# Chapter 2 AC to DC CONVERSION (RECTIFIER

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• Single phase half wave rectifier Single-phase, – Uncontrolled: R, R-L , RC load – Controlled: R, R-L load – Free wheeling diode • Single-phase, full wave rectifier – Uncontrolled: R load, R-L load, – Controlled R, R-L load R – Continuous and discontinuous current mode ( CCM & DCM) p • Three-phase rectifier – uncontrolled (diodes) – Controlled (SCRs)

SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam

1

Rectifiers
• DEFINITION C DEFINITION: Converting AC (from ti (f mains or other AC source) to DC power by using power diodes or by controlling the firing angles of thyristors/controllable switches.
Give example of AC sources

• Basic block diagram

AC input

DC output

• I Input can b single or multi-phase (e.g. 3 be i l li h ( 3phase). • Output can be made fixed or variable • Applications: DC welder, DC motor drive, Battery charger, DC power supply, HVDC
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 2

A
+ vs _ vs

K
+ vo _

+VAK -

π vo
io

ωt

Sketch VAK

Output voltage (DC or average), Vo = Vavg =

∫V 2π
1 0

π

m

sin(ωt )dωt =

Vm

π

= 0.318Vm

Output voltage ( O l (rms), ) 1 Vo , RMS = 2π
π

∫(
0

Vm Vm sin(ωt )) dωt = = 0.5Vm 2
2

)

SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam

3

m. 60 Hz. RL The power factor of the circuit Answer a) 54 V & 10.s rms The average power absorbed by the load.8 A b) 84.Example 1 2 V RL 5 Given the supply voltage v = 120 Vrms. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 4 .9 V c) 1440 W d) 0. Determines: a) b) c) d) The average load voltage and current The load voltage in r. 1 sin x = (1 − cos 2 x) 2 1 cos 2 x = (1 + cos 2 x) 2 2 SEE 4433 Dr.707 Note : Power of Sinus and Cosine.

97 V 2π π 3.14 0 π Ioavg = Vavg R = 10.707 ⎝ R d ) power factor. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 5 .solution V 120 x 2 a) Vavg = 1 ∫ Vm sin(ωt )dωt = m = ( = 53.I rms 120 x Vorms R 2 SEE 4433 Dr. pf = = = S Vrms .9 V 2 ⎛ 120 x 2 ⎞ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ 2 (Vorms ) = ⎝ 2 ⎟ = 1440 W ⎠ c) Pavg = 5 R ⎞ ⎛ (Vorms )2 ⎜ 120 x 2 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ 5 P ⎠ = 0.8 A b) Vorms = 2π 1 π 0 (Vm sin(ωt ) )2 dωt = Vm ∫ 2 2 = 120 x 2 = 84.

in natural response. From diagram. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 6 .Half-wave with R-L load i + + vs _ vo _ + vR _ + vL _ KVL : vs = v R + v L Vm sin(ωt ) = i (ωt ) R + L i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt ) i f : forced response. Solution : θ = tan ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ SEE 4433 Dr. forced response is : ⎛V ⎞ i f (ωt ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) ⎝ Z ⎠ where : Z = R 2 + (ωL) 2 −1 ⎛ ωL ⎞ di (ωt ) dωt First order differential eqn.

i.R-L load Natural response is when source = 0. τ = L R Hence ⎛ Vm ⎞ ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + Ae −ωt ωτ i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt ) = ⎜ ⎟ Z ⎠ ⎝ A can be solved by realising inductor current is zero before the diode starts conducting. i (ωt ) R + L di (ωt ) =0 dωt which results in : in (ωt ) = Ae −ωt ωτ . Awang / Dr Zainal Salam [ ] 7 .e : ⎛V ⎞ i (0) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin(0 − θ ) + Ae −0 ωτ ⎝ Z ⎠ ⎛V ⎞ ⎛V ⎞ ⇒ A = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin( −θ ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin(θ ) ⎝ Z ⎠ ⎝ Z ⎠ Therefore the current is given as. ⎛ Vm ⎞ −ωt ωτ i (ωt ) = ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e ⎝ Z ⎠ SEE 4433 Dr.

Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 8 . i.R-L R L waveform v s. io β − dI o dt vo vR vL 0 π 2π 3π 4π ωt Note : vL = L di dt Sketch diode voltage VD v L is negative because the current is decreasing.e : SEE 4433 Dr.

