ates !air %eat"er. In additi n# s $nds are s"arper and &arry !art"er in 1 %-press$re t"an "i)"-press$re & nditi ns.irds and inse&ts !1y 1 %er t t"e )r $nd t"an n rma1 in "ea5y# m ist$re-1aden air. +"e s1$))is"# "$mid air ma2es %i1derness d rs m re pr n $n&ed t"an d$rin) "i)"-press$re & nditi ns.

F r instan&e# " % many 1i!e preser5ers and 1i!eb ats r ra!ts are n b ardG 3"ere are t"ey 1 &atedG 3"at type ! s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment d t"ey "a5eG 0 % m$&" ! d# %ater# and medi&ine d t"ey & ntainG 0 % many pe p1e are t"ey desi)ned t s$pp rtG I! y $ are resp nsib1e ! r t"er pers nne1 n b ard# ma2e s$re y $ 2n % %"ere t"ey are and t"ey 2n % %"ere y $ are.SEA SURVIVAL :erhaps the most di!!icult survival situation to be in is sea survival. There is always the chance that the plane or ship you are on will become crippled by such ha*ards as storms" collision" !ire" or war. P&e. • Y $r spe&ia1 s2i11s and abi1ity t app1y t"em t & pe %it" t"e "a'ards y $ !a&e. Y $ m$st a1s be ab1e t btain %ater and ! d. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 16 . (r te&tin) y $rse1! !r m t"e e1ements meets n1y ne ! y $r basi& needs.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Use t"e a5ai1ab1e res $r&es t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m t"e e1ements and !r m "eat r e?treme & 1d and "$midity. percent being oceans and seas. Short%or long%term survival depends upon rations and e)uipment available and your ingenuity. Y $ may a1s !a&e e?treme "eat r & 1d.! ti"#!&3 Me!$ &e$ Y $r s$r5i5a1 at sea depends $p n-• Y $r 2n %1ed)e ! and abi1ity t $se t"e a5ai1ab1e s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment.s sur!ace" with about F. • 6et &1ear ! !$e1-& 5ered %ater in &ase t"e !$e1 i)nites. • Y $r %i11 t 1i5e. 3"en y $ b ard a s"ip r air&ra!t# !ind $t %"at s$r5i5a1 e4$ipment is n b ard# %"ere it is st %ed# and %"at it & ntains. ater covers about F6 percent o! the earth. T. (a)e 167 ! 2** . OP N S A As a s$r5i5 r n t"e pen sea# y $ %i11 !a&e %a5es and %ind. 3"et"er y $ are in t"e %ater r in a ra!t -• 6et &1ear and $p%ind ! t"e air&ra!t as s n as p ssib1e# b$t stay in t"e 5i&inity $nti1 t"e air&ra!t sin2s. + 2eep t"ese en5ir nmenta1 "a'ards !r m be& min) seri $s pr b1ems# ta2e pre&a$ti nary meas$res as s n as p ssib1e.S. Satis!yin) t"ese t"ree basi& needs %i11 "e1p pre5ent seri $s p"ysi&a1 and psy&" 1 )i&a1 pr b1ems. @ou can assume that you will sometime cross vast e+panses o! water. @ou must be resource!ul to survive. D"2# !t Se! I! y $ are in an air&ra!t t"at ) es d %n at sea# ta2e t"e ! 11 %in) a&ti ns n&e y $ &1ear t"e air&ra!t. 0 %e5er# y $ m$st 2n % " % t treat "ea1t" pr b1ems t"at may res$1t !r m y $r sit$ati n.

+"is de5i&e %i11 "e1p & nser5e a res&$erFs ener)y %"i1e re& 5erin) t"e s$r5i5 r. An t"er is t send a s%immer Cres&$erD !r m t"e ra!t %it" a 1ine atta&"ed t a !1 tati n de5i&e t"at %i11 s$pp rt t"e res&$erFs %ei)"t.S. Department ! t"e Army • +ry t !ind t"er s$r5i5 rs. A sear&" ! r s$r5i5 rs $s$a11y ta2es p1a&e ar $nd t"e entire area ! and near t"e &ras" site. (a)e 169 ! 2** . Missin) pers nne1 may be $n& ns&i $s and !1 atin) 1 % in t"e %ater. 3"en t"e res&$er appr a&"es a s$r5i5 r in tr $b1e !r m be"ind# t"ere is 1itt1e dan)er t"e s$r5i5 r %i11 2i&2# s&rat&"# r )rab "im.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"e res&$er s%ims t a p int dire&t1y be"ind t"e s$r5i5 r and )rasps t"e 1i!e preser5erFs ba&2strap. Fi)$re 16-1 i11$strates res&$e pr &ed$res. +"e 1east a&&eptab1e te&"ni4$e is t send an atta&"ed s%immer %it" $t !1 tati n de5i&es t retrie5e a s$r5i5 r. A &are!$1 appr a&" &an pre5ent in@$ry t t"e res&$er. +"e best te&"ni4$e ! r res&$in) pers nne1 !r m t"e %ater is t t"r % t"em a 1i!e preser5er atta&"ed t a 1ine. +"e res&$er $ses t"e sidestr 2e t dra) t"e s$r5i5 r t t"e ra!t. A res&$er s" $1d n t $nderestimate t"e stren)t" ! a pani&-stri&2en pers n in t"e %ater. In a11 &ases# t"e res&$er %ears a 1i!e preser5er.

S%im $nder%ater as !ar as p ssib1e be! re s$r!a&in) t breat"e. It is pr bab1y t"e best str 2e ! r 1 n)-ran)e s%immin)I it a11 %s y $ t & nser5e y $r ener)y and maintain a reas nab1e speed. (a)e 166 ! 2** . Y $r "ead %i11 be partia11y s$bmer)ed# b$t y $r !a&e %i11 be ab 5e %ater. F1 atin) n y $r ba&2 ta2es t"e 1east ener)y. 8ote9 I! you have an unin!lated li!e preserver" keep it. +"e ! 11 %in) are t"e best s%immin) str 2es d$rin) a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati nI • <og paddle. +ry t !a&e d %n%ind be! re in"a1in). +"is str 2e is e?&e11ent %"en &1 t"ed r %earin) a 1i!e @a&2et.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . It is a ) d re1ie! str 2e be&a$se y $ $se n1y ne arm t maintain m ment$m and b$ yan&y. . • ?reaststroke. Lie n y $r ba&2 in t"e %ater# spread y $r arms and 1e)s# and ar&" y $r ba&2. I! y $ &ann t !1 at n y $r ba&2 r i! t"e sea is t r $)"# !1 at !a&ed %n in t"e %ater as s" %n in Fi)$re 16-2. S$bmer)e !eet !irst and & ntin$e as ab 5e $nti1 &1ear ! t"e !1ames. Use t"is str 2e t s%im $nder%ater# t"r $)" i1 r debris# r in r $)" seas. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ are in t"e %ater# ma2e y $r %ay t a ra!t.S. • ?ackstroke.e! re s$r!a&in) t breat"e and %"i1e sti11 $nder%ater# $se y $r "ands t p$s" b$rnin) !1$id a%ay !r m t"e area %"ere y $ %is" t s$r!a&e. I! n ra!ts are a5ai1ab1e# try t !ind a 1ar)e pie&e ! !1 atin) debris t &1in) t . • Sidestroke. A1t" $)" s1 % in speed# it re4$ires 5ery 1itt1e ener)y. .n&e an area is &1ear ! b$rnin) 1i4$id# y $ &an s$r!a&e and ta2e a !e% breat"s. I! y $ are in an area %"ere s$r!a&e i1 is b$rnin)-• Dis&ard y $r s" es and b$ yant 1i!e preser5er. +"e b dyFs nat$ra1 b$ yan&y %i11 2eep at 1east t"e t p ! t"e "ead ab 5e %ater# b$t s me m 5ement is needed t 2eep t"e !a&e ab 5e %ater. Use it i! an $nder%ater e?p1 si n is 1i2e1y. • • • • / 5er y $r n se# m $t"# and eyes and 4$i&21y ) $nder%ater. Re1a?H a pers n %" 2n %s " % t re1a? in &ean %ater is in 5ery 1itt1e dan)er ! dr %nin). +"is str 2e is a1s an e?&e11ent re1ie! str 2e.y & ntr 11in) y $r breat"in) in and $t# y $r !a&e %i11 a1%ays be $t ! t"e %ater and y $ may e5en s1eep in t"is p siti n ! r s" rt peri ds. It re1ie5es t"e m$s&1es t"at y $ $se ! r t"er str 2es.

+a2e seasi&2ness pi11s i! a5ai1ab1e. +"ere are a1s s$pp sit ries r in@e&ti ns a)ainst seasi&2ness.9 meters apart. I! y $ "a5e a 1i!e preser5er# y $ &an stay a!1 at ! r an inde!inite peri d. Fi)$re 16-* i11$strates t"e 0-L( p siti n. • 0a5e t"er si)na1in) de5i&es ready ! r instant $se. F r e?amp1e# raise a !1a) r re!1e&tin) materia1 n an ar as "i)" as p ssib1e t attra&t attenti n. +"ere! re# 2eep y $r "ead $t ! t"e %ater. 6i5e !irst aid i! ne&essary. . • +ry t sa15a)e a11 !1 atin) e4$ipment--rati nsH &anteens# t"erm s @$)s# and t"er & ntainersH &1 t"in)H seat &$s"i nsH para&"$tesH and anyt"in) e1se t"at %i11 be $se!$1 t y $. Atta&" y $r 1i!e preser5er t y $r %rist and t"en $se it as a ra!t. . . (a)e 167 ! 2** . • L &ate t"e emer)en&y radi and )et it int perati n. V mitin)# %"et"er !r m seasi&2ness r t"er &a$ses# in&reases t"e dan)er ! de"ydrati n. I! y $ are in a ra!t-• /"e&2 t"e p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! a11 n b ard. • I! t"ere are t"er ra!ts# 1as" t"e ra!ts t )et"er s t"ey are ab $t 7. 0 %e5er# i! y $r sit$ati n is desperate# y $ may "a5e t si)na1 t"e enemy ! r res&$e i! y $ are t s$r5i5e. +"e best %ay t ta2e t"ese pi11s is t p1a&e t"em $nder t"e t n)$e and 1et t"em diss 15e. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ are in i1-& 5ered %ater t"at is !ree ! !ire# " 1d y $r "ead "i)" t 2eep t"e i1 $t ! y $r eyes. Y $ 1 se ab $t 9< per&ent ! y $r b dy "eat t"r $)" y $r "ead.t"er areas ! "i)" "eat 1 ss are t"e ne&2# t"e sides# and t"e )r in. • Remember# res&$e at sea is a & perati5e e!! rt.peratin) instr$&ti ns are n it. In t"is &ase# $se t"e J0-L(J b dy p siti nI 0eat -s&apin) Lessenin) ( st$re C0-L(D. Use t"e emer)en&y trans&ei5er n1y %"en !riend1y air&ra!t are 1i2e1y t be in t"e area.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Remain sti11 and ass$me t"e !eta1 p siti n t "e1p y $ retain b dy "eat. It is easier ! r an air&re% t sp t ra!ts t"at are &1 se t )et"er rat"er t"an s&attered. I! y $ are in enemy territ ry# a5 id $sin) a si)na1in) de5i&e t"at %i11 a1ert t"e enemy. Use a11 a5ai1ab1e 5is$a1 r e1e&tr ni& si)na1in) de5i&es t si)na1 and ma2e & nta&t %it" res&$ers.e ready t dra% t"em &1 ser t )et"er i! y $ see r "ear an air&ra!t. Se&$re t"e sa15a)ed items in r t y $r ra!t. Ma2e s$re t"e items "a5e n s"arp ed)es t"at &an p$n&t$re t"e ra!t.S.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (etr 1e$m %i11 %ea2en its s$r!a&es and brea2 d %n its )1$ed @ ints. +"r % $t t"e sea an&" r# r impr 5ise a dra) !r m t"e ra!tFs &ase# bai1in) b$&2et# r a r 11 ! &1 t"in).S. Y $ ma2e t"is ad@$stment by penin) r &1 sin) t"e sea an&" rFs ape?. Y $ &an ad@$st t"e sea an&" r t a&t as a dra) t s1 % d %n t"e rate ! tra5e1 %it" t"e &$rrent# r as a means t tra5e1 %it" t"e &$rrent. 3"en pen# t"e sea an&" r CFi)$re 16-9D a&ts as a dra) t"at 2eeps y $ in t"e )enera1 area. (a)e 16: ! 2** . /"e&2 in!1ati n re)$1ar1y. 3it" $t a sea an&" r# y $r ra!t may dri!t 5er 16< 2i1 meters in a day# ma2in) it m$&" "arder t !ind y $. A sea an&" r "e1ps y $ stay &1 se t y $r dit&"in) site# ma2in) it easier ! r sear&"ers t !ind y $ i! y $ "a5e re1ayed y $r 1 &ati n. Air e?pands %it" "eatH t"ere! re# n " t days# re1ease s me air and add air %"en t"e %eat"er & 1s. 3"en &1 sed# it ! rms a p &2et ! r t"e &$rrent t stri2e and pr pe1s t"e ra!t in t"e &$rrentFs dire&ti n. • De& ntaminate t"e ra!t ! a11 !$e1. Ma2e s$re t"e main b$ yan&y &"ambers are !irm C%e11 r $ndedD b$t n t 5er1y ti)"t CFi)$re 16-7D. Department ! t"e Army /"e&2 t"e ra!t ! r in!1ati n# 1ea2s# and p ints ! p ssib1e &"a!in).

! 2** . • Assi)n a d$ty p siti n t ea&" pers nI ! r e?amp1e# %ater & 11e&t r# ! d & 11e&t r# 1 2 $t# radi perat r# si)na1er# and %ater bai1ers. I! t"e enemy dete&ts y $ and y $ are &1 se t &apt$re# destr y t"e 1 ) b 2# radi # na5i)ati n e4$ipment# maps# si)na1in) e4$ipment# and !irearms. Rati n ! d and %ater. In a 2<-man ra!t# 2eep t"e &an py ere&ted at a11 times. 8eep it pr per1y ba1an&ed. >$mp 5erb ard and s$bmer)e i! t"e enemy starts stra!in). +"e an&" r a1s "e1ps t 2eep t"e ra!t "eaded int t"e %ind and %a5es. In5ent ry a11 e4$ipment# ! d# and %ater. • /a1m1y & nsider a11 aspe&ts ! y $r sit$ati n and determine %"at y $ and y $r & mpani ns m$st d t s$r5i5e. 8eep 1 % in t"e ra!tH stay & 5ered %it" t"e b1$e side ! t"e &am $!1a)e &1 t" $p. 8ote9 Lookout duty should not e+ceed 3 hours. 3aterpr ! items t"at sa1t %ater may a!!e&t. De&ide %"et"er t stay in p siti n r t tra5e1.e s$re a passin) s"ip r air&ra!t is !riend1y r ne$tra1 be-! re tryin) t attra&t its attenti n. +"r % $t t"e sea an&" r and %ait ! r ni)"t!a11 be! re padd1in) r " istin) sai1. • • • 8eep a 1 ). A11 pers nne1 s" $1d stay seated# t"e "ea5iest ne in t"e &enter. • 3rap t"e sea an&" r r pe %it" &1 t" t pre5ent its &"a!in) t"e ra!t. Re& rd t"e na5i)at rFs 1ast !i?# t"e time ! dit&"in)# t"e names and p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! pers nne1# and t"e rati n s&"ed$1e. 8eep y $r ra!t as dry as p ssib1e. I! y $ are d %n in $n!riend1y %aters# ta2e spe&ia1 se&$rity meas$res t a5 id dete&ti n. • In st rmy %ater# ri) t"e spray and %inds"ie1d at n&e. Aeep in mind and remind others that cooperation is one o! the keys to survival.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. As2 y $rse1!# J0 % m$&" in! rmati n %as si)na1ed be! re t"e a&&identG Is y $r p siti n 2n %n t res&$ersG D y $ 2n % it y $rse1!G Is t"e %eat"er !a5 rab1e ! r a sear&"G Are t"er s"ips r air&ra!t 1i2e1y t pass y $r present p siti nG 0 % many days s$pp1y ! ! d and %ater d y $ "a5eGJ C"%( *e!the& C"#$i(e&!ti"#$ I! y $ are in a & 1d &1imate-- (a)e 16. +"ese in&1$de & mpasses# %at&"es# se?tant# mat&"es# and 1i)"ters. D n t tra5e1 in t"e daytime. A1s re& rd t"e %inds# %eat"er# dire&ti n ! s%e11s# times ! s$nrise and s$nset# and t"er na5i)ati na1 data. Department ! t"e Army Additi na11y# ad@$st t"e sea an&" r s t"at %"en t"e ra!t is n t"e %a5eFs &rest# t"e sea an&" r is in t"e %a5eFs tr $)" CFi)$re 16-6D. .S.

3"en y $ are immersed in & 1d %ater# "yp t"ermia &&$rs rapid1y d$e t t"e de&reased ins$1atin) 4$a1ity ! %et &1 t"in) and t"e res$1t ! %ater disp1a&in) t"e 1ayer ! sti11 air t"at n rma11y s$rr $nds t"e b dy. Fi)$re 16-7 1ists 1i!e e?pe&tan&y times ! r immersi n in %ater. Army and Air F r&e in5ent ries &an satis!y t"e needs ! r pers na1 pr te&ti n# m de ! tra5e1# and e5asi n and &am $!1a)e. 6i5e e?tra rati ns# i! a5ai1ab1e# t men s$!!erin) !r m e?p s$re t & 1d. 8eep t"e repair 2it %"ere y $ &an readi1y rea&" it. I! t"ese a&ti ns are n t p ssib1e# %earin) an antie?p s$re s$it %i11 e?tend y $r 1i!e e?pe&tan&y & nsiderab1y. / 5er it %it" &an5as r &1 t" ! r ins$1ati n. 0$dd1e %it" t"ers t 2eep %arm# m 5in) en $)" t 2eep t"e b1 d &ir&$1atin).S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • / 5er y $r s2in# %"ere p ssib1e# t pr te&t it !r m s$nb$rn. Ri) a %indbrea2# spray s"ie1d# and &an py. 8ote9 ?e!ore boarding any ra!t" remove and tether &attach' your li!e preserver to yoursel! or the ra!t. 3earin) 1i!e preser5ers in&reases t"e predi&ted s$r5i5a1 time as b dy p siti n in t"e %ater in&reases t"e &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1. Use s$nb$rn &ream# i! a5ai1ab1e# n a11 e?p sed s2in. +a2e &are n t t sna) t"e ra!t %it" s" es r s"arp b@e&ts. +"e )reatest pr b1em y $ !a&e %"en s$bmer)ed in & 1d %ater is deat" d$e t "yp t"ermia. I! $na5ai1ab1e# p$t n any e?tra &1 t"in) a5ai1ab1e. H"t *e!the& C"#$i(e&!ti"#$ I! y $ are in a " t &1imate-• Ri) a s$ns"ade r &an py. Cnsure there are no other metallic or sharp ob$ects on your clothing or e)uipment that could damage the ra!t. Remember# 2eep y $r "ead and ne&2 $t ! t"e %ater and %e11 ins$1ated !r m t"e & 1d %aterFs e!!e&ts %"en t"e temperat$re is be1 % 1. 8eep &1 t"es 1 se and & m! rtab1e. +"e rate ! "eat e?&"an)e in %ater is ab $t 29 times )reater t"an it is in air ! t"e same temperat$re. One50an Ra$t (a)e 17< ! 2** . de)rees /. +ry t 2eep t"e !1 r ! t"e ra!t dry. Y $r best pr te&ti n a)ainst t"e e!!e&ts ! & 1d %ater is t )et int t"e 1i!e ra!t# stay dry# and ins$1ate y $r b dy !r m t"e & 1d s$r!a&e ! t"e b tt m ! t"e ra!t.e( &e$ M st ! t"e ra!ts in t"e U. A!ter boarding the ra!t" don your li!e preserver again. Spread an e?tra tarpa$1in# sai1# r para&"$te 5er t"e )r $p. S. R!6t P&". Lea5e en $)" spa&e ! r 5enti1ati n. Department ! t"e Army • • • • • • ($t n an antie?p s$re s$it. Y $r eye1ids# t"e ba&2 ! y $r ears# and t"e s2in $nder y $r &"in s$nb$rn easi1y.

Y $ &an !$rt"er m di!y t"ese ra!ts ! r e5asi n by partia11y de!1atin) t"em t btain a 1 %er pr !i1e. I! t"e /.D. +"e spray s"ie1d a&ts as a s"e1ter !r m t"e & 1d# %ind# and %ater.S. +"ese ra!ts b1end %it" t"e seaFs ba&2)r $nd. Y $ d n t s%im t t"e ra!t# b$t p$11 it t y $ 5ia t"e 1anyard. +"e ra!tFs ins$1ated b tt m 1imits t"e & nd$&ti n ! & 1d t"ereby pr te&tin) y $ !r m "yp t"ermia CFi)$re 16-:D. Y $ &an tra5e1 m re e!!e&ti5e1y by in!1atin) r de!1atin) t"e ra!t t ta2e ad5anta)e ! t"e %ind r &$rrent. An t"er %ay t b ard t"e ra!t is t p$s" d %n n its sma11 end $nti1 ne 2nee is inside and 1ie ! r%ard CFi)$re 16-1<D. (a)e 171 ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ "a5e an arm in@$ry# t"e best %ay t b ard is by t$rnin) y $r ba&2 t t"e sma11 end ! t"e ra!t# p$s"in) t"e ra!t $nder y $r b$tt &2s# and 1yin) ba&2. Y $ &an $se t"e spray s"ie1d as a sai1 %"ite t"e ba11ast b$&2ets ser5e t in&rease dra) in t"e %ater. +"e spray s"ie1d m$st be in t"e ra!t t e?p se t"e b ardin) "and1es.2 b tt1e s" $1d ma1!$n&ti n r i! t"e ra!t de5e1 ps a 1ea2# y $ &an in!1ate it by m $t". A 1anyard & nne&ts t"e ne-man ra!t t a para&"$tist Cs$r5i5 rD 1andin) in t"e %ater. F 11 % t"e steps $t1ined in t"e n te $nder ra!t pr &ed$res ab 5e %"en b ardin) t"e ra!t CFi)$re 16-. Y $ may $se t"e sea an&" r t & ntr 1 t"e ra!tFs speed and dire&ti n. In s me &ases# t"is s"ie1d ser5es as ins$1ati n. Department ! t"e Army +"e ne-man ra!t "as a main &e11 in!1ati n. +"e ra!t may "it t"e %ater $pside d %n# b$t y $ &an ri)"t it by appr a&"in) t"e side t %"i&" t"e b tt1e is atta&"ed and !1ippin) t"e ra!t 5er. Y $ Ct"e s$r5i5 rD in!1ate it $p n 1andin). +"ere are ra!ts de5e1 ped ! r $se in ta&ti&a1 areas t"at are b1a&2.

+"is ra!t may in!1ate $pside d %n and re4$ire y $ t ri)"t t"e ra!t be! re b ardin). Department ! t"e Army In r $)" seas# it may be easier ! r y $ t )rasp t"e sma11 end ! t"e ra!t and# in a pr ne p siti n# t 2i&2 and p$11 y $rse1! int t"e ra!t. + sit $pri)"t# y $ may "a5e t dis& nne&t ne side ! t"e seat 2it and r 11 t t"at side.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Use t"e "and1es n t"e inside b tt m ! t"e ra!t ! r b ardin) CFi)$re 16-1*D.S. Se5en-Man Ra!t S me m$1tip1a&e air&ra!t &arry t"e se5en-man ra!t. +"en y $ ad@$st t"e spray s"ie1d. 3"en y $ are 1yin) !a&e d %n in t"e ra!t# dep1 y and ad@$st t"e sea an&" r. It is a & mp nent ! t"e s$r5i5a1 dr p 2it CFi)$re 1612D. +"e spray s"ie1d "e1ps 2eep y $ dry and %arm in & 1d &eans and pr te&ts y $ !r m t"e s$n in t"e " t &1imates CFi)$re 16-11D. A1%ays % r2 !r m t"e b tt1e side t pre5ent in@$ry i! t"e ra!t t$rns 5er. Fa&in) int t"e %ind# t"e %ind pr 5ides additi na1 "e1p in ri)"tin) t"e ra!t. +"ere are t% 5ariati ns ! t"e ne-man ra!tH t"e impr 5ed m de1 in& rp rates an in!1atab1e spray s"ie1d and !1 r t"at pr 5ide additi na1 ins$1ati n. (a)e 172 ! 2** .

F 11 % t"e steps $t1ined in t"e n te $nder ra!t pr &ed$res ab 5e. I! y $ d nFt "a5e "e1p# a)ain % r2 !r m t"e b tt1e side %it" t"e %ind at y $r ba&2 t "e1p " 1d d %n t"e ra!t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"en )rasp an ar1 &2 and b ardin) "and1e# 2i&2 y $r 1e)s t )et y $r b dy pr ne n t"e %ater# and t"en 2i&2 and p$11 y $rse1! int t"e ra!t. (a)e 17* ! 2** . I! y $ are %ea2 r in@$red# y $ may partia11y de!1ate t"e ra!t t ma2e b ardin) easier CFi)$re 16-17D. Department ! t"e Army Use t"e b ardin) ramp i! s me ne " 1ds d %n t"e ra!tFs pp site side.S.

r 29-man ra!ts in m$1tip1a&e air&ra!t CFi)$res 16-19 and 16-16D. I! n t# b ard in t"e ! 11 %in) mannerI • Appr a&" t"e 1 %er b ardin) ramp. Ne5er 5erin!1ate t"e ra!t. • 6rasp t"e b ardin) "and1es and 2i&2 y $r 1e)s t )et y $r b dy int a pr ne p siti n n t"e %aterFs s$r!a&eH t"en 2i&2 and p$11 $nti1 y $ are inside t"e ra!t.r +%enty-Fi5e-Man Ra!ts Y $ may !ind 2<. Y $ %i11 !ind t"em in a&&essib1e areas ! t"e !$se1a)e r in ra!t & mpartments.S. Department ! t"e Army Use t"e "and p$mp t 2eep t"e b$ yan&y &"ambers and &r ss seat !irm. • Rem 5e y $r 1i!e preser5er and tet"er it t y $rse1! s t"at it trai1s be"ind y $.r 29-man ra!t !r m t"e air&ra!t# i! p ssib1e. +%enty. S me may be a$t mati&a11y dep1 yed !r m t"e & &2-pit# %"i1e t"ers may need man$a1 dep1 yment. . ard t"e 2<. N matter " % t"e ra!t 1ands in t"e %ater# it is ready ! r b ardin).FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A 1anyard & nne&ts t"e a&&ess ry 2it t t"e ra!t and y $ retrie5e t"e 2it by "and. Y $ m$st man$a11y in!1ate t"e &enter &"amber %it" t"e "and p$mp. (a)e 177 ! 2** .

Department ! t"e Army (a)e 179 ! 2** .S.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

S. S!i%i#0 R!6t$ Ra!ts d n t "a5e 2ee1s# t"ere! re# y $ &anFt sai1 t"em int t"e %ind. 0 %e5er# any ne &an sai1 a ra!t d %n%ind. Use t"e p$mp t 2eep t"ese ra!tsF &"ambers and &enter rin) !irm. Immediate1y ti)"ten t"e e4$a1i'er &1amp $p n enterin) t"e ra!t t pre5ent de!1atin) t"e entire ra!t in &ase ! a p$n&t$re CFi)$re 16-1:D. Appr a&" t"e interse&ti n ! t"e ra!t and ramp# )rasp t"e $pper b ardin) "and1e# and s%in) ne 1e) nt t"e &enter ! t"e ramp# as in m $ntin) a " rse CFi)$re 16-17D. (a)e 176 ! 2** .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! y $ de&ide t sai1 and t"e %ind is b1 %in) t %ard a desired destinati n# !$11y in!1ate t"e ra!t# sit "i)"# ta2e in t"e sea an&" r# ri) a sai1# and $se an ar as a r$dder. Y $ &an s$&&ess!$11y sai1 m$1tip1a&e Ce?&ept 2<. D n t try t sai1 t"e ra!t $n1ess 1and is near. Department ! t"e Army An in& mp1ete1y in!1ated ra!t %i11 ma2e b ardin) easier. +"ey s" $1d be %e11 r $nded b$t n t 5er1y ti)"t.t 29-manD ra!ts 1< de)rees !! !r m t"e dire&ti n ! t"e %ind.

+ pre5ent !a11in) $t# t"ey s" $1d a1s a5 id sittin) n t"e sides ! t"e ra!t r standin) $p. A5 id s$dden m 5ements %it" $t %arnin) t"e t"er passen)ers. (ad t"e b tt m ! t"e mast t pre5ent it !r m &"a!in) r p$n&"in) a " 1e t"r $)" t"e !1 r# %"et"er r n t t"ere is a s &2et. D n t se&$re t"e & mers ! t"e 1 %er ed)e ! t"e sai1.D. In r $)" %eat"er# 2eep t"e sea an&" r a%ay !r m t"e b %. Y $ may $se a %aterpr ! tarpa$1in r para&"$te materia1 ! r t"e sai1. (r te&t !res"%ater s$pp1ies !r m sea%ater & ntaminati n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0a5e t"e passen)ers sit 1 % in t"e ra!t# %it" t"eir %ei)"t distrib$ted t " 1d t"e $p%ind side d %n. 3"en drin2in) %ater# m isten y $r 1ips# t n)$e# and t"r at be! re s%a11 %in). I! t"e ra!t "as n re)$1ar mast s &2et and step# ere&t t"e mast by tyin) it se&$re1y t t"e !r nt &r ss seat $sin) bra&es. Department ! t"e Army In a m$1tip1a&e Ce?&ept 2<.S. +"e "ee1 ! a s" e# %it" t"e t e %ed)ed $nder t"e seat# ma2es a ) d impr 5ised mast step. +a2e e5ery pre&a$ti n t pre5ent t"e ra!t !r m t$rnin) 5er. 3"en t"e sea an&" r is n t in $se# tie it t t"e ra!t and st % it in s$&" a manner t"at it %i11 " 1d immediate1y i! t"e ra!t &apsi'es. *!te& 3ater is y $r m st imp rtant need. 3it" it a1 ne# y $ &an 1i5e ! r ten days r 1 n)er# dependin) n y $r %i11 t 1i5e.t 29-manD ra!t# ere&t a s4$are sai1 in t"e b % $sin) t"e ars and t"eir e?tensi ns as t"e mast and &r ssbar CFi)$re 16-1. 0 1d t"e 1ines atta&"ed t t"e & mers %it" y $r "ands s t"at a )$st ! %ind %i11 n t rip t"e sai1# brea2 t"e mast# r &apsi'e t"e ra!t. 8eep y $r b dy %e11 (a)e 177 ! 2** . Short 3ater Rations 3"en y $ "a5e a 1imited %ater s$pp1y and y $ &anFt rep1a&e it by &"emi&a1 r me&"ani&a1 means# $se t"e %ater e!!i&ient1y.

