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Unit Plan

1. Unit Code &

UBML3033 Corporate Governance
Unit Title:
2. Course of Bachelor of Business Administration (Hons)
Study: Bachelor of Commerce (Hons) Accounting
3. Year of
Year Three Trimester Three
4. Year and
5. Credit Hour 3 credit hours
6. Lecturing
hours and 2.0 hours lecture per week for the duration of 14 weeks
Tutoring 1.5 hour tutorial per week for the duration of 14 weeks
7. Lecturer: 1. Mr. Choe Kum Lung, BA(Hons), MBA
e-mail :
8. Tutor 2. Mr. Fong Chee Yang
e-mail :

3. Mr. Kuek Thiam Yong

e-mail :

4. Ms. Lim Yong Hooi

e-mail :

5. Ms. Ng Lee Peng

e-mail :

6. Ms. Lau Say Min Claudia

e-mail :

7. Mr. Peter Tan Sin Howe

e-mail :

9. Moderator Mr. Gopalan a/l Raman

10. Mode of
Lecture and Tutorial
11. Objective: To provide an understanding of the principles, practices and issues on how companies
are to be governed and managed.

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

12. Learning On completion of the module students should be able to:
1. Appreciate the range and scope of topics and issues contributing to the area of
corporate governance;
2. Describe the principal elements that constitute corporate governance frameworks;
3. Explain the role of audit in corporate governance;
4. Discuss the roles and responsibilities of executive directors, non-executive
directors, company secretaries and auditors in ensuring effective corporate
5. Assist the board and the executive team of an organisation in developing
appropriate corporate governance procedures to achieve organisational objectives
and to ensure regulatory compliance.
13. Synopsis of The context of corporate governance in the unit includes the scope of corporate
Unit: governance; the legal and regulatory framework; characteristics, roles and functions of
Board of Directors; corporate governance mechanisms; the roles of various committees
and shareholders; and financial reporting requirements.

14. Reading List:

Main References
1. Solomon, J. (2010). Corporate governance and accountability (3rd ed.). West
Sussex: John Wiley and Sons Limited.
2. Mallin, C. A. (2004). Corporate governance. New York: Oxford University Press.
3. Independent directors – principles of best practices. (2003). Kuala Lumpur:
4. Malaysian code on corporate governance (revised 2007). Kuala Lumpur:
Securities Commission.
Additional References
5. Cheah, F. S. & Lee L. S. (2009). Corporate governance in Malaysia: principles
and practices. Kuala Lumpur: August Publishing.
6. A guide to corporate governance in Malaysia. (2010). Singapore: CCH.
7. Low, C. K. (2003). Corporate governance – An Asia Pacific critique. Hong
Kong: Sweet & Maxwell.
8. Colley, J. L., Doyle, J. L., Logan, G. W. & Stettinius, W. (2003). Corporate
governance. New York: McGraw-Hill.
9. Mohd Sulaiman, A. N. (2003). Directors’ duties and corporate governance.
Petaling Jaya: Sweet & Maxwell.
10. Perspectives on corporate governance and management. (Vol. II). (2003).
Kuala Lumpur: MAICSA
11. Rachagan, S., Pascoe, J., & Joshi, A. (2002). Principles of company law in
Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur: Malayan Law Journal.
12. Teen, M. K. (2006). From conformance to performance. Singapore: McGraw
-Hill Education (Asia).
13. Tie, F. H. (2003). Corporate governance & corporate law reform in
Malaysia. Petaling Jaya: Sweet & Maxwell.

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

15. Method of
Assessment: No. Method of Assessment Total
1. Coursework
a) Mid-Term Test 16% (40 marks)
b) Group Assignment 24% (60 marks)
Total 40% (100 marks)

2. Final Examination

1. Coursework (40%)

a) Mid-term Test 16% (40 marks)

A test will be given to monitor student’s progress on the understanding of the lectures
and tutorials. Students are required to answer TWO (2) out of THREE (3) short essay
questions. Details are below:

1. Test – Week 5
2. Duration: One hour
3. Coverage of syllabus: Lecture Week 1 to Week 4

Note: Candidates who are unable to attend mid-term test must provide evidence (e.g.
medical certificate, letter from parents/guardians, etc) to the respective lecturer. The
evidence must be from an appropriate source and with a valid reason strictly within
one week from the date of the test. Failure to do so, your score will be automatically
nullified. There will not be replacement test for absences without valid and verifiable

b) Group Assignment 24% (60 marks)

1. Each group consists of strictly 5 persons only. Please note that group
allocations are to be agreed by the tutor in the first tutorial session.
2. Each group is required to select a public listed company (PLC) from the Main
Market, Bursa Securities Malaysia and write a report on its corporate
governance practice.
3. One of the group members will need to submit the names of the PLCs to the
tutor for final approval on first come first serve basis.
4. No group is allowed to work on the same selection of PLCs in the same
tutorial group.