Extinction angle Note that the diode remains in forward biased longer than π radians (although the source is negative during that duration) The point when duration). Awang / Dr Zainal Salam [ ] [ ] 9 . current reaches zero is when diode turns OFF. the diode conducts between 0 and β To summarise the rectfier with R . ⎧⎛ Vm ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) + sin(θ )e −ωt ωτ ⎪⎜ Z ⎟ ⎠ ⎪⎝ ⎪ i (ωt ) = ⎨for 0 ≤ ωt ≤ β ⇒ τ =L/R ⎪0 ⎪ ⎪otherwise ⎩ SEE 4433 Dr. β .L load. This point is known as the extinction angle. Therefore. ⎛V ⎞ i ( β ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β ωτ = 0 ⎜ Z ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ which reduces to : sin( β − θ ) + sin(θ )e − β ωτ = 0 i ( i ( β can only be solved numerically.

RMS current.(I RMS ) SEE 4433 Dr. which equal to the power absorbed by the load. S is the apparent power supplied by the source.RMS ).( I RMS ) P (Vs. i. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam Quadrant of operation ?? ⇒ pf = 10 . RMS ). Power The average (DC) current is : β 1 2π 1 Io = ∫ i(ωt )dωt = 2π ∫ i(ωt )dωt 2π 0 0 The RMS current is : β 1 2π 2 1 2 I RMS = ∫ i (ωt )dωt = 2π ∫ i (ωt )dωt 2π 0 0 POWER CALCULATION Power absorbed by the load is : Po = ( I RMS )2 ⋅ R Power Factor is computed from definition : P pf = S where P is the real power supplied by the source.e S = (Vs.

5 rad) b) 0.474 A d) 22.ωt/ 0. β b) The average current c) The r.0.331e . ω = 377 rads-1.s current d) The power absorbed by RL e) The power factor of the circuit Answer a) 0.Example 1 2 L 0. Determine: a) An expression for current.377.4 W e) 0. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 11 . i & extension angle.936sin(ωt .1 H V= vmsinwt RL 100 Given Vm= 100 V . β= 201o(3.361) + 0.67 SEE 4433 Dr.m.308 A c) 0.

Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 12 . R-C Load + vs _ iD C + vo _ Vm vs π /2 π 2π 3π /2 3π 4π Vmax Vmin vo iD α θ ΔVo vo vθ when diode is ON ⎧Vm sin(ωt ) ⎪ =⎨ ⎪Vθ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC when diode is OFF ⎩ = Vm sin θ Time constant = t = RC SEE 4433 Dr.Half wave rectifier.

• Th output voltage decays exponentially The t t lt d ti ll (with time constant RC) SEE 4433 Dr. C charges until Vm • After ωt=π/2. isolating the load from source. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 13 . • The source becomes less than the output voltage • Diode reverse biased. C discharges into load (R). Circuit is deenergised at ωt=0 • Diode becomes forward biased as the source become positive • When diode is ON the output is the same as source voltage.Operation • Let C initially fully charged.

the slopes are equal.Estimation of θ . ωRC is large. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 2 2 θ is very close to the peak of the sine wave.diode off angle The l Th slope of th f ti f the functions are : d (Vm sin ωt ) = Vm cos ωt d (ωt ) and d V sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC (m d (ωt ) ) 1 ⎞ −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC ⎛ = Vm sin θ ⋅ ⎜ − i ⎟⋅e ⎝ ωRC ⎠ At ωt = θ . then : π π θ = -tan(∞ ) + π = − + π = and Vm sin θ = Vm SEE 4433 Dr. 1 ⎞ −(θ −θ ) / ωRC ⎛ Vm cosθ = Vm sin θ ⋅ ⎜ − ⎟⋅e ⎝ ωRC ⎠ V cosθ 1 ⇒ m =− Vm sin θ ⋅ ωRC 1 1 = tan θ − ωRC θ = tan −1 (− ωRC ) = − tan −1 (ωRC ) + π For practical circuits. Therefore 14 .

Estimation of α At ωt = 2π + α . Vm sin( 2π + α ) = (Vm sin θ )e −( 2π +α −θ ) ωRC or sin(α − (sin θ )e −( 2π +α −θ ) ωRC = 0 This equation must be solved numerically for α SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 15 .

Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 16 . and C is large such that DC output voltage is constant. The output voltage evaluated at ωt = 2π + α is : vo ( 2π + α ) = Vm ⎛ 2π +π 2−π 2 ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ωRC ⎠ ⎝ e = Vm ⎛ 2π ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ωRC ⎠ e The ripple voltage is approximated as : ΔVo ≈ Vm − Vm ⎛ 2π ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ωRC ⎠ e ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ −⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝ ωRC ⎠ ⎟ = Vm ⎜1 − e ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 2π ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ωRC ⎠ e ⎝ Using Series expansoin : =1− 2π ωRC ⎛ 2π ⎞ Vm ⇒ ΔVo = Vm ⎜ ⎟= ⎝ ωRC ⎠ fRC For full-wave. output ripple =Vm/(2fRC) Note: Sin (A+B)= sinAcosB + cosAsinB SEE 4433 Dr. Min output voltage occurs at ωt = 2π + α ΔVo = Vmax − Vmin = Vm − Vm sin( 2π + α ) = Vm − Vm sin α If Vθ = Vm and θ = π 2. then α ≈ π 2.Ripple Voltage Max output voltage is Vmax .

⎪when diode is ON. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam when diode is ON when diode is OFF (Discharging current) 17 . : f dvo (ωt ) ic (ωt ) = ωC d (ωt ) But ⎧Vm sin(ωt ) ⎪ vo (ωt ) = ⎨ ⎪Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ )/ ωRC ⎩ Then.e SEE 4433 Dr.Capacitor Current The current in the capacitor can be expressed as : dv (t ) ic (t ) = C o d (t ) In I terms of ωt .e (2π + α ) ≤ ωt ≤ (2π + θ ) ⎪ ⎪ (Charging current) ⎪ ic (ωt ) = ⎨ ⎪ ⎪− Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ )/ ωRC ⎪ R ⎪when diode is OFF. substituting vo (ωt ). ⎪ ⎪i e (θ ) ≤ ωt ≤ (2π + α ) ⎩i. ⎧ωCVm cos(ωt ) ⎪ . ⎪ i.

Peak Diode Current Note that : is = iD = iR + iC The peak diode current occurs at (2π + α ). V sin (2π + α ) Vm sin α iR (2π + α ) = m = R R The diode peak current is : V sin α iD.sinAsinB (A+B) A B i Ai B SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 18 . I c. peak = ωCVm cos(2π + α ) = ωCVm cos α Resistor current at (2π + α ) can be obtained : . peak = ωCVm cos α + m R Note: N t cos(A+B)= cosAcosB . Hence.

The load is =500 Ohm.5e (ON) (OFF) (ON) (OFF) 19 SEE 4433 Dr.62rad . Assume α and θ are calculated as 48 and 93 degrees respectively. α = 48o = 0.7 sin(1. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam . vs Vm π /2 π 2π 3π /2 3π 4π Vmax Vmin vo iD α θ ΔVo Vm = 120 2 = 169. θ = 93o = 1. (a) Output voltage : ⎧Vm sin(ωt ) = 169.7 sin(ωt ) =⎨ −(ωt −1.5V .Example A half-wave rectifier has a 120V rms source at 60Hz.7V .85) ⎩169. Determine (a) Expression for output voltage (b) peak-to peak ripple (c) capacitor current (d) peak diode current. C=100uF.62rad ) = 169.62 ) /(18.7 sin(ωt ) ⎪ vo (ωt ) = ⎨ ⎪Vm sin θ ⋅ e −(ωt −θ ) / ωRC ⎩ ⎧169.843rad Vm sin θ = 169.

339 ⋅ e (d) Peak diode current : V sin α iD.26 + 0. peak = ωCVm cos α + m R = (2 × π × 60)(100u )169.62rad ) 500 (ON) (OFF) (ON) A (OFF) SEE 4433 Dr.85) ⎩− 0.7V ⎟ ωRC ⎠ fRC 60 × 500 × 100u ⎝ (c) Capacitor current : ⎧ωCVm cos(ωt ) ⎪ ic (ωt ) = ⎨ Vm sin(θ ) −(ωt −θ ) /(ωRC ) ⋅e ⎪− ⎩ R ⎧6.7 ⎛ 2π ⎞ Vm ΔVo = Vm ⎜ = = = 56.4 cos(ωt ) A =⎨ −(ωt −1.Example (cont’) (b)Ripple : Using : ΔVo = Vmax − Vmin ΔVo = Vm − Vm sin( 2π + α ) = Vm − Vm sin α = 43V Using Approximation : 169. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 20 .7 sin(1.50 A 169.34) = 4.62 ) /(18.7 cos(0.843rad ) + = (4.