A11 % 5enti1ati n ! airH dampen y $r &1 t"es d$rin) t"e " ttest part ! t"e day. 3"en it rains# drin2 as m$&" as y $ &an " 1d. Rela+ is t"e 2ey % rd--at 1east try t re1a?. It is near1y !ree ! sa1t. +"e 1i!e ra!tFs m ti n and an?iety may &a$se na$sea. +"is type ! s 1ar sti11 n1y % r2s n !1at# &a1m seas. I! y $ are s s" rt ! %ater t"at y $ need t d t"is# t"en (" #"t drin2 any ! t"e t"er b dy !1$ids. I! y $ eat %"en na$seated# y $ may 1 se y $r ! d immediate1y. F""( P&".FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. I! it is en&r$sted %it" dried sa1t# %as" it in sea%ater. 3at&" t"e &1 $ds and be ready ! r any &"an&e ! s" %ers. +"is i&e is b1$is"# "as r $nded & mers# and sp1inters easi1y. Re1a? and s1eep %"en p ssib1e. N rma11y# a sma11 am $nt ! sea%ater mi?ed %it" rain %i11 "ard1y be n ti&eab1e and %i11 n t &a$se any p"ysi&a1 rea&ti n. Fi? y $r dai1y %ater rati n a!ter & nsiderin) t"e am $nt ! %ater y $ "a5e# t"e $tp$t ! s 1ar sti11s and desa1tin) 2it# and t"e n$mber and p"ysi&a1 & nditi n ! y $r party. REMEMBERB D" #"t drin2 sea%ater. D" #"t eat# $n1ess %ater is a5ai1ab1e. Solar Still 3"en s 1ar sti11s are a5ai1ab1e# read t"e instr$&ti ns and set t"em $p immediate1y. S1eep and rest are t"e best %ays ! end$rin) peri ds ! red$&ed %ater and ! d inta2e. Nearer t"e s" re t"ere are !is" t"at are b t" dan)er $s and p is n $s t eat. Department ! t"e Army s"aded# b t" !r m 5er"ead s$n and !r m re!1e&ti n !! t"e sea s$r!a&e.e &are!$1 n t t )et t"e b tt m ! t"e ra!t %et. I! y $r %ater rati n is t% 1iters r m re per day# eat any part ! y $r rati n r any additi na1 ! d t"at y $ may &at&"# s$&" as birds# !is"# s"rimp. &e+e#t In t"e pen sea# !is" %i11 be t"e main ! d s $r&e. In any e5ent# 2eep desa1tin) 2its and emer)en&y %ater st res ! r peri ds %"en y $ &ann t $se s 1ar sti11s r &at&" rain%ater. +"ere are s me !is"# s$&" as t"e red snapper and barra&$da# t"at are n rma11y edib1e b$t p is n $s %"en ta2en !r m t"e %aters ! at 11s and ree!s. Use as many sti11s as p ssib1e# dependin) n t"e n$mber ! men in t"e ra!t and t"e am $nt ! s$n1i)"t a5ai1ab1e. 3ater 'ro" 'ish Drin2 t"e a4$e $s !1$id ! $nd a1 n) t"e spine and in t"e eyes ! 1ar)e !is". In r $)" seas y $ &ann t )et $n& ntaminated !res" %ater. . I! na$seated# rest and re1a? as m$&" as y $ &an# and ta2e n1y %ater. . I! t"e sea is r $)"# tie y $rse1! t t"e ra!t# &1 se any & 5er# and ride $t t"e st rm as best y $ &an. It is a1s p ssib1e t & 11e&t de% a1 n) t"e sides ! t"e ra!t $sin) a sp n)e r &1 t". /are!$11y &$t t"e !is" in "a1! t )et t"e !1$id a1 n) t"e spine and s$&2 t"e eye. Use t"em as a s $r&e ! %ater n1y in emer)en&ies. +"ere are s me p is n $s and dan)er $s &ean !is"# b$t# in )enera1# %"en $t ! si)"t ! 1and# !is" are sa!e t eat. D" #"t sm 2e. 8eep t"e tarpa$1in "andy ! r &at&"in) %ater. +"ese t"er !1$ids are ri&" in pr tein and !at and %i11 $se $p m re ! y $r reser5e %ater in di)esti n t"an t"ey s$pp1y.esalting *its 3"en desa1tin) 2its are a5ai1ab1e in additi n t s 1ar sti11s# $se t"em n1y ! r immediate %ater needs r d$rin) 1 n) 5er&ast peri ds %"en y $ &ann t $se s 1ar sti11s. + red$&e y $r 1 ss ! %ater t"r $)" perspirati n# s a2 y $r &1 t"es in t"e sea and %rin) t"em $t be! re p$ttin) t"em n a)ain. Sea Ice In ar&ti& %aters# $se 1d sea i&e ! r %ater. D" #"t drin2 $rine. 0 %e5er# ma2e s$re t"at y $ "a5e en $)" s"ade %"en nappin) d$rin) t"e day. +"is is a trade. At ni)"t# se&$re t"e tarpa$1in 1i2e a s$ns"ade# and t$rn $p its ed)es t & 11e&t de%. D n t e?ert y $rse1!.S. D" #"t drin2 a1& " 1. 3ater !r m i&eber)s is !res"# b$t i&eber)s are dan)er $s t appr a&". Se&$re s 1ar sti11s t t"e ra!t %it" &are. D nFt 5erd t"is d$rin) " t days %"en n &an py r s$n s"ie1d is a5ai1ab1e. Ne% i&e is )ray# mi12y# "ard# and sa1ty. I! y $ d nFt "a5e %ater# d nFt eat. F1yin) !is" %i11 e5en @$mp int y $r ra!tK (a)e 17: ! 2** .!! bet%een & 1in) and sa1t%ater b i1s and ras"es t"at %i11 res$1t.

0 1d t"e net $nder t"e %ater and s& p $p%ard. Y $ &an !as"i n 1$res by atta&"in) a d $b1e " 2 t any s"iny pie&e ! meta1. In %arm re)i ns# )$t and b1eed !is" immediate1y a!ter &at&"in) t"em. 'ishing Aids Y $ &an $se di!!erent materia1s t ma2e !is"in) aids as des&ribed in t"e ! 11 %in) para)rap"sI • -ishing line. A1s edib1e are t"e part1y di)ested sma11er !is" t"at y $ may !ind in t"e st ma&"s ! 1ar)e !is". Ne5er eat !is" t"at "a5e pa1e# s"iny )i11s# s$n2en eyes# !1abby s2in and !1es"# r an $np1easant d r. 3"en $sin) bait# try t 2eep it m 5in) in t"e %ater t )i5e it t"e appearan&e ! bein) a1i5e. /$t !is" t"at y $ d n t eat immediate1y int t"in# narr % strips and "an) t"em t dry. • Impr 5ise a spear by tyin) a 2ni!e t an ar b1ade. D n t eat t"e 1i5ers# d$e t "i)" 5itamin A & ntent. • /$t a 1ar)e !is" 1 se rat"er t"an ris2 &apsi'in) t"e ra!t. Unra5e1 t"e t"reads and tie t"em t )et"er in s" rt 1en)t"s in )r $ps ! t"ree r m re t"reads. A1s # tie t"e 2ni!e 5ery se&$re1y r y $ may 1 se it. S"ar2 meat is a ) d s $r&e ! ! d %"et"er ra%# dried# r & 2ed. • >rapple. Y $ may eat sea%eed itse1!# b$t n1y %"en y $ "a5e p1enty ! drin2in) %ater. +"is spear &an "e1p y $ &at&" 1ar)er !is"# b$t y $ m$st )et t"em int t"e ra!t 4$i&21y r t"ey %i11 s1ip !! t"e b1ade. I! y $ d n t eat t"em a11 immediate1y# d n t eat any ! t"e 1e!t 5ers. • -ish lures. • D n t p$n&t$re y $r ra!t %it" " 2s r t"er s"arp instr$ments. Use pie&es ! tarpa$1in r &an5as. Use a11 t"e )$ts !r m birds and !is" ! r bait. +ry t &at&" sma11 rat"er t"an 1ar)e !is". . In additi n# sea t$rt1es are edib1e. Y $ may !ind t"em $nder y $r ra!t. .ints Y $r !is"in) s" $1d be s$&&ess!$1 i! y $ remember t"e ! 11 %in) imp rtant "intsI • . Fis" n t &1eaned and dried may sp i1 in "a1! a day. (e p1e pre!er s me s"ar2 spe&ies 5er t"ers. +"e sa1t t"at ad"eres t it &an ma2e it a s"arp &$ttin) ed)e# an ed)e dan)er $s b t" t t"e ra!t and y $r "ands. Use )rapp1es t " 2 sea%eed. • ?ait. +"ese y $ may eat r $se ! r bait. • In t"e daytime# s"ade attra&ts s me !is". • 3at&" ! r s&" 1s ! !is"H try t m 5e &1 se t t"ese s&" 1s.S. D n t & n!$se ee1s %it" sea sna2es t"at "a5e an b5i $s1y s&a1y b dy and str n)1y & mpressed# padd1es"aped tai1. S" e1a&es and para&"$te s$spensi n 1ine a1s % r2 %e11. Use t"e 1e!t 5ers ! r bait.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 17. S& p t"e sma11 !is" $p %it" a net. ! 2** . Dry y $r !is"in) 1ines# &1ean and s"arpen t"e " 2s# and d n t a11 % t"e " 2s t sti&2 int t"e !is"in) 1ines. • A1%ays ta2e &are ! y $r !is"in) e4$ipment. +"e 1i)"t attra&ts !is". Department ! t"e Army 'ish 3"en !is"in)# d n t "and1e t"e !is"in) 1ine %it" bare "ands and ne5er %rap it ar $nd y $r "ands r tie it t a 1i!e ra!t. • -ish hooks. Y $ may s"a2e &rabs# s"rimp# r sma11 !is" $t ! t"e sea%eed. S"ar2 meat sp i1s 5ery rapid1y d$e t t"e "i)" & n&entrati n ! $rea in t"e b1 d# t"ere! re# b1eed it immediate1y and s a2 it in se5era1 &"an)es ! %ater. t" ee1s and sea sna2es are edib1e# b$t y $ m$st "and1e t"e 1atter %it" &are be&a$se ! t"eir p is n $s bites. I! y $ d nFt "a5e a net# ma2e ne !r m &1 t" ! s me type. • Fis" at ni)"t $sin) a 1i)"t. Use a "ea5y pie&e ! % d as t"e main s"a!t# and 1as" t"ree sma11er pie&es t t"e s"a!t as )rapp1es. / nsider t"em a11 edib1e e?&ept t"e 6reen1and s"ar2 %" se !1es" & ntains "i)" 4$antities ! 5itamin A. Sea !is" "a5e a sa1t%ater r &1ean !is"y d r. Impr 5ise )rapp1es !r m % d. A %e11-dried !is" stays edib1e ! r se5era1 days. • D n t !is" %"en 1ar)e s"ar2s are in t"e area. Y $ &an $se sma11 !is" as bait ! r 1ar)er nes. N s$r5i5 r at sea s" $1d be %it" $t !is"in) e4$ipment b$t i! y $ are# impr 5ise " 2s as s" %n in /"apter :. +"e "eart# b1 d# intestina1 %a11# and 1i5er ! m st !is" are edib1e.elp$ul 'ishing .e e?treme1y &are!$1 %it" !is" t"at "a5e teet" and spines. Fis" %it" dar2 meat are 5ery pr ne t de& mp siti n. 3ear )1 5es# i! t"ey are a5ai1ab1e# r $se a &1 t" t "and1e !is" and t a5 id in@$ry !r m s"arp !ins and )i11 & 5ers. 6 d !is" s" % t"e pp site &"ara&teristi&s. / 2 t"e intestines.

-at any birds y $ &an &at&". +ry t pre5ent t"is pr b1em by %earin) s$n)1asses. / nstipati n +"is & nditi n is a & mm n pr b1em n a ra!t. F1$s" t"e s res %it" !res" %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e# and a11 % t dry. S$nb$rn (a)e 1:< ! 2** . Immersi n R t# Fr stbite# and 0yp t"ermia +"ese pr b1ems are simi1ar t t" se en& $ntered in & 1d %eat"er en5ir nments. S metimes birds may 1and n y $r ra!t# b$t $s$a11y t"ey are &a$ti $s. Salt%ater Sores +"ese s res res$1t !r m a brea2 in s2in e?p sed t sa1t%ater ! r an e?tended peri d. • L ss ! t"e %i11 t s$r5i5e. 3"en t"e birdFs !eet are in t"e &enter ! t"e n se# p$11 it ti)"t.anda)e b t" eyes 1: t 27 " $rs# r 1 n)er i! dama)e is se5ere. It is best n t t treat it# as it & $1d &a$se !$rt"er de"ydrati n. Seasic-ness Seasi&2ness is t"e na$sea and 5 mitin) &a$sed by t"e m ti n ! t"e ra!t. • Un&1ean & nditi ns. +"is %i11 brin) t"e bird %it"in s" tin) ran)e# pr 5ided y $ "a5e a !irearm. • . . Impr 5ise s$n)1asses i! ne&essary. • Attra&ti n ! s"ar2s t t"e ra!t. Y $ may be ab1e t attra&t s me birds by t %in) a bri)"t pie&e ! meta1 be"ind t"e ra!t. • 0a5e t"e patient 1ie d %n and rest.1indnessE0eada&"e I! !1ame# sm 2e# r t"er & ntaminants )et in t"e eyes# !1$s" t"em immediate1y %it" sa1t %ater# t"en %it" !res" %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e. App1y an antisepti&# i! a5ai1ab1e.t"ers be& min) seasi&2. +"ese pr b1ems &an be& me &riti&a1 i! 1e!t $ntreated. .ait t"e &enter ! t"e n se and %ait ! r t"e bird t 1and. 8ote9 Some survivors have said that erecting a canopy or using the hori*on as a !ocal point helped overcome seasickness. Sympt ms and treatment are t"e same as & 5ered in /"apter 19. Di!!i&$1t Urinati n +"is pr b1em is n t $n$s$a1 and is d$e main1y t de"ydrati n. Me(i. App1y intment# i! a5ai1ab1e. Use y $r ima)inati n.i!te( *ith Se! S &/i/!% At sea# y $ may be& me seasi&2# )et sa1t%ater s res# r !a&e s me ! t"e same medi&a1 pr b1ems t"at &&$r n 1and# s$&" as de"ydrati n r s$nb$rn. -?er&ise as m$&" as p ssib1e and drin2 an ade4$ate am $nt ! %ater# i! a5ai1ab1e. It &an res$1t in-• -?treme !1$id 1 ss and e?"a$sti n. . + treat seasi&2ness-• 3as" b t" t"e patient and t"e ra!t t rem 5e t"e si)"t and d r ! 5 mit. Use t"e !eat"ers ! r ins$1ati n# t"e entrai1s and !eet ! r bait# and s n. I! t"e )1are !r m t"e s2y and %ater &a$ses y $r eyes t be& me b1 ds" t and in!1amed# banda)e t"em 1i)"t1y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • 6i5e t"e patient seasi&2ness pi11s i! a5ai1ab1e. Department ! t"e Army #irds As stated in /"apter :# a11 birds are edib1e. 0thers have said that swimming alongside the ra!t !or short periods helped" but e+treme care must be taken i! swimming. • 8eep t"e patient !r m eatin) ! d $nti1 "is na$sea is ) ne. D n t pen r drain. I! a bird 1ands %it"in y $r rea&"# y $ may be ab1e t &at&" it. D n t ta2e a 1a?ati5e# as t"is %i11 &a$se !$rt"er de"ydrati n.%e+$ A$$". Use a11 parts ! t"e bird. +"e s res may ! rm s&abs and p$s. I! t"e patient is $nab1e t ta2e t"e pi11s ra11y# insert t"em re&ta11y ! r abs rpti n by t"e b dy. I! t"e birds d n t 1and &1 se en $)" r 1and n t"e t"er end ! t"e ra!t# y $ may be ab1e t &at&" t"em %it" a bird n se.!% P&".S.

t"er anima1s s$&" as %"a1es# p rp ises# and stin)rays may 1 2 dan)er $s# b$t rea11y p se 1itt1e t"reat in t"e pen sea. A )r $p &an eit"er !ri)"ten r !i)"t !! s"ar2s better t"an ne man. +"e @a%s ! s me ! t"e 1ar)er s"ar2s are s !ar ! r%ard t"at t"ey &an bite !1 atin) b@e&ts easi1y %it" $t t%istin) t t"e side. Remember# re!1e&ti n !r m t"e %ater a1s &a$ses s$nb$rn. Department ! t"e Army S$nb$rn is a seri $s pr b1em in sea s$r5i5a1. Sh!&)$ 3"et"er y $ are in t"e %ater r in a b at r ra!t# y $ may see many types ! sea 1i!e ar $nd y $. +ry t pre5ent s$nb$rn by stayin) in s"ade and 2eepin) y $r "ead and s2in & 5ered. +"eir d rsa1 !ins !re4$ent1y pr @e&t ab 5e t"e %ater.! t"e many "$ndreds ! s"ar2 spe&ies# n1y ab $t 2< spe&ies are 2n %n t atta&2 man. +"e s"ar2s 1i5in) near t"e s$r!a&e are t"e nes y $ %i11 m st 1i2e1y see.t"er s"ar2s 2n %n t atta&2 man in&1$de t"e )ray# b1$e# 1em n# sand# n$rse# b$11# and &eani& %"ite tip s"ar2s. 3"ene5er ne ! t"e s"ar2s !inds a 5i&tim# t"e t"er s"ar2s %i11 4$i&21y @ in it. • D n t 1et y $r arms# 1e)s# r e4$ipment "an) in t"e %ater. /1 t"in) a1s pr te&ts a)ainst abrasi ns s" $1d t"e s"ar2 br$s" a)ainst y $. D n t &1ean !is" in t"e %ater. S"ar2s may "$nt a1 ne# b$t m st rep rts ! atta&2s &ite m re t"an ne s"ar2 present. 6enera11y# s"ar2s are t"e )reatest dan)er t y $. +"ere are s"ar2s in a11 &eans and seas ! t"e % r1d.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. / nser5e y $r stren)t" ! r !i)"tin) in &ase t"e s"ar2 atta&2s. . • Always watch !or sharks. . 0ist ri&a11y# s"ar2s "a5e atta&2ed t"e $n&1 t"ed men in )r $ps !irst# main1y in t"e !eet. M st rep rted s"ar2 & nta&ts and atta&2s %ere d$rin) day1i)"t# and many ! t"ese "a5e been in t"e 1ate a!tern n. +"e m st dan)er $s are t"e )reat %"ite s"ar2# t"e "ammer"ead# t"e ma2 # and t"e ti)er s"ar2. • 8eep 4$iet and d n t m 5e ar $nd. S"ar2s in t"e tr pi&a1 and s$btr pi&a1 seas are !ar m re a))ressi5e t"an t" se in temperate %aters. +"ey are a1s 5ery sensiti5e t any abn rma1 5ibrati ns in t"e %ater. . S"ar2s &an bite !r m a1m st any p siti nH t"ey d n t "a5e t t$rn n t"eir side t bite. +"eir n rma1 diet is 1i5e anima1s ! any type# and t"ey %i11 stri2e at in@$red r "e1p1ess anima1s. / nsider any s"ar2 1 n)er t"an 1 meter dan)er $s. 3"en y $ are in a ra!t and see s"ar2s-• D n t !is". Si)"t# sme11# r s $nd may )$ide t"em t t"eir prey. I! a s"ar2 atta&2 is imminent %"i1e y $ are in t"e %ater# sp1as" and ye11 @$st en $)" t 2eep t"e s"ar2 at bay. I! t"ere are many s"ar2s in t"e area# & nd$&t t"e b$ria1 at ni)"t.$ry a11 dead as s n as p ssib1e. S"ar2s "a5e an a&$te sense ! sme11 and t"e sme11 ! b1 d in t"e %ater e?&ites t"em. I! y $ m$st de!e&ate# d s in sma11 am $nts and t"r % it as !ar a%ay !r m y $ as p ssib1e. S me ! t"e meas$res t"at y $ &an ta2e t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst s"ar2s %"en y $ are in t"e %ater are-• Stay with other swimmers. S"ar2s !eed at a11 " $rs ! t"e day and ni)"t. +"e sma11er s"ar2s tend t tra5e1 in s&" 1s and atta&2 in mass. I! y $ m$st# n1y d s in sma11 am $nts. I! y $ "it t"e s"ar2 n t"e n se# y $ may in@$re y $r "and i! it )1an&es !! and "its its teet". S me may be m re dan)er $s t"an t"ers. A11 s"ar2s are basi&a11y eatin) ma&"ines. 8eep a11 y $r &1 t"in) n# t in&1$de y $r s" es. Use &ream r /"ap Sti&2 !r m y $r !irst aid 2it. • . (a)e 1:1 ! 2** . D t"e same i! y $ m$st 5 mit. I! atta&2ed# 2i&2 and stri2e t"e s"ar2. 3"i1e many 1i5e and !eed in t"e dept"s ! t"e sea# t"ers "$nt near t"e s$r!a&e. S metimes ye11in) $nder%ater r s1appin) t"e %ater repeated1y %i11 s&are t"e s"ar2 a%ay.S. • D n t t"r % )arba)e 5erb ard. +"e str$))1es ! a % $nded anima1 r s%immer# $nder%ater e?p1 si ns# r e5en a !is" str$))1in) n a !is"1ine %i11 attra&t a s"ar2. A )r $p &an maintain a *6<-de)ree %at&". 0it t"e s"ar2 n t"e )i11s r eyes i! p ssib1e. S"ar2s %i11 eat a % $nded s"ar2 as 4$i&21y as t"eir prey. Let it dissipate bet%een dis&"ar)es. • Avoid urinating. I! y $ "a5e " 2ed a !is"# 1et it ) .

y tra5e1in) %it" t"e %a5es and para11e1 t t"e s1i)"t1y t$rb$1ent area mar2ed JBJ n t"e i11$strati n# y $ s" $1d rea&" 1and.e$ .hi#0 Te. +"e dire&ti n !r m %"i&" !1 &2s !1y at da%n and t %"i&" t"ey !1y at d$s2 may indi&ate t"e dire&ti n ! 1and. +"ere $s$a11y are m re birds near 1and t"an 5er t"e pen sea. A mira)e disappears r its appearan&e and e1e5ati n &"an)e %"en 5ie%ed !r m s1i)"t1y di!!erent "ei)"ts. +ry n t t 1and %"en t"e s$n is 1 % and strai)"t in !r nt ! y $.e &are!$1 n t t mista2e a mira)e ! r nearby 1and. Y $ "ear t"e r ar ! s$r! 1 n) be! re y $ see t"e s$r!.S. (a)e 1:2 ! 2** . A5 id & ra1 ree!s and r &2y &1i!!s. Dete. +"e & ntin$ed &ries ! seabirds & min) !r m ne dire&ti n indi&ate t"eir r stin) p1a&e n nearby 1and. D$rin) t"e day# birds are sear&"in) ! r ! d and t"e dire&ti n ! !1i)"t "as n si)ni!i&an&e. Deep %ater is dar2 )reen r dar2 b1$e. R!6ti#0 "& Be!. At ni)"t# r in ! )# mist# r rain# y $ may dete&t 1and by d rs and s $nds. A !i?ed &$m$1$s &1 $d in a &1ear s2y r in a s2y %"ere a11 t"er &1 $ds are m 5in) !ten " 5ers 5er r s1i)"t1y d %n%ind !r m an is1and.h#i. 0 %e5er# ) in) as" re in a str n) s$r! is dan)er $s. Mira)es &&$r at any 1atit$de# b$t t"ey are m re 1i2e1y in t"e tr pi&s# espe&ia11y d$rin) t"e midd1e ! t"e day. Y $ may be ab1e t dete&t 1and by t"e pattern ! t"e %a5es Cre!ra&tedD as t"ey appr a&" 1and CFi)$re 162<D. +"ere are many indi&at rs t"at 1and is near. In t"e tr pi&s# t"e re!1e&ti n ! s$n1i)"t !r m s"a11 % 1a) ns r s"e15es ! & ra1 ree!s !ten &a$ses a )reenis" tint in t"e s2y. +"ere are n & ra1 ree!s near t"e m $t"s ! !res"%ater streams. Li)"ter & 1 r indi&ates s"a11 % %ater# %"i&" may mean 1and is near. Y $ %i11 d m re dama)e t y $r "ands t"an t"e s"ar2. +a2e y $r time. -it"er si)na1 as" re ! r "e1p r sai1 ar $nd and 1 2 ! r a s1 pin) bea&" %"ere t"e s$r! is )ent1e. +"e m$sty d r ! man)r 5e s%amps and m$d !1ats &arry a 1 n) %ay. Department ! t"e Army 3"en y $ are in a ra!t and a s"ar2 atta&2 is imminent# "it t"e s"ar2 %it" anyt"in) y $ "a5e# e?&ept y $r "ands. +ry t 1and n t"e 1ee side ! an is1and r n a p int ! 1and @$ttin) $t int t"e %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In t"e ar&ti&# 1i)"t-& 1 red re!1e&ti ns n &1 $ds !ten indi&ate i&e !ie1ds r sn %-& 5ered 1and. + ra!t as" re# y $ &an $s$a11y $se t"e ne-man ra!t %it" $t dan)er. I! y $ stri2e %it" an ar# be &are!$1 n t t 1 se r brea2 it. 8eep y $r eyes pen ! r )aps in t"e s$r! 1ine# and "ead ! r t"em.ti#0 L!#( Y $ s" $1d %at&" &are!$11y ! r any si)ns ! 1and. +"ese re!1e&ti ns are 4$ite di!!erent !r m t"e dar2 )ray nes &a$sed by pen %ater. Se1e&t y $r 1andin) p int &are!$11y. A5 id rip &$rrents r str n) tida1 &$rrents t"at may &arry y $ !ar $t t sea.n&e y $ "a5e ! $nd 1and# y $ m$st )et as" re sa!e1y. . .

I! y $ m$st 1and n a r &2y s" re# 1 2 ! r a p1a&e %"ere t"e %a5es r$s" $p nt t"e r &2s. 8eep y $r &1 t"es and s" es n t a5 id se5ere &$ts. +a2e t"e ra!t $t ! t"e %ater and st re it %e11 ba&2 !r m t"e !1 eFs ed)e. +rai1 t"e sea an&" r 5er t"e stem $sin) as m$&" 1ine as y $ "a5e. I! y $ "a5e a &" i&e# d n t 1and at ni)"t. Ad@$st and in!1ate y $r 1i!e 5est. 3"en t"e sea%ard %a5e appr a&"es# !a&e it and s$bmer)e.S. (add1e r r % "ard and ride in t t"e bea&" as !ar as y $ &an. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ "a5e t ) t"r $)" t"e s$r! t rea&" s" re# ta2e d %n t"e mast. +"e s$r! may be irre)$1ar and 5e1 &ity may 5ary# s m di!y y $r pr &ed$re as & nditi ns demand. +a2e ad5anta)e ! s$&" )r %t". Use t"e ars r padd1es t "e1p ride in n t"e sea%ard side ! a 1ar)e %a5e. I! in a medi$m s$r! %it" n %ind r !!s" re %ind# 2eep t"e ra!t !r m passin) 5er a %a5e s rapid1y t"at it dr ps s$dden1y a!ter t ppin) t"e &rest. I! t"e s$r! is m derate# ride in n t"e ba&2 ! a sma11 %a5e by s%immin) ! r%ard %it" it. 8eep y $r !eet &1 se t )et"er and y $r 2nees s1i)"t1y bent in a re1a?ed sittin) p st$re t &$s"i n t"e b1 %s a)ainst t"e & ra1. Use ars and "ands t 2eep t"e ra!t !r m r$bbin) n t"e ed)e ! t"e i&e. Y $ s" $1d be !$11y &1 t"ed and %ear s" es t red$&e in@$ry. S2i++i#0 A$h"&e I! ra!tin) as" re is n t p ssib1e and y $ "a5e t s%im# %ear y $r s" es and at 1east ne t"i&2ness ! &1 t"in).n si)"tin) res&$e &ra!t appr a&"in) ! r pi&2$p Cb at# s"ip# & n5enti na1 air&ra!t# r "e1i& pterD# 4$i&21y &1ear any 1ines C!is"in) 1ines# desa1tin) 2it 1inesD r t"er )ear t"at & $1d &a$se entan)1ement d$rin) res&$e. D n t @$mp $t ! t"e ra!t $nti1 it "as )r $nded# t"en 4$i&21y )et $t and bea&" it.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A!ter se&$rin) a11 items# p$t n y $r "e1met# i! a5ai1ab1e. As t"e ra!t nears t"e bea&"# ride in n t"e &rest ! a 1ar)e %a5e. Y $ may be ab1e t $se it ! r s"e1ter. S%im s1 %1y %"en ma2in) y $r appr a&". D n t s%im t"r $)" t"e sea%eedH &ra%1 5er t"e t p by )raspin) t"e 5e)etati n %it" 5er"and m 5ements. e . Se&$re a11 1 se items in t"e ra!t. A)ainst a str n) %ind and "ea5y s$r!# t"e ra!t m$st "a5e a11 p ssib1e speed t pass rapid1y t"r $)" t"e n& min) &rest t a5 id bein) t$rned br adside r t"r %n end 5er end. +a2e d %n &an pies and sai1s t ens$re a sa!er pi&2$p.) p "& Re$. A5 id i&eber)s t"at may &apsi'e and sma11 !1 es r t" se b5i $s1y disinte)ratin). Use t"e ars r padd1es and & nstant1y ad@$st t"e sea an&" r t 2eep a strain n t"e an&" r 1ine. 8eep t"e ra!t in!1ated and ready ! r $se. Di5e t a s"a11 % dept" t end t"e ride @$st be! re t"e %a5e brea2s. I! p ssib1e# a5 id meetin) a 1ar)e %a5e at t"e m ment it brea2s. I! &a$)"t in t"e $ndert % ! a 1ar)e %a5e# p$s" !! t"e b tt m r s%im t t"e s$r!a&e and pr &eed t %ard s" re as ab 5e. Remain in t"e ra!t# (a)e 1:* ! 2** . Use t"e sidestr 2e r breaststr 2e t & nser5e stren)t". 3ater is 4$ieter in t"e 1ee ! a "ea5y )r %t" ! sea%eed. In "i)" s$r!# s%im t %ard s" re in t"e tr $)" bet%een %a5es. Pi.< &entimeters C2 r * !eetD 1 %er t"an y $r "ead. I! t"e ra!t t$rns 5er in t"e s$r!# try t )rab " 1d ! it and ride it in. A!ter it passes# % r2 t %ard s" re in t"e ne?t tr $)". /r ss a r &2y r & ra1 ree! as y $ % $1d 1and n a r &2y s" re. Any !1 e may brea2 $p %it" $t %arnin). I! y $ en& $nter sea i&e# 1and n1y n 1ar)e# stab1e !1 es. +"ese a&ti ns %i11 2eep t"e ra!t p inted t %ard s" re and pre5ent t"e sea !r m t"r %in) t"e stern ar $nd and &apsi'in) y $. F$11y in!1ate y $r 1i!e preser5er. +"is p siti n %i11 1et y $r !eet abs rb t"e s" &2 %"en y $ 1and r stri2e s$b-mer)ed b $1ders r ree!s. As t"e ne?t %a5e appr a&"es# ta2e a sittin) p siti n %it" y $r !eet ! r%ard. A5 id p1a&es %"ere t"e %a5es e?p1 de %it" a "i)"# %"ite spray. A ) d met" d ! )ettin) t"r $)" t"e s$r! is t "a5e "a1! t"e men sit n ne side ! t"e ra!t# "a1! n t"e t"er# !a&in) a%ay !r m ea&" t"er. Fa&e t %ard s" re and ta2e a sittin) p siti n %it" y $r !eet in !r nt# 6< t . 3"en a "ea5y sea bears d %n# "a1! s" $1d r % Cp$11D t %ard t"e sea $nti1 t"e &rest passesH t"en t"e t"er "a1! s" $1d r % Cp$11D t %ard t"e s" re $nti1 t"e ne?t "ea5y sea & mes a1 n). Repeat t"e pr &ed$re $nti1 y $ 1and. A!ter se1e&tin) y $r 1andin) p int# ad5an&e be"ind a 1ar)e %a5e int t"e brea2ers. I! y $ d n t rea&" s" re be"ind t"e %a5e y $ pi&2ed# s%im %it" y $r "ands n1y. I! y $ "a5e reas n t be1ie5e t"at pe p1e 1i5e n t"e s" re# 1ay a%ay !r m t"e bea&"# si)na1# and %ait ! r t"e in"abitants t & me $t and brin) y $ in. Y $ %i11 need y $r stren)t" t " 1d n t t"e r &2s.

