Process of OD

‡ OD is planned change in an organizational context. A typical sequence of events in the initiation & development of an OD program is as follows 1. Middle or top management of an organization becomes interested in OD and feels that the organization has problems, which can be met through training. 2. Management invites an outside OD consultant to visit the organization 3. After the consultant's entry and contact with a variety of organization roles and groups, the organization works out a contract with the consultant specifying the nature of the projected relationship and its goals and general procedures 4. The consultant, working with insiders, collects data about the organization via interviews, questionnaire and observations

The OD function itself becomes institutionalize within the organization. A first intervention is planned 7.Process of OD 5. 9.The internal OD specialists become increasingly professionalized and responsible for their own development . These data form the basis of a joint diagnosis of the points of difficulty in the organization 6. and the process continues. Subsequent steps in intervention are planned on the basis of this data. The intervention is evaluated following a new collection of data 8. An OD department all group is formed and takes central responsibility for continuing the OD process 10.

problem areas. its subunits. It is to identify the strengths. unrealised opportunities or any other discrepancy between the vision of the desired future & the current situation Action All activities and interventions designed to improve the organization¶s functioning Program All activities designed to management ensure success of the program .Managing the OD Process Three basic components of OD programs: Diagnosis Continuous collection of data about total system. its processes. and its culture.

Diagnosis ± The Six-Box Model Purposes What business are we in? Marvin Weisbord Weisbord identifies six critical areas where things must go right if organisation is to be successful. According to him. the consultant must attend to both formal and informal aspects of each box. This model is still widely used by OD practitioners Relationships How do we manage conflicts? Structure How do we divide our work? Leadership Does someone keep the boxes in balance? Helpful Mechanisms Have we adequate coordinating technologies? Rewards Do all needed tasks have incentives? .

management. Rewards: It deals with the incentives the organization provides and how people feel about those incentives.It concerns systems. planning and control that assist employees in achieving their work objectives. what systems are in place to help the employees become more productive. such as budgeting. For example. Structure: It addresses how the organization assigns tasks to workers and how the work gets done.Six critical areas to focus on in diagnosis ‡ ‡ ‡ Purposes: It involves an organization clarifying and agreeing on its mission and goals. ‡ ‡ ‡ . The consultant would like to know which behaviours the organization rewards and whether the workers value these rewards. Helpful mechanisms :. Relationships: examine how the employees relate to each other. Leadership: It is the style of management including the systems the leader uses. information. How well do they get along and how do they resolve their conflicts.

policies ‡ Questionnaire survey ‡ Interviews (both group & individual) ‡ Questionnaire survey ‡ Interviews ‡ Observations ‡ Organization records Large and complex subsystems Small and simple subsystem Intergroup subsystems Q) How does each subsystem see the other? Q) What problems do the two groups have in working together? Q) How can they collaborate to improve performance of both groups? Individuals Q) Do people perform according to organization¶s ‡ Interviews ‡ Information from diagnostic meetings expectations? ‡ Data available with HR department Q) Do they need particular knowledge or skills? Q) What career development opportunities do they have/ want/ need? Roles Q) Is the role defines adequately? Q) What is the µfit¶ between person and role? Q) Is this the right person for this role? ‡ Role analysis ‡ Observations ‡ Interviews ‡ Individual interviews ‡ group meeting to review the interview data ‡ Questionnaires ‡ Observation of staff meetings and other dayto-day operations ‡ Interviews of each subsystem followed by µsharing the data meeting¶ ‡ Flowcharting critical processes ‡ Meetings between both groups . regulations.Diagnosing Organizational Subsystems Diagnostic targets The total organization Information sought Q) What is organization¶s culture? Q) Are organizational goals and strategy understood and accepted? Q) What is organization¶s performance? Q) What are the unique demands on this subsystem? Q) Are organization structures and processes related to unique demands? Q) What are the major problems confronting this subsystem? Q) What are major problems of the team? Q) How can team effectiveness be improved? Q) Do individuals know how their jobs relate to organizational goals? Methods of Diagnosis ‡ Examination of organizational records ± rules.

.Diagnosing Organizational Processes Organizational Processes Communication patterns. downward. Why? How? Q) Do people set goals? Q) Who participates? Q) Do they possess necessary skills for effective goal setting? Q) Who makes decisions? Q) Are they effective? Q) Are additional decision making skills needed? ‡ Questionnaires ‡ Interviews ‡ Observations ‡ Observations of problem-solving meetings ‡ Analysis of videotaped sessions ‡ Organizational records ‡ Interviews ‡ Flowcharting critical processes ‡ Meetings between both groups Decision making. ‡ Questionnaires ‡ Interviews and discussion with group laterally? members Q) Are communications filtered? «. styles & flows Goal setting Information sought Methods of Diagnosis ‡ Observations ± in meetings Q) Is communication open or closed? Q) Is communication directed upward. problem solving & action planning Conflict resolution and Q) Where does conflict exist? management Q) Who are involved parties? Q) How is it being managed? Superior-subordinate relations Q) What are the prevailing leadership styles? Q) What problems arise between superiors and subordinates? ‡ Questionnaires ‡Interviews ‡ Interviews of key policy makers ‡ Group discussions ‡ Examination of historical records Strategic management Q) Who is responsible for µlooking ahead¶ and & long range planning making long term decisions? Q) Do they have adequate tools and support? Q) Have the recent long range decisions been effective? .