Controlled half-wave. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 21 . RMS = 1 ∫ [Vm sin (ωt )] dωt 2π α π 2 Vo max when α = 0 degree 2 Vm π Vm α sin (2α ) [1− cos(2ω t ] dωt = 1− + = ∫ 4π α 2 π 2π Note N power sinus: sin2 ½(1-cos2x) i i x= ½(1 2 ) SEE 4433 Dr.R load ig ia + vs _ + VSCR + vo _ vs ωt vo π v ig ωt Sketch Vscr and load current? α ωt Average voltage : π Vm 1 Vo = ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = 2π [1 + cos α ] 2π α RMS voltage Vo.

Controlled h/w. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 22 . ⎛V ⎞ i (α ) = 0 = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin (α − θ ) + Ae ωτ ⎝Z ⎠ α ⎡⎛ Vm ⎞ ⎤ ωτ ⇒ A = − ⎢⎜ ⎟ ⋅ sin (α − θ )⎥ e ⎣⎝ Z ⎠ ⎦ −α Draw gate signal & Vscr SEE 4433 Dr. R-L load (inductive) i + VSCR - + vs _ + vR _ + vL _ + vo _ vs π vo io 2π ωt α β −ωt ⎛V ⎞ i (ωt ) = i f (ωt ) + in (ωt ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin (ωt − θ ) + Ae ωτ ⎝Z ⎠ Initial condition : i (α ) = 0.

Thyristor waveform SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 23 .

Average voltage : V 1 Vmsin (ωt )dω = m [cosα − cosβ ] Vo = 2π ∫ 2π α Average current : β 1 i(ωt )dωωt Io = 2π ∫ α RMS current : I RMS 1 2 = i (ωt )dt 2π ∫ α 2 β β The power absorbed by the load : Po = I RMS ⋅ R SEE 4433 Dr.Controlled R-L load Substituting for A and simplifying. (α − ωt) ⎧⎛ Vm ⎞ ⎡ ⎤ ωτ ⎟ ⎢sin (ωt − θ ) − sin (α − θ )e ⎪⎜ ⎥ for α ≤ ωt ≤ β i(ωt ) = ⎨⎝ Z ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎪ ⎩0 otherwise Extinction angle β must be solved numerically (α −β) ⎤ ⎛ Vm ⎞ ⎡ sin (β − θ ) − sin (α − θ )e ωτ ⎥ i(β ) = 0 = ⎜ ⎟⎢ ⎝ Z ⎠⎣ ⎦ Angle γ = (β − α ) is called the conduction angel. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 24 .

Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 25 .Thyristor Triggering TCA780 α = 180 o o v control V st ∧ SEE 4433 Dr.

60 Hz supply Determine the RMS supply. Determine: (a) the expression for current i(ωt).04 H. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 26 . Design a circuit to produce an average voltage of 40V across a 100 Ω load from a 120V RMS. Determine the heater p power for firing angle of 45o and 90o. Pg:90 2. (c) the power absorbed by the load. Pg:88 3. (b) average current. power factor absorbed by the resistance. 50 Hz heater. R = 20 Ω. An SCR is used to control power of 1 kW 230 V. degrees.2 W. A half wave controlled rectifier has a source of 120V RMS at 60 Hz. f f g g f Ans : 454. L = 0 04 H and the delay angle is 45 0. 250 W SEE 4433 Dr.Examples 1.

(Bad current) • A FWD (sometimes known as commutation diode (D2). Awang / Dr Zainal Salam . the load (output) current is NOT continuous. half wave rectifier with R-L load. or flywheel or by-pass) can be placed as shown below to make it continuous io D1 + vs _ D2 + vR _ + vL _ + vo _ (a) io + vs _ vo= vs io vo= 0 + vo _ + vo _ io D1 is on. D1 is off on (c) 27 SEE 4433 Dr. D2 is off (b) D2 is on.Effect of Freewheeling diode (FWD) • Note that for single-phase.