• (artia11y de!1ate t"e ra!t and !i11 it %it" %ater. S AS. I! p ssib1e# y $ %i11 re&ei5e "e1p !r m res&$e pers nne1 1 %ered int t"e %ater.S. F r s me spe&ies# t"e !1es" is a1%ays p is n $s# ! r t"er spe&ies# n1y at &ertain times ! t"e year. S$r5i5in) a1 n) t"e seas" re is di!!erent !r m pen sea s$r5i5a1. • M $nt t"e re& 5ery de5i&e# a5 idin) entan)1ement %it" t"e ra!t. +"ere %i11 pr bab1y a1s be na$sea# 5 mitin)# 1 ss ! spee&"# di''iness# and a para1ysis t"at e5ent$a11y brin)s deat". A5 id a11 & nta&t %it" t"er "$mans# and ma2e e5ery e!! rt t & 5er a11 tra&2s y $ 1ea5e n t"e s" re. +"ere are "$ndreds ! %ater "a'ards t"at &an &a$se deep p$n&t$re % $nds# se5ere b1eedin)# and t"e dan)er ! in!e&ti n. +"ey are taste1ess# t"ere! re t"e standard edibi1ity tests are $se-1ess. +"e p is ns are present in a11 parts ! t"e !is"# b$t espe&ia11y in t"e 1i5er# intestines# and e))s. Poisonous 'ish Many ree! !is" "a5e t ?i& !1es". In time ! %ar# remember t"at t"e enemy patr 1s m st & ast1ines. Coral / ra1# dead r a1i5e# &an in!1i&t pain!$1 &$ts. +"e t ?ins %i11 pr d$&e a n$mbness ! t"e 1ips# t n)$e# t es# and tips ! t"e !in)ers# se5ere it&"in)# and a &1ear re5ersa1 ! temperat$re sensati ns. In additi n t !is" %it" p is n $s !1es"# t"ere are t" se t"at are dan)er $s t t $&". I! t"e "e1i& pter re& 5ery is $nassisted# d t"e ! 11 %in) be! re pi&2$pI • Se&$re a11 t"e 1 se e4$ipment in t"e ra!t# a&&ess ry ba)# r in p &2ets.OR S Sear&" p1anes r s"ips d n t a1%ays sp t a dri!tin) ra!t r s%immer. • Unsnap t"e s$r5i5a1 2it & ntainer !r m t"e para&"$te "arness. >e11y!is"# %"i1e n t $s$a11y !ata1# &an in!1i&t a 5ery pain!$1 stin) i! it t $&"es y $ %it" its tenta&1es. Fis" t ?ins are %ater s 1$b1e--n am $nt ! & 2in) %i11 ne$tra1i'e t"em. See /"apter 11 and Appendi? F ! r detai1s n parti&$1ar1y dan)er $s !is" ! t"e sea and seas" re. . /1ean a11 & ra1 &$ts t" r $)"1y.i!% He!%th H!z!&($ / ra1# p is n $s and a))ressi5e !is"# &r & di1es# sea $r&"ins# sea bis&$its# sp n)es# anem nes# and tides and $ndert % p se spe&ia1 "ea1t" "a'ards. +"e 5en m !r m t"ese spines &a$ses a b$rnin) sensati n r e5en an a) ni'in) pain t"at is $t ! pr p rti n t t"e apparent se5erity ! t"e % $nd. • Dep1 y t"e sea an&" r# stabi1ity ba)s# and a&&ess ry ba). +"ere are a1s spe&ies t"at &an de1i5er an e1e&tri& s" &2. S me ree! !is"# s$&" as st ne!is" and t ad!is"# "a5e 5en m $s spines t"at &an &a$se 5ery pain!$1 a1t" $)" se1d m !ata1 in@$ries.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. / 1d items appear " t and " t items & 1d. • Si)na1 t"e " ist perat r ! r pi&2$p. Remember# ! 11 % a11 instr$&ti ns )i5en by t"e res&$e pers nne1.irds are 1east s$s&eptib1e t t"e p is ns. Aggressi(e 'ish (a)e 1:7 ! 2** . I! y $ are in !riend1y territ ry and de&ide t tra5e1# it is better t m 5e a1 n) t"e & ast t"an t ) in1and. +"ese patr 1s may &a$se pr b1ems ! r y $ i! y $ 1and n a " sti1e s" re. • A11 % t"e re& 5ery de5i&e r t"e &ab1e t )r $nd $t n t"e %aterFs s$r!a&e. D n t 1ea5e t"e & ast e?&ept t a5 id bsta&1es Cs%amps and &1i!!sD r $n1ess y $ !ind a trai1 t"at y $ 2n % 1eads t "$man "abitati n. D n t $se i dine t disin!e&t any & ra1 &$ts. S me & ra1 p 1yps !eed n i dine and may )r % inside y $r !1es" i! y $ $se i dine. +"ere! re# d n t t"in2 t"at be&a$se a bird &an eat a !is"# it is a sa!e spe&ies ! r y $ t eat. Department ! t"e Army $n1ess t"er%ise instr$&ted# and rem 5e a11 e4$ipment e?&ept t"e preser5ers. Spe. • Maintain t"e "and" 1d $nti1 t"e re& 5ery de5i&e is in y $r t"er "and. F d and %ater are m re ab$ndant and s"e1ter is b5i $s1y easier t 1 &ate and & nstr$&t. • 6rasp t"e ra!t "and" 1d and r 11 $t ! t"e ra!t. Y $ %i11 "a5e e?treme1y 1imited tra5e1 pti ns in t"is sit$ati n. Many stin)rays "a5e a p is n $s barb in t"eir tai1. Y $ may "a5e t 1and a1 n) t"e & ast be! re bein) res&$ed.

Arr %% rms# a1ias amp"i ?$s# are n t tr$e % rms. Use t"em %" 1e a!ter e5is&erati n r rem 5e t"e !i5e m$s&$1ar strips t"at r$n t"e 1en)t" ! its b dy. Sea Cucu"6ers +"is anima1 is an imp rtant ! d s $r&e in t"e Ind -(a&i!i& re)i ns. +"e b 1d and in4$isiti5e barra&$da "as atta&2ed men %earin) s"iny b@e&ts. S"e11!is" %i11 $s$a11y s$pp1y m st ! t"e pr tein eaten by & asta1 s$r5i5 rs. See /"apter . +"e pin&ers ! 1ar)er &rabs r 1 bsters &an &r$s" a manFs !in)er. A1s be%are ! Jred tidesJ t"at ma2e m 11$s2s p is n $s. Tides and Underto% +"ese are an t"er "a'ard t & ntend %it". D n t !i)"t a)ainst t"e p$11 ! t"e $ndert %. and Appendi? . +"ey are a1s a ) d s $r&e ! ! d.S. A/"i( t"em. Y $ & mm n1y !ind &r & di1es in t"e rem te areas ! t"e -ast Indies and S $t"east Asia. +"ere is a )reat 5ariety ! anima1 1i!e t"at &an s$pp1y y $r need ! r ! d in t"is type ! s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n. -at t"em sm 2ed# pi&21ed# r & 2ed.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. ! r a dis&$ssi n ! t"ese p1ants. Sea Urchins +"ese are & mm n and &an &a$se pain!$1 in@$ries %"en stepped n r t $&"ed. /r & di1e meat is an e?&e11ent s $r&e ! ! d %"en a5ai1ab1e. / nsider spe&imens 5er 1 meter 1 n) dan)er $s# espe&ia11y !ema1es )$ardin) t"eir nests. 0ollus-s M$sse1s# 1impets# &1ams# sea snai1s# &t p$ses# s4$ids# and sea s1$)s are a11 edib1e. Many spe&ies "a5e spines n t"eir s"e11s# ma2in) it pre!erab1e t %ear )1 5es %"en &at&"in) t"em. +"ere are many types ! sea%eed and t"er p1ants y $ &an easi1y !ind and eat.btainin) ! d a1 n) a seas" re s" $1d n t present a pr b1em. Sea Sna-es Sea sna2es are 5en m $s and s metimes ! $nd in mid &ean. App1y t"e edibi1ity test n ea&" spe&ies be! re eatin). +"ey are $n1i2e1y t bite $n1ess pr 5 2ed. S%im %it" it r perpendi&$1ar t it $nti1 it 1 ses stren)t"# t"en s%im ! r s" re. +"e m ray ee1# %"i&" "as many s"arp teet" and )r %s t 1. Sea Urchins& Sea #iscuits& Sponges& and Ane"ones +"ese anima1s &an &a$se e?treme# t" $)" se1d m !ata1# pain. F""( . Y $ !ind t"em in t"e sand and are e?&e11ent eit"er !res" r dried. I! &a$)"t in a 1ar)e %a5eFs $ndert %# p$s" !! t"e b tt m r s%im t t"e s$r!a&e and pr &eed s" re%ard in a tr $)" bet%een %a5es. +"e sea bass# %"i&" &an )r % t 1. (a)e 1:9 ! 2** . 0and1e t"em %it" )1 5es# and rem 5e a11 spines. Cra6s& Lo6sters& and #arnacles +"ese anima1s are se1d m dan)er $s t man and are an e?&e11ent ! d s $r&e. A5 id t"e b1$e-rin)ed &t p$s and & ne s"e11s Cdes&ribed in /"apter 11 and Appendi? FD. 3or"s / asta1 % rms are )enera11y edib1e# b$t it is better t $se t"em ! r !is" bait. Department ! t"e Army Y $ s" $1d a1s a5 id s me !er &i $s !is". I! p ssib1e# rem 5e t"e spines and treat t"e in@$ry ! r in!e&ti n. Us$a11y ! $nd in tr pi&a1 s"a11 % %ater near & ra1 ! rmati ns# sea $r&"ins resemb1e sma11# r $nd p r&$pines. I! stepped n# t"ey s1ip !ine need1es ! 1ime r si1i&a int t"e s2in# %"ere t"ey brea2 !! and !ester.arna&1es &an &a$se s&rapes r &$ts and are di!!i&$1t t deta&" !r m t"eir an&" r# b$t t"e 1ar)er spe&ies are an e?&e11ent ! d s $r&e. Fe% remain near in"abited areas. A5 id brist1e % rms t"at 1 2 1i2e !$''y &aterpi11ars. .9 meters# &an a1s be a))ressi5e i! dist$rbed. A1s a5 id t$be% rms t"at "a5e s"arp-ed)ed t$bes. It may &"ar)e 1i)"ts r s"iny b@e&ts at ni)"t.7 meters# is an t"er !is" t a5 id. +"e t"er anima1s menti ned in!1i&t in@$ry simi1ar1y. Crocodiles /r & di1es in"abit tr pi&a1 sa1t%ater bays and man)r 5e-b rdered est$aries and ran)e $p t 69 2i1 meters int t"e pen sea.

An est$ary is n rma11y %ide# "as str n) &$rrents# and is s$b@e&t t tides. In !a&t# deep %ater s metimes r$ns m re s1 %1y and is t"ere! re sa!er t"an !ast-m 5in) s"a11 % %ater. (a)e 1:6 ! 2** .S. +% r t"ree narr % &"anne1s are $s$a11y easier t &r ss t"an a %ide ri5er. I! t"ere is n "i)" p1a&e# &1imb a tree. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 17 . • A ledge o! rocks that crosses the river.e! re y $ try t &r ss a ri5er r stream# de5e1 p a ) d p1an. Dry t"em 5i) r $s1y as s n as y $ rea&" t"e t"er ban2. +"is !ten indi&ates dan)er $s rapids r &any ns. STR A0S Y $ &an app1y a1m st e5ery des&ripti n t ri5ers and streams.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3ade a&r ss i! y $ &an )et n1y y $r !eet %et. +ry t ma2e a ra!t ! s me type. I! p ssib1e# se1e&t a p int $pstream !r m t"e ban2 r sandbar s t"at t"e &$rrent %i11 &arry y $ t it i! y $ 1 se y $r ! tin). • Cddies. RIV RS AN. Y $ &an a1%ays dry y $r &1 t"es 1ater# r i! ne&essary# y $ &an ma2e a ra!t t &arry y $r &1 t"in) and e4$ipment a&r ss t"e ri5er. An &&asi na1 r &2 t"at brea2s t"e &$rrent# " %e5er# may "e1p y $. An eddy &an pr d$&e a p %er!$1 ba&2%ard p$11 d %nstream ! t"e bstr$&ti n &a$sin) t"e eddy and p$11 y $ $nder t"e s$r!a&e. +ry t se1e&t t"e sp t !r m %"i&" tra5e1 %i11 be t"e sa!est and easiest. • A s"a11 % ban2 r sandbar. Ne5er try t ! rd a stream dire&t1y ab 5e r e5en &1 se t s$&" "a'ards. +"e ! 11 %in) areas p ssess p tentia1 "a'ardsH a5 id t"em# i! p ssib1eI • 0bstacles on the opposite side o! the river that might hinder your travel. • A deep or rapid water!all or a deep channel. hatever it is" you need to know how to cross it sa!ely. Y $ may s$stain seri $s in@$ries !r m s1ippin) r !a11in) n r &2s. Y $r !irst step is t 1 2 ! r a "i)" p1a&e !r m %"i&" y $ &an )et a ) d 5ie% ! t"e ri5er r stream. • Rocky places. It may be in the !orm o! a river" a stream" a lake" a bog" )uicksand" )uagmire" or muskeg. Cven in the desert" !lash !loods occur" making streams an obstacle. +"is s%im & $1d be !ata1. 6 d &r ssin) 1 &ati ns in&1$de-• A 1e5e1 stret&" %"ere it brea2s int se5era1 &"anne1s. . +"e dept" ! a ! rdab1e ri5er r stream is n deterrent i! y $ &an 2eep y $r ! tin). Y $ m$st n t try t s%im r %ade a&r ss a stream r ri5er %"en t"e %ater is at 5ery 1 % temperat$res. Us$a11y# s$bmer)ed r &2s are 5ery s1i&2# ma2in) ba1an&e e?treme1y di!!i&$1t.E?PEDIENT *ATER CROSSIN1S In a survival situation" you may have to cross a water obstacle. +"ese tides &an in!1$en&e s me ri5ers many 2i1 meters !r m t"eir m $t"s. • A & $rse a&r ss t"e ri5er t"at 1eads d %nstream s t"at y $ %i11 &r ss t"e &$rrent at ab $t a 79de)ree an)1e. Fr m t"is p1a&e# y $ &an 1 2 ! r a p1a&e t &r ss. 6 ba&2 $pstream t an easier &r ssin) site. +"ey may be s"a11 % r deep# s1 % r !ast m 5in)# narr % r %ide. • An estuary o! a river.

Usin) t"is met" d# y $ &an sa!e1y &r ss &$rrents $s$a11y t str n) ! r ne pers n t stand a)ainst. • /r ss t"e stream s t"at y $ %i11 &r ss t"e d %nstream &$rrent at a 79-de)ree an)1e. (1ant y $r !eet !irm1y %it" ea&" step# and m 5e t"e p 1e ! r%ard a 1itt1e d %nstream !r m its pre5i $s p siti n# b$t sti11 $pstream !r m y $. I! t"ere are t"er pe p1e %it" y $# &r ss t"e stream t )et"er. ( siti n t"e "ea5iest pers n n t"e d %nstream end ! t"e p 1e and t"e 1i)"test n t"e $pstream end. It %i11 a1s pr 5ide y $ %it" !irmer ! tin). • +ie y $r pants and t"er arti&1es t t"e t p ! y $r r$&2sa&2 r in a b$nd1e# i! y $ "a5e n pa&2. 3at&" ! r bsta&1es and be &are!$1 ! ba&2%ater eddies and & n5er)in) &$rrents# as t"ey !ten & ntain dan)er $s s%ir1s. 3it" y $r ne?t step# p1a&e y $r ! t be1 % t"e p 1e. +"is a&ti n %i11 in&rease b$ yan&y and "e1p y $ steer a%ay !r m bsta&1es.S I! ne&essary# y $ &an sa!e1y &r ss a deep# s%i!t ri5er r rapids. 8eep t"e p 1e %e11 s1anted s t"at t"e ! r&e ! t"e &$rrent 2eeps t"e p 1e a)ainst y $r s" $1der CFi)$re 17-1D. In deep rapids# 1ie n y $r st ma&"# "ead d %nstream# an)1in) t %ard t"e s" re %"ene5er y $ &an. It is easier t !ind ne 1ar)e pa&2 t"an t !ind se5era1 sma11 items. + ! rd a s%i!t# trea&"er $s stream# app1y t"e ! 11 %in) stepsI • Rem 5e y $r pants and s"irt t 1essen t"e %aterFs p$11 n y $. / n5er)in) &$rrents &&$r %"ere ne% %ater& $rses enter t"e ri5er r %"ere %ater "as been di5erted ar $nd 1ar)e bsta&1es s$&" as sma11 is1ands.1 t 2. In !ast# s"a11 % rapids# 1ie n y $r ba&2# !eet p intin) d %nstream# !innin) y $r "ands a1 n)side y $r "ips. D n t & n&ern y $rse1! ab $t y $r pa&2Fs %ei)"t# as t"e %ei)"t %i11 "e1p rat"er t"an "inder y $ in ! rdin) t"e stream.S. 6rasp t"e p 1e and p1ant it !irm1y n y $r $pstream side t brea2 t"e &$rrent. Department ! t"e Army RAPI. N t bein) ab1e t )et a pa&2 !! 4$i&21y en $)" &an dra) e5en t"e str n)est s%immers $nder. + s%im a&r ss a deep# s%i!t ri5er# s%im %it" t"e &$rrent# ne5er !i)"t it.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"is %i11 red$&e t"e dan)er ! bein) p$11ed $nder. +ry t 2eep y $r b dy " ri' nta1 t t"e %ater. • /arry y $r pa&2 %e11 $p n y $r s" $1ders and be s$re y $ &an easi1y rem 5e it# i! ne&essary. 8eep y $r !eet $p t a5 id )ettin) t"em br$ised r &a$)"t by r &2s. 8eep y $r ! t)ear n t pr te&t y $r !eet and an21es !r m r &2s.7 meters 1 n) t "e1p y $ ! rd t"e stream. Find a str n) p 1e ab $t 7. In $sin) t"is met" d# t"e $pstream pers n brea2s t"e &$rrent# and t" se be1 % &an m 5e %it" re1ati5e ease in t"e eddy ! rmed by t"e $pstream pers n. I! t"e $pstream pers n )ets temp rari1y s%ept !! "is !eet# t"e t"ers &an " 1d steady %"i1e "e re)ains "is ! tin) CFi)$re 17-2D. +"is %ay# i! y $ "a5e t re1ease y $r e4$ipment# a11 y $r arti&1es %i11 be t )et"er. -ns$re t"at e5ery ne "as prepared t"eir pa&2 and &1 t"in) as $t1ined ab 5e. (a)e 1:7 ! 2** .9 &entimeters in diameter and 2.

S. (a)e 1:: ! 2** . +"e 1en)t" ! t"e r pe m$st be t"ree times t"e %idt" ! t"e stream. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ "a5e t"ree r m re pe p1e and a r pe a5ai1ab1e# y $ &an $se t"e te&"ni4$e s" %n in Fi)$re 17-* t &r ss t"e stream.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army RA'TS I! y $ "a5e t% p n&" s# y $ &an & nstr$&t a br$s" ra!t r an A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t. • Atta&" t"e r pes r 5ines at t"e & rner and side )r mmets ! ea&" p n&" . + & nstr$&t it# $se p n&" s# !res" )reen br$s"# t% sma11 sap1in)s# and r pe r 5ine as ! 11 %s CFi)$re 17-7DI • ($s" t"e " d ! ea&" p n&" t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2s $sin) t"e dra%strin)s. (a)e 1:. Ma2e s$re t"ey are 1 n) en $)" t &r ss t and tie %it" t"e t"ers atta&"ed at t"e pp site & rner r side. +ie t"e B-!rame se&$re1y in p1a&e %it" t"e p n&" dra%strin). 3it" eit"er ! t"ese ra!ts# y $ &an sa!e1y !1 at y $r e4$ipment a&r ss a s1 %-m 5in) stream r ri5er. • Spread ne p n&" n t"e )r $nd %it" t"e inner side $p. • Ma2e an B-!rame !r m t% sma11 sap1in)s and p1a&e it n t p ! t"e br$s" sta&2.S. ($11 t"e dra%strin) $p t"r $)" t"e &enter ! t"e br$s" sta&2. • (i1e an t"er 79 &entimeters ! br$s" n t p ! t"e B-!rame# t"en & mpress t"e br$s" s1i)"t1y. ! 2** . B& $h R!6t +"e br$s" ra!t# i! pr per1y & nstr$&ted# %i11 s$pp rt ab $t 119 2i1 )rams. (i1e !res"# )reen br$s" Cn t"i&2 bran&"esD n t"e p n&" $nti1 t"e br$s" sta&2 is ab $t 79 &entimeters "i)".

• (1a&e y $r r$&2sa&2s r pa&2s r t"er e4$ipment bet%een t"e p 1es. • Spread t"e se& nd p n&" n t"e )r $nd# inner side $p. I! y $ need m re b$ yan&y# p1a&e s me !res" )reen br$s" n t"is p n&" .h" R!6t I! y $ d n t "a5e time t )at"er br$s" ! r a br$s" ra!t# y $ &an ma2e an A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t.< ! 2** . • +%ist t"e ends ! t"e r 11 t ! rm pi)tai1s in pp site dire&ti ns. • Spread ne p n&" n t"e )r $nd %it" t"e inner side $p. +ie t"e se& nd p n&" ar $nd t"e br$s" b$nd1e in t"e same manner as y $ tied t"e !irst p n&" ar $nd t"e br$s". +"is ra!t# a1t" $)" m re %aterpr ! t"an t"e p n&" br$s" ra!t# %i11 n1y !1 at ab $t *9 2i1 )rams ! e4$ipment. 0 1d t"e snapped p rti n ! t"e p n&" in t"e air and r 11 it ti)"t1y d %n t t"e e4$ipment. (1a&e and &enter t"e t% 1. Snap t"e p n&" sides t )et"er. • +ie r pes# b t1a&es# 5ines# r t"er bindin) materia1 ar $nd t"e ra!t ab $t *< &entimeters !r m t"e end ! ea&" pi)tai1. (1a&e and se&$re %eap ns n t p ! t"e ra!t.2-meter p 1es r bran&"es# and r pes# 5ines# b t1a&es# r & mparab1e materia1 as ! 11 %s CFi)$re 17-9DI • ($s" t"e " d ! ea&" p n&" t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2s $sin) t"e dra%strin)s. • (1a&e t"e e4$ipment b$nd1e# tied side d %n# n t"e &enter ! t"e se& nd p n&" . (a)e 1. Department ! t"e Army • • • • ($11 t"e p n&" sides $p ar $nd t"e br$s" and# $sin) t"e r pes r 5ines atta&"ed t t"e & mer r side )r mmets# tie t"em dia) na11y !r m & mer t & rner and !r m side t side.2-meter p 1es n t"e p n&" ab $t 79 &entimeters apart.S. Spread t"e se& nd p n&" # inner side $p# ne?t t t"e br$s" b$nd1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3rap t"e se& nd p n&" ar $nd t"e e4$ipment b$nd1e ! 11 %in) t"e same pr &ed$re y $ $sed ! r %rappin) t"e e4$ipment in t"e !irst p n&" . +"is %i11 "e1p y $ t t % t"e ra!t. R 11 t"e br$s" b$nd1e nt t"e se& nd p n&" s t"at t"e tied side is d %n. F 1d t"e pi)tai1s 5er t"e b$nd1e and tie t"em se&$re1y in p1a&e $sin) r pes# b t1a&es# r 5ines. • +ie ne end ! a r pe t an empty &anteen and t"e t"er end t t"e ra!t. (1a&e it in t"e %ater %it" t"e tied side ! t"e se& nd p n&" !a&in) $p. A1s p1a&e t"er items t"at y $ %ant t 2eep dry bet%een t"e p 1es. • Use y $r b$ddyFs "e1p t & mp1ete t"e ra!t. Ma2e s$re y $ r 11 t"e !$11 %idt" ! t"e p n&" . + & nstr$&t t"is ra!t# $se t% p n&" s# t% r$&2sa&2s# t% 1. A $t&!%i!# P"#.

h" D"# t R!6t An t"er type ! ra!t is t"e p n&" d n$t ra!t. De5ise (a)e 1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • 3rap se5era1 pie&es ! & rda)e ar $nd t"e d n$t rin) ab $t *< t 6< &entimeters apart and tie t"em se&$re1y. I! t"e %ater is e?treme1y & 1d and y $ are $nab1e t !ind a s"a11 % ! rdin) p1a&e in t"e ri5er# d n t try t ! rd it. +"is r pe %i11 "e1p y $ t t % t"e ra!t. (1a&e t"e d n$t rin) n t"e &enter ! t"e p n&" . I! t"e ri5er is t deep t ! rd# p$s" t"e ra!t in !r nt ! y $ %"i1e y $ are s%immin).e! re y $ start t &r ss t"e ri5er r stream# 1et t"e ra!t 1ay n t"e %ater a !e% min$tes t ens$re t"at it !1 ats. It ta2es m re time t & nstr$&t t"an t"e br$s" ra!t r A$stra1ian p n&" ra!t# b$t it is e!!e&ti5e. Use t"em as a !1 at t )et y $ and y $r e4$ipment sa!e1y a&r ss t"e ri5er r stream. + & nstr$&t it# $se ne p n&" # sma11 sap1in)s# %i11 % r 5ines# and r pe# b t1a&es# r t"er bindin) materia1 CFi)$re 17-6D as ! 11 %sI • Ma2e a !rame% r2 &ir&1e by p1a&in) se5era1 sta2es in t"e )r $nd t"at r $)"1y $t1ine an inner and $ter &ir&1e. • ($s" t"e p n&" Fs " d t t"e inner side and ti)"t1y tie !! t"e ne&2 $sin) t"e dra%strin).1 ! 2** . • +ie ne end ! a r pe t an empty &anteen and t"e t"er end t t"e ra!t. 3"en 1a$n&"in) any ! t"e ab 5e ra!ts# ta2e &are n t t p$n&t$re r tear it by dra))in) it n t"e )r $nd. • (1a&e t"e p n&" n t"e )r $nd# inner side $p.e s$re t &"e&2 t"e %ater temperat$re be! re tryin) t &r ss a ri5er r %ater bsta&1e. . +"e desi)n ! t"e ab 5e ra!ts d es n t a11 % t"em t &arry a pers nFs !$11 b dy %ei)"t. Department ! t"e Army P"#. 3rap t"e p n&" $p and 5er t"e d n$t rin) and tie !! ea&" )r mmet n t"e p n&" t t"e rin). • Usin) y $n) sap1in)s# %i11 %# r 5ines# & nstr$&t a d n$t rin) %it"in t"e &ir&1es ! sta2es.S. .

'LOTATION . Use y $r p n&" and r 11 )reen 5e)etati n ti)"t1y inside it s t"at y $ "a5e a r 11 at 1east 2< &entimeters in diameter.r y $ mi)"t b$i1d a ra!t 1ar)e en $)" t &arry y $ and y $r e4$ipment. An t"er met" d is t tie t% 1 )s ab $t 6< &entimeters apart. Sit bet%een t"e 1 )s %it" y $r ba&2 a)ainst ne and y $r 1e)s 5er t"e t"er CFi)$re 17-:D. Logs. Y $ n % "a5e %ater %in)s t 2eep y $ a!1 at as y $ &r ss t"e b dy ! %ater. Fi11 t% r m re p1asti& ba)s %it" air and se&$re t"em t )et"er at t"e penin). 6at"er sta12s ! &attai1s and tie t"em in a b$nd1e 29 &entimeters r m re in diameter. . • • Cmpty containers. Use t"em as %ater %in)s. Department ! t"e Army t"er means ! r &r ssin). Use a stranded dri!t 1 ) i! ne is a5ai1ab1e# r !ind a 1 ) near t"e %ater t $se as a !1 at.S.2 ! 2** . L"0 R!6t Y $ &an ma2e a ra!t $sin) any dry# dead# standin) trees ! r 1 )s. +est t"e &attai1 b$nd1e t be s$re it %i11 s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t be! re tryin) t &r ss a b dy ! %ater. :lastic bags and ponchos. Y $ &an %ear it ar $nd y $r %aist r a&r ss ne s" $1der and $nder t"e pp site arm. +"e many air &e11s in ea&" sta12 &a$se a sta12 t !1 at $nti1 it r ts.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. =$i&21y press t"e sides ! t"e %aistband t )et"er and " 1d it $nder%ater s t"at t"e air %i11 n t es&ape. Las" t )et"er "er empty )as &ans# %ater @$)s# amm &ans# b ?es# r t"er items t"at %i11 trap r " 1d air. VIC S I! t"e %ater is %arm en $)" ! r s%immin) and y $ d n t "a5e t"e time r materia1s t & nstr$&t ne ! t"e p n&" -type ra!ts# y $ &an $se 5ari $s !1 tati n de5i&es t ne) tiate t"e %ater bsta&1e. 3it" b t" "ands# )rasp t"e %aistband at t"e sides and s%in) t"e tr $sers in t"e air t trap air in ea&" 1e). (a)e 1. A simp1e met" d ! r ma2in) a ra!t is t $se press$re bars 1as"ed se&$re1y at ea&" end ! t"e ra!t t " 1d t"e 1 )s t )et"er CFi)$re 17-7D. S me items y $ &an $se ! r !1 tati n de5i&es are-• Trousers. 8n t ea&" tr $ser 1e) at t"e b tt m and &1 se t"e !1y. 8ote9 et the trousers be!ore in!lating to trap the air better @ou may have to rein!late the trousers several times when crossing a large body o! water. Use t"is type ! !1 tati n de5i&e n1y in a s1 %-m 5in) ri5er r stream. F r t"is# " %e5er# y $ %i11 need an a?e# a 2ni!e# a r pe r 5ines# and time. • 1attails. +ie t"e ends ! t"e r 11 se&$re1y. F r instan&e# y $ mi)"t impr 5ise a brid)e by !e11in) a tree 5er t"e ri5er. 0 %e5er# spr$&e trees ! $nd in p 1ar and s$bp 1ar re)i ns ma2e t"e best ra!ts.e s$re t test t"e 1 ) be! re startin) t &r ss. . S me tree 1 )s# pa1m ! r e?amp1e# %i11 sin2 e5en %"en t"e % d is dead.

V / TATION O#STACL S S me %ater areas y $ m$st &r ss may "a5e $nder%ater and !1 atin) p1ants t"at %i11 ma2e s%immin) di!!i&$1t. +"e man)r 5e s%amp is an t"er type ! bsta&1e t"at &&$rs a1 n) tr pi&a1 & ast1ines. +ry t bypass t"ese bsta&1es. =$i&2sand is a mi?t$re ! sand and %ater t"at ! rms a s"i!tin) mass. Department ! t"e Army +"ere are many t"er !1 tati n de5i&es t"at y $ &an de5ise by $sin) s me ima)inati n. I! y $ are n t"e in1and side# 1 2 ! r a narr % )r 5e ! trees and % r2 y $r %ay sea%ard t"r $)" t"ese. S%im r p$11 y $r %ay a&r ss m 5in) s1 %1y and tryin) t 2eep y $r b dy " ri' nta1.t"er %ater bsta&1es t"at y $ may !a&e are b )s# 4$a)mire# m$s2e)# r 4$i&2sand.e n t"e 1 2 $t ! r &r & di1es t"at y $ !ind a1 n) &"anne1s and in s"a11 % %ater. Man)r 5e trees r s"r$bs t"r % $t many pr p r ts t"at ! rm dense masses. 0 %e5er# 5e)etati n %i11 $s$a11y n t be present in pen m$d r %ater areas. I! y $ are $nab1e t bypass t"em# y $ may be ab1e t brid)e t"em $sin) 1 )s# bran&"es# r ! 1ia)e. I! y $ are n t"e sea%ard side# % r2 in1and a1 n) streams r &"anne1s. In s%amps# t"e areas t"at "a5e 5e)etati n are $s$a11y !irm en $)" t s$pp rt y $r %ei)"t. A %ay t &r ss a b ) is t 1ie !a&e d %n# %it" y $r arms and 1e)s spread. + )et t"r $)" a man)r 5e s%amp# %ait ! r 1 % tide. 3"en y $ )et tired# !1 at r s%im n y $r ba&2 $nti1 y $ "a5e rested en $)" t & ntin$e %it" t"e breaststr 2e. I! t"ere are any near y $# 1ea5e t"e %ater and s&ramb1e 5er t"e man)r 5e r ts. OT. 0 %e5er# y $ &an s%im t"r $)" re1ati5e1y dense 5e)etati n i! y $ remain &a1m and d n t t"ras" ab $t. =$i&2sand & mm n1y &&$rs n !1at s" res# in si1t-&" 2ed ri5ers %it" s"i!tin) %ater& $rses# and near t"e m $t"s ! 1ar)e ri5ers. 3"i1e &r ssin) a man)r 5e s%amp# it is p ssib1e t )at"er ! d !r m tida1 p 1s r tree r ts. +"e st ne %i11 sin2 in 4$i&2sand.* ! 2** . R 3AT R O#STACL S . + &r ss a 1ar)e s%amp area# & nstr$&t s me type ! ra!t. Use a !1 tati n de5i&e r ! rm p &2ets ! air in y $r &1 t"in). . >$st ma2e s$re t test t"e de5i&e be! re tryin) t $se it. I! y $ are an a5era)e s%immer# " %e5er# y $ s" $1d "a5e n pr b1em s%immin)# &ra%1in)# r p$11in) y $r %ay t"r $)" mi1es ! b ) r s%amp. It 5aries in dept" and is $s$a11y 1 &a1i'ed. I! y $ are $n&ertain %"et"er a sandy area is 4$i&2sand# t ss a sma11 st ne n it. Rem 5e t"e p1ants ar $nd y $ as y $ % $1d &1 t"in). Y $ &an a1s try t !ind t"e bed ! a %ater%ay r &ree2 t"r $)" t"e trees and ! 11 % it t t"e sea. A1t" $)" 4$i&2sand "as m re s$&ti n t"an m$d r m$&2# y $ &an &r ss it @$st as y $ % $1d &r ss a b ). (a)e 1.S. D n t try t %a12 a&r ss t"ese. +ryin) t 1i!t y $r !eet %"i1e standin) $pri)"t %i11 ma2e y $ sin2 deeper. Stay as near t"e s$r!a&e as p ssib1e and $se t"e breaststr 2e %it" s"a11 % 1e) and arm m ti n. Lie !a&e d %n# spread y $r arms and 1e)s# and m 5e s1 %1y a&r ss. It yie1ds easi1y t press$re and s$&2s d %n and en)$1!s b@e&ts restin) n its s$r!a&e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

This knowledge o! the terrain together with using the methods e+plained below will let you come up with !airly true directions to help you navigate. +"e s"ad % met" ds $sed ! r dire&ti n !indin) are t"e s"ad %-tip and %at&" met" ds. In t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere# t"is same n nday s$n %i11 mar2 d$e n rt".FIELD-E?PEDIENT DIRECTION FINDIN1 In a survival situation" you will be e+tremely !ortunate i! you happen to have a map and compass. I! you are not pro!icient in using a map and compass" you must take the steps to gain this skill.7 ! 2** .O3S +"e eart"Fs re1ati ns"ip t t"e s$n &an "e1p y $ t determine dire&ti n n eart". I! you do have these two pieces o! e)uipment" you will most likely be able to move toward help. 3ait 1< t 19 min$tes $nti1 t"e s"ad % tip m 5es a !e% &entimeters. There are several methods by which you can determine direction by using the sun and the stars. @ou must learn all you can about the terrain o! the country or territory to which you or your unit may be sent" especially any prominent !eatures or landmarks. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# t"e s$n %i11 be d$e s $t" %"en at its "i)"est p int in t"e s2y# r %"en an b@e&t &asts n appre&iab1e s"ad %. Sh!("2-Tip Meth"($ In t"e !irst s"ad %-tip met" d# !ind a strai)"t sti&2 1 meter 1 n)# and a 1e5e1 sp t !ree ! br$s" n %"i&" t"e sti&2 %i11 &ast a de!inite s"ad %.S. +"is !irst s"ad % mar2 is a1%ays %est--e/e&32he&e n eart". These methods" however" will give you only a general direction. +"is met" d is simp1e and a&&$rate and & nsists ! ! $r stepsI • Step 2. 3it" pra&ti&e# y $ &an $se s"ad %s t determine b t" dire&ti n and time ! day.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Mar2 t"e s"ad %Fs tip %it" a st ne# t%i)# r t"er means. Set $p y $r s"ad % sti&2 and mar2 t"e !irst s"ad % in t"e m rnin).A. S. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# s"ad %s %i11 m 5e &1 &2%ise. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1. • Step 5. • Step 4. +"e s$n a1%ays rises in t"e east and sets in t"e %est# b$t n t e?a&t1y d$e east r d$e %est. • Step 3. Use a pie&e ! strin) t dra% a &1ean ar& t"r $)" t"is mar2 and ar $nd t"e (a)e 1. Stand %it" t"e !irst mar2 C%estD t y $r 1e!t and t"e se& nd mar2 t y $r ri)"t--y $ are n % !a&in) n rt". @ou can come up with a more nearly true direction i! you know the terrain o! the territory or country. Dra% a strai)"t 1ine t"r $)" t"e t% mar2s t btain an appr ?imate east-%est 1ine. S"ad %s %i11 m 5e & $nter&1 &2%ise in t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere. Mar2 t"e s"ad % tipFs ne% p siti n in t"e same %ay as t"e !irst. +"ere is a1s s me seas na1 5ariati n. +"is !a&t is tr$e e/e&32he&e n eart". An a1ternate met" d is m re a&&$rate b$t re4$ires m re time. USIN/ T. SUN AN. (1a&e t"e sti&2 r bran&" int t"e )r $nd at a 1e5e1 sp t %"ere it %i11 &ast a distin&ti5e s"ad %. .