Distribution of resources etc.That collects and examines data at individual level i. Job Characteristics.e. Individual productivity. Group productivity. Environmental factors.The Diagnosis can happen at three levels 1.e. Organization wide analysis:. Major Systems.e. Group Norms & relationships. 3.That examines data on group level i. satisfaction & skills etc. .That cuts across the organizational divisions i. satisfaction & skills etc. Job Enrichment for the individual. Individual analysis:. Group Analysis:. Group composition. Group structure. Personal characteristics. Organizational outcomes. tasks and behaviors. 2. Organizational Structure.

They facilitate dialogue on potential improvements between managers and employees 2.Data collection methods 1. They serve as information / improvement tools. . Employee surveys:They are critical sources of data. They are an effective communication tools. productivity data. HR records. They help identify opportunities for improvement and help evaluate the impact of changes made. performance indicators etc. Secondary sources of data:Existing information such as accounting info.

valid etc.It focuses on interrelationships between groups. Impersonal. Individuals who choose each other are called fall into the mutual choice category.Data collection types 1.Useful for surveys of attitudes. gathered has limited depth but can be useful for general overview of commonality of perception among employees. Need to inform employees re. 2. anonymous. Questionnaires (quantitative):. Socio-metric approach:. . according to specific dimensions. "Who helps you most with technical problems?" etc. how info will be used etc. Helps to identify one-way choices and cliques. Info. (informed consent). purpose. Asks open questions such as "Who do you prefer to work with?" "Who do you prefer to communicate with?". beliefs etc. A diagram is developed (sociogram) which indicates frequently named persons (stars) and infrequently named (isolates). easy to analyze reliable. values. Consultant obligation to ensure confidentiality of all data and to provide feedback to all participants.

b) open-ended. inconsistent / discordant behaviour etc. . Observer should be inconspicuous and non-threatening. semi-structured). Identifies attitudes. They can be of the following types: a) Directed. two way communication and can give way to probing / questioning of responses for a detailed and better diagnosis. 4.They are flexible.Data collection types 3. norms. Interviews:. Direct observation:.It is about how people perform their tasks and how they react in response to certain situations. c) closed. d) non-directed (structured. unstructured. It requires sufficient time and honesty.

2. 8. .Diagnosis process must watch out for It is important that Diagnosis is conducted efficiently for further interventions. Most of the time. 6. 7. 3. it is because of faulty diagnosis that OD programs fail. 5. 4. It is therefore important for a diagnosis process to be successful one must watch out for: Validity of data Time required to collect data Cost of data collection Organization culture and norms Hawthorne effect (is your presence influencing the data that is being collected?) Confidentiality Over-diagnosis The threatening and overwhelming diagnosis 1.

Orientation Diagnosing Taking Action Re-Diagnosing Taking New Action This process is known as µAction Research¶ Three ingredients: 1. Participation 2. OD consultant (as collaborator & colearner) 3. . Iterative process of diagnosis & action Change occurs based on the actions taken New knowledge comes from examining the results of the actions.

which may not permit generalizations) Participant Empirical Experimental It is controlled research on the relative effectiveness of various techniques (is difficult to do when client wants immediate answers) .Action Research Data Collection Feedback of data to client system members Action planning based on the data Taking action Evaluating results of actions Diagnostic Types Diagnostic Participant Empirical Experimental Researcher enters a problem situation. extensive record of what he/ she did and what effects it had (may encounter situations too divergent from one another. diagnoses it and make recommendations for remedial treatment (recommendations may not be put into effect by client group) People who are to take action are involved in the entire process from the beginning (involvement increases the likelihood of carrying out the actions once decided upon) Researcher keeps the systematic.

Actions Interventions are the actions taken to produce desired changes. Yesterday¶s vision is no longer good enough action (action for new vision ± actions to build necessary structures. processes and culture to make new vision a reality) . Organization sees an unrealized opportunity enabling (enabling action ± to seize the opportunity) 3. The organisation has a problem (corrective action ± to fix it) corrective 2. Features of organization are out of alignment (alignment action ± to get things back µin sync¶) alignment 4. Four conditions that give rise to the need for OD interventions: 1.

receive feedback on the results. Developed as an organization wide intervention by Mann and his associates (Year 1957 -1965). Developing Survey instrument Summary & Analysis of Results . then take appropriate actions to address the critical needs and concerns. It generally follows a four phase cyclical process given below. survey feedback is a process in which organizational members complete questionnaires on various organizational issues.Survey Feedback Process The study of Survey Feedback played an important role in formation and history of OD.

data collection:.Once the survey data is collected. Developing a survey instrument:. The key success factor at this stage is the active participation of the organization members.Active participation by all department also bring in a sense of ownership during data collection and higher involvement during action planning activities later. they must be summarized in form that is meaningful to the organizational members. The OD consultant can build trust and commitment and also bring about openness by announcing confidentiality of the responses Summarizing and analysis of results:. 4. to identify problem areas and also develop action plans to resolve them Feedback on the results:. . starting with top management and going downwards.To ensure effective feedback meetings. the OD consultant works with the management very closely to develop a questionnaire to collect information about the key issues in the organization.Survey Feedback Phases 1. the OD consultant needs to train managers to create and promote a participative atmosphere and to avoid defensive behaviour that might block open and constructive discussion 2. Administering the survey.In the initial phase of survey feedback. These meetings are used both. 3. Brief summary reports are prepared by the consultants and presented in a series of focused. facilitated meetings.

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