• For a negative cycle voltage source. • For a positive cycle voltage source. However. However the inductor contains energy from positive cycle. D2 i on is ff is The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (c) The voltage across the R-L load is zero. source – D1 is on. – But in contrast with the normal half wave rectifier. – Hence the “negative part” of vo as shown in the normal half-wave disappear. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 28 . D2 is off – The equivalent circuit is shown in Figure (b) – The voltage across the R-L load is the same as the source voltage. The load current still circulates through the R-L path. rectifier the circuit in Figure (c) does not consist of supply voltage in its loop. – – – – D1 i off.Operation of FWD • Note that both D1 and D2 cannot be turned on at the same time. SEE 4433 Dr.

4 .e. ( n − 1)π SEE 4433 Dr. as shown below. 6. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 29 . • Note also the output voltage has no negative part (prevent output voltage reversal). improve DC output voltage.FWD.Continuous load current • The inclusion of FWD results in continuos load current (good current). • T Transfer load current from main rectifier f l d tf i tifi ( allow rectifier regains its blocking state) output t t vo io Diode current iD1 iD2 0 Vm ωt π 2π 3π 4π ∞ Vm 2Vm + sin(ωot ) − ∑ vo (t ) = cos(nωot ) 2 π 2 n = 2 .. i.

4 . f = 60 Hz. L = 25 mH. Determined the power absorbed by the load. 6.Example For a circuit below. ( n − 1)π Vm D1 D2 R L pg77 SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 30 . determine the average load voltage and load current. Vm=100 V. Given R = load 2Ω. And ∞ Vm 2Vm + sin(ωot ) − ∑ cos(nωo t ) vo (t ) = 2 π 2 n = 2 ..

Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 31 . f = 100 Hz • Output voltage doubles of half wave rectifier • Can have 2-quadrant operation for full controlled bridge converter inductive load SEE 4433 Dr. thus avoiding problem associated with non-zero average source current especially in transformer • Known as two pulses rectifier.Why single phase full wave ? single-phase full-wave • To produce purely DC (less ripple) voltage or current • Suitable for high power application • Average current in the AC source is zero.

Full wave rectifier D1 is + vs _ iD1 D 3 • + vo _ D Full Bridge 4 is iD1 + vs1 _ + vs2 _ D 2 D1 + vD1 − Center-tapped (CT) or midpoint rectifier requires center-tap transformer.637Vm π SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam . Hence. CT experienced only one diode volt-drop per half-cycle Conduction losses for CT is half. Full Bridge (FB) does not. not CT: 2 diodes FB: 4 diodes. ⎧Vm sin ωt vo = ⎨ ⎩Vm sin ωt D 2 • 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π π ≤ ωt ≤ 2π Average (DC) voltage : Vo = π∫ 0 1 π Vm sin (ωt )dωt = i 2Vm • = 0. Diodes ratings for CT is twice than FB 32 io + + vs _ − vo • • io + vD2 − iD2 Center-tapped / C d mid-point For both circuits.

Bridge waveforms iD1 is + vs _ D1 D3 Full Bridge Vm v s D4 D2 Vm π v o 2π 3π vD1 vD2 -Vm vD3 vD4 Vm io iD1 iD2 iD3 iD4 i s SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam io + vo _ 4π 33 .

Center-tapped waveforms is + vs1 _ + vs2 _ iD2 iD1 D1 + vD1 − − vo + vD2 − + + vs _ io Center-tapped Vm vs π vo D 2 Vm 2π 3π 4π vD1 -2Vm vD2 -2Vm io iD1 iD2 is SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 34 .

iD2 iD3 . R-L load io iD1 is + vs _ 1 3 4 2 + vR _ + vL _ + vo _ vs π 2π ωt iD1 .iD4 io vo is SEE 4433 Dr.Full wave bridge. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 35 .