I! y $ n1y "a5e a di)ita1 %at&"# y $ &an 5er& me t"is bsta&1e.ne t"at "as "ands. . =$i&21y dra% a %at&" n a &ir&1e ! paper %it" t"e & rre&t time n it and $se it t determine y $r dire&ti n at t"at time. At midday# t"e s"ad % %i11 s"rin2 and disappear.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Remember# t"e !$rt"er y $ are !r m t"e e4$at r# t"e m re a&&$rate t"is met" d %i11 be. (a)e 1.clock to determine the north%south line.ise&t t"e an)1e bet%een t"e " $r "and and t"e 12 F&1 &2 mar2 t )et t"e n rt"-s $t" 1ine CFi)$re 1:-2D. Dra% a 1ine t"r $)" t"e t% mar2s t )et an a&&$rate east-%est 1ine Csee Fi)$re 1:-1D. In t"e a!tern n# it %i11 1en)t"en a)ain and at t"e p int %"ere it t $&"es t"e ar&# ma2e a se& nd mar2.9 ! 2** . 8ote9 I! your watch is set on daylight savings time" use the midway point between the hour hand and 2 o.h Meth"( Y $ &an a1s determine dire&ti n $sin) a & mm n r ana1 ) %at&"-. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# " 1d t"e %at&" " ri' nta1 and p int t"e " $r "and at t"e s$n. I! t"ere is any d $bt as t %"i&" end ! t"e 1ine is n rt"# remember t"at t"e s$n rises in t"e east# sets in t"e %est# and is d$e s $t" at n n. +"e s$n is in t"e east be! re n n and in t"e %est a!ter n n. Department ! t"e Army sti&2. +"e dire&ti n %i11 be a&&$rate i! y $ are $sin) tr$e 1 &a1 time# %it" $t any &"an)es ! r day1i)"t sa5in)s time. The *!t.

i) Dipper and /assi peia are a1%ays dire&t1y pp site ea&". I! t"e m n rises a!ter midni)"t# t"e i11$minated side %i11 be t"e east. +"is b5i $s dis& 5ery pr 5ides $s %it" a r $)" east-%est re!eren&e d$rin) t"e ni)"t. USIN/ T. +"ey are a1%ays 5isib1e n a &1ear ni)"t. 3e say t"ere is a ne% m n r n m n %"en it is n t"e pp site side ! t"e eart" !r m t"e s$n.i) Dipper r t"e (1 %# and /assi peia CFi)$re 1:-*D. STARS Y $r 1 &ati n in t"e N rt"ern r S $t"ern 0emisp"ere determines %"i&" & nste11ati n y $ $se t determine y $r n rt" r s $t" dire&ti n.6 ! 2** . +"e t% stars ! rmin) t"e $ter 1ip ! t"is dipper are t"e Jp inter starsJ be&a$se t"ey p int t t"e N rt" Star.i) Dipper and /assi peia t )et"er.i) Dipper is a se5en star & nste11ati n in t"e s"ape ! a dipper. I! t"e m n rises be! re t"e s$n "as set# t"e i11$minated side %i11 be t"e %est. -?tend t"is 1ine ab $t !i5e times t"e distan&e bet%een t"e p inter stars. Y $ &an $se t"is in! rmati n t identi!y dire&ti n. (re5ent & n!$si n by $sin) b t" t"e .e&a$se t"e m n "as n 1i)"t ! its %n# %e &an n1y see it %"en it re!1e&ts t"e s$nFs 1i)"t. USIN/ T. Use t"em t 1 &ate ( 1aris# a1s 2n %n as t"e p 1estar r t"e N rt" Star.S. +"e . +"e N rt" Star ! rms part ! t"e Litt1e Dipper "and1e and &an be & n!$sed %it" t"e . 0OON .i) DipperFs b$&2et. Menta11y dra% a 1ine !r m t"e $ter b tt m star t t"e $ter t p star ! t"e . As it rbits t"e eart" n its 2:-day &ir&$it# t"e s"ape ! t"e re!1e&ted 1i)"t 5aries a&& rdin) t its p siti n. +"e . The N"&the&# S)3 +"e main & nste11ati ns t 1earn are t"e Ursa Ma@ r# a1s 2n %n as t"e . +"en# as it m 5es a%ay !r m t"e eart"Fs s"ad %# it be)ins t re!1e&t 1i)"t !r m its ri)"t side and %a?es t be& me a !$11 m n be! re %anin)# r 1 sin) s"ape# t appear as a s1i5er n t"e 1e!t side.i) Dipper. (a)e 1. Y $ %i11 !ind t"e N rt" Star a1 n) t"is 1ine.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Neit"er ! t"ese & nste11ati ns e5er sets. Department ! t"e Army In t"e s $t"ern "emisp"ere# p int t"e %at&"Fs 12 F&1 &2 mar2 t %ard t"e s$n and a midp int "a1!%ay bet%een 12 and t"e " $r "and %i11 )i5e y $ t"e n rt"-s $t" 1ine CFi)$re 1:-2D. t"er and r tate & $nter&1 &2%ise ar $nd ( 1aris# %it" ( 1aris in t"e &enter.

+"e t% stars t"at ma2e $p t"e &r ssFs 1 n) a?is are t"e p inter stars.e&a$se t"ere is n star bri)"t en $)" t be easi1y re& )ni'ed near t"e s $t" &e1estia1 p 1e# a & nste11ati n 2n %n as t"e S $t"ern /r ss is $sed as a si)np st t t"e S $t" CFi)$re 1:-7D. A!ter 1 &atin) t"e N rt" Star# 1 &ate t"e N rt" ( 1e r tr$e n rt" by dra%in) an ima)inary 1ine dire&t1y t t"e eart". +"e N rt" Star is strai)"t $t !r m /assi peiaFs &enter star. Department ! t"e Army /assi peia "as !i5e stars t"at ! rm a s"ape 1i2e a J3J n its side.7 ! 2** . The S" the&# S)3 . In a stati& s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ &an !i? t"is 1 &ati n in day1i)"t i! y $ dri5e sta2es in t"e )r $nd at ni)"t t p int t"e %ay. Its ! $r bri)"test stars ! rm a &r ss t"at ti1ts t ne side. (a)e 1. +"e S $t"ern /r ss r /r$? "as !i5e stars.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. + determine s $t"# ima)ine a distan&e !i5e times t"e distan&e bet%een +"ese stars and t"e p int %"ere t"is ima)inary 1ine ends is in t"e )enera1 dire&ti n ! s $t". L 2 d %n t t"e " ri' n !r m t"is ima)inary p int and se1e&t a 1andmar2 t steer by.S.

ne "a1! %i11 ! rm y $r dire&ti n p inter and t"e t"er %i11 a&t as t"e pi5 t p int. Repeated1y insert ne end ! t"e meta1 b@e&t in and $t ! t"e & i1.S. 6r %t" is m re 5i) r $s n t"e side t %ard t"e e4$at r and t"e tree )r %t" rin)s %i11 be m re %ide1y spa&ed. Re& )ni'in) t"e di!!eren&es bet%een 5e)etati n and m ist$re patterns n n rt". 3"en s$spended !r m a pie&e ! n nmeta11i& strin)# r !1 ated n a sma11 pie&e ! % d in %ater# it %i11 a1i)n itse1! %it" a n rt"-s $t" 1ine. I! n t ins$1ated# %rap t"e meta1 b@e&t in a sin)1e# t"in strip ! paper t pre5ent & nta&t. OT. In t"e n rt"ern "emisp"ere# n rt"-!a&in) s1 pes re&ei5e 1ess s$n t"an (a)e 1. ($s" t"e p rti n $sed as t"e pi5 t p int t"r $)" t"e b tt m &enter ! y $r & ntainerH t"is p rti n s" $1d be !1$s" n t"e b tt m and n t inter!ere %it" t"e 1id. I! y $ "a5e a battery and s me e1e&tri& %ire# y $ &an p 1ari'e t"e meta1 e1e&tri&a11y. Ma)neti'e ne end ! t"e p inter and rest it n t"e pi5 t p int. +"e battery m$st be a minim$m ! 2 5 1ts. F rm a & i1 %it" t"e e1e&tri& %ire and t $&" its ends t t"e batteryFs termina1s. Y $ &an ma)neti'e r p 1ari'e t"e meta1 by s1 %1y str 2in) it in ne dire&ti n n a pie&e ! si12 r &are!$11y t"r $)" y $r "air $sin) de1iberate str 2es. . Y $ &an & nstr$&t a m re e1ab rate impr 5ised & mpass $sin) a se%in) need1e r t"in meta11i& b@e&t# a n nmeta11i& & ntainer C! r e?amp1e# a p1asti& dip & ntainerD# its 1id %it" t"e &enter &$t $t and %aterpr !ed# and t"e si15er tip !r m a pen. Department ! t"e Army 0A*IN/ I0PROVIS . +"e %ire s" $1d be ins$1ated. I! t"ere are se5era1 !e11ed trees ar $nd ! r & mparis n# 1 2 at t"e st$mps. + & nstr$&t t"is & mpass# ta2e an rdinary se%in) need1e and brea2 in "a1!. 3ind dire&ti n may be "e1p!$1 in s me instan&es %"ere t"ere are pre5ai1in) dire&ti ns and y $ 2n % %"at t"ey are. A1%ays r$b in ne dire&ti n n1y.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. . +"e need1e %i11 be& me an e1e&tr ma)net.and s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes &an aid in determinin) dire&ti n.: ! 2** .IR CTION +"e 1d sayin) ab $t $sin) m ss n a tree t indi&ate n rt" is n t a&&$rate be&a$se m ss )r %s & mp1ete1y ar $nd s me trees. CO0PASS S Y $ &an & nstr$&t impr 5ised & mpasses $sin) a pie&e ! !err $s meta1 t"at &an be need1e s"aped r a !1at d $b1e-ed)ed ra' r b1ade and a pie&e ! n nmeta11i& strin) r 1 n) "air !r m %"i&" t s$spend it.n t"e t"er "and# t"e tree )r %t" rin)s %i11 be &1 ser t )et"er n t"e side t %ard t"e p 1es. Atta&" t"e &enter ! t"e t"er p rti n Ct"e p interD ! t"e need1e n t"e penFs si15er tip $sin) )1$e# tree sap# r me1ted p1asti&. T R0ININ/ . Y $ &an a1s p 1ari'e meta1 by str 2in) it repeated1y at ne end %it" a ma)net. R 0 ANS O' . A&t$a11y# )r %t" is m re 1$s" n t"e side ! t"e tree !a&in) t"e s $t" in t"e N rt"ern 0emisp"ere and 5i&e 5ersa in t"e S $t"ern 0emisp"ere.

.S. In t"e s$mmer# n rt"-!a&in) s1 pes retain pat&"es ! sn %.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. In t"e %inter# t"e trees and pen areas n s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes are t"e !irst t 1 se t"eir sn %# and )r $nd sn %pa&2 is s"a11 %er. Department ! t"e Army s $t"-!a&in) s1 pes and are t"ere! re & 1er and damper. ! 2** . (a)e 1.

>enerally" communication is the giving and receiving o! in!ormation. .s attention !irst" and second" send a message your rescuer understands. . 0 ANS 'OR SI/NALIN/ +"ere are t% main %ays t )et attenti n r t & mm$ni&ate--5is$a1 and a$di . The type o! signal used will depend on your environment and the enemy situation. Learn " % t $se t"em. +"in2 ! %ays in %"i&" y $ &an adapt r &"an)e t"em ! r di!!erent en5ir nments.e! re si)na1in)# &are!$11y %ei)" y $r res&$e &"an&es by 6&ie#($ a)ainst t"e dan)er ! &apt$re by t"e enemy. (er! rm a t" r $)" re& nnaissan&e ! t"e area t ens$re t"ere are n enemy ! r&es nearby. 3"ate5er t"e means# a1%ays "a5e 5is$a1 and a$di si)na1s ready ! r $se. +"e means y $ $se %i11 depend n y $r sit$ati n and t"e materia1 y $ "a5e a5ai1ab1e. Learn " % t perate t"em and " % t send and re&ei5e messa)es.SI1NALIN1 TECHNI@UES 0ne o! your !irst concerns when you !ind yoursel! in a survival situation is to communicate with your !riends or allies. APPLICATION I! in a n n& mbat sit$ati n# y $ need t !ind t"e 1ar)est a5ai1ab1e &1ear and !1at area on the highest possible terrain. (i&2 an area t"at is 5isib1e !r m t"e air# b$t ens$re t"ere are "idin) p1a&es nearby. Y $ %i11 !ind des&ripti ns ! t"er si)na1in) te&"ni4$es# de5i&es# and arti&1es y $ &an $se. Use as b5i $s a si)na1 as y $ &an &reate.S. Some attention%getters are man%made geometric patterns such as straight lines" circles" triangles" or G. +ry t "a5e a "i11 r t"er b@e&t bet%een t"e si)na1 site and t"e enemy t mas2 y $r si)na1 !r m t"e enemy. (ra&ti&e $sin) t"ese si)na1in) te&"ni4$es# de5i&es# and arti&1es be! re y $ need t"em. 8eep in mind t"at si)na1s t y $r 6&ie#($ may a1ert t"e enemy ! y $r presen&e and 1 &ati n. 'ire (a)e 2<< ! 2** . . Y $ d n t %ant t si)na1 and attra&t t"e enemy.e& me !ami1iar %it" t"e radi s in y $r $nit.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A radi is pr bab1y t"e s$rest and 4$i&2est %ay t 1et t"ers 2n % %"ere y $ are and t 1et y $ re&ei5e t"eir messa)es.s displayed in uninhabited areas# a large !ire or !lash o! light# a large" bright ob$ect moving slowly# or contrast" whether !rom color or shadows. I! p ssib1e# a5 id $sin) si)na1s r si)na1in) te&"ni4$es t"at &an p"ysi&a11y endan)er y $. 3"ate5er si)na1in) te&"ni4$e r de5i&e y $ p1an t $se# 2n % " % t $se it and be ready t p$t it int perati n n s" rt n ti&e. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 1< . Vi$ !% Si0#!%$ +"ese si)na1s are materia1s r e4$ipment y $ $se t ma2e y $r presen&e 2n %n t res&$ers. As a survivor" you must get your rescuer. (1anned# prearran)ed si)na1in) te&"ni4$es may impr 5e y $r &"an&e ! res&$e.n t"e t"er "and# y $ %i11 "a5e t be m re dis&reet in & mbat sit$ati ns.

.e! re t"e primary tree is & ns$med# &$t and add m re sma11 )reen trees t t"e !ire t pr d$&e m re sm 2e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ &an )et t"er types ! trees t b$rn by p1a&in) dry % d in t"e 1 %er bran&"es and i)nitin) it s t"at t"e !1ames !1are $p and i)nite t"e ! 1ia)e. S"o-e D$rin) day1i)"t# b$i1d a sm 2e )enerat r and $se sm 2e t )ain attenti n CFi)$re 1. I! y $ add r$bber r i1s a2ed ra)s t a !ire# y $ %i11 )et b1a&2 sm 2e. I! y $ pra&ti&a11y sm t"er a 1ar)e !ire %it" )reen 1ea5es# m ss# r a 1itt1e %ater# t"e !ire %i11 pr d$&e %"ite sm 2e.-2D. Y $ &an set pit&"-bearin) trees a!ire# e5en %"en )reen. A b$rnin) tree Ctree t r&"D is an t"er %ay t attra&t attenti n CFi)$re 1. I! in a @$n)1e# !ind a nat$ra1 &1earin) r t"e ed)e ! a stream %"ere y $ &an b$i1d !ires t"at t"e @$n)1e ! 1ia)e %i11 n t "ide.-1D. (a)e 2<1 ! 2** . I! s # maintain ne si)na1 !ire. Y $ may e5en "a5e t &1ear an area.$i1d t"em as s n as time and t"e sit$ati n permit and pr te&t t"em $nti1 y $ need t"em. Department ! t"e Army D$rin) dar2ness# !ire is t"e m st e!!e&ti5e 5is$a1 means ! r si)na1in). I! y $ are a1 ne# maintainin) t"ree !ires may be di!!i&$1t.S. I! in a sn %-& 5ered area# y $ may "a5e t &1ear t"e )r $nd ! sn % r ma2e a p1at! rm n %"i&" t b$i1d t"e !ire s t"at me1tin) sn % %i11 n t e?tin)$is" it. +"e internati na1 distress si)na1 is t"ree & 1$mns ! sm 2e. . . 3"en & nstr$&tin) si)na1 !ires# & nsider y $r )e )rap"i& 1 &ati n. A1%ays se1e&t an is 1ated tree s t"at y $ d n t start a ! rest !ire and endan)er y $rse1!. +ry t &reate a & 1 r ! sm 2e t"at & ntrasts %it" t"e ba&2)r $ndH dar2 sm 2e a)ainst a 1i)"t ba&2)r $nd and 5i&e 5ersa.$i1d t"ree !ires in a trian)1e Ct"e internati na1 distress si)na1D r in a strai)"t 1ine %it" ab $t 29 meters bet%een t"e !ires.

Star Clusters Red is t"e internati na1 distress & 1 rH t"ere! re# $se a red star &1$ster %"ene5er p ssib1e. Sm 2e si)na1s are e!!e&ti5e n1y n & mparati5e1y &a1m# &1ear days. It is ab $t * &entimeters in diameter.e ready t !ire it in !r nt ! sear&" air&ra!t and be ready %it" a se& ndary si)na1. . 8eep t"em dry s t"at t"ey %i11 % r2 %"en y $ need t"em. Department ! t"e Army In a desert en5ir nment# sm 2e "an)s &1 se t t"e )r $nd# b$t a pi1 t &an sp t it in pen desert terrain. Any & 1 r# " %e5er# %i11 1et y $r res&$ers 2n % %"ere y $ are. 3"en !ired# t"e pen !1are s $nds 1i2e a pist 1 s" t and !ires t"e !1are ab $t 19< meters "i)".FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +a2e &are n t t i)nite t"e 5e)etati n in t"e area %"en y $ $se t"em. Tracer A""unition Y $ may $se ri!1e r pist 1 tra&er amm$niti n t si)na1 sear&" air&ra!t. D" #"t !ire t"e amm$niti n in !r nt ! t"e air&ra!t. Star &1$sters rea&" a "ei)"t ! 2<< t 219 meters# b$rn an a5era)e ! 6 t 1< se& nds# and des&end at a rate ! 17 meters per se& nd. Star Parachute 'lares (a)e 2<2 ! 2** . As %it" pen !1ares# be ready t ta2e & 5er i! t"e pi1 t mista2es y $r tra&ers ! r enemy !ire. +"e de5i&e & nsists ! a pen-s"aped )$n %it" a !1are atta&"ed by a ny1 n & rd. + "a5e t"e pen !1are ready ! r immediate $se# ta2e it $t ! its %rapper# atta&" t"e !1are# 1ea5e t"e )$n $n& &2ed# and %ear it n a & rd r &"ain ar $nd y $r ne&2. Pen 'lares +"ese !1ares are part ! an a5iat rFs s$r5i5a1 5est. 0i)" %inds# rain# r sn % disperse sm 2e# 1essenin) its &"an&es ! bein) seen. A1s # be ready t ta2e & 5er in &ase t"e pi1 t mista2es t"e !1are ! r enemy !ire. S"o-e /renades I! y $ "a5e sm 2e )renades %it" y $# $se t"em in t"e same pattern as des&ribed ! r !ires.S.

kilometers away under ideal conditions.-9 s" % met" ds ! aimin) a si)na1 mirr r ! r si)na1in). Department ! t"e Army +"ese !1ares rea&" a "ei)"t ! 2<< t 219 meters and des&end at a rate ! 2. (a)e 2<* ! 2** . CAUTION D n t !1as" a si)na1 mirr r rapid1y be&a$se a pi1 t may mista2e t"e !1as"es ! r enemy !ire. (ra&ti&e $sin) a mirr r r s"iny b@e&t ! r si)na1in) now# d n t %ait $nti1 y $ need it.S. Dire&t t"e !1as"es in ne area s t"at t"ey are se&$re !r m enemy bser5ati n. I! y $ &anFt determine t"e air&ra!tFs 1 &ati n# !1as" y $r si)na1 in t"e dire&ti n ! t"e air&ra!t n ise. I! y $ d nFt "a5e a mirr r# p 1is" y $r &anteen &$p# y $r be1t b$&21e# r a simi1ar b@e&t t"at %i11 re!1e&t t"e s$nFs rays. 0irrors or Shiny O6+ects .-7 and 1. 0 %e5er# be s$re t"e )1ass side is a)ainst y $r b dy s t"at it %i11 n t !1as"H t"e enemy &an see t"e !1as".-*D. 8ote9 :ilots have reported seeing mirror !lashes up to 27. +"e M126 CredD b$rns ab $t 9< se& nds and t"e M127 C%"iteD ab $t 29 se& nds. 0a'e# )r $nd ! )# and mira)es may ma2e it "ard ! r a pi1 t t sp t si)na1s !r m a !1as"in) b@e&t. I! y $ "a5e an M8-* si)na1 mirr r# ! 11 % t"e instr$&ti ns n its ba&2 CFi)$re 1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.n a s$nny day# a mirr r is y $r best si)na1in) de5i&e. At ni)"t y $ &an see t"ese !1ares at 7: t 96 2i1 meters. 3ear t"e si)na1 mirr r n a & rd r &"ain ar $nd y $r ne&2 s t"at it is ready ! r immediate $se.1 meters per se& nd. Fi)$res 1. S # i! p ssib1e# )et t t"e "i)"est p int in y $r area %"en si)na1in). D n t dire&t t"e beam in t"e air&ra!tFs & &2pit ! r m re t"an a !e% se& nds as it may b1ind t"e pi1 t.

Panel D$rin) day1i)"t y $ &an $se a VS-17 pane1 t si)na1. In t$ndra# di) tren&"es r t$rn t"e s d $pside d %n. In any terrain# $se & ntrastin) materia1s t"at %i11 ma2e t"e symb 1s 5isib1e t t"e air&re%s. 3"en $sin) a str be 1i)"t# ta2e &are t pre5ent t"e pi1 t !r m mista2in) it ! r in& min) )r $nd !ire.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Se1e&t arti&1es %" se & 1 r %i11 & ntrast %it" t"e nat$ra1 s$rr $ndin)s. Y $ &an $se any bri)"t ran)e r 5i 1et &1 t" as a s$bstit$te ! r t"e VS-17. F1as"in) t"e pane1 %i11 ma2e it easier ! r t"e air&re% t sp t. Arran)e t"em in a 1ar)e )e metri& pattern t ma2e t"em m re 1i2e1y t attra&t attenti n. . (1a&e t"e ran)e side $p as it is easier t see !r m t"e air t"an t"e 5i 1et side.S.$i1d m $nds t"at &ast s"ad %sH y $ &an $se br$s"# ! 1ia)e ! any type# r &2s# r sn % b1 &2s. In sand# $se b $1ders# 5e)etati n# r sea%eed t ! rm a symb 1 r messa)e. . S me str be 1i)"ts "a5e in!rared & 5ers and 1enses. In sn %-& 5ered areas# tramp t"e sn % t ! rm 1etters r symb 1s and !i11 t"e depressi n %it" & ntrastin) materia1 Ct%i)s r bran&"esD. Natural 0aterial I! y $ 1a&2 t"er means# y $ &an $se nat$ra1 materia1s t ! rm a symb 1 r messa)e t"at &an be seen !r m t"e air.ye 0ar-ers (a)e 2<7 ! 2** .S t an air&ra!t. VS5:. In br$s"-& 5ered areas# &$t $t patterns in t"e 5e)etati n r sear t"e )r $nd. Department ! t"e Army 'lashlight or Stro6e Light At ni)"t y $ &an $se a !1as"1i)"t r a str be 1i)"t t send an S. +"e str be 1i)"t !1as"es 6< times per min$te. Clothing Spreadin) &1 t"in) n t"e )r $nd r in t"e t p ! a tree is an t"er %ay t si)na1. Sea .1$e !1as" & 11imat rs are a1s a5ai1ab1e ! r str be 1i)"ts.

6$ns" ts In s me sit$ati ns y $ &an $se !irearms ! r si)na1in). 3"en $sin) !1a)s# " 1d !1a)s n t"e 1e!t side ! r das"es and n t"e ri)"t side ! r d ts. It is easier t ! rm ne symb 1 t"an t spe11 $t an entire messa)e. Sea dye mar2ers are a1s 5ery e!!e&ti5e n sn %& 5ered )r $ndH $se t"em t %rite distress & de 1etters. SOS Y $ &an $se 1i)"ts r !1a)s t send an S. / 1d 4$i&21y drains t"e batteryFs p %er. A (i" Si0#!%$ Radi s# %"ist1es# and )$ns" ts are s me ! t"e met" ds y $ &an $se t si)na1 y $r presen&e t res&$ers.S--t"ree d ts# t"ree das"es# t"ree d ts.< s$r5i5a1 radi is a part ! t"e Army a5iat rFs s$r5i5a1 5est. I! t"e radi "as t ne &apabi1ity# p1a&e it $pri)"t n a !1at# e1e5ated s$r!a&e s t"at y $ &an per! rm t"er s$r5i5a1 tas2s. 8eep t"e mar2ers %rapped $nti1 y $ are ready t $se t"em. 8eep t"e antenna at ri)"t an)1es t t"e res&$in) air&ra!t. SI/NALS N % t"at y $ 2n % " % t 1et pe p1e 2n % %"ere y $ are# y $ need t 2n % " % t )i5e t"em m re in! rmati n. +"e enemy %i11 s$re1y & me t in5esti)ate s" ts.6 2i1 meters a%ay. 0i)" "eat may &a$se t"e battery t e?p1 de. 8eep repeatin) t"e si)na1. D n t $se t"is te&"ni4$e in enemy territ ry. (a)e 2<9 ! 2** . Any t"er type ! Army radi &an d t"e same.<. In & 1d %eat"er# 2eep t"e battery inside y $r &1 t"in) %"en n t $sin) t"e radi . S$&" & nta&t )reat1y red$&es t"e ran)e ! t"e si)na1. CO.S is t"e internati na11y re& )ni'ed distress si)na1 in radi M rse & de. Ne5er 1et t"e antenna t $&" y $r &1 t"in)# b dy# ! 1ia)e# r t"e )r $nd. +"ere is n si)na1 !r m t"e tip ! t"e antenna. S AN. t" radi s &an transmit eit"er t ne r 5 i&e. + btain ma?im$m per! rman&e !r m radi s# $se t"e ! 11 %in) pr &ed$resI • • • • • • +ry t transmit n1y in &1ear# $n bstr$&ted terrain. Man$!a&t$red %"ist1es "a5e m re ran)e t"an a "$man %"ist1e. +"e S. In s me d &$mented &ases# t"ey "a5e been "eard $p t 1. I! y $ are in a %ater s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# $se sea dye mar2ers d$rin) day1i)"t t indi&ate y $r 1 &ati n. . 3histles 3"ist1es pr 5ide an e?&e11ent %ay ! r &1 se $p si)na1in). In " sti1e territ ry# 2eep transmissi ns s" rt t a5 id enemy radi dire&ti n !indin). +"e ANE(R/-112 %i11 e5ent$a11y rep1a&e t"e ANE(R/-.!-si)"t & mm$ni&ati ns de5i&es# any terrain bet%een t"e radi and t"e re&ei5er %i11 b1 &2 t"e si)na1. +ry t 2eep t"e radi and battery as dry as p ssib1e# as %ater may destr y t"e &ir&$itry. / nser5e battery p %er. A d t is a s" rt# s"arp p$1seH a das" is a 1 n)er p$1se. D n t transmit r re&ei5e & nstant1y. Radio !uip"ent +"e ANE(R/-. Department ! t"e Army A11 Army air&ra!t in5 15ed in perati ns near r 5er %ater %i11 n rma11y &arry a %ater s$r5i5a1 2it t"at & ntains sea dye mar2ers.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"ree s" ts !ired at distin&t inter5a1s $s$a11y indi&ate a distress si)na1. +$rn t"e radi !! %"en y $ are n t $sin) it. Use t"em n1y %"en y $ "ear r si)"t an air&ra!t. +"ere! re# 1earn t"e & des and symb 1s t"at a11 air&ra!t pi1 ts $nderstand. Use t"em n1y i! y $ are in a !riend1y area. D n t e?p se t"e battery t e?treme "eat s$&" as desert s$n. +"e ran)es ! t"e di!!erent radi s 5ary dependin) n t"e a1tit$de ! t"e re&ei5in) air&ra!t# terrain# 5e)etati n density# %eat"er# battery stren)t"# type ! radi # and inter!eren&e. Sin&e radi s are 1ine.S. +"ese sp ts ! dye stay & nspi&$ $s ! r ab $t * " $rs# e?&ept in 5ery r $)" seas.

