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Introduction to Electronics

Introduction to Electronics

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To describe line voltage regulation numerically we use linear circuit
analysis with a piecewise-linear model for the diode.

To obtain the model we draw a tangent to the curve in the vicinity
of the operating point:

From the intercept and slope of the piecewise-linear segment we
obtain VZ = 4.6 V and RZ = 8 Ω. Our circuit model then becomes:

Introduction to Electronics 62

The Zener Diode Voltage Regulator

+

-

VTH

RTH = 500 Ω

vOUT

7.5 V to 10 V

8 Ω

4.6 V

+

-

+

-

Fig. 86. Regulator with diode model
(Fig. 85 repeated).

(

)

V

8

8

500 8 75 46 4567


Ω Ω

=

+

− =

. .

.

V V

mV

(81)

VO = +

=

46 4567 464567

.

.

.

V

mV

V

(82)

(

)

V

8

8

500 8 10 46 8504


Ω Ω

=

+

− =

V V

V

.

.

(83)

VO = +

=

46 8504 468504

.

.

.

V

mV

V

(84)

Important: The model above is valid only if zener is in
breakdown region !!!

Circuit Analysis:

The 500 Ω and 8 Ω resistors are in series, forming a voltage divider.

For VTH = 7.5 V:

For VTH = 10 V:

Thus, for a 2.5 V change in the line voltage, the output voltage
change is only 39.4 mV !!!

Introduction to Electronics 63

The Zener Diode Voltage Regulator

+

+

-

-

vD

vOUT

iD

+

-

VSS

RS

RL

Fig. 87. Zener regulator with load.

+

+

-

-

vD

vOUT

iD

+

-

VSS

RS

RL

Fig. 88. Regulator drawn with zener and
load in reversed positions.

+

+

-

-

vD

vOUT

iD

+

-

VTH

RTH

Fig. 89. Regulator of Fig. 87 with VSS , RS ,
and RL replaced by Thevenin eq.

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