(Zn increases) Thus I n decreases rapidly very increasing n. If ωL is large enough.. : 2V V i(ωt ) ≈ I o = o = m .Approximation with large L Using Fourier Series. i. it is possible to drop all the harmonic terms. 36 SEE 4433 Dr. ∑Vn cos(nωt + π ) ∞ Contains DC terms and even harmonics where the DC term ( (average value) l ) Vo = 2Vm π and the harmonics terms Vn = 2Vm ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ − ⎜ ⎟ π ⎝ n − 1 n + 1⎠ The DC curent V Io = o R The harmonic currents : V Vn In = n = Z n R + jnωL As n increases. R πR for ωL >> R.e. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam . 4. Vn harmonic decreases. Ui F i S i vo (ωt ) = Vo + n = 2..

= R πR 2 I RMS = I o + ∑ I n . iD2 iD3 .iD4 io vo is SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 37 .R-L load approximation Approximate current A i t t Io = Vo 2Vm . RMS Po = I RMS R = I oDc R vs π 2 2 ( 2 )= I Power factor =Po/S =Io2R/(Vsrms.Isrms) o Power delivered to the load : Average diode current IDave= I /2 Io/2 Rms diode current= IDrms = Irms/√2 2π ωt iD1 .

Examples Given a bridge rectifier has an AC source Vm= 100 V at 50 Hz. determine:mH determine: a) the average voltage and current in the load b) the first two higher order harmonics of the load voltage and current c) the load rms current and the power absorbed by the load d) Power factor e) Average and rms diode current Pg:110 P 110 SEE 4433 Dr. and R-L load with R = 100 Ω . Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 38 . L = 10 mH.

39 2 3.4 V V4= 2Vm/ π(1/3 – 1/5) = 8.64 A b) First two harmonic voltage. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 39 .39 2 ⎛ I2 ⎞ ⎛ I4 ⎞ Irms = Io + ⎜ ) +( ) = 6.08 A c) Power absorbed by the load P = Irms2.81 ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ = ( 6.4) = 0. 4 V2 = 2Vm/ π(1/1 – 1/3) = 42. n = 2. 4) 2 + ( 2 2 ⎝ 2⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ 2 2 2 SEE 4433 Dr.4/(R + j2 πfL.5 /(R + j2 πfL.2) = 0.Solution a) Average current ) g = Vo/ R = (2Vm/π)/R = 0.R 3.5 V Two higher order current harmonics I2 = V2/Z2 = 42.42 A I4 = V4/Z4 = 8.

Controlled full wave. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 40 . RMS = ∫ [V πα 1 π m sin (ωt )] dωt 2 ⎡ π − α sin2α ⎤ 1 α sin (2α ) = Vm ⎢ + = Vm − + ⎥ 2π 4π ⎦ 2 2π 4π ⎣ The power absorbed by the R load is : Vo RMS Po = R 2 SEE 4433 Dr. R load T1 is + vs _ T2 + vo _ T4 iD1 T3 io Io = ? Average (DC) voltage : Vo = ∫V πα 1 π m sin (ωt )dωt = Vm π [1 + cos α ] RMS Voltage Vo.

ig4 Vm Vo Vo = (1 + cosα ) and Io = π R Sketch source current SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 41 .T2 on π+α T3.Waveforms Waveforms. Io α T1.R load Vs Vo.T4 on 2π+α Ig1. ig2 Ig3.

T2 ON Discontinuous mode io α π π+α β 2π To improve Vo. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 42 . insert diode d d FWD across load vo α α+π Continuous mode SEE 4433 Dr. T4 ON 2π vo T1. R-L load (inductive) io iD1 is + vs _ 1 3 + vR _ + vL _ + vo _ 4 2 io α π β π+α T3.Controlled.

Discontinuous mode Analysis i il A l i similar to controlled h lf wave with ll d half ih R . τ = R ⎝ R ⎠ For discontinous mode. SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 43 .L load : ⎛V ⎞ i (ωt ) = ⎜ m ⎟ ⋅ sin(ωt − θ ) − sin(α − θ )e −(ωt −α ) ωτ ⎝ Z ⎠ for α ≤ ωt ≤ β Z = R 2 + (ωL) 2 L ⎛ ωL ⎞ and θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ . need to ensure : [ ] β < (α + π ) Condition 1 Note that β is the extinction angle and must be solved numerically with condition : io ( β ) = 0 The boundary between continous and discontinous current mode i when β i di i d is h in the output current expression is (π + α ). For continous operation current at ωt = (π + α ) must be greater than zero zero.