P!#e% Si0#!%$ I! y $ "a5e a 1i!e ra!t & 5er r sai1# r a s$itab1e s$bstit$te# $se t"e symb 1s s" %n in Fi)$re 1.-7D t & n5ey a messa)e. (1a&e it in an pen area easi1y sp tted !r m t"e air.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.-: t & n5ey a messa)e. I! y $ ma2e t"em 1ar)er# 2eep t"e same 1I 6 rati . Department ! t"e Army 1&" #(-t"-Ai& E+e&0e#. (a)e 2<6 ! 2** . Ma2e t"ese symb 1s a minim$m ! 1 meter %ide and 6 meters 1 n). -ns$re t"e si)na1 & ntrasts )reat1y %it" t"e )r $nd it is n.3 C"(e +"is & de CFi)$re 1.S.-6D is a&t$a11y !i5e de!inite# meanin)!$1 symb 1s. B"(3 Si0#!%$ 3"en an air&ra!t is &1 se en $)" ! r t"e pi1 t t see y $ &1ear1y# $se b dy m 5ements r p siti ns CFi)$re 1.

I! n radi is a5ai1ab1e# $se t"e & des & 5ered in t"e pre5i $s para)rap"s. . (a)e 2<7 ! 2** . Use a radi # i! p ssib1e# t re1ay !$rt"er messa)es.&!6t A.n&e t"e pi1 t ! a !i?ed-%in) air&ra!t "as si)"ted y $# "e %i11 n rma11y indi&ate "e "as seen y $ by !1yin) 1 %# m 5in) t"e p1ane# and !1as"in) 1i)"ts as s" %n in Fi)$re 1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army Ai&.)#"2%e(0+e#t$ ..e ready t re1ay t"er messa)es t t"e pi1 t n&e "e a&2n %1ed)es t"at "e re&ei5ed and $nderst d y $r !irst messa)e.-.S.

S. (a)e 2<: ! 2** . Use t"e ! 11 %in) )enera1 ! rmat t )$ide t"e pi1 tI • Mayday# Mayday. • Any remar2s s$&" as medi&a1 aid r t"er spe&i!i& types ! "e1p needed immediate1y. F 11 % instr$&ti ns and & ntin$e t $se s $nd s$r5i5a1 and e5asi n te&"ni4$es $nti1 y $ are a&t$a11y res&$ed. • /a11 si)n Ci! anyD.UR S I! y $ &an & nta&t a !riend1y air&ra!t %it" a radi # )$ide t"e pi1 t t y $r 1 &ati n. • A5ai1ab1e 1andin) sites. • L &ati n. Department ! t"e Army AIRCRA'T V CTORIN/ PROC . • N$mber ! s$r5i5 rs. Simp1y be&a$se y $ "a5e made & nta&t %it" res&$ers d es n t mean y $ are sa!e. • Name.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.

Since no one can be absolutely sure until the recovery e!!ort begins" soldiers !acing a potential cuto!! !rom !riendly !orces should be !amiliar with all the possible types o! recovery" their related problems" and their responsibilities to the recovery e!!ort.S. The soldier will not likely know the type o! recovery to e+pect. Many parts ! t"e /(A are S. D$rin) y $r n rma1 trainin)# prepare para)rap" 1# Sit$ati n.& ntin)en&y )$ides# 5ari $s &1assi!ied !ie1d man$a1s# and inte11i)en&e rep rts.Cs$r5i5a1# e5asi n# resistan&e# and es&apeD & ntin)en&y )$ides# t"reat brie!in)s# &$rrent inte11i)en&e rep rts# and &$rrent & nta&t and a$t"enti&ati n pr &ed$res.3 P%!# "6 A.(sD. Y $ &an ta2e m st ! para)rap" 1# Sit$ati n# %it" y $ n t"e missi n.( ! r y $r $nit. 0ur potential adversaries have made great progress in air de!ense measures and radio direction !inding &R<-' techni)ues. (repare y $r /(A in t"ree p"ases. e must assume that U.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. / ntin)en&y p1ans m$st be prepared in & n@$n&ti n %it" $nit standin) peratin) pr &ed$res CS.SURVIVAL MOVEMENT IN HOSTILE AREAS The =rescue at any cost= philosophy o! previous con!licts is not likely to be possible in !uture con!licts. It a1s indi&ates %"at p rti n ! t"e /(A y $ &an ta2e %it" y $. Cach situation and the available resources determine the type o! recovery possible. A & mpre"ensi5e /(A is a 5a1$ab1e asset t t"e s 1dier trapped be"ind enemy 1ines %" m$st try t a5 id &apt$re. (repare para)rap"s 2# *# 7# and 9 d$rin) y $r pre-missi n p1annin). Soldiers may have to move !or e+tended times and distances to places less threatening to the recovery !orces. 3"en p1annin)# y $ m$st & nsider " % t a5 id &apt$re and ret$rn t y $r $nit. Appendi? 0 & ntains t"e /(A ! rmat.S. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 2> .ti"# CCPAD Inte11i)en&e se&ti ns &an "e1p prepare pers nne1 ! r & ntin)en&y a&ti ns t"r $)" in! rmati n s$pp1ied in area st$dies# S-R. /1 sed s $r&es may in&1$de area st$dies# area assessments# S-R. Y $r /(A %i11 1et re& 5ery ! r&es 2n % y $r pr bab1e a&ti ns s" $1d y $ "a5e t m 5e t a5 id &apt$re. It & nsists ! !i5e para)rap"s %ritten in t"e perati n rder ! rmat. Many pen r &1 sed s $r&es & ntain t"e in! rmati n y $ need t & mp1ete a /(A. (1annin) starts in y $r dai1y trainin). ! 2** . / $rses ! a&ti n y $ r y $r $nit %i11 ta2e m$st a1s be & nsidered. military !orces trapped behind enemy lines in !uture con!licts may not e+perience )uick recovery by !riendly elements. In&1$de t"e /(A in y $r trainin). C"#ti#0e#. (re-missi n preparati n in&1$des t"e & mp1eti n ! a /(A.pen s $r&es may in&1$de ne%spapers# ma)a'ines# & $ntry r area "andb 2s# area st$dies# te1e5isi n# radi # pers ns !ami1iar %it" t"e area# and 1ibraries. +"e /(A is y $r entire p1an ! r y $r ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. (a)e 2<. . :reparation and training can improve the chances o! success. A!ter dep1 yment int an area# & ntin$a11y $pdate y $r /(A based n missi n &"an)es and inte11i)en&e $pdates. +"e st$dy and resear&" needed t de5e1 p t"e /(A %i11 ma2e y $ a%are ! t"e &$rrent sit$ati n in y $r missi n area. + & mp1ete para)rap" 1# 2n % y $r $nitFs assi)ned area r & n&entrate n p tentia1 missi n areas ! t"e % r1d. P.AS S O' PLANNIN/ (reparati n is a re4$irement ! r a11 missi ns. Start preparin) e5en be! re pre-missi n p1annin).

/ mmand and & ntr 1 is n % at t"e m 5ement team r indi5id$a1 1e5e1 and is ret$rned t "i)"er r)ani'ati na1 & ntr 1 n1y a!ter rea&"in) !riend1y 1ines.n&e t"e si)na1 t try t a5 id &apt$re is )i5en# it m$st be passed rapid1y t a11 pers nne1. Y $ may add r de1ete &ertain p rti ns based n t"e missi n. • Lin2$p pr &ed$res.(s are 5a1$ab1e t 1s y $r $nit "as t"at %i11 "e1p y $r p1annin). I! s$&" a&ti ns are n t p ssib1e# t"e & mmander may de&ide t "a5e t"e $nit try t m 5e t a5 id &apt$re and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. 0e &ann t arbitrari1y aband n t"e assi)ned missi n.( s2i11s and a1s pr 5ide pp rt$nities ! r e5a1$ati n and impr 5ement. I! $nab1e t & mm$ni&ate %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# 1eaders m$st re& )ni'e t"at r)ani'ed resistan&e "as ended# and t"at r)ani'ati na1 & ntr 1 "as &eased.!ti"# t" M"/e !#( A/"i( C!pt &e An is 1ated $nit "as se5era1 )enera1 & $rses ! a&ti n it &an ta2e t a5 id t"e &apt$re ! t"e )r $p r indi5id$a1s. • 0e1i& pter re& 5ery de5i&es and pr &ed$res. • Se&$rity pr &ed$res d$rin) m 5ement and at "ide sites. 9 CUTION Up n n ti!i&ati n t a5 id &apt$re# a11 m 5ement team members %i11 try t 1in2 $p at t"e initia1 m 5ement p int. • -ssentia1 e4$ipment. 3"at & $rse ! a&ti n %i11 in!1i&t ma?im$m dama)e n t"e enemyG 3"at & $rse ! a&ti n %i11 assist in & mp1etin) t"e "i)"er "ead4$artersF 5era11 missi nG M 5ement teams & nd$&t t"e e?e&$ti n p rti n ! t"e p1an %"en n ti!ied by "i)"er "ead4$arters r# i! t"ere is n & nta&t %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# %"en t"e "i)"est ran2in) s$r5i5 r de&ides t"at t"e sit$ati n re4$ires t"e $nit t try t es&ape &apt$re r destr$&ti n. 3"en !a&ed %it" a dan)er $s sit$ati n re4$irin) immediate a&ti n# it is n t t"e time t dis&$ss pti nsH it is t"e time t a&t. +"e & mmander ! an is 1ated $nit !a&es t"er 4$esti ns. Items !r m t"e S.n&e n t"e )r $nd# t"e team (a)e 21< ! 2** . M 5ement team 1eaders re&ei5e t"eir n ti!i&ati n t"r $)" prebrie!ed si)na1s. • A&ti ns at dan)er areas. • Si)na1in) te&"ni4$es. Department ! t"e Army +"e /(A is a )$ide. .FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Re"earsa1s % r2 e!!e&ti5e1y ! r rein! r&in) t"ese S. 0e bases "is de&isi n n many !a&t rs# in&1$din) t"e missi n# rati ns and amm$niti n n "and# &as$a1ties# t"e &"an&e ! re1ie! by !riend1y ! r&es# and t"e ta&ti&a1 sit$ati n. +entati5e1y se1e&t t"e initia1 m 5ement p int d$rin) y $r p1annin) p"ase t"r $)" a map re& n.e( &e$ Unit S. • Ra11y p ints. I! t"e $nit & mmander 1 ses & nta&t %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# "e m$st ma2e t"e de&isi n t m 5e r %ait. • +eam & mm$ni&ati ns Cte&"ni&a1 and n nte&"ni&a1D.S. Many ! t"e te&"ni4$es $sed d$rin) sma11 $nit m 5ement &an be &arried 5er t !it re4$irements ! r m 5in) and ret$rnin) t !riend1y & ntr 1. It is an essentia1 t 1 ! r y $r s$r5i5a1 and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. St!#(i#0 Ope&!ti#0 P&".( s" $1d in&1$de# b$t are n t 1imited t -• M 5ement team si'e Ct"ree t ! $r pers ns per teamD. +"e /(A may be a re& 5ery ! r&eFs n1y means ! determinin) y $r 1 &ati n and intenti ns a!ter y $ start t m 5e. +"ese & $rses ! a&ti n are n t & $rses t"e & mmander &an &" se instead ! "is ri)ina1 missi n. . In eit"er &ase# as 1 n) as t"ere is & mm$ni&ati n %it" "i)"er "ead4$arters# t"at "ead4$arters %i11 ma2e t"e de&isi n. Rat"er# "e may ad pt t"ese & $rses ! a&ti n a!ter & mp1etin) "is missi n %"en "is $nit &ann t & mp1ete its assi)ned missi n Cbe&a$se ! & mbat p %er 1 ssesD r %"en "e re&ei5es rders t e?tra&t "is $nit !r m its &$rrent p siti n. • Immediate a&ti n dri11s. +"is p int is %"ere team members ra11y and a&t$a11y be)in t"eir m 5ement. N"ti6i. N ti!y "i)"er "ead4$arters# i! p ssib1e.

n&e t"e team "as ra11ied at t"e initia1 m 5ement p int# it m$st-• 6i5e !irst aid. • Ma2e s$re e5ery ne 2n %s t"e tentati5e "ide 1 &ati ns. • Nat$ra1 1ines ! dri!t. +a2e t"is a&ti n s t"at e5ery ne is a%are ! t"e dan)er and ready t rea&t. • In"abited areas. / nd$&t a 1istenin) "a1t be! re m 5in) indi5id$a11y int t"e "ide site.e &are!$1 n t t dist$rb r &$t any 5e)etati n.1ends in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin)s. • A1%ays maintain se&$rity. M 5ement in enemy-"e1d territ ry is a 5ery s1 % and de1iberate pr &ess.LISS ! rm$1a. It is $s$a11y better t m 5e at ni)"t be&a$se ! t"e & n&ea1ment dar2ness !!ers. Use a b$tt n " 2 r t"er de&epti5e te&"ni4$e t m 5e t a p siti n $tside ! t"e "ide site. In day1i)"t# bser5e a se&ti n ! y $r r $te be! re y $ m 5e a1 n) it. 8eep t"e ! 11 %in) ! rm$1a in mind %"en se1e&tin) a "ide siteI . I! y $ b$i1d a s"e1ter# ! 11 % t"e . L . Hi(e Site A. • -ns$re e5ery ne 2n %s t"e primary and a1ternate r $tes and ra11y p ints en r $te t t"e "ide 1 &ati ns. / nstr$&t any type ! s"e1ter %it"in t"e "ide area n1y in & 1d %eat"er and desert en5ir nments.n&e y $ "a5e &&$pied t"e "ide site# 1imit y $r a&ti5ities t maintainin) se&$rity# restin)# &am $!1a)in)# and p1annin) y $r ne?t m 5es. 3"en m 5in)# a5 id t"e ! 11 %in) e5en i! it ta2es m re time and ener)y t bypassI • . . A11 team members m$st 2n % its 1 &ati n. Maintain y $r se&$rity t"r $)" 5is$a1 s&annin) and 1istenin). • R ads and trai1s. +"e m 5ement p rti n ! ret$rnin) t !riend1y & ntr 1 is t"e m st dan)er $s as y $ are n % m st 5$1nerab1e. S . • 3ater%ays and brid)es.Sma11 in si'e. +"e idea1 e1ement s" $1d "a5e t% t t"ree membersH " %e5er# it & $1d in&1$de m re dependin) n team e4$ipment and e?perien&e. I .Irre)$1ar in s"ape. +"e distan&e y $ tra5e1 be! re y $ "ide %i11 depend n t"e enemy sit$ati n# y $r "ea1t"# t"e terrain# t"e a5ai1abi1ity ! & 5er and & n&ea1ment ! r "idin)# and t"e am $nt ! dar2ness 1e!t. • A11 &i5i1ian and mi1itary pers nne1. . Ma2e !re4$ent 1istenin) "a1ts. .bsta&1es and barriers.ti/itie$ A!ter y $ "a5e 1 &ated y $r "ide site# d n t m 5e strai)"t int it. +"e initia1 m 5ement p int s" $1d be easy t 1 &ate and &&$py ! r a minim$m am $nt ! time.. • App1y &am $!1a)e. Us$a11y# y $r best pti n %i11 be t &ra%1 int t"e t"i&2est 5e)etati n y $ &an !ind. • Man-made str$&t$res. Department ! t"e Army 5eri!ies t"is 1 &ati n r se1e&ts a better ne. S . (a)e 211 ! 2** . .L % in si1" $ette.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.LISS. . • In5ent ry its e4$ipment Cde&ide %"at t aband n# destr y# r ta2e a1 n)D.n&e y $ "a5e m 5ed int t"e area in %"i&" y $ %ant t "ide C"ide areaD# se1e&t a "ide site. Up n dete&ti n ! t"e enemy# t"e se&$rity pers nne1 a1ert a11 pers nne1# e5en i! t"e teamFs p1an is t stay "idden and n t m 5e $p n si)"tin) t"e enemy.S. A5 id t"e $se ! e?istin) b$i1din)s r s"e1ters.Se&1$ded. . Use y $r eyes and ears t dete&t pe p1e be! re t"ey dete&t y $. -?&epti ns t s$&" m 5ement % $1d be %"en m 5in) t"r $)" "a'ard $s terrain r dense 5e)etati n C! r e?amp1e# @$n)1e r m $ntain $s terrainD. Y $r best se&$rity %i11 be $sin) y $r senses. +"e s1 %er y $ m 5e and t"e m re &are!$1 y $ are# t"e better. • Sp1it t"e team int sma11er e1ements.

3"en settin) traps and snares# 2eep t"em %e11&am $!1a)ed and in areas %"ere pe p1e are n t 1i2e1y t dis& 5er t"em. /" se an area near a %ater s $r&e. +"ere s" $1d be 1 &ati ns a1 n) t"e r $te %"ere t"e team &an )et %ater. D n t &&$py a "ide site ! r m re t"an 27 " $rs. A1%ays $se a b$ddy system t ens$re t"at &am $!1a)e is & mp1ete. In m st sit$ati ns# "ide d$rin) t"e day and m 5e at ni)"t. A1%ays man t"e " 1e-$p area. .e! re 1ea5in) t"e "ide site# steri1i'e it t pre5ent tra&2in). /am $!1a)e is an imp rtant aspe&t ! b t" m 5in) and se&$rin) a "ide site. I! y $ add any additi na1 &am $!1a)e materia1 t t"e "ide site# d n t &$t 5e)etati n in t"e immediate area. In &" sin) t"e r $tes# d n t $se strai)"t 1ines.S. R tate se&$rity s t"at a11 members ! y $r m 5ement team &an rest.n&e t"is is d ne# start p1annin) ! r t"e teamFs ne?t m 5ement. . Start y $r p1annin) pr &ess immediate1y $p n &&$pyin) t"e "ide site. +a2e e5ery pp rt$nity t rest# b$t d n t sa&ri!i&e se&$rity. A&ti ns in t"e " 1e-$p area in&1$de-• Se1e&tin) and &&$pyin) t"e ne?t "ide site Cremember y $ are sti11 in a dan)er $s sit$ati nH t"is is n t a !riend1y areaD. + aid team na5i)ati n# $se a'im$t"s# distan&es# &"e&2p ints r steerin) mar2s# and & rrid rs. Limit y $r a&ti ns in t"e "ide site t t" se dis&$ssed ab 5e. -?amp1es are immediate a&ti n dri11s# a&ti ns n si)"tin) t"e enemy# and "and-and-arm si)na1s.(. (1annin) t"e teamFs m 5ement be)ins %it" a map re& n. • 6ettin) %ater !r m s $r&es %it"in t"e "ide area. +"is is an area %"ere y $ &an rest# re&$perate# and )et and prepare ! d. L ss ! y $r "ea1t" %i11 mean 1 ss ! y $r abi1ity t & ntin$e t a5 id &apt$re. /" se t"e ne?t "ide area !irst. M 5in) n "ard r &2s r 1 )s a1 n) t"e ban2s t )et %ater %i11 red$&e t"e si)ns y $ 1ea5e. +"en &" se a primary and an a1ternate r $te t t"e "ide area. 3"en m 5in) ar $nd t"e area ! r ! d# maintain se&$rity and a5 id 1ea5in) tra&2s r t"er si)ns. -ns$re t"at team members b1end %it" t"e "ide site. Use nat$ra1 r man-made materia1s.n&e p1annin) is & mp1ete# ens$re e5ery ne 2n %s and mem ri'es t"e entire p1an. A1%ays maintain se&$rity %"i1e in t"e " 1e-$p area. . (1an y $r ne?t a&ti ns %"i1e at t"e "ide site.t"er p1annin) & nsiderati ns may !a11 $nder %"at t"e team a1ready "as in t"e team S. In! rm a11 team members ! t"eir &$rrent 1 &ati n and desi)nate an a1ternate "ide site 1 &ati n. . Sin&e %ater%ays are a 1ine ! & mm$ni&ati n# 1 &ate y $r "ide site %e11 a%ay !r m t"e %ater. Use ne r t% radi&a1 &"an)es in dire&ti n. +"e " 1e-$p area s" $1d !!er p1enty ! & 5er and & n&ea1ment ! r m 5ement in and ar $nd t"e area. A&ti ns in t"e " 1e-$p area are t"e same as in "ide site# e?&ept t"at y $ &an m 5e a%ay !r m t"e " 1e-$p area t )et and prepare ! d. • Settin) &1andestine !is"in) de5i&es# s$&" as sta2e $ts# be1 % t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e %ater t a5 id dete&ti n. (1an ra11y p ints and rende'5 $s p ints at inter5a1s a1 n) t"e r $te.n&e in t"e "ide site# restri&t a11 m 5ement t 1ess t"an 79 &entimeters ab 5e t"e )r $nd. • 6at"erin) ! d Cn$ts# berries# 5e)etab1esD. (a)e 212 ! 2** . It is e?treme1y imp rtant t stay "ea1t"y and a1ert %"en tryin) t a5 id &apt$re.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (i&2 t"e r $tes t"at !!er t"e best & 5er and & n&ea1ment# t"e !e%est bsta&1es# and t"e 1east 1i2e1i" d ! & nta&t %it" "$mans. Sm 2e and ! d d rs %i11 re5ea1 y $r 1 &ati n. D n t b$i1d !ires r prepare ! d. +a2e s$&" steps espe&ia11y %"en a re& n team r a % r2 party is $t ! t"e " 1e-$p r "ide site. • Re& nn iterin) t"e area ! r res $r&es and p tentia1 & n&ea1ed m 5ement r $tes t t"e a1ternate "ide site.e &are!$1 n t t 1ea5e tra&2s ! si)ns a1 n) t"e ban2s ! %ater s $r&es %"en )ettin) %ater. Y $ t"en "a5e a p1a&e t )et %ater# t p1a&e !is"in) de5i&es# and t trap )ame. +"ey s" $1d st$dy t"e map and 2n % t"e 5ari $s terrain t"ey %i11 be m 5in) a&r ss s t"at t"ey &an m 5e %it" $t $sin) t"e map. . Remember# t"e 1 &a1 p p$1ati n s metimes "ea5i1y tra5e1s trai1s near %ater s $r&es. +"e team members s" $1d 2n % t"e distan&es and a'im$t"s ! r t"e entire r $te t t"e ne?t "ide area. H"%e-Up A&e!$ A!ter m 5in) and "idin) ! r se5era1 days# $s$a11y t"ree r ! $r# y $ r t"e m 5ement team %i11 "a5e t m 5e int a " 1e-$p area. Department ! t"e Army I! any team member 1ea5es t"e team# )i5e "im a !i5e-p int & ntin)en&y p1an. . +reat a11 in@$ries# n matter " % min r.

Li#) p !t the FEBAEFLOT (a)e 21* ! 2** . + 1imit m 5ement ar $nd t"e area# y $ may "a5e a t% -man team per! rm m re t"an ne tas2. • Ma2e a s2et&" ! t"e site# ta2in) n te ! terrain# bsta&1es# )$ard r $tines and r tati ns# and any sens r de5i&es r trip %ires. . M st ! t"e &as$a1ties & $1d "a5e been a5 ided i! &a$ti n "ad been e?er&ised and a !e% simp1e pr &ed$res ! 11 %ed. Y $ m$st 5er& me t"is tenden&y and $nderstand t"at 1in2$p is a 5ery sensiti5e sit$ati n. +"e pers n %" a&t$a11y ma2es t"e 1in2$p s" $1d be s me ne %" 1 2s 1east 1i2e t"e enemy. 0e a5 ids ans%erin) any ta&ti&a1 4$esti ns and d es n t )i5e any indi&ati n t"at t"ere are t"er team members. A11 y $r patien&e# p1annin)# and "ards"ips %i11 be in 5ain i! y $ d n t e?er&ise &a$ti n %"en & nta&tin) !riend1y !r nt1ine ! r&es.LY CONTROL -stab1is"in) & nta&t %it" !riend1y 1ines r patr 1s is t"e m st &r$&ia1 part ! m 5ement and ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • Re5ea1 t"at t"ere are t"er pers nne1 %it" "im n1y a!ter 5eri!yin) "is identity and satis!yin) "imse1! "e "as made & nta&t %it" !riend1y ! r&es.&&$py a "ide site n t"e near side ! t"e b rder and send a team $t t re& nn iter t"e p tentia1 &r ssin) site. (ers nne1 &" sen t ma2e & nta&t s" $1d be $narmed# "a5e n e4$ipment# and "a5e p siti5e identi!i&ati n readi1y a5ai1ab1e.e &are!$1 t"at sm 2e and 1i)"t !r m t"e !ire d es n t & mpr mise t"e " 1e-$p area. A!ter t"is# "e ! 11 %s any instr$&ti ns )i5en "im. 8ote9 I! you are moving to a neutral country" you are surrendering to that power and become a detained person. B"&(e& C&"$$i#0$ I! y $ "a5e made y $r %ay t a !riend1y r ne$tra1 & $ntry# $se t"e ! 11 %in) pr &ed$res t &r ss t"e b rder and 1in2 $p %it" !riend1y ! r&es n t"e t"er sideI • . /am $!1a)e and steri1i'e t"e !ire site a!ter ea&" $se. +"e t"er pers n pr 5ides t"e se&$rity and bser5es t"e 1in2$p area !r m a sa!e distan&e. 3"i1e in t"e " 1e-$p area# se&$rity is sti11 y $r primary & n&ern. +"e bser5er s" $1d be !ar en $)" a%ay s t"at "e &an %arn t"e rest ! t"e m 5ement team i! s met"in) ) es %r n). Lan)$a)e pr b1ems r di!!i&$1ties & n!irmin) identities may arise. . +"e n rma1 tenden&y is t t"r % &a$ti n t t"e %inds %"en in si)"t ! !riend1y ! r&es. D n t re5ea1 y $r presen&e. • D$rin) t"e a&t$a1 & nta&t# "a5e n1y ne pers n ma2e t"e & nta&t. Use t"is site t prepare ! d r b i1 %ater.S. Desi)nate team members t per! rm spe&i!i& tas2s.n&e t"e re& n is & mp1ete# t"e team m 5es t t"e "ide site# brie!s t"e rest ! t"e team# and p1ans t &r ss t"e b rder at ni)"t. • 3ait $nti1 t"e party "e is & nta&tin) 1 2s in "is dire&ti n s t"at "e d es n t s$rprise t"e & nta&t. F r e?amp1e# t"e team )ettin) %ater & $1d a1s set t"e !is"in) de5i&es. +"e m 5ement team s" $1d maintain se&$rity# be patient# and "a5e a & ntin)en&y p1an. 0e stands $p !r m be"ind & 5er# %it" "ands 5er"ead and states t"at "e is an Ameri&an. R TURN TO 'RI N. • Ma2e & nta&t %it" t"e !riend1y ! r&es d$rin) day1i)"t. Friend1y patr 1s "a5e 2i11ed pers nne1 peratin) be"ind enemy 1ines be&a$se t"ey did n t ma2e & nta&t pr per1y. D n t &&$py t"e " 1e$p area 1 n)er t"an 72 " $rs. Department ! t"e Army • L &atin) a !ire site %e11 a%ay !r m t"e "ide site. • Dependin) n t"e si'e ! y $r m 5ement team# "a5e t% men s$r5ei1 t"e p tentia1 1in2$p site %it" !riend1y ! r&es $nti1 satis!ied t"at t"e pers nne1 are indeed !riend1y. • A!ter &r ssin) t"e b rder# set $p a "ide site n t"e !ar side ! t"e b rder and try t 1 &ate !riend1y p siti ns. • S$r5ei1 t"e &r ssin) site ! r at 1east 27 " $rs# dependin) n t"e enemy sit$ati n.

Y $ may a1s &&$py a p siti n $tside ! t"e perimeter and &a11 $t t )et t"e attenti n ! t"e !riend1y ! r&es. +ry t mem ri'e e5ery terrain !eat$re s t"at# i! ne&essary# y $ &an in!i1trate t !riend1y p siti ns $nder t"e & 5er ! dar2ness.e&a$se ! t"e missi ns ! & mbat and re& n patr 1s and %"ere t"ey are peratin)# ma2in) & nta&t &an be dan)er $s. 3"en t"e patr 1 is 29 t 9< meters !r m y $r p siti n# si)na1 t"em and &a11 $t a )reetin) t"at is &1ear1y and $nmista2ab1y ! Ameri&an ri)in. Idea11y# disp1ay anyt"in) t"at is %"ite %"i1e ma2in) & nta&t.ADE! r%ard 1ine ! %n tr ps CFL. I! n t"in) e1se is a5ai1ab1e# $se any arti&1e ! &1 t"in). Remember# tryin) t in!i1trate in dar2ness is e?treme1y dan)er $s. I! y $ "a5e n t"in) %"ite# an arti&1e ! &1 t"in) %i11 s$!!i&e t dra% attenti n. Department ! t"e Army I! &a$)"t bet%een !riend1y and enemy ! r&es and t"ere is "ea5y !i)"tin) in t"e area# y $ may &" se t "ide and 1et t"e !riend1y 1ines pass 5er y $. +"e n1y di!!eren&e is t"at y $ m$st be m re &are!$1 n t"e initia1 & nta&t. I! y $ de&ide n t t ma2e & nta&t# y $ &an bser5e t"eir r $te and appr a&" !riend1y 1ines at ab $t t"e same 1 &ati n. +"e idea is t dra% attenti n %"i1e stayin) be"ind & 5er. Fr nt1ine pers nne1 are m re 1i2e1y t s" t !irst and as2 4$esti ns 1ater# espe&ia11y in areas ! "ea5y !i)"tin). . .ne pti n y $ "a5e is t p1a&e t"e perimeter $nder bser5ati n and %ait ! r a !riend1y patr 1 t m 5e $t in y $r dire&ti n# pr 5idin) a &"an&e ! r a 1in2$p. Y $ s" $1d be near r be"ind & 5er be! re tryin) t ma2e & nta&t.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. (a)e 217 ! 2** . +"is m 5e ma2es t"e 1in2$p e?treme1y dan)er $s. I! t"e distan&e is 1ess t"an 29 meters# a patr 1 member may rea&t instant1y by !irin) a !ata1 s" t. . S$&" bser5ati n %i11 enab1e y $ t a5 id mines and b by traps. I! 5err$n by !riend1y ! r&es# y $ may try t 1in2 $p !r m t"eir rear d$rin) day1i)"t " $rs.n&e y $ "a5e sp tted a patr 1# remain in p siti n and# i! p ssib1e# a11 % t"e patr 1 t m 5e t %ard y $. +"e a&t$a1 1in2$p %i11 be d ne as ! r 1in2$p d$rin) a b rder &r ssin). 3"ate5er 1in2$p te&"ni4$e y $ de&ide t $se# $se e?treme &a$ti n.e & nstant1y n t"e a1ert ! r !riend1y patr 1s be&a$se t"ese pr 5ide a means ! r ret$rn t !riend1y & ntr 1. . I! 5err$n by enemy ! r&es# y $ may m 5e !$rt"er t t"e enemy rear# try t m 5e t t"e ! r%ard ed)e ! t"e batt1e area CF-.n&e y $ "a5e dra%n attenti n t y $r si)na1 and &a11ed $t# ! 11 % instr$&ti ns )i5en t y $. Li#) p *ith F&ie#(%3 P!t&"%$ I! !riend1y 1ines are a &ir&$1ar perimeter r an is 1ated &amp# ! r e?amp1e# any dire&ti n y $ appr a&" !r m %i11 be & nsidered enemy territ ry. Y $ d n t "a5e t"e pti n ! m 5in) be"ind t"e 1ines and tryin) t 1in2 $p.S.+D d$rin) a 1$11 in t"e !i)"tin)# r m 5e t an t"er area a1 n) t"e !r nt. Find a & n&ea1ed p siti n t"at a11 %s y $ ma?im$m 5is$a1 & 5era)e ! t"e area. . It is &r$&ia1# at t"e time ! & nta&t# t"at t"ere is en $)" 1i)"t ! r t"e patr 1 t identi!y y $ as an Ameri&an. I! t"e distan&e is )reater t"an 9< meters# a re& n patr 1 may a5 id & nta&t and bypass y $r p siti n. Fr m t"e perspe&ti5e ! t"e !riend1y patr 1 r !riend1y pers nne1 &&$pyin) a perimeter# y $ are " sti1e $nti1 t"ey ma2e p siti5e identi!i&ati n.