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

5. The report submitted for assessment should consist of the following:
 Introduction – brief background of the selected public listed companies (PLCs)
 Content – compare and analyse the PLC using MCCG or any other code of
corporate governance on the following four aspects:
o First, board independence – assess whether the board is free from influence
in their decisions making by analyzing board composition and ownership
structure e.g. issue of CEO duality, familiarity of INEDs, independence of
board committees, influence from major shareholders, etc.
o Second, disclosure and transparency – assess the overall transparency of
both PLCs with an emphasis on the disclosure of material information in an
accurate and timely manner.
o Third, external auditor and internal control system – how independent is
the external auditor? Is there an internal control system? Who is in charge?
o Fourth, relationship with all stakeholders – how does the board maintain
close relationships with their shareholders? Any designated personnel?
Does the board relate to other stakeholders? If so, how?
 Recommendations and conclusion – overall assessment of issues/problems,
key lessons learned and suggestions for improvements.
 References – APA referencing style.
6. Students are required to write in their own words and cite references in their
group assignment. Failure to do so may result in either the project paper be
rejected or failed or heavily penalized. Refer to Appendix III for APA
referencing guidelines.
7. The project should be neatly typed in Font 12 Times New Roman with 1.5
spacing on A4 size papers. Make sure the printing is clear and readable. The
project should be tape bound. All pages in the written report should be
numbered except for the cover page and table of contents.
8. The report should come with a cover page (refer to Appendix I), and followed
by an assessment form (refer to Appendix II).
9. Word Limit: 5,000 words excluding appendices, tables, charts, diagrams and
10. Due date: submit assignment to your respective tutor before 4pm on
Friday, 11 March 2011 (Week 8).

Assessment Criteria
The assessment criteria for the group assignment are given below:

Assessment Marks Allocation

1 Introduction 5 marks
2 Comparison and analysis of key CG issues 40 marks
 board independence
 disclosure and transparency
 external auditor and internal control system
 relationship with all stakeholders
3 Recommendation and conclusion 10 marks
4 Structure, layout, language and reference 5 marks
Total Marks 60 marks

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Late Submission Penalty Clause

Deadline for submission of assessment item(s) is to be strictly adhered to. No

extension of time will be allowed except in extenuating circumstances, e.g.
medical reasons. Students who wish to apply for extension of time for submission
of assessment item(s) after the due date shall put in writing the request together
with validated documentary evidence to support the application to the lecturer.

Any assessment item required by the Coursework Assessment, which is submitted

after the due date, without an approved extension, will be penalized. A penalty of
10% reduction of the maximum mark applicable to the assessment item(s) will be
levied for each day of late submission. Weekends and Public Holidays are counted
as one (1) day late. Assessment item(s) submitted more than seven (7) days after
the due date will be awarded with zero (0) marks.

2. Final Examination 60%

The final examination consists of TWO (2) sections for the duration of 2.5 hours.
The questions will be in the form of :
Section A (40 marks) = Compulsory structured questions.
Section B (60 marks) = Answer 2 out of 3 essay questions.

Attendance at all lectures and tutorials is compulsory. Students must give reasons
for their absence by providing the supporting documentary evidence(s) (e.g.
medical certificate, letter from parents/guardians & etc.) and apply for leave of
absence from the respective Head of Department. Poor attendance without any
approved leave of absence may prompt the Faculty to take disciplinary action,
which may include student being barred from sitting for the final examination.

Plagiarism is defined as the submission or presentation of work, in any form,
which is not one's own, without acknowledgment of the sources. If a student
obtains information or ideas from an outside source, that source must be
acknowledged. Another rule to follow is that any direct quotation must be placed
in quotation marks and the source immediately cited.

Plagiarism is also defined as copy of all or part of the work of another student(s) of
current or previous batch of this University or another higher learning institution.

The University's degree and other academic awards are given in recognition of the
candidate's personal achievement. Plagiarism is therefore considered as an act of
academic fraudulence and as an offence against University discipline.

Intellectual Property
Copyright must be seriously protected. The University takes a strong stand against
any illegal photocopying of textbooks and any other materials by students.
Students are forewarned of the consequences and the penalty that may be meted
out if they are "caught in the act".

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Mode of Referencing
Students are advised to incorporate proper academic modes of referencing. The
normally acceptable mode of academic referencing is the American Psychological
Association (APA) system; please refer to the attached APA referencing system
document for detailed usage (see Appendix II).

Fieldwork Clause (where applicable)

Students are reminded of the importance to consider their personal safety when
conducting research in the field. You will be exposing yourself in new situations
and meeting with people who are unknown to you. It is important that you are
aware of potential dangers and take the necessary safety steps. You have to be
extra careful and cautious if you are going to interview or conduct survey with
small, unknown organisations or individuals 'on site'.

You should ensure you have the full details (full name, job title, organisation
name, address and telephone numbers) of anyone or organisation you intend to
conduct the field research. You should establish the credibility of these
respondents before your groups visit them. The field research should be made in
groups not alone. Leave word with your fellow classmates on your field visit
(details of place, contact numbers, person you are interviewing or conducting
survey with, expected time of return, etc). The field work should be at office

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Teaching Plan

Lecture, Tutorial & Assignment Plan

Week Lecture Topic Tutorial Topic Assignment Reference

1 TOPIC 1: (T1) Group Solomon
Introduction? (Part 1) Introduction formation (Chap 1)
17/01/2011 and explanation
 Structure of Corporations
– on unit Group Low
23/01/2011  Relationship between shareholders and requirements Assignment (Chap 2)
board of directors and group Selection of
 Corporate officers assignment Company

 Concept of Ownership & Control

 Definition of CG and sound CG
 Importance of CG
 Issues and benefits of CG

2 TOPIC 1:
24/01/2011 Introduction? (Part 2) (T2) Solomon
– Topic 1 (Chap 1)
 Major participants in CG
30/01/2011 Introduction?
 Core Concepts (Part 1) Mallin
 Theoretical