Solving for α ⎛ ωL ⎞ α = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ Thus for continuous current mode mode. sin(θ − α) 1 − e −(π ωτ) ≥ 0.Continuous mode i(π + α) ≥ 0 sin(π + α − θ) − sin(α − θ)e −(π + α −α) ωτ ≥ 0 Using Trigonometry id tit : Ui Ti t identity sin(π + α − θ) = sin(θ − α). Awang / Dr Zainal Salam . ⎛ ωL ⎞ α ≤ tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ [ ] Condition 2 Average (DC) output voltage is given as : 1 Vo = π α+ π ∫ Vmsin (ωt )dωt = α 2Vm cosα π 44 SEE 4433 Dr.

ig2 Ig3.Waveform – di f discontinuous i RL load Ig1. ig4 Vm (cos α .cos β ) Vo = π SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 45 .

iT2 T2 iT3.ig4 π+ α Vo = 2Vm cos α π and Io = Vo R 46 SEE 4433 Dr.ig2 Ig3. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam .Waveform – continuous RL load ( L >> R ) Vs Vo α iT1. iT4 is Ig1.

ig4 Vo = Vm (1 + cosα ) π 47 SEE 4433 Dr.effect of insert FWD Vs Vo iT1. iT2 iT3. iT4 is iFWD Ig1. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam .Waveform – continuous RL load ( L >> R ).ig2 Ig3.

Vo versus alpha α 2Vm π 2Vm π 2Vm − π N α V Quadrant I T α I Quadrant IV SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 48 .

RMS = = Vm m i sin (ωt )] dωt 2 1 α sin (2α ) − + 2 2π 4π SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 49 .Single-phase Single phase half controlled bridge-rectifier io T1 io T1 iT1 is + vs _ D2 T2 + v + + R iT1 is D1 + v + R _ vo + v _ D1 L vs _ T2 D2 _ vo + v _ L _ _ Average (DC) voltage : Vo = 1 π π α ∫ Vm sin (ωt )dωt = ∫ [V πα 1 π Vm π [1 + cos α ] RMS Voltage Vo .

D1 on π+α T2.D1 on IgT2 Vo = Vm Vo (1 + cosα ) and Io = π R SEE 4433 Dr.D2 on 2π+α T1.R & (R+L) load Vs Vo. Io α IgT1 T1. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 50 .Waveforms.

Therefore the diode with its cathode at the lowest potential conducts id. d In the bottom group. D3). D2 carry id.Single-phase diode groups D1 io + vs _ D3 vp + vo _ vn vo =vp −vn D4 D2 • In the top group (D1. the diode with its anode (+) at the highest potential will conduct (carry) id. when vs (+). D1 reverses. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 51 • • • . D2 reverses (-). SEE 4433 Dr. reverses. the anodes of the two diodes p are at common potential. D1 conducts id and D3 reverses (by taking loop around vs. When is ( ) Wh vs i (-). For example. when vs is ( +). D3 conducts. Therefore. the cathodes (-) of the two diodes are at a common potential. D4 reverses. When vs is (-) D4 carry id. For example. D1 and D3).

Three-phase full-wave rectifiers iD1 + van D1 D3 D5 iD5 D2 D6 30 o D4 vnn io ia n + vbn + vcn - iD3 iD4 ib ic vpn + vo _ vo =vp −vn Vm van vbn vcn vp Vm vn vab vac vbc D1 D1 D6 D2 D3 D2 vo =vp . Awang / Dr Zainal Salam .vn D3 D4 D5 D4 6-pulses rectifier f = 300 Hz 2π 3π 4π 52 0 60 o π SEE 4433 Dr.

The other two will be reversed. If D6 (of the bottom group) conducts. SEE 4433 Dr. The other two will be reversed.. All other diodes are off.Three-phase waveforms • Top group: diode with its anode at the highest potential will conduct. • Bottom group: diode with the its cathode at the lowest potential will conduct. if D1 (of the top group) conducts. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 53 . vp is connected to van. • For example. • The resulting output waveform is given as: vo=vp-vn • For peak of the output voltage is equal to the peak of the line to line voltage vab . vn connects to vbn .