1amou!lage and movement techni)ues" such as stalking" will also help you get animals or game !or !ood using primitive weapons and skills.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3"i1e & 1 r is se1!-e?p1anat ry# te?t$re de!ines t"e s$r!a&e &"ara&teristi&s ! s met"in) %"en 1 2in) at it. C"%"& !#( Te5t &e -a&" area ! t"e % r1d and ea&" &1imati& & nditi n Car&ti&E%inter# temperateE@$n)1e# r s%ampEdesertD "as & 1 r patterns and te?t$res t"at are nat$ra1 ! r t"at area. Department ! t"e Army CHAPTER 21 . 3"en "idin)# & 5er y $rse1! and y $r e4$ipment %it" 1ea5es# )rass# r t"er 1 &a1 debris. -5en anima1s 2n % and r$n !r m t"e s"ape ! a "$man si1" $ette.e s$re t $se an irre)$1ar pattern. / 5er t"er areas# parti&$1ar1y re&essed r s"aded areas Car $nd t"e eyes and $nder t"e &"inD# %it" 1i)"ter & 1 rs. + "ide and &am $!1a)e m 5ement in any spe&i!i& area ! t"e % r1d# y $ m$st ta2e n t"e & 1 r and te?t$re ! t"e immediate s$rr $ndin)s. . It may mean the di!!erence between survival and capture by the enemy. Ma2e s$re t"e added &am $!1a)e d es n t "inder t"e e4$ipmentFs perati n. . Use &am $!1a)e paint# &"ar& a1# r m$d t &am $!1a)e y $rse1!.CAMOUFLA1E In a survival situation" especially in a hostile environment" you may !ind it necessary to camou!lage yoursel!" your e)uipment" and your movement. Use & 1 r and te?t$re t )et"er t &am $!1a)e y $rse1! e!!e&ti5e1y. It ma2es 1itt1e sense t & 5er y $rse1! %it" dead# br %n 5e)etati n in t"e midd1e ! a 1ar)e )rassy !ie1d. Use nat$ra1 r man-made materia1s t &am $!1a)e y $rse1!. +"e s"ape ! a "at# "e1met# r b1a&2 b ts &an )i5e y $ a%ay. . / n&ea1 any si)na1in) de5i&es y $ "a5e prepared# b$t 2eep t"em ready ! r $se. P RSONAL CA0OU'LA/ 3"en &am $!1a)in) y $rse1!# & nsider t"at &ertain s"apes are parti&$1ar t "$mans. / 5er a11 areas ! e?p sed s2in# in&1$din) !a&e# "ands# ne&2# and ears.S.1end in %it" t"e s$rr $ndin) & 1 rs and sim$1ate t"e te?t$re ! y $r s$rr $ndin)s. Atta&" (a)e 219 ! 2** .rea2 $p y $r $t1ine by p1a&in) sma11 am $nts ! 5e)etati n !r m t"e s$rr $ndin) area in y $r $ni! rm# e4$ipment# and "ead)ear. Sh!pe !#( O t%i#e /"an)e t"e $t1ine ! %eap ns and e4$ipment by tyin) 5e)etati n r strips ! &1 t" nt t"em. F r e?amp1e# s$r!a&e te?t$res may be sm t"# r $)"# r &2y# 1ea!y# r many t"er p ssib1e & mbinati ns. +"e enemy %i11 1 2 ! r t"ese s"apes. /am $!1a)e paint# &"ar& a1 !r m b$rned paper r % d# m$d# )rass# 1ea5es# strips ! &1 t" r b$r1ap# pine b $)"s# and &am $!1a)ed $ni! rms are a !e% e?amp1es. / 5er %it" a dar2er & 1 r areas t"at sti&2 $t m re and &at&" m re 1i)"t C! re"ead# n se# &"ee2b nes# &"in# and earsD. Simi1ar1y# it % $1d be $se1ess t &am $!1a)e y $rse1! %it" )reen )rass in t"e midd1e ! a desert r r &2y area. +ry t red$&e any s"ine !r m s2in r e4$ipment.

3"en m 5in) past bsta&1es# a5 id ) in) 5er t"em. I! &apt$re appears imminent in y $r present 1 &ati n and y $ m$st m 5e# m 5e a%ay s1 %1y# ma2in) as 1itt1e n ise as p ssib1e. Shi#e As s2in )ets i1y# it be& mes s"iny. I! y $ m$st %ear )1asses# &am $!1a)e t"em by app1yin) a t"in 1ayer ! d$st t t"e $tside ! t"e 1enses. I! y $ m$st &1imb 5er an bsta&1e# 2eep y $r b dy 1e5e1 %it" its t p t a5 id si1" $ettin) y $rse1!. /arry a si)na1 mirr r in its desi)ned p $&" r in a p &2et %it" t"e mirr r p rti n !a&in) y $r b dy.y m 5in) s1 %1y in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ de&rease t"e &"an&e ! dete&ti n and & nser5e ener)y t"at y $ may need ! r 1 n)-term s$r5i5a1 r 1 n)-distan&e e5asi n. F r&in) an enemy t 1 2 t"r $)" many 1ayers ! mas2in) 5e)etati n %i11 !ati)$e "is eyes 5ery 4$i&21y. 3"ene5er p ssib1e# %as" i1y s2in and reapp1y &am $!1a)e. (ay parti&$1ar attenti n t & 5erin) b t eye1ets# b$&21es n e4$ipment# %at&"es and @e%e1ry# 'ippers# and $ni! rm insi)nia. +"is a&ti n %i11 ma2e it 5ery "ard ! r t"e enemy t see y $ as t"e 5e)etati n %i11 partia11y mas2 y $ !r m "is 5ie%. +"e b1 t&"es r s1as"es %i11 "e1p t sim$1ate te?t$re. Use appr priate & 1 rs ! r y $r s$rr $ndin)s. -4$ipment %it" % rn !! paint is a1s s"iny. 3"en tra5e1in)# espe&ia11y in b$i1t-$p areas at ni)"t# be a%are ! %"ere y $ &ast y $r s"ad %. I! at a11 p ssib1e# a5 id m 5ement in t"e presen&e ! an enemy. It may e?tend $t ar $nd t"e & mer ! a b$i1din) and )i5e a%ay y $r p siti n. Department ! t"e Army 5e)etati n !r m t"e area r strips ! &1 t" ! t"e pr per & 1 r t &1 t"in) and e4$ipment.S. A1s # i! y $ are in a dar2 s"ad % and t"ere is a 1i)"t s $r&e t ne side# an enemy n t"e t"er side &an see y $r si1" $ette a)ainst t"e 1i)"t. S2in i1 %i11 %as" !! &am $!1a)e# s reapp1y it !re4$ent1y. D n t si1" $ette y $rse1! a)ainst t"e s2y1ine %"en (a)e 216 ! 2** . . +"is 1ayer ! d$st %i11 red$&e t"e re!1e&ti n ! 1i)"t. Anyt"in) t"at s"ines a$t mati&a11y attra&ts attenti n and %i11 )i5e a%ay y $r 1 &ati n. Fi)$re 21-1 )i5es a )enera1 idea ! " % t app1y &am $!1a)e ! r 5ari $s areas and &1imates. / 5er s"iny sp ts n e4$ipment by paintin)# & 5erin) %it" m$d# r %rappin) %it" &1 t" r tape. Y $ m$st & 5er t"ese )1ass b@e&ts %"en n t in $se. Sh!("2 3"en "idin) r tra5e1in)# stay in t"e deepest part ! t"e s"ad %s. I! y $ $se 5e)etati n# rep1a&e it as it %i1ts. As y $ m 5e t"r $)" an area# be a1ert t t"e & 1 r &"an)es and m di!y y $r &am $!1a)e & 1 rs as ne&essary. +"e $ter ed)es ! t"e s"ad %s are 1i)"ter and t"e deeper parts are dar2er. M"/e+e#t M 5ement# espe&ia11y !ast m 5ement# attra&ts attenti n. Remember# i! y $ are in an area %"ere t"ere is p1enty ! 5e)etati n# 2eep as m$&" 5e)etati n bet%een y $ and a p tentia1 enemy as p ssib1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 61ass b@e&ts s$&" as mirr rs# )1asses# bin &$1ars# and te1es& pes s"ine. -5en painted b@e&ts# i! sm t"# may s"ine.

Standin) in sm 2e !r m a !ire &an "e1p mas2 y $r s&ent !r m anima1s. . S$&" strides "e1p y $ t maintain y $r ba1an&e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"en )rad$a11y s"i!t y $r %ei)"t ! r%ard t t"e !r nt ! t. Y $ &an $se ar mati& "erbs r p1ants t %as" y $rse1! and y $r &1 t"in)# t r$b n y $r b dy and &1 t"in)# r t &"e% n t &am $!1a)e y $r breat".S O' STAL*IN/ S metimes y $ need t m 5e# $ndete&ted# t r !r m a 1 &ati n. Li!t t"e ba&2 ! t t ab $t 2nee "ei)"t and start t"e pr &ess 5er a)ain. A5 idin) str n) sme11in) ! ds# s$&" as )ar1i&# "e1ps red$&e b dy d rs. Start by %as"in) y $rse1! and y $r &1 t"es %it" $t $sin) s ap. +"e abi1ity t sta12 r m 5e %it" $t ma2in) any s$dden 4$i&2 m 5ement r 1 $d n ise is essentia1 t a5 idin) dete&ti n. Use t"e ! 11 %in) te&"ni4$es %"en pra&ti&in). 3"i1e anima1s are a!raid ! !res" sm 2e !r m a !ire# 1der sm 2e s&ents are n rma1 sme11s a!ter ! rest !ires and d n t s&are t"em. /$r1 t"e t es $p $t ! t"e %ay %"en steppin) d %n s t"e $tside ed)e ! t"e ba11 ! t"e ! t t $&"es t"e )r $nd.e#t 3"et"er "$ntin) anima1s r a5 idin) t"e enemy# it is a1%ays %ise t &am $!1a)e t"e s&ent ass &iated %it" "$mans. S $nds ! air&ra!t# tr$&2s# )enerat rs# str n) %inds# and pe p1e ta12in) %i11 & 5er s me r a11 t"e s $nds pr d$&ed by y $r m 5ement. S1 % d %n y $r pa&e as m$&" as ne&essary t a5 id ma2in) n ise %"en m 5in) ar $nd r a%ay !r m p ssib1e t"reats. Fee1 ! r sti&2s and t%i)s t"at may snap %"en y $ p1a&e y $r %ei)"t n t"em. I! p ssib1e# a5 id ma2in) any n ise at a11. D n t $se t ba&& pr d$&ts# &andy# )$m# r & smeti&s.ne step $s$a11y ta2es 1 min$te t & mp1ete# b$t t"e time it ta2es %i11 depend n t"e sit$ati n. Rain %i11 mas2 a 1 t ! m 5ement n ise# b$t it a1s red$&es y $r abi1ity t dete&t p tentia1 enemy n ise. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e sta12in) i! it is t be e!!e&ti5e. 3"en m 5in) in a &r $&"# y $ )ain e?tra s$pp rt by p1a&in) y $r "ands n y $r 2nees. I! y $ start t step n ne# 1i!t y $r ! t and m 5e it. St p !re4$ent1y# 1isten# and 1 2 ar $nd s1 %1y t dete&t si)ns ! " sti1e m 5ement. Up&i0ht St!%)i#0 +a2e steps ab $t "a1! y $r n rma1 stride %"en sta12in) in t"e $pri)"t p siti n. N"i$e N ise attra&ts attenti n# espe&ia11y i! t"ere is a se4$en&e ! 1 $d n ises s$&" as se5era1 snappin) t%i)s. +"is %as"in) met" d rem 5es s ap and b dy d rs. (ay attenti n t sme11s ass &iated %it" "$mans# s$&" as !ire# &i)arettes# )as 1ine# i1# s ap# and ! d. Y $ s" $1d be ab1e t st p at any p int in t"at m 5ement and " 1d t"at p siti n as 1 n) as ne&essary. (ine need1es# mint# r any simi1ar ar mati& p1ant %i11 "e1p &am $!1a)e y $r s&ent !r m b t" anima1s and "$mans. C&!2%i#0 (a)e 217 ! 2** . 3"en y $ are m 5in)# y $ %i11 "a5e di!!i&$1ty dete&tin) t"e m 5ement ! t"ers. Use ba&2)r $nd n ises t & 5er t"e n ise ! y $r m 5ement. 8eep y $r "ands and arms &1 se t y $r b dy and a5 id %a5in) t"em ab $t r "ittin) 5e)etati n.O. A!ter ma2in) & nta&t %it" t"e $tside ed)e ! t"e ba11 ! y $r ! t# r 11 t t"e inside ba11 ! y $r ! t# p1a&e y $r "ee1 d %n# ! 11 %ed by y $r t es. N te t"e %indFs dire&ti n and# %"en p ssib1e# appr a&" !r m r s2irt ar $nd n t"e d %n%ind side %"en nearin) "$mans r anima1s. 0 T. Y $ need m re t"an @$st &am $!1a)e t ma2e t"ese m 5es s$&&ess!$11y. 3"i1e tra5e1in)# $se y $r sense ! sme11 t "e1p y $ !ind r a5 id "$mans. Department ! t"e Army &r ssin) "i11s r rid)es. S$&" sme11s may a1ert y $ t t"eir presen&e 1 n) be! re y $ &an see r "ear t"em# dependin) n %ind speed and dire&ti n.S. S.

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

/ra%1 n y $r "ands and 2nees %"en t"e 5e)etati n is t 1 % t a11 % y $ t %a12 $pri)"t %it" $t bein) seen. M 5e ne 1imb at a time and be s$re t set it d %n s !t1y# !ee1in) ! r anyt"in) t"at may snap and ma2e n ise. ,e &are!$1 t"at y $r t es and "ee1s d n t &at&" n 5e)etati n.

P&"#e St!%)i#0
+ sta12 in t"e pr ne p siti n# y $ d a 1 %# m di!ied p$s"-$p n y $r "ands and t es# m 5in) y $rse1! ! r%ard s1i)"t1y# and t"en 1 %erin) y $rse1! a)ain s1 %1y. A5 id dra))in) and s&rapin) a1 n) t"e )r $nd as t"is ma2es e?&essi5e n ise and 1ea5es 1ar)e trai1s ! r tra&2ers t ! 11 %.

A#i+!% St!%)i#0
,e! re sta12in) an anima1# se1e&t t"e best r $te. I! t"e anima1 is m 5in)# y $ %i11 need an inter&eptin) r $te. (i&2 a r $te t"at p$ts b@e&ts bet%een y $ and t"e anima1 t & n&ea1 y $r m 5ement !r m it. ,y p siti nin) y $rse1! in t"is %ay# y $ %i11 be ab1e t m 5e !aster# $nti1 y $ pass t"at b@e&t. S me b@e&ts# s$&" as 1ar)e r &2s and trees# may t ta11y & n&ea1 y $# and t"ers# s$&" as sma11 b$s"es and )rass# may n1y partia11y & n&ea1 y $. (i&2 t"e r $te t"at !!ers t"e best & n&ea1ment and re4$ires t"e 1east am $nt ! e!! rt. 8eep y $r eyes n t"e anima1 and st p %"en it 1 2s y $r %ay r t$rns its ears y $r %ay# espe&ia11y i! it s$spe&ts y $r presen&e. As y $ )et &1 se# s4$int y $r eyes s1i)"t1y t & n&ea1 b t" t"e 1i)"t-dar2 & ntrast ! t"e %"ites ! t"e eyes and any s"ine !r m y $r eyes. 8eep y $r m $t" &1 sed s t"at t"e anima1 d es n t see t"e %"iteness r s"ine ! y $r teet".

(a)e 21: ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 22 - CONTACT *ITH PEOPLE

Some o! the best and most !re)uently given advice" when dealing with local peoples" is !or the survivor to accept" respect" and adapt to their ways. Thus" =when in Rome" do as the Romans do.= This is e+cellent advice" but there are several considerations involved in putting this advice into practice.

CONTACT 3IT. LOCAL P OPL
Y $ m$st )i5e seri $s & nsiderati n t dea1in) %it" t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e. D t"ey "a5e a primiti5e &$1t$reG Are t"ey !armers# !is"ermen# !riend1y pe p1e# r enemyG As a s$r5i5 r# J&r ss-&$1t$ra1 & mm$ni&ati nJ &an 5ary radi&a11y !r m area t area and !r m pe p1e t pe p1e. It may mean intera&ti n %it" pe p1e ! an e?treme1y primiti5e &$1t$re r & nta&t %it" pe p1e %" "a5e a re1ati5e1y m dem &$1t$re. A &$1t$re is identi!ied by standards ! be"a5i r t"at its members & nsider pr per and a&&eptab1e b$t may r may n t & n! rm t y $r idea ! %"at is pr per. N matter %" t"ese pe p1e are# y $ &an e?pe&t t"ey %i11 "a5e 1a%s# s &ia1 and e& n mi& 5a1$es# and p 1iti&a1 and re1i)i $s be1ie!s t"at may be radi&a11y di!!erent !r m y $rs. ,e! re dep1 yin) int y $r area ! perati ns# st$dy t"ese di!!erent &$1t$ra1 aspe&ts. (ri r st$dy and preparati n %i11 "e1p y $ ma2e r a5 id & nta&t i! y $ "a5e t dea1 %it" t"e 1 &a1 p p$1ati n. (e p1e %i11 be !riend1y# $n!riend1y# r t"ey %i11 &" se t i)n re y $. +"eir attit$de may be $n2n %n. I! t"e pe p1e are 2n %n t be !riend1y# try t 2eep t"em !riend1y t"r $)" y $r & $rtesy and respe&t ! r t"eir re1i)i n# p 1iti&s# s &ia1 &$st ms# "abits# and a11 t"er aspe&ts ! t"eir &$1t$re. I! t"e pe p1e are 2n %n t be enemies r are $n2n %ns# ma2e e5ery e!! rt t a5 id any & nta&t and 1ea5e n si)n ! y $r presen&e. A basi& 2n %1ed)e ! t"e dai1y "abits ! t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e %i11 be essentia1 in t"is attempt. I! a!ter &are!$1 bser5ati n y $ determine t"at an $n2n %n pe p1e are !riend1y# y $ may & nta&t t"em i! y $ abs 1$te1y need t"eir "e1p. Us$a11y# y $ "a5e 1itt1e t !ear and m$&" t )ain !r m &a$ti $s and respe&t!$1 & nta&t %it" 1 &a1 pe p1e ! !riend1y r ne$tra1 & $ntries. I! y $ be& me !ami1iar %it" t"e 1 &a1 &$st ms# disp1ay & mm n de&en&y# and m st imp rtant# s" % respe&t ! r t"eir &$st ms# y $ s" $1d be ab1e t a5 id tr $b1e and p ssib1y )ain needed "e1p. + ma2e & nta&t# %ait $nti1 n1y ne pers n is near and# i! p ssib1e# 1et t"at pers n ma2e t"e initia1 appr a&". M st pe p1e %i11 be %i11in) t "e1p a s$r5i5 r %" appears t be in need. 0 %e5er# 1 &a1 p 1iti&a1 attit$des# instr$&ti n# r pr pa)anda e!! rts may &"an)e t"e attit$des ! t"er%ise !riend1y pe p1e. / n5erse1y# in $n!riend1y & $ntries# many pe p1e# espe&ia11y in rem te areas# may !ee1 anim sity t %ard t"eir p 1iti&ians and may be m re !riend1y t %ard a s$r5i5 r. +"e 2ey t s$&&ess!$1 & nta&t %it" 1 &a1 pe p1es is t be !riend1y# & $rte $s# and patient. Disp1ayin) !ear# s" %in) %eap ns# and ma2in) s$dden r t"reatenin) m 5ements &an &a$se a 1 &a1 pers n t !ear y $. S$&" a&ti ns &an pr mpt a " sti1e resp nse. 3"en attemptin) a & nta&t# smi1e as !ten as y $ &an. Many 1 &a1 pe p1es are s"y and seem $nappr a&"ab1e# r t"ey may i)n re y $. Appr a&" t"em s1 %1y and d n t r$s" y $r & nta&t.

(a)e 21; ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

T. SURVIVOR<S # .AVIOR
Use sa1t# t ba&& # si15er m ney# and simi1ar items dis&reet1y %"en tradin) %it" 1 &a1 pe p1e. (aper m ney is %e11-2n %n % r1d%ide. D n t 5erpayH it may 1ead t embarrassment and e5en dan)er. A1%ays treat pe p1e %it" respe&t. D n t b$11y t"em r 1a$)" at t"em. Usin) si)n 1an)$a)e r a&tin) $t needs r 4$esti ns &an be 5ery e!!e&ti5e. Many pe p1e are $sed t s$&" 1an)$a)e and & mm$ni&ate $sin) n n5erba1 si)n 1an)$a)e. +ry t 1earn a !e% % rds and p"rases ! t"e 1 &a1 1an)$a)e in and ar $nd y $r p tentia1 area ! perati ns. +ryin) t spea2 s me neFs 1an)$a)e is ne ! t"e best %ays t s" % respe&t ! r "is &$1t$re. Sin&e -n)1is" is %ide1y $sed# s me ! t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e may $nderstand a !e% % rds ! -n)1is". S me areas may be tab . +"ey ran)e !r m re1i)i $s r sa&red p1a&es t diseased r dan)er areas. In s me areas# &ertain anima1s m$st n t be 2i11ed. Learn t"e r$1es and ! 11 % t"em. 3at&" and 1earn as m$&" as p ssib1e. S$&" a&ti ns %i11 "e1p t stren)t"en re1ati ns and pr 5ide ne% 2n %1ed)e and s2i11s t"at may be 5ery imp rtant 1ater. See2 ad5i&e n 1 &a1 "a'ards and !ind $t !r m !riend1y pe p1e %"ere t"e " sti1e pe p1e are. A1%ays remember t"at pe p1e !re4$ent1y insist t"at t"er pe p1es are " sti1e# simp1y be&a$se t"ey d n t $nderstand di!!erent &$1t$res and distant pe p1es. +"e pe p1e t"ey &an $s$a11y tr$st are t"eir immediate nei)"b rs--m$&" t"e same as in $r %n nei)"b r" d. Fre4$ent1y# 1 &a1 pe p1e# 1i2e $rse15es# %i11 s$!!er !r m & nta)i $s diseases. ,$i1d a separate s"e1ter# i! p ssib1e# and a5 id p"ysi&a1 & nta&t %it" $t )i5in) t"e impressi n ! d in) s . (ers na11y prepare y $r ! d and drin2# i! y $ &an d s %it" $t )i5in) !!ense. Fre4$ent1y# t"e 1 &a1 pe p1e %i11 a&&ept t"e $se ! Jpers na1 r re1i)i $s &$st mJ as an e?p1anati n ! r is 1ati nist be"a5i r. ,arter# r tradin)# is & mm n in m re primiti5e s &ieties. 0ard & in is $s$a11y ) d# %"et"er ! r its e?&"an)e 5a1$e r as @e%e1ry r trin2ets. In is 1ated areas# mat&"es# t ba&& # sa1t# ra' r b1ades# empty & ntainers# r &1 t" may be % rt" m re t"an any ! rm ! m ney. ,e 5ery &a$ti $s %"en t $&"in) pe p1e. Many pe p1e & nsider Jt $&"in)J tab and s$&" a&ti ns may be dan)er $s. A5 id se?$a1 & nta&t. 0 spita1ity am n) s me pe p1e is s$&" a str n) &$1t$ra1 trait t"at t"ey may seri $s1y red$&e t"eir %n s$pp1ies t !eed a stran)er. A&&ept %"at t"ey !!er and s"are it e4$a11y %it" a11 present. -at in t"e same %ay t"ey eat and# m st imp rtant# try t eat a11 t"ey !!er. I! y $ ma2e any pr mises# 2eep t"em. Respe&t pers na1 pr perty and 1 &a1 &$st ms and manners# e5en i! t"ey seem dd. Ma2e s me 2ind ! payment ! r ! d# s$pp1ies# and s ! rt". Respe&t pri5a&y. D n t enter a " $se $n1ess in5ited.

C.AN/ S TO POLITICAL ALL /IANC
In t dayFs % r1d ! !ast-pa&ed internati na1 p 1iti&s# p 1iti&a1 attit$des and & mmitments %it"in nati ns are s$b@e&t t rapid &"an)e. +"e p p$1ati n ! many & $ntries# espe&ia11y p 1iti&a11y " sti1e & $ntries# m$st n t be & nsidered !riend1y @$st be&a$se t"ey d n t dem nstrate pen " sti1ity. Un1ess brie!ed t t"e & ntraryH a5 id a11 & nta&t %it" s$&" pe p1e.

(a)e 22< ! 2**

FM 21-76

US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL

Reprinted as permitted by U.S. Department ! t"e Army

CHAPTER 28 - SURVIVAL IN MAN-MADE HA=ARDS

8uclear" chemical" and biological weapons have become potential realities on any modern battle!ield. Recent e+perience in A!ghanistan" 1ambodia" and other areas o! con!lict has proved the use o! chemical and biological weapons &such as mycoto+ins'. The war!ighting doctrine o! the 8AT0 and arsaw :act nations addresses the use o! both nuclear and chemical weapons. The potential use o! these weapons intensi!ies the problems o! survival because o! the serious dangers posed by either radioactive !allout or contamination produced by persistent biological or chemical agents. @ou must use special precautions i! you e+pect to survive in these man%made ha*ards. I! you are sub$ected to any o! the e!!ects o! nuclear" chemical" or biological war!are" the survival procedures recommended in this chapter may save your li!e. This chapter presents some background in!ormation on each type o! ha*ard so that you may better understand the true nature o! the ha*ard. Awareness o! the ha*ards" knowledge o! this chapter" and application o! common sense should keep you alive.

T. NUCL AR NVIRON0 NT
(repare y $rse1! t s$r5i5e in a n$&1ear en5ir nment. 8n % " % t rea&t t a n$&1ear "a'ard.

E66e.t$ "6 N .%e!& *e!p"#$
+"e e!!e&ts ! n$&1ear %eap ns are &1assi!ied as eit"er initia1 r resid$a1. Initia1 e!!e&ts &&$r in t"e immediate area ! t"e e?p1 si n and are "a'ard $s in t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. Resid$a1 e!!e&ts &an 1ast ! r days r years and &a$se deat". +"e prin&ipa1 initia1 e!!e&ts are b1ast and radiati n. #last De!ined as t"e brie! and rapid m 5ement ! air a%ay !r m t"e e?p1 si nFs &enter and t"e press$re a&& mpanyin) t"is m 5ement. Str n) %inds a&& mpany t"e b1ast. ,1ast "$r1s debris and pers nne1# & 11apses 1$n)s# r$pt$res eardr$ms# & 11apses str$&t$res and p siti ns# and &a$ses immediate deat" r in@$ry %it" its &r$s"in) e!!e&t. Ther"al Radiation +"e "eat and 1i)"t radiati n a n$&1ear e?p1 si nFs !ireba11 emits. Li)"t radiati n & nsists ! b t" 5isib1e 1i)"t and $1tra5i 1et and in!rared 1i)"t. +"erma1 radiati n pr d$&es e?tensi5e !ires# s2in b$rns# and !1as" b1indness. Nuclear Radiation N$&1ear radiati n brea2s d %n int t% &ate) ries-initia1 radiati n and resid$a1 radiati n. Initia1 n$&1ear radiati n & nsists ! intense )amma rays and ne$tr ns pr d$&ed d$rin) t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. +"is radiati n &a$ses e?tensi5e dama)e t &e11s t"r $)" $t t"e b dy. Radiati n dama)e may &a$se "eada&"es# na$sea# 5 mitin)# diarr"ea# and e5en deat"# dependin) n t"e radiati n d se re&ei5ed. +"e ma@ r pr b1em in pr te&tin) y $rse1! a)ainst t"e initia1 radiati nFs e!!e&ts is t"at y $
(a)e 221 ! 2**

T3pe$ "6 N . N !$rt"er dis&$ssi n ! t"is type ! b$rst %i11 ta2e p1a&e. S$bs$r!a&e b$rsts &a$se y $ 1itt1e r n radi a&ti5e "a'ard $n1ess y $ enter t"e immediate area ! t"e &rater. +"e type ! b$rst dire&t1y a!!e&ts y $r &"an&es ! s$r5i5a1. / 5er pen b$rns Cse& nd. . #last In+uries .eta and a1p"a radiati n are radi a&ti5e parti&1es n rma11y ass &iated %it" radi a&ti5e d$st !r m !a11 $t. A s$bs$r!a&e b$rst &&$rs & mp1ete1y $nder)r $nd r $nder%ater. +"e airb$rst pr 5ides t"e ma?im$m radiati n e!!e&t n t"e tar)et and is# t"ere! re# m st dan)er $s t y $ in terms ! immediate n$&1ear e!!e&ts. +"is type ! b$rst is y $r greatest n$&1ear "a'ard. F$rt"er radiati n in@$ries may &&$r i! y $ d n t ta2e pr per pre&a$ti ns a)ainst !a11 $t. Radiation In+uries Ne$tr ns# )amma radiati n# a1p"a radiati n# and beta radiati n &a$se radiati n in@$ries. A dis&$ssi n ! resid$a1 radiati n ta2es p1a&e in a s$bse4$ent para)rap". It "as m re e!!e&t n y $ t"an initia1 radiati n. +"ese in@$ries are &1assed as b1ast# t"erma1# r radiati n in@$ries. Resid$a1 radiati n & nsists ! a11 radiati n pr d$&ed a!ter ne min$te !r m t"e e?p1 si n. 3as" a11 b$rns be! re & 5erin). +"ey are s" rt-ran)e parti&1es and y $ &an easi1y pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst t"em i! y $ ta2e pre&a$ti ns.1ast in@$ries pr d$&ed by n$&1ear %eap ns are simi1ar t t" se &a$sed by & n5enti na1 "i)"-e?p1 si5e %eap ns. /1 t"in) %i11 pr 5ide si)ni!i&ant pr te&ti n a)ainst t"erma1 in@$ries. A s$r!a&e b$rst &&$rs n t"e )r $nd r %ater s$r!a&e. Its e!!e&ts remain beneat" t"e s$r!a&e r in t"e immediate area %"ere t"e s$r!a&e & 11apses int a &rater 5er t"e b$rstFs 1 &ati n. Lar)e am $nts ! !a11 $t res$1t# %it" seri $s 1 n)term e!!e&ts ! r y $.S. (ers nne1 e?p sed t 1et"a1 am $nts ! initia1 radiati n may %e11 "a5e been 2i11ed r !ata11y in@$red by b1ast r t"erma1 radiati n. . F1as" b1indness a1s &&$rs. 6amma radiati n is simi1ar t B rays and is a1s a "i)"1y penetratin) radiati n.%e!& B &$t$ +"ere are t"ree types ! n$&1ear b$rsts--airb$rst# s$r!a&e b$rst# and s$bs$r!a&e b$rst. Re$i( !% R!(i!ti"# (a)e 222 ! 2** . Ther"al In+uries +"e "eat and 1i)"t t"e n$&1ear !ireba11 emits &a$ses t"erma1 in@$ries. S$bstantia1 & 5er and distan&e !r m t"e e?p1 si n &an pre5ent t"erma1 in@$ries.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Department ! t"e Army may "a5e re&ei5ed a 1et"a1 r in&apa&itatin) d se be! re ta2in) any pr te&ti5e a&ti n. / 5er as m$&" e?p sed s2in as p ssib1e be! re a n$&1ear e?p1 si n. S$bstantia1 & 5er and distan&e !r m t"e e?p1 si n are t"e best pr te&ti n a)ainst b1ast in@$ry. First aid ! r t"erma1 in@$ries is t"e same as !irst aid ! r b$rns. D$rin) t"e initia1 !ireba11 sta)e ! a n$&1ear det nati n# initia1 )amma radiati n and ne$tr ns are t"e m st seri $s t"reat. . See ?odily Reactions to Radiation" be1 %# ! r t"e sympt ms ! radiati n in@$ries.r t"ird-de)reeD t pre5ent t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es. Indi5id$a1s in t"e area near a n$&1ear e?p1 si n %i11 pr bab1y s$!!er a & mbinati n ! a11 t"ree types ! in@$ries. Lar)e pie&es ! debris stri2in) y $ %i11 &a$se !ra&t$red 1imbs r massi5e interna1 in@$ries. Ne$tr ns are "i)"-speed# e?treme1y penetratin) parti&1es t"at a&t$a11y smas" &e11s %it"in y $r b dy. (r @e&ti1e % $nds &&$r as t"e e?p1 si nFs ! r&e "$r1s debris at y $. First-# se& nd-# r t"ird-de)ree b$rns may res$1t.1ast 5erpress$re &an pr d$&e & 11apsed 1$n)s and r$pt$red interna1 r)ans.1ast 5er-press$re may t"r % y $ 1 n) distan&es# and y $ %i11 s$!!er se5ere in@$ry $p n impa&t %it" t"e )r $nd r t"er b@e&ts. N . / 5er b1ast in@$ry % $nds as s n as p ssib1e t pre5ent t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e d$st parti&1es.%e!& I#F &ie$ M st in@$ries in t"e n$&1ear en5ir nment res$1t !r m t"e initia1 n$&1ear e!!e&ts ! t"e det nati n. +"is b1indness may be permanent r temp rary dependin) n t"e de)ree ! e?p s$re ! t"e eyes. An airb$rst &&$rs in t"e air ab 5e its intended tar)et.

-?amp1es are &an&er and )eneti& de!e&ts. /"r ni& e!!e&ts are t" se t"at &&$r s me years a!ter e?p s$re t radiati n. I! n1y y $r "ands re&ei5ed t"is same d se# y $r 5era11 "ea1t" % $1d n t s$!!er m$&"# a1t" $)" y $r "ands % $1d s$!!er se5ere dama)e.S. (a)e 22* ! 2** . . Reco(ery Capa6ility +"e e?tent ! b dy dama)e depends main1y n t"e part ! t"e b dy e?p sed t radiati n and " % 1 n) it %as e?p sed# as %e11 as its abi1ity t re& 5er. It is a1s &riti&a1 t 2n % " % t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m t"e m st dan)er $s ! rm ! resid$a1 radiati n-penetratin) e?terna1 radiati n. 'allout Fa11 $t & nsists ! radi a&ti5e s i1 and %ater parti&1es# as %e11 as %eap n !ra)ments.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. A1p"a and beta radiati n are re1ati5e1y easy t & $ntera&t# and resid$a1 )amma radiati n is m$&" 1ess intense t"an t"e )amma radiati n emitted d$rin) t"e !irst min$te a!ter t"e e?p1 si n. +"e se5erity ! t"ese sympt ms is d$e t t"e e?treme sensiti5ity ! t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t t radiati n. Us$a11y# a d se ! 6<< &enti)rams C&)ysD t t"e entire b dy %i11 res$1t in a1m st &ertain deat". Department ! t"e Army Resid$a1 radiati n is a11 radiati n emitted a!ter 1 min$te !r m t"e instant ! t"e n$&1ear e?p1 si n.n t"e t"er "and# a&$te e!!e&ts are ! primary imp rtan&e t y $r s$r5i5a1. +"e irradiated eart" in t"is area %i11 remain "i)"1y radi a&ti5e ! r an e?treme1y 1 n) time. D$rin) a s$r!a&e det nati n# r i! an airb$rstFs n$&1ear !ireba11 t $&"es t"e )r $nd# 1ar)e am $nts ! s i1 and %ater are 5ap ri'ed a1 n) %it" t"e b mbFs !ra)ments# and ! r&ed $p%ard t a1tit$des ! 29#<<< meters r m re. Materia1 t"at enters t"e b dy t"r $)" breat"in) presents n1y a min r "a'ard. +"e brain and 2idneys "a5e 1itt1e re& 5ery &apabi1ity. +"e interna1 "a'ard &an enter t"e b dy eit"er t"r $)" & ns$mpti n ! & ntaminated %ater r ! d r by abs rpti n t"r $)" &$ts r abrasi ns. Fa11 $t is y $r m st si)ni!i&ant radiati n "a'ard# pr 5ided y $ "a5e n t re&ei5ed a 1et"a1 radiati n d se !r m t"e initia1 radiati n. Fa11 $t parti&1es emit a1p"a# beta# and )amma radiati n.azards An e?terna1 r an interna1 "a'ard &an &a$se b dy dama)e. (enetratin) beta rays &a$se radiati n b$rnsH t"e % $nds are simi1ar t !ire b$rns. /"r ni& e!!e&ts are ! min r & n&ern ins !ar as t"ey a!!e&t y $r immediate s$r5i5a1 in a radi a&ti5e en5ir nment. +"e e?terna1 "a'ard pr d$&es 5era11 irradiati n and beta b$rns. 0i)"1y penetratin) )amma radiati n r t"e 1ess penetratin) beta radiati n t"at &a$ses b$rns &an &a$se e?terna1 dama)e. +"e entry ! a1p"a r beta radiati n-emittin) parti&1es int t"e b dy &an &a$se interna1 dama)e. Induced Radiation It des&ribes a re1ati5e1y sma11# intense1y radi a&ti5e area dire&t1y $nderneat" t"e n$&1ear %eap nFs !ireba11. +"ese e!!e&ts res$1t !r m t"e radiati nFs dire&t p"ysi&a1 dama)e t tiss$e. 4ternal and Internal . Radiati n si&2ness sympt ms in&1$de na$sea# diarr"ea# 5 mitin)# !ati)$e# %ea2ness# and 1 ss ! "air. 3"en t"ese 5ap ri'ed & ntents & 1# t"ey &an ! rm m re t"an 2<< di!!erent radi a&ti5e pr d$&ts. Sy"pto"s +"e sympt ms ! radiati n in@$ries in&1$de na$sea# diarr"ea# and 5 mitin). Resid$a1 radiati n & nsists ! ind$&ed radiati n and !a11 $t. Y $ s" $1d n t tra5e1 int an area ! ind$&ed radiati n. +"e )astr intestina1 dama)e &an & me !r m eit"er t"e e?terna1 r t"e interna1 radiati n "a'ard.t"er parts Cs2in and b ne marr %D "a5e a )reat abi1ity t re& 5er !r m dama)e. B"(i%3 Re!. +"e interna1 "a'ard res$1ts in irradiati n ! &riti&a1 r)ans s$&" as t"e )astr intestina1 tra&t# t"yr id )1and# and b ne. +"e 5ap ri'ed b mb & ntents & ndense int tiny radi a&ti5e parti&1es t"at t"e %ind &arries and t"ey !a11 ba&2 t eart" as radi a&ti5e d$st. . A 5ery sma11 am $nt ! radi a&ti5e materia1 &an &a$se e?treme dama)e t t"ese and t"er interna1 r)ans. Y $ &an )reat1y red$&e t"e interna1 radiati n "a'ard by $sin) ) d pers na1 "y)iene and &are!$11y de& ntaminatin) y $r ! d and %ater.ti"#$ t" R!(i!ti"# +"e e!!e&ts ! radiati n n t"e "$man b dy &an be br ad1y &1assed as eit"er &"r ni& r a&$te. C" #te&+e!$ &e$ A0!i#$t Pe#et&!ti#0 E5te&#!% R!(i!ti"# 8n %1ed)e ! t"e radiati n "a'ards dis&$ssed ear1ier is e?treme1y imp rtant in s$r5i5in) in a !a11 $t area. +"e se5erity ! t"e sympt ms and t"e speed ! nset a!ter e?p s$re are ) d indi&at rs ! t"e de)ree ! radiati n dama)e. Radiati n si&2ness and beta b$rns are e?amp1es ! a&$te e!!e&ts. S me a&$te e!!e&ts &&$r %it"in " $rs a!ter e?p s$re t radiati n.

! t"e t"ree & $ntermeas$res a)ainst penetratin) radiati n# s"ie1din) pr 5ides t"e )reatest pr te&ti n and is t"e easiest t $se $nder s$r5i5a1 & nditi ns. Se& nd# radi a&ti5ity de&reases r de&ays 5er time. 3it" $t s"e1ter# t"e d sa)e re&ei5ed in t"e !irst !e% " $rs %i11 e?&eed t"at re&ei5ed d$rin) t"e rest ! a %ee2 in a & ntaminated area. S"ie1din) a&t$a11y % r2s by abs rbin) r %ea2enin) t"e penetratin) radiati n# t"ereby red$&in) t"e am $nt ! radiati n rea&"in) y $r b dy.29 t"e am $nt. F r e?amp1e# i! e?p sed t 1#<<< &)ys ! radiati n standin) *< &entimeters !r m t"e s $r&e# at 6< &entimeters# y $ % $1d n1y re&ei5e 29< &)ys. / 5er y $r eyes %it" impr 5ised ) ))1es t pre5ent t"e entry ! parti&1es. .b5i $s1y# spend as 1itt1e time in a radi a&ti5e area as p ssib1e.istance Distan&e pr 5ides 5ery e!!e&ti5e pr te&ti n a)ainst penetratin) )amma radiati n be&a$se radiati n intensity de&reases by t"e s4$are ! t"e distan&e !r m t"e s $r&e. Fi5e min$tes t 1 &ate t"e s"e1ter is a ) d )$ide. . Lead# ir n# & n&rete# and %ater are ) d e?amp1es ! s"ie1din) materia1s. Department ! t"e Army +"e means y $ &an $se t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m penetratin) e?terna1 radiati n are time# distan&e# and s"ie1din). " $rs. +a2e e?tra meas$res t pre5ent in!e&ti n. +"e primary reas n ! r !indin) and b$i1din) a s"e1ter is t )et pr te&ti n a)ainst t"e "i)"-intensity radiati n 1e5e1s ! ear1y )amma !a11 $t as !ast as p ssib1e. -5en an $ntrained bser5er &an see t"at t"e )reatest "a'ard !r m !a11 $t &&$rs immediate1y a!ter det nati n# and t"at t"e "a'ard de&reases 4$i&21y 5er a re1ati5e1y s" rt time. +"e d sa)e re&ei5ed in t"is !irst %ee2 %i11 e?&eed t"e d sa)e a&&$m$1ated d$rin) t"e rest ! a 1i!etime spent in t"e same & ntaminated area. (ay &1 se attenti n t t"e pre5enti n ! & 1ds r respirat ry in!e&ti ns. +"$s# %"en y $ d $b1e t"e distan&e# radiati n de&reases t C<. Fa11 $t radiati n "as 1ess ener)y t"an a n$&1ear det nati nFs initia1 radiati n. 3"i1e t"is ! rm$1a is 5a1id ! r & n&entrated s $r&es ! radiati n in sma11 areas# it be& mes m re & mp1i&ated ! r 1ar)e areas ! radiati n s$&" as !a11 $t areas. Ti"e +ime is imp rtant t y $# as t"e s$r5i5 r# in t% %ays. Y $ m$st & 5er a11 % $nds t pre5ent & ntaminati n and t"e entry ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es. F r e?amp1e# i! a n$&1ear !a11 $t area "ad a ma?im$m radiati n rate ! 2<< &)ys per " $r %"en !a11 $t is & mp1ete# t"is rate % $1d !a11 t 2< &)ys per " $r a!ter 7 " $rsH it % $1d !a11 sti11 !$rt"er t 2 &)ys per " $r a!ter 7. As a s$r5i5 r# try t a5 id !a11 $t areas $nti1 t"e radi a&ti5ity de&ays t sa!e 1e5e1s. Y $r b dy %i11 be e?treme1y sensiti5e t in!e&ti ns d$e t &"an)es in y $r b1 d &"emistry. She%te& As stated ear1ier# t"e s"ie1din) materia1Fs e!!e&ti5eness depends n its t"i&2ness and density. Shielding 0aterials +"e t"i&2ness re4$ired t %ea2en )amma radiati n !r m !a11 $t is !ar 1ess t"an t"at needed t s"ie1d a)ainst initia1 )amma radiati n. Shielding S"ie1din) is t"e m st imp rtant met" d ! pr te&ti n !r m penetratin) radiati n.9D2 r <. First# radiati n d sa)es are &$m$1ati5e. Fina11y y $ &an p1a&e s me radiati n-abs rbin) r s"ie1din) materia1 bet%een y $ and t"e radiati n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. +"$s# a radi a&ti5e e1ement de&ays r 1 ses "a1! ! its radi a&ti5ity %it"in a &ertain time. I! y $ &an a5 id !a11 $t areas 1 n) en $)" ! r m st ! t"e radi a&ti5ity t de&ay# y $ en"an&e y $r &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1. Speed in !indin) s"e1ter is abs 1$te1y essentia1. Y $ m$st !irst %as" b$rns ! beta radiati n# t"en treat t"em as rdinary b$rns. Ri) r $s1y pra&ti&e pers na1 "y)iene t pre5ent in!e&ti ns. +"e r$1e ! t"$mb ! r radi a&ti5ity de&ay is t"at it de&reases in intensity by a !a&t r ! ten ! r e5ery se5en! 1d in&rease in time ! 11 %in) t"e pea2 radiati n 1e5e1. Y $ &an a1s )et as !ar a%ay !r m t"e radiati n s $r&e as p ssib1e. An amp1e t"i&2ness ! s"ie1din) materia1 %i11 red$&e t"e 1e5e1 ! radiati n t ne)1i)ib1e am $nts. +"ere! re# it is t"e m st desirab1e met" d. +"e 1 n)er y $ are e?p sed t a radi a&ti5e s $r&e# t"e )reater t"e d se y $ %i11 re&ei5e. . F r !a11 $t radiati n# a re1ati5e1y sma11 am $nt ! s"ie1din) materia1 &an pr 5ide ade4$ate (a)e 227 ! 2** . +"is & n&ept is 2n %n as radi a&ti5e hal!%li!e.S. +"e denser t"e materia1# t"e better t"e s"ie1din) e!!e&t. I! s"ie1din) is n t p ssib1e# $se t"e t"er t% met" ds t t"e ma?im$m e?tent pra&ti&a1. Special 0edical Aspects +"e presen&e ! !a11 $t materia1 in y $r area re4$ires s1i)"t &"an)es in !irst aid pr &ed$res. Y $ &an red$&e t"e 1e5e1 ! radiati n and "e1p in&rease y $r &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1 by & ntr 11in) t"e d$rati n ! e?p s$re.

Roo$s It is n t mandat ry t"at y $ b$i1d a r ! n y $r s"e1ter. • St rm r st ra)e &e11ars. In pen & $ntry# try t di) t"e tren&" !r m a pr ne p siti n# sta&2in) t"e dirt &are!$11y and e5en1y ar $nd t"e tren&". Un1ess y $ $se a t"i&2 r !# a r ! pr 5ides 5ery 1itt1e s"ie1din). +"$s# a s"e1ter pr te&ted by 1 meter ! dirt % $1d red$&e a radiati n intensity ! 1#<<< &)ys per " $r n t"e $tside t ab $t <.S. I! b$i1din) a r ! % $1d re4$ire e?tended e?p s$re t penetratin) radiati n# it % $1d be %iser t 1ea5e t"e s"e1ter r !1ess. A r !Fs s 1e !$n&ti n is t red$&e radiati n !r m t"e !a11 $t s $r&e t y $r b dy. • . +"e prin&ip1e ! hal!%value layer thickness is $se!$1 in $nderstandin) t"e abs rpti n ! )amma radiati n by 5ari $s materia1s.$i1d ne n1y i! t"e materia1s are readi1y a5ai1ab1e %it" n1y a brie! e?p s$re t $tside & ntaminati n.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Dependin) $p n s i1 & nditi ns# s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n time %i11 5ary !r m a !e% min$tes t a !e% " $rs. Fi)$re 2*-1 )i5es an idea ! t"e t"i&2ness ! 5ari $s materia1s needed t red$&e resid$a1 )amma radiati n transmissi n by 9< per&ent. . 6 d e?amp1es are dit&"es# ra5ines# r &2y $t&r ppin)# "i11s# and ri5er ban2s. A&& rdin) t t"is prin&ip1e# i! 9 &entimeters ! bri&2 red$&e t"e )amma radiati n 1e5e1 by ne-"a1!# addin) an t"er 9 &entimeters ! bri&2 Can t"er "a1!-5a1$e 1ayerD %i11 red$&e t"e intensity by an t"er "a1!# name1y# t ne-! $rt" t"e ri)ina1 am $nt.9 &)y per " $r inside t"e s"e1ter. Other Shelters 3"i1e an $nder)r $nd s"e1ter & 5ered by 1 meter r m re ! eart" pr 5ides t"e best pr te&ti n a)ainst !a11 $t radiati n# t"e ! 11 %in) $n &&$pied str$&t$res Cin rder 1istedD !!er t"e ne?t best pr te&ti nI • /a5es and t$nne1s & 5ered by m re t"an 1 meter ! eart". • /$15erts. Y $ &an & nstr$&t a simp1e r ! !r m a p n&" an&" red d %n %it" dirt# r &2s# r t"er re!$se !r m y $r s"e1ter. In 1e5e1 areas %it" $t nat$ra1 pr te&ti n# di) a !i)"tin) p siti n r s1it tren&". Y $ &an rem 5e 1ar)e parti&1es ! dirt and debris !r m t"e t p ! t"e p n&" by beatin) it !! !r m (a)e 229 ! 2** .asements r &e11ars ! aband ned b$i1din)s. Natural Shelters +errain t"at pr 5ides nat$ra1 s"ie1din) and easy s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n is t"e idea1 1 &ati n ! r an emer)en&y s"e1ter. Department ! t"e Army pr te&ti n. Trenches 3"en di))in) a tren&"# % r2 !r m inside t"e tren&" as s n as it is 1ar)e en $)" t & 5er part ! y $r b dy t"ereby n t e?p sin) a11 y $r b dy t radiati n. . Fi!teen &entimeters %i11 red$&e )amma radiati n !a11 $t 1e5e1s t ne-ei)"t" its ri)ina1 am $nt# 2< &entimeters t ne-si?teent"# and s n.n 1e5e1 )r $nd# pi1e t"e dirt ar $nd y $r b dy ! r additi na1 s"ie1din). • Aband ned b$i1din)s made ! st ne r m$d. I! y $ di) as 4$i&21y as p ssib1e# y $ %i11 red$&e t"e d sa)e y $ re&ei5e.

• De& ntaminate any materia1s y $ brin) int t"e s"e1ter. I! t"e %eat"er permits and y $ "a5e "ea5i1y & ntaminated $ter &1 t"in)# y $ may %ant t rem 5e it and b$ry it $nder a ! t ! eart" at t"e end ! y $r s"e1ter.ne e?p s$re ! n t m re t"an 1 " $r n t"e ei)"t" day. +"e &1eaned area s" $1d e?tend at 1east 1. -5en sma11 d ses ! radiati n &an &a$se t"ese sympt ms %"i&" may disappear in a s" rt time.ne e?p s$re ! n t m re t"an *< min$tes n t"e se5ent" day. (a)e 226 ! 2** . D t"is &1eanin) t rem 5e & ntaminated materia1s !r m t"e area y $ %i11 &&$py. Y $r main dan)er !r m radiati n si&2ness is in!e&ti n. Y $ )et t"is $n& ntaminated dirt by s&rapin) !! t"e t p !e% in&"es ! s i1 and $sin) t"e J&1eanJ dirt. +"is %as"in) %i11 rem 5e m st ! t"e "arm!$1 radi a&ti5e parti&1es t"at are 1i2e1y t &a$se beta b$rns r t"er dama)e. S"e1ter Site Se1e&ti n and (reparati n + red$&e y $r e?p s$re time and t"ereby red$&e t"e d sa)e re&ei5ed# remember t"e ! 11 %in) !a&t rs %"en se1e&tin) and settin) $p a s"e1terI • 3"ere p ssib1e# see2 a &r$de# e?istin) s"e1ter t"at y $ &an impr 5e. • . • Up n & mp1etin) t"e s"e1ter# 1ie d %n# 2eep %arm# and s1eep and rest as m$&" as p ssib1e %"i1e in t"e s"e1ter.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. • . +"ere is n !irst aid ! r t"is si&2ness. • / 5er t"e t p ! t"e !i)"tin) p siti n r tren&" %it" any readi1y a5ai1ab1e materia1 and a t"i&2 1ayer ! eart"# i! y $ &an d s %it" $t 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter. • N rma1 perati n# ! 11 %ed by rest in a pr te&ted s"e1ter# !r m t"e t"irteent" day n. Y $ may $se any b dy ! %ater# e5en t" $)" & ntaminated# t rid materia1s ! e?&ess !a11 $t parti&1es. Restin)# drin2in) !1$ids# ta2in) any medi&ine t"at pre5ents 5 mitin)# maintainin) y $r ! d inta2e# and pre5entin) additi na1 e?p s$re %i11 "e1p a5 id in!e&ti n and aid re& 5ery. Department ! t"e Army t"e inside at !re4$ent inter5a1s. • -?p s$re ! 2 t 7 " $rs !r m t"e nint" day t"r $)" t"e t%e1!t" day. I! n ne is a5ai1ab1e# di) a tren&". Simp1y dip t"e materia1 int t"e %ater and s"a2e it t )et rid ! t"e e?&ess %ater. I! t"e &1 t"in) is dry# y $ may de& ntaminate it by beatin) r s"a2in) it $tside t"e s"e1terFs entran&e t rem 5e t"e radi a&ti5e d$st. • /1ean t"e s"e1ter site ! any s$r!a&e dep sit $sin) a bran&" r t"er b@e&t t"at y $ &an dis&ard. • A 5ery brie! e?p s$re t pr &$re %ater n t"e t"ird day is permissib1e# b$t e?p s$re s" $1d n t e?&eed *< min$tes. • Di) t"e s"e1ter deep en $)" t )et ) d pr te&ti n# t"en en1ar)e it as re4$ired ! r & m! rt. • 3"i1e b$i1din) y $r s"e1ter# 2eep a11 parts ! y $r b dy & 5ered %it" &1 t"in) t pr te&t it a)ainst beta b$rns. Y $ may retrie5e it 1ater Ca!ter t"e radi a&ti5ity de&aysD %"en 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter. +"is & 5er %i11 n t !!er s"ie1din) !r m t"e radi a&ti5e parti&1es dep sited n t"e s$r!a&e# b$t it %i11 in&rease t"e distan&e !r m t"e !a11 $t s $r&e and 2eep t"e s"e1ter area !r m !$rt"er & ntaminati n.9 meters bey nd y $r s"e1terFs area. • 3"en n t restin)# 2eep b$sy by p1annin) !$t$re a&ti ns# st$dyin) y $r maps# r ma2in) t"e s"e1ter m re & m! rtab1e and e!!e&ti5e. 4posure Ti"eta6le +"e ! 11 %in) timetab1e pr 5ides y $ %it" t"e in! rmati n needed t a5 id re&ei5in) seri $s d sa)e and sti11 1et y $ & pe %it" s$r5i5a1 pr b1emsI • / mp1ete is 1ati n !r m 7 t 6 days ! 11 %in) de1i5ery ! t"e 1ast %eap n. +"ese materia1s in&1$de )rass r ! 1ia)e t"at y $ $se as ins$1ati n r beddin)# and y $r $ter &1 t"in) Cespe&ia11y ! t)earD. • D nFt pani& i! y $ e?perien&e na$sea and sympt ms ! radiati n si&2ness. D n t %rin) it $t# t"is a&ti n %i11 trap t"e parti&1es. I! %ater is n t a5ai1ab1e# %ipe y $r !a&e and any t"er e?p sed s2in s$r!a&e t rem 5e & ntaminated d$st and dirt. Y $ may %ipe y $r !a&e %it" a &1ean pie&e ! &1 t" r a "and!$1 ! $n& ntaminated dirt.S. • I! at a11 p ssib1e and %it" $t 1ea5in) t"e s"e1ter# %as" y $r b dy t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater# e5en i! t"e %ater n "and may be & ntaminated. 3"i1e a r ! and &am $!1a)e are b t" desirab1e# it is pr bab1y sa!er t d %it" $t t"em t"an t e?p se y $rse1! t radiati n $tside y $r !i)"tin) p siti n.

A1t" $)" many !a&t rs C%ind dire&ti n# rain!a11# sedimentD %i11 in!1$en&e y $r &" i&e in se1e&tin) %ater s $r&es# & nsider t"e ! 11 %in) )$ide1ines. Strea"s and Ri(ers 3ater !r m streams and ri5ers %i11 be re1ati5e1y !ree !r m !a11 $t %it"in se5era1 days a!ter t"e 1ast n$&1ear e?p1 si n be&a$se ! di1$ti n. +"e %ater %i11 seep 1atera11y int t"e " 1e t"r $)" t"e inter5enin) s i1 t"at a&ts as a !i1terin) a)ent and rem 5es t"e & ntaminated !a11 $t parti&1es t"at sett1ed n t"e ri)ina1 b dy ! %ater.. I! y $ %ait at 1east 7: " $rs be! re drin2in) any %ater t a11 % ! r radi a&ti5e de&ay t ta2e p1a&e and se1e&t t"e sa!est p ssib1e %ater s $r&e# y $ %i11 )reat1y red$&e t"e dan)er ! in)estin) "arm!$1 am $nts ! radi a&ti5ity. +"is met" d &an rem 5e $p t .9 &entimeters ! dirt ! r e5ery 1< &entimeters ! %ater. +"e times )i5en ab 5e are & nser5ati5e. Standing 3ater 3ater !r m 1a2es# p 1s# p nds# and t"er standin) s $r&es is 1i2e1y t be "ea5i1y & ntaminated# t" $)" m st ! t"e "ea5ier# 1 n)-1i5ed radi a&ti5e is t pes %i11 sett1e t t"e b tt m. +"ese pr &essed ! ds a1s in&1$de ! d st red in any &1 sed & ntainer and ! d st red in pr te&ted areas Cs$&" as &e11arsD# i! y $ %as" t"em be! re eatin). Stir t"e %ater $nti1 y $ see m st dirt parti&1es s$spended in t"e %ater. +"ese in&1$de &anned and pa&2a)ed ! ds a!ter rem 5in) t"e & ntainers r %rappers r %as"in) t"em !ree ! !a11 $t parti&1es. 3as" a11 ! d & ntainers r %rappers be! re "and1in) t"em t pre5ent !$rt"er & ntaminati n. S$pp1ement y $r rati ns %it" any ! d y $ &an !ind n trips $tside y $r s"e1ter. +"en ta2e dirt !r m a dept" ! 1< r m re &entimeters be1 % t"e )r $nd s$r!a&e and stir it int t"e %ater. &e+e#t A1t" $)" it is a seri $s pr b1em t btain edib1e ! d in a radiati n-& ntaminated area# it is n t imp ssib1e t s 15e. &e+e#t In a !a11 $t-& ntaminated area# a5ai1ab1e %ater s $r&es may be & ntaminated. M st pr &essed ! ds y $ may !ind in aband ned b$i1din)s are sa!e ! r $se a!ter de& ntaminatin) t"em. Additional Precautions As an additi na1 pre&a$ti n a)ainst disease# treat a11 %ater %it" %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets !r m y $r s$r5i5a1 2it r b i1 it. +"is %ater %i11 be sa!e t drin2# a1t" $)" y $ %i11 "a5e t ta2e pre&a$ti ns a)ainst ba&teria in t"e %ater. Y $ &an t"en dip $t t"e &1ear %ater. Let t"e mi?t$re sett1e ! r at 1east 6 " $rs. First# !i11 a b$&2et r t"er deep & ntainer t"ree-! $rt"s !$11 %it" & ntaminated %ater. Use ab $t 2. Use t"e sett1in) te&"ni4$e t p$ri!y t"is %ater.S. Any %ater ! $nd in t"e pipes r & ntainers ! aband ned " $ses r st res %i11 a1s be !ree !r m radi a&ti5e parti&1es. / nsider n1y mandat ry re4$irements as 5a1id reas ns ! r e?p s$re.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. F""( P&". ! r an e?amp1e ! a %ater !i1ter. +"e sett1in) dirt parti&1es %i11 &arry m st ! t"e s$spended !a11 $t parti&1es t t"e b tt m and & 5er t"em. De& ntaminate at e5ery st p. I! ! r&ed t m 5e a!ter t"e !irst r se& nd day# y $ may d s # Ma2e s$re t"at t"e e?p s$re is n 1 n)er t"an abs 1$te1y ne&essary. per&ent ! t"e radi a&ti5ity in %ater. Y $ m$st & 5er t"e " 1e in s me %ay in rder t pre5ent !$rt"er & ntaminati n. Sa$est 3ater Sources 3ater !r m sprin)s# %e11s# r t"er $nder)r $nd s $r&es t"at $nder) nat$ra1 !i1trati n %i11 be y $r sa!est s $r&e. Y $ need t ! 11 % a !e% spe&ia1 pr &ed$res in se1e&tin) and preparin) rati ns and 1 &a1 ! ds ! r $se. Department ! t"e Army • In a11 instan&es# ma2e y $r e?p s$res as brie! as p ssib1e. *!te& P&". Sn % ta2en !r m 19 r m re &entimeters be1 % t"e s$r!a&e d$rin) t"e !a11 $t is a1s a sa!e s $r&e ! %ater. Sin&e se&$re pa&2a)in) pr te&ts y $r & mbat rati ns# t"ey %i11 be per!e&t1y sa!e ! r $se. ($ri!y t"is %ater $sin) a !i1trati n de5i&e. +"e best !i1trati n met" d is t di) sediment " 1es r seepa)e basins a1 n) t"e side ! a %ater s $r&e. See Fi)$re 6-. (a)e 227 ! 2** . I! at a11 p ssib1e# !i1ter s$&" %ater be! re drin2in) t )et rid ! radi a&ti5e parti&1es.

/ ntaminated meat# e5en i! t" r $)"1y & 2ed# & $1d &a$se se5ere i11ness r deat" i! eaten. 3it" &are!$1 preparati n and by ! 11 %in) se5era1 imp rtant prin&ip1es# anima1s &an be sa!e ! d s $r&es. Plants as a 'ood Source (1ant & ntaminati n &&$rs by t"e a&&$m$1ati n ! !a11 $t n t"eir $ter s$r!a&es r by abs rpti n ! radi a&ti5e e1ements t"r $)" t"eir r ts. +"ese a)ents !a11 int t% br ad &ate) ries-pat" )ens (a)e 22: ! 2** . Y $ eat r $)"-s$r!a&ed p1ants Cs$&" as 1ett$&eD n1y as a 1ast res rt be&a$se y $ &ann t e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate t"em by pee1in) r %as"in). A11 e))s# e5en i! 1aid d$rin) t"e peri d ! !a11 $t# %i11 be sa!e t eat. Y $r !irst &" i&e ! p1ant ! d s" $1d be 5e)etab1es s$&" as p tat es# t$rnips# &arr ts# and t"er p1ants %" se edib1e p rti n )r %s $nder)r $nd. D n t eat meat &1 se t t"e b nes and @ ints as an anima1Fs s2e1et n & ntains 5er .i 1 )i&a1 a)ents are mi&r r)anisms t"at &an &a$se disease am n) pers nne1# anima1s# r p1ants. .S. First# d n t eat an anima1 t"at appears t be si&2. A5 id $sin) t"ese p1ants ! r ! d e?&ept in an emer)en&y. / 2 a11 meat $nti1 it is 5ery %e11 d ne. -5en t" $)" anima1s may n t be !ree !r m "arm!$1 radi a&ti5e materia1s# y $ &an and m$st $se t"em in s$r5i5a1 & nditi ns as a ! d s $r&e i! t"er ! ds are n t a5ai1ab1e.< per&ent ! t"eir & ntaminati n a!ter %as"in)# %"i1e %as"in) r $)"-s$r!a&ed p1ants rem 5es n1y ab $t 9< per&ent ! t"e & ntaminati n. +"$s# m st ! t"e %i1d anima1s 1i5in) in a !a11 $t area are 1i2e1y t be& me si&2 r die !r m radiati n d$rin) t"e !irst m nt" a!ter t"e n$&1ear e?p1 si n. Ani"als as a 'ood Source Ass$me t"at a11 anima1s# re)ard1ess ! t"eir "abitat r 1i5in) & nditi ns# %ere e?p sed t radiati n. Sm t"-s$r!a&ed !r$its "a5e 1 st . / mp1ete1y a5 id mi12 !r m any anima1s in a !a11 $t area be&a$se anima1s abs rb 1ar)e am $nts ! radi a&ti5ity !r m t"e p1ants t"ey eat.t"er di!!i&$1t ! ds t de& ntaminate by %as"in) %it" %ater in&1$de dried !r$its C!i)s# pr$nes# pea&"es# apri& ts# pearsD and s ya beans. 6r %in) p1ants# " %e5er# &an abs rb s me radi a&ti5e materia1s t"r $)" t"eir 1ea5es as %e11 as !r m t"e s i1# espe&ia11y i! rains "a5e &&$rred d$rin) r a!ter t"e !a11 $t peri d.!% A0e#t$ !#( E66e. +"e e?tent ! & ntaminati n in !is" and a4$ati& anima1s %i11 be m$&" )reater t"an t"at ! 1and anima1s. L &a1 ! d s $r&es are anima1s and p1ants. Any sm t"-s2inned 5e)etab1e# !r$it# r p1ant t"at y $ &ann t easi1y pee1 r e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate by %as"in) %i11 be y $r t"ird &" i&e ! emer)en&y ! d. +"ey &an a1s &a$se t"e deteri rati n ! materia1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Dis&ard a11 interna1 r)ans C"eart# 1i5er# and 2idneysD sin&e t"ey tend t & n&entrate beta and )amma radi a&ti5ity. Department ! t"e Army I! 1itt1e r n pr &essed ! d is a5ai1ab1e in y $r area# y $ may "a5e t s$pp1ement y $r diet %it" 1 &a1 ! d s $r&es. Use a4$ati& ! d s $r&es n1y in & nditi ns ! e?treme emer)en&y.e! re & 2in) it# &$t t"e meat a%ay !r m t"e b ne# 1ea5in) at 1east a *-mi11imeter t"i&2ness ! meat n t"e b ne. -?amp1es are bananas# app1es# t mat es# pri&21y pears# and t"er s$&" !r$its and 5e)etab1es. Bi"%"0i. +"is is a1s tr$e ! r %ater p1ants# espe&ia11y in & asta1 areas.< per&ent ! t"e radi a&ti5ity. +"ese are t"e sa!est t eat n&e y $ s&r$b t"em and rem 5e t"eir s2ins. /are!$11y s2in a11 anima1s t pre5ent any radi a&ti5e parti&1es n t"e s2in r !$r !r m enterin) t"e b dy. (repare y $rse1! ! r s$r5i5a1 by bein) pr !i&ient in t"e tas2s identi!ied in y $r S 1dierFs Man$a1s ! / mm n +as2s CSM/+sD. S$&" &$ts %i11 a1s red$&e & 2in) time and sa5e !$e1. +"e e!!e&ts ! radiati n n anima1s are simi1ar t t" se n "$mans.t$ . +"e remainin) anima1 m$s&1e tiss$e# " %e5er# %i11 be sa!e t eat. It may "a5e de5e1 ped a ba&teria1 in!e&ti n as a res$1t ! radiati n p is nin). 8n % %"at t d t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst t"ese a)ents. +"e e!!e&ti5eness ! de& ntaminati n by s&r$bbin) is in5erse1y pr p rti na1 t t"e r $)"ness ! t"e !r$itFs s$r!a&e. #IOLO/ICAL NVIRON0 NTS +"e $se ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents is rea1. Se& nd in rder ! pre!eren&e are t" se p1ants %it" edib1e parts t"at y $ &an de& ntaminate by %as"in) and pee1in) t"eir $ter s$r!a&es. + be s$re t"e meat is %e11 d ne# &$t it int 1ess t"an 1*mi11imeter-t"i&2 pie&es be! re & 2in). . In )enera1# y $ &an $se any p1ant ! d t"at is ready ! r "ar5est i! y $ &an e!!e&ti5e1y de& ntaminate it.

Y $ &ann t dete&t t"em by any ! t"e !i5e p"ysi&a1 senses. • / $)"in). • Fe5er. . . • . 6erms d n t a!!e&t t"e b dy immediate1y. (at" )ens are 1i5in) mi&r r)anisms t"at &a$se 1et"a1 r in&apa&itatin) diseases. • Deat". Y $r best &"an&e ! dete&tin) bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents be! re t"ey &an a!!e&t y $ is t re& )ni'e t"eir means ! de1i5ery. Department ! t"e Army C$s$a11y &a11ed )ermsD and t ?ins.!% A0e#t$ . +"e t"ree main means ! de1i5ery are-(a)e 22. • S" &2. S me nati ns "a5e $sed t"em in t"e past as %eap ns. In&$bati n peri ds 5ary !r m se5era1 " $rs t se5era1 m nt"s# dependin) n t"e )erm. To4ins + ?ins are s$bstan&es t"at p1ants# anima1s# r )erms pr d$&e nat$ra11y. M st )erms m$st 1i5e %it"in an t"er 1i5in) r)anism C" stD# s$&" as y $r b dy# t s$r5i5e and )r %. .$i1din)s and b$n2ers &an trap t"em t"$s &a$sin) a "i)"er & n&entrati n. Sp re-pr d$&in) a)ents are a 1 n)-term "a'ard y $ m$st ne$tra1i'e by de& ntaminatin) in!e&ted areas r pers nne1.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 0 %e5er# s me t ?ins# $n1i2e )erms# &an penetrate $nbr 2en s2in. • (ara1ysis. 3eat"er & nditi ns s$&" as %ind# rain# & 1d# and s$n1i)"t rapid1y 2i11 )erms. ( ssib1e bi 1 )i&a1 %ar-!are t ?ins in&1$de a 5ariety ! ne$r t ?i& Ca!!e&tin) t"e &entra1 ner5 $s systemD and &yt t ?i& C&a$sin) &e11 deat"D & mp $nds. + ?i& 5i&tims may n t# " %e5er# resp nd t !irst aid meas$res $sed a)ainst &"emi&a1 a)ents. t$1in# %"i&" pr d$&es b t$1ism# is an e?amp1e. + ?ins are p is ns t"at p1ants# anima1s# r mi&r r)anisms pr d$&e nat$ra11y. .e&a$se )erms are s sma11 and %ei)" s 1itt1e# t"e %ind &an spread t"em 5er )reat distan&esH t"ey &an a1s enter $n!i1tered r n nairti)"t p1a&es. Many t ?ins are e?treme1y 1et"a1# e5en in 5ery sma11 d ses. Sympt ms may in&1$de any ! t"e ! 11 %in)I • Di''iness.ti"# "6 Bi"%"0i. + ?ins may pr d$&e e!!e&ts simi1ar t t" se ! &"emi&a1 a)ents. • +iredness. Sympt ms ! in!e&ti n 5ary a&& rdin) t t"e disease. • N$mbness r tin)1in) ! s2in. . • / n5$1si ns.a&teria# ri&2ettsiae# !$n)i# and 5ir$ses are in&1$ded in t"e pat" )ens. . • . • Menta1 & n!$si n. ! 2** .n1y a !e% )erms &an start an in!e&ti n# espe&ia11y i! in"a1ed int t"e 1$n)s. • . • Na$sea# 5 mitin)# andE r diarr"ea. +"ese a)ents m$st !ind a " st %it"in r $)"1y a day ! t"eir de1i5ery r t"ey die. Sympt ms appear a1m st immediate1y# sin&e t"ere is n in&$bati n peri d. /er"s 6erms are 1i5in) r)anisms. +"ey m$st m$1tip1y inside t"e b dy and 5er& me t"e b dyFs de!enses--a pr &ess &a11ed t"e in&$bati n peri d. +"ese t ?ins are %"at a&t$a11y "arm man# n t ba&teria. + ?ins enter t"e b dy in t"e same manner as )erms. • A&"in) m$s&1es. Dete.i 1 )i&a1 a)ents are# by nat$re# di!!i&$1t t dete&t.!ten# t"e !irst si)n ! a bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent %i11 be sympt ms ! t"e 5i&tims e?p sed t t"e a)ent.1 d in $rine# st 1# r sa1i5a. S me )erms &an ! rm pr te&ti5e s"e11s# r sp res# t a11 % s$r5i5a1 $tside t"e " st.S. F rt$nate1y# m st 1i5e a)ents are n t sp re-pr d$&in).1$rred r d $b1e 5isi n. • Ras"es r b1isters. M dern s&ien&e "as a11 %ed 1ar)e-s&a1e pr d$&ti n ! t"ese t ?ins %it" $t t"e $se ! t"e )erm t"at pr d$&es t"e t ?in. 6erms "a5e t"ree basi& r $tes ! entry int y $r b dyI t"r $)" t"e respirat ry tra&t# t"r $)" a brea2 in t"e s2in# and t"r $)" t"e di)esti5e tra&t.1eedin) !r m b dy penin)s.

S$n1i)"t & ntains 5isib1e and $1tra5i 1et s 1ar radiati n t"at rapid1y 2i11s m st )erms $sed as bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. . A!ter a t ?in atta&2# de& ntaminate y $rse1! as i! ! r a &"emi&a1 atta&2 $sin) t"e M29:A2 2it Ci! a5ai1ab1eD r by %as"in) %it" s ap and %ater. P&"te. 3as" y $r &1 t"in) in " t# s apy %ater i! y $ &an. Y $ m$st a1s $se pr per !irst aid meas$res in t"e treatment ! % $nds and n1y sa!e r pr per1y de& ntaminated s $r&es ! ! d and %ater. 0 %e5er# t"e d %n%ind "a'ard area ! t"e bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent is si)ni!i&ant and y $ &ann t i)n re it. A1%ays pra&ti&e "i)" standards ! pers na1 "y)iene and sanitati n t "e1p pre5ent t"e spread ! 5e&t rs. Y $ m$st a1%ays $se pr per !ie1d sanitati n pr &ed$res. / mp1ete1y b$tt n y $r &1 t"in) and t$&2 y $r tr $sers ti)"t1y int y $r b ts. +"e b$rst %i11 pr d$&e a sma11 &1 $d ! 1i4$id r p %der in t"e immediate impa&t area.e "6 *e!the& !#( Te&&!i# Y $r 2n %1ed)e ! " % %eat"er and terrain a!!e&t t"e a)ents &an "e1p y $ a5 id & ntaminati n by bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. 3ear a &"emi&a1 pr te&ti5e 5er)arment# i! a5ai1ab1e# as it pr 5ides better pr te&ti n t"an n rma1 &1 t"in).S. 0 %e5er# nat$ra1 r man-made & 5er may pr te&t s me a)ents !r m s$n1i)"t. Inse&ts s$&" as m s4$it es# !1eas# 1i&e# and ti&2s de1i5er pat" )ens.ti"# A0!i#$t Bi"%"0i. She%te& (a)e 2*< ! 2** . (re&ipitati n in t"e ! rm ! m derate t "ea5y rain tends t %as" bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents $t ! t"e air# red$&in) d %n%ind "a'ard areas. 3as" y $r "air and b dy t" r $)"1y# and &1ean $nder y $r !in)ernai1s. Lar)e in!estati ns ! t"ese inse&ts may indi&ate t"e $se ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. +"e !$rt"er d %n%ind t"e a)ent tra5e1s# t"e 1ess e!!e&ti5e it be& mes d$e t di1$ti n and deat" ! t"e pat" )ens. Y $r $ni! rm and )1 5es %i11 pr te&t y $ a)ainst bites !r m 5e&t rs Cm s4$it es and ti&2sD t"at &arry diseases. 0i)" %ind speeds in&rease t"e dispersi n ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents# di1$te t"eir & n&entrati n# and de"ydrate t"em.!% A0e#t$ 3"i1e y $ m$st maintain a "ea1t"y respe&t ! r bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents# t"ere is n reas n ! r y $ t pani&. . D$st may & ntain bi 1 )i&a1 a)entsH %ear s me type ! mas2 %"en d$st is in t"e air. +"is &1 $d %i11 disperse e5ent$a11yH t"e rate ! dispersi n depends n terrain and %eat"er & nditi ns. Y $ m$st ens$re t"at y $ )et en $)" s1eep t pre5ent a r$n-d %n & nditi n. I! y $ &ann t %as" y $r &1 t"in)# 1ay it $t in an area ! bri)"t s$n1i)"t and a11 % t"e 1i)"t t 2i11 t"e mi&r r)anisms. Department ! t"e Army • • • ?ursting%type munitions. Vectors. An t"er si)n ! a p ssib1e bi 1 )i&a1 atta&2 is t"e presen&e ! $n$s$a1 s$bstan&es n t"e )r $nd r n 5e)etati n# r si&2-1 2in) p1ants# &r ps# r anima1s. +"ese may be b mbs r pr @e&ti1es %" se b$rst &a$ses 5ery 1itt1e dama)e. Spray tanks or generators. Y $ &an red$&e y $r s$s&eptibi1ity t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents by maintainin) &$rrent imm$ni'ati ns# a5 idin) & ntaminated areas# and & ntr 11in) r dents and pests. / 5erin) y $r s2in %i11 a1s red$&e t"e &"an&e ! t"e a)ent enterin) y $r b dy t"r $)" &$ts r s&rat&"es. /1ean teet"# )$ms# t n)$e# and t"e r ! ! y $r m $t" !re4$ent1y. Aer s 1 sprays %i11 tend t & n&entrate in 1 % areas ! terrain# simi1ar t ear1y m rnin) mist. Ass$min) y $ d n t "a5e a pr te&ti5e mas2# a1%ays try t 2eep y $r !a&e & 5ered %it" s me type ! &1 t" t pr te&t y $rse1! a)ainst bi 1 )i&a1 a)ent aer s 1s. Ma@ r %eat"er !a&t rs t"at a!!e&t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents are s$n1i)"t# %ind# and pre&ipitati n.at"e %it" s ap and %ater %"ene5er p ssib1e. I#6% e#. Use )ermi&ida1 s ap# i! a5ai1ab1e.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U.t"er man-made m$tant strains ! )erms may be resistant t s$n1i)"t. Air&ra!t r 5e"i&1e spray tan2s r )r $nd-1e5e1 aer s 1 )enerat rs pr d$&e an aer s 1 &1 $d ! bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. 0 %e5er# t"e a)ents may sti11 be 5ery e!!e&ti5e %"ere t"ey %ere dep sited n t"e )r $nd.

Use 1 &a1 ! d n1y in 1i!e r deat" sit$ati ns. +"e SM/+s & 5er t"ese s$b@e&ts. Y $r last choice" only in an e+treme emergency" is t $se standin) %ater.!% A0e#t$ (a)e 2*1 ! 2** . / 2 a11 p1ant and anima1 ! d by b i1in) n1y. F""( P&". +"e s$b@e&t matter & 5ered be1 % is n t a s$bstit$te ! r any ! t"e indi5id$a1 tas2s in %"i&" y $ m$st be pr !i&ient. D n t b$i1d y $r s"e1ter in depressi ns in t"e )r $nd. D n t eat ra% ! d. N matter %"at y $ d t prepare t"e ! d# t"ere is n )$arantee t"at & 2in) %i11 2i11 a11 t"e bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. A1%ays $se )1 5es and pr te&ti5e &1 t"in) %"en "and1in) anima1s r p1ants. 3"ene5er p ssib1e# try t $se %ater t"at "as been in a sea1ed & ntainer. .ti"# "6 Che+i. &e+e#t F d pr &$rement# 1i2e %ater pr &$rement# is n t imp ssib1e# b$t y $ m$st ta2e spe&ia1 pre&a$ti ns. Y $r & mbat rati ns are sea1ed# and y $ &an ass$me t"ey are n t & ntaminated. A5 id $sin) 5e)etati n in & nstr$&tin) y $r s"e1ter. As a s$r5i5 r# y $r !irst 1ine ! de!ense a)ainst &"emi&a1 a)ents is y $r pr !i&ien&y in indi5id$a1 n$&1ear# bi 1 )i&a1# and &"emi&a1 CN. *!te& P&". D n t se1e&t 2n %n &arriers ! 5e&t rs s$&" as rats r t"er 5ermin. &e+e#t 3ater pr &$rement $nder bi 1 )i&a1 & nditi ns is di!!i&$1t b$t n t imp ssib1e. 0 %e5er# y $ m$st ma2e s1i)"t &"an)es t red$&e t"e &"an&e ! bi 1 )i&a1 & ntaminati n. 8eep t"e %ater & 5ered %"i1e b i1in) t pre5ent & ntaminati n by airb rne pat" )ens. C. Department ! t"e Army Y $ &an b$i1d e?pedient s"e1ters $nder bi 1 )i&a1 & ntaminati n & nditi ns $sin) t"e same te&"ni4$es des&ribed in /"apter 9. S$&" p1a&ement %i11 1imit t"e entry ! airb rne a)ents and pre5ent air sta)nati n in y $r s"e1ter./D trainin)# t in&1$de d nnin) and %earin) t"e pr te&ti5e mas2 and 5er)arment# pers na1 de& ntaminati n# re& )niti n ! &"emi&a1 a)ent sympt ms# and indi5id$a1 !irst aid ! r &"emi&a1 a)ent & ntaminati n. . Remember# y $ &an s$r5i5e ! r a 1 n) time %it" $t ! d# espe&ia11y i! t"e ! d y $ eat may 2i11 y $K I! y $ m$st $se 1 &a1 ! d# se1e&t n1y "ea1t"y-1 2in) p1ants and anima1s. + ens$re sa!ety# de& ntaminate a11 ! d & ntainers by %as"in) %it" s ap and %ater r by b i1in) t"e & ntainer in %ater ! r 1< min$tes.S. Aer s 1 sprays tend t & n&entrate in t"ese depressi ns. +"e SM/+s address t"e 5ari $s &"emi&a1 a)ents# t"eir e!!e&ts# and !irst aid ! r t"ese a)ents. Fi1ter t"is %ater t"r $)" a &1 t" t rem 5e t"e dead 5e&t rs. (repare anima1s as y $ d p1ants. Ve&t rs and )erms &an s$r5i5e easi1y in sta)nant %ater. Use %ater p$ri!i&ati n tab1ets in a11 &ases. @ou consider supplementing your rations with local plants or animals only in e+treme emergencies. A5 id b$i1din) y $r s"e1ter in areas ! 5e)etati n# as 5e)etati n pr 5ides s"ade and s me de)ree ! pr te&ti n t bi 1 )i&a1 a)ents. 3as" t"e %ater & ntainer t" r $)"1y %it" s ap and %ater r b i1 it ! r at 1east 1< min$tes be! re brea2in) t"e sea1. Y $ &an a1s ass$me t"at sea1ed & ntainers r pa&2a)es ! pr &essed ! d are sa!e. A)ain# b i1 t"e %ater ! r at 1east 1< min$tes be! re drin2in). Y $ &an ass$me t"at t"e %ater inside t"e sea1ed & ntainer is n t & ntaminated. A1%ays 2eep y $r s"e1ter &1ean. +"ere is n )$arantee t"at a11 in!e&ted p rti ns "a5e rea&"ed t"e re4$ired temperat$re t 2i11 a11 pat" )ens. i1 a11 ! d ! r at 1east 1< min$tes t 2i11 a11 pat" )ens. I! %ater in sea1ed & ntainers is n t a5ai1ab1e# y $r ne?t &" i&e# only under emergency conditions" is %ater !r m sprin)s. 0ICAL NVIRON0 NTS /"emi&a1 a)ent %ar!are is rea1. +"e ! 11 %in) in! rmati n is pr 5ided $nder t"e ass$mpti n t"at y $ are pr !i&ient in t"e $se ! &"emi&a1 pr te&ti5e e4$ipment and 2n % t"e sympt ms ! 5ari $s &"emi&a1 a)ents. (1a&e y $r s"e1terFs entran&e at a . It &an &reate e?treme pr b1ems in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# b$t y $ &an 5er& me t"e pr b1ems %it" t"e pr per e4$ipment# 2n %1ed)e# and trainin).<-de)ree an)1e t t"e pre5ai1in) %inds. i1 t"is %ater as 1 n) as pra&ti&a1 t 2i11 a11 r)anisms. I! y $ are n t pr !i&ient in t"ese s2i11s# y $ %i11 "a5e 1itt1e &"an&e ! s$r5i5in) a &"emi&a1 en5ir nment. Se1e&t and prepare p1ants as y $ % $1d in radi a&ti5e areas. Dete.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. D n t try t !ry# ba2e# r r ast 1 &a1 ! d.

. In t"e 5ap r state# y $ &an see s me &"emi&a1 a)ents as a mist r t"in ! ) immediate1y a!ter t"e b mb r s"e11 b$rsts. Irritati n in t"e n se r eyes r n t"e s2in is an $r)ent %arnin) t pr te&t y $r b dy !r m &"emi&a1 a)ents.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. 3it" $t t"ese# y $ stand 5ery 1itt1e &"an&e ! s$r5i5a1. Use e?treme &a$ti n %"en enterin) y $r s"e1ter s t"at y $ %i11 n t brin) & ntaminati n inside. • De& ntaminate y $r e4$ipment and b dy as s n as p ssib1e. 0 %e5er# in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# y $ %i11 m st 1i2e1y "a5e t re1y s 1e1y n t"e $se ! a11 ! y $r p"ysi&a1 senses. (a)e 2*2 ! 2** .$i1d t"e s"e1ter in a &1earin)# a%ay !r m a11 5e)etati n. Rem 5e a11 t ps i1 in t"e area ! t"e s"e1ter t de& ntaminate t"e area. . Y $ m$st ta2e &are ! t"ese items and pr te&t t"em !r m dama)e. 8eep t"e s"e1terFs entran&e &1 sed and riented at a .y bser5in) ! r sympt ms in t"ers and by bser5in) de1i5ery means# y $ may be ab1e t "a5e s me %arnin) ! &"emi&a1 a)ents. Si)"t %i11 "e1p y $ dete&t &"emi&a1 a)ents. M st &"emi&a1 a)ents in t"e s 1id r 1i4$id state "a5e s me & 1 r. *!te& P&". +"e d r ! ne%1y &$t )rass r "ay may indi&ate t"e presen&e ! &" 2in) a)ents. .b5i $s1y# %ater in sea1ed & ntainers is y $r best and sa!est s $r&e. Y $r sense ! sme11 may a1ert y $ t s me &"emi&a1 a)ents# b$t m st %i11 be d r1ess. Department ! t"e Army +"e best met" d ! r dete&tin) &"emi&a1 a)ents is t"e $se ! a &"emi&a1 a)ent dete&t r. I! y $ d be& me & ntaminated# de& ntaminate y $rse1! as s n as p ssib1e $sin) pr per pr &ed$res. Sin&e y $ are in a s$r5i5a1 sit$ati n# a5 id & ntaminated areas at a11 & sts.<-de)ree an)1e t t"e pre5ai1in) %ind.S. P&"te. +"e s $nd ! enemy m$niti ns %i11 )i5e s me &1$e t t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 %eap ns. • A5 id areas %"ere &"emi&a1 a)ents e?ist. I! y $ &ann t 1ea5e t"e area immediate1y and "a5e t b$i1d a s"e1ter# $se n rma1 s"e1ter & nstr$&ti n te&"ni4$es# %it" a !e% &"an)es. . Additi na11y# a stran)e taste in ! d# %ater# r &i)arettes may ser5e as a %arnin) t"at t"ey "a5e been & ntaminated. I! y $ "a5e ne# $se it. Use %"ate5er dete&ti n 2its may be a5ai1ab1e t "e1p in dete&ti n.e s$re t de& ntaminate t"e & ntainers be! re penin). Y $r pr te&ti5e mas2 and 5er)arment are t"e 2ey t y $r s$r5i5a1. A sme11 ! a1m nds may indi&ate b1 d a)ents.ti"# A0!i#$t Che+i. She%te& I! y $ !ind y $rse1! in a & ntaminated area# try t m 5e $t ! t"e area as !ast as p ssib1e. 3it" a)ents t"at are 5ery "ard t dete&t# y $ m$st %at&" ! r sympt ms in !e11 % s$r5i5 rs. +"e dete&ti n ! &"emi&a1 a)ents and t"e a5 idan&e ! & ntaminated areas is e?treme1y imp rtant t y $r s$r5i5a1. +ra5e1 &r ss%ind r $p%ind t red$&e t"e time spent in t"e d %n%ind "a'ard area. M$stard )as in t"e 1i4$id state %i11 appear as i1y pat&"es n 1ea5es r n b$i1din)s. Y $ m$st pr te&t t"is %ater as m$&" as p ssib1e. D n t b$i1d a !ire $sin) & ntaminated % d--t"e sm 2e %i11 be t ?i&. Y $ m$st be a1ert and ab1e t dete&t any &1$es indi&atin) t"e $se ! &"emi&a1 %ar!are. M$!!1ed s"e11 r b mb det nati ns are a ) d indi&at r. &e+e#t As %it" bi 1 )i&a1 and n$&1ear en5ir nments# )ettin) %ater in a &"emi&a1 en5ir nment is di!!i&$1t. • 6i5e 4$i&2 and & rre&t se1!-aid %"en & ntaminated.!% A0e#t$ As a s$r5i5 r# a1%ays $se t"e ! 11 %in) )enera1 steps# in t"e rder 1isted# t pr te&t y $rse1! !r m a &"emi&a1 atta&2I • Use pr te&ti5e e4$ipment. Y $ &an e?pe&t n "e1p s" $1d y $ be& me & ntaminated. Y $ m$st pra&ti&e and 2n % & rre&t se1!-aid pr &ed$res be! re e?p s$re t &"emi&a1 a)ents. 6enera1 indi&at rs ! t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 a)ents are tears# di!!i&$1t breat"in)# &" 2in)# it&"in)# & $)"in)# and di''iness. Y $r s$rr $ndin)s %i11 pr 5ide 5a1$ab1e &1$es t t"e presen&e ! &"emi&a1 a)entsH ! r e?amp1e# dead anima1s# si&2 pe p1e# r pe p1e and anima1s disp1ayin) abn rma1 be"a5i r.

&e+e#t It is e?treme1y di!!i&$1t t eat %"i1e in a & ntaminated area. 3"en "and1in) p1ants r anima1s# a1%ays $se pr te&ti5e )1 5es and &1 t"in). Si)ns ! %ater s $r&e & ntaminati n are ! rei)n d rs s$&" as )ar1i&# m$stard# )erani$m# r bitter a1m ndsH i1y sp ts n t"e s$r!a&e ! t"e %ater r nearbyH and t"e presen&e ! dead !is" r anima1s. De& ntaminate a11 sea1ed ! d & ntainers be! re penin)# t"er%ise y $ %i11 & ntaminate t"e ! d. I! t"ese si)ns are present# d n t $se t"e %ater.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Y $ may $se rain%ater r sn % i! t"ere is n e5iden&e ! & ntaminati n. I! y $ m$st s$pp1ement y $r & mbat rati ns %it" 1 &a1 p1ants r anima1s# do not $se p1ants !r m & ntaminated areas r anima1s t"at appear t be si&2. Department ! t"e Army I! y $ &ann t )et %ater in sea1ed & ntainers# try t )et it !r m a &1 sed s $r&e s$&" as $nder)r $nd %ater pipes. Y $ %i11 "a5e t brea2 t"e sea1 n y $r pr te&ti5e mas2 t eat. F""( P&". +"e sa!est s $r&e ! ! d is y $r sea1ed & mbat rati ns. F d in sea1ed &ans r b tt1es %i11 a1s be sa!e. (a)e 2** ! 2** . A1%ays b i1 r p$ri!y t"e %ater t pre5ent ba&teri 1 )i&a1 in!e&ti n.S. I! y $ eat# !ind an area in %"i&" y $ &an sa!e1y $nmas2. Use %ater !r m s1 %-m 5in) streams# i! ne&essary# b$t a1%ays &"e&2 !irst ! r si)ns ! & ntaminati n# and a1%ays !i1ter t"e %ater as des&ribed $nder n$&1ear & nditi ns.

recognition of chemical agent symptoms. You can assume that the water inside the sealed container is not contaminated. and individual first aid for chemical agent contamination. Select and prepare plants as you would in radioactive areas. The following information is provided under the assumption that you are proficient in the use of chemical protective equipment and know the symptoms of various chemical agents. You consider supplementing your rations with local plants or animals only in extreme emergencies. Aerosol sprays tend to concentrate in these depressions. only in an extreme emergency. bake. Filter this water through a cloth to remove the dead vectors. If you are not proficient in these skills. your next choice. Always use gloves and protective clothing when handling animals or plants. and first aid for these agents. or roast local food. knowledge. It can create extreme problems in a survival situation. You can also assume that sealed containers or packages of processed food are safe. Always keep your shelter clean. Cook all plant and animal food by boiling only. only under emergency conditions. Page 234 of 236 . there is no guarantee that cooking will kill all the biological agents. Vectors and germs can survive easily in stagnant water. you must make slight changes to reduce the chance of biological contamination. Your last choice. your first line of defense against chemical agents is your proficiency in individual nuclear. try to use water that has been in a sealed container. The SMCTs cover these subjects. Avoid using vegetation in constructing your shelter. The subject matter covered below is not a substitute for any of the individual tasks in which you must be proficient. boil the water for at least 10 minutes before drinking. Do not try to fry. CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENTS Chemical agent warfare is real. Department of the Army Shelter You can build expedient shelters under biological contamination conditions using the same techniques described in Chapter 5. Do not eat raw food. as vegetation provides shade and some degree of protection to biological agents. Use local food only in life or death situations. is water from springs. Wash the water container thoroughly with soap and water or boil it for at least 10 minutes before breaking the seal. you can survive for a long time without food. If water in sealed containers is not available. Boil all food for at least 10 minutes to kill all pathogens. Use water purification tablets in all cases. is not impossible. No matter what you do to prepare the food. and chemical (NBC) training. and you can assume they are not contaminated. Boil this water as long as practical to kill all organisms. Remember. Avoid building your shelter in areas of vegetation. Prepare animals as you do plants. like water procurement.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. and training. you will have little chance of surviving a chemical environment. their effects. decontaminate all food containers by washing with soap and water or by boiling the container in water for 10 minutes.S. to include donning and wearing the protective mask and overgarment. Do not build your shelter in depressions in the ground. but you can overcome the problems with the proper equipment. but you must take special precautions. To ensure safety. As a survivor. select only healthy-looking plants and animals. Keep the water covered while boiling to prevent contamination by airborne pathogens. Food Procurement Food procurement. There is no guarantee that all infected portions have reached the required temperature to kill all pathogens. is to use standing water. personal decontamination. Such placement will limit the entry of airborne agents and prevent air stagnation in your shelter. Place your shelter's entrance at a 90-degree angle to the prevailing winds. The SMCTs address the various chemical agents. especially if the food you eat may kill you! If you must use local food. Water Procurement Water procurement under biological conditions is difficult but not impossible. Whenever possible. Do not select known carriers of vectors such as rats or other vermin. Again. However. Your combat rations are sealed. biological.

avoid contaminated areas at all costs. or people and animals displaying abnormal behavior. Avoid areas where chemical agents exist. Decontaminate your equipment and body as soon as possible. Use whatever detection kits may be available to help in detection. Remove all topsoil in the area of the shelter to decontaminate the area. and dizziness. However. You must be alert and able to detect any clues indicating the use of chemical warfare. you stand very little chance of survival. A smell of almonds may indicate blood agents. If you have one. Mustard gas in the liquid state will appear as oily patches on leaves or on buildings. Your surroundings will provide valuable clues to the presence of chemical agents. If you cannot leave the area immediately and have to build a shelter. The detection of chemical agents and the avoidance of contaminated areas is extremely important to your survival. Use extreme caution when entering your shelter so that you will not bring contamination inside. Irritation in the nose or eyes or on the skin is an urgent warning to protect your body from chemical agents. you must watch for symptoms in fellow survivors. Department of the Army Detection of Chemical Agents The best method for detecting chemical agents is the use of a chemical agent detector. you will most likely have to rely solely on the use of all of your physical senses. you can see some chemical agents as a mist or thin fog immediately after the bomb or shell bursts. Travel crosswind or upwind to reduce the time spent in the downwind hazard area. Your protective mask and overgarment are the key to your survival.S. You must practice and know correct self-aid procedures before exposure to chemical agents. Protection Against Chemical Agents As a survivor. choking. The odor of newly cut grass or hay may indicate the presence of choking agents. dead animals. use it. decontaminate yourself as soon as possible using proper procedures. If you do become contaminated. itching. Do not build a fire using contaminated wood--the smoke will be toxic. water. You must take care of these items and protect them from damage. you may be able to have some warning of chemical agents. Most chemical agents in the solid or liquid state have some color. You can expect no help should you become contaminated. Water Procurement Page 235 of 236 . Keep the shelter's entrance closed and oriented at a 90-degree angle to the prevailing wind. Since you are in a survival situation. General indicators of the presence of chemical agents are tears. coughing. Muffled shell or bomb detonations are a good indicator. Shelter If you find yourself in a contaminated area. in a survival situation. The sound of enemy munitions will give some clue to the presence of chemical weapons. sick people. in the order listed. difficult breathing. but most will be odorless. always use the following general steps. Without these. Additionally. for example. In the vapor state. use normal shelter construction techniques. By observing for symptoms in others and by observing delivery means. with a few changes. or cigarettes may serve as a warning that they have been contaminated.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. Your sense of smell may alert you to some chemical agents. Sight will help you detect chemical agents. try to move out of the area as fast as possible. Build the shelter in a clearing. to protect yourself from a chemical attack: • • • • Use protective equipment. Give quick and correct self-aid when contaminated. a strange taste in food. away from all vegetation. With agents that are very hard to detect.

if necessary. When handling plants or animals. oily spots on the surface of the water or nearby. You must protect this water as much as possible. water in sealed containers is your best and safest source. but always check first for signs of contamination. Page 236 of 236 .S. Always boil or purify the water to prevent bacteriological infection. Be sure to decontaminate the containers before opening. Obviously. do not use the water. Food Procurement It is extremely difficult to eat while in a contaminated area. and always filter the water as described under nuclear conditions. If you eat. Decontaminate all sealed food containers before opening. geranium. Use water from slow-moving streams.FM 21-76 US ARMY SURVIVAL MANUAL Reprinted as permitted by U. You will have to break the seal on your protective mask to eat. always use protective gloves and clothing. Department of the Army As with biological and nuclear environments. and the presence of dead fish or animals. If these signs are present. or bitter almonds. try to get it from a closed source such as underground water pipes. mustard. Food in sealed cans or bottles will also be safe. If you cannot get water in sealed containers. You may use rainwater or snow if there is no evidence of contamination. getting water in a chemical environment is difficult. find an area in which you can safely unmask. otherwise you will contaminate the food. Signs of water source contamination are foreign odors such as garlic. The safest source of food is your sealed combat rations. do not use plants from contaminated areas or animals that appear to be sick. If you must supplement your combat rations with local plants or animals.

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