D2 D1 D2 D2. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 54 . L − L [− cos(ωt )] 2π 3 π 3 Draw di d D diode currents with R load π = 0. L − L = 1. easier filter designed compared to single . L − L sin(ωt )dωt 3Vm .65Vmphase Note that the output DC voltage component of a three . L − L 3Vm .phase g p SEE 4433 Dr. less ripple. Average voltage : 1 2π 3 Vo = = = π 3 π∫3 π Vm .D3 Vm. average voltage vo vo π/3 D1.phase rectifier is much higher than of a single . L-L 0 π/3 vac 2π/3 vbc Considers only one of the six segments.955Vm .phase.Three-phase. Obtain its average over 60 degrees or π 3 radians.

iD rms = I o rms 3 3 2 Determine max PIV diode D i di d SEE 4433 Dr. pf = = f S 3 3Vlrms.Ilrms 1 1 iDave = I o . Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 55 .120 o 120 o ID1-iD4 Diode current & Line current current (phase a) for L >> R Io R 2 p Ia = I b = Ic = I o rms .

L R L>>R • Line current (rms) & power factor SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 56 .3-Phase Current WaveformL>>R • Output current is assumed to be DC .

Three-phase half-wave rectifiers D1 D2 D3 vo 120o 150 o Vo = 1 2π 3 30 o ∫V m sin ωt dωt = 0. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 57 .827Vm SEE 4433 Dr.

Three-phase full-wave controlled rectifier
T1 + van + vbn + vcn T3 T5 T2 T6 T4 vnn io

n

vpn

+ vo _

α
Vm vo

van

vbn

vcn

Widely used in industry up to 120 kW with 2q quadrant operation p
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 58

Controlled, three-phase waveforms – R load f l d

CCM - α < 60o ; DCM -α > 60o ; Vo = 0 V at α = 120o
SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 59

Controlled, three-phase waveforms – R load f l d

SEE 4433 Dr. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam

60

Vo goes y .Controlled. three-phase waveforms – RL inductive load Vo V =0 Note: α < 60 o Vo always +ve. α > 60 o. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 61 . g negative(RL load) (Can be overcame by FWD diode) SEE 4433 Dr.

Controlled. three-phase waveforms. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 62 . waveforms L>>R (a) Supply current and (b) harmonics profile SEE 4433 Dr.

Controlled rectifier. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 63 . effects on power factor as α varies SEE 4433 Dr.

Controlled. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 64 . three-phase waveforms with α=90 degree SEE 4433 Dr.

Average voltage can be comp uted as : 1 ( 2π 3 ) +α Vo = π 3 ( ∫ Vα π 3) + m.654Vmphase cos α ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ • EXAMPLE: A three-phase controlled rectifier has an input voltage of 415V RMS at 50 Hz. L − L ⎞ =⎜ h ⎜ π ⎟ ⋅ cos α = 1.Output voltage of controlled three phase rectifier From the previous Figure.R = 1. let α be the delay angle of the SCR.77o SEE 4433 Dr. produce current of 50 A. The load R = 10 Ω Determine the delay angle required to Ω. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 65 .654Vmphasecosα = 50x10 α = cos-1(500/(1. Sol: Vo=Io.654x415x√2/√3)= 26. L − L sin(ωt )dωt i ( ⎛ 3Vm .

4 ∑ Vn cos(nwt + π) ∞ where Vn = 2Vm π 1 ⎞ ⎛ 1 − ⎜ ⎟ n −1 n +1 ⎠ ⎝ i) Derive the average output voltage.8V iv)2. and the instantaneous voltage across the load is given as v o (t) = Vo + n=24 2. a) By assuming the load inductance is large enough. iD2.67 A vi)0.EXAMPLE Q1.89 SEE 4433 Dr. iii)145V.2A v) 1. 4 iv) Calculate the amplitude of harmonic current. Awang / Dr Zainal Salam 66 . Consider an uncontrolled single-phase full wave diode rectifier with series R and L load. is b) If R-L load are 10 Ω and 100 mH respectively. Vn for n = 2. Vo O t t lt ii) Diode current iD1. sketch the waveform of i) Output voltage. The supply voltage is given ifi ih i d l d Th l l i i as 340 sin (314t) V. iD3 and iD4 iii) Input supply current. Io iii) Calculate the amplitude of harmonic voltage.22 A. Vo ) g p g . 4 v) Calculate the load current in rms vi) Calculate power factor ii)21.6 A. 28. 0. ii) Calculate the average load current. In for n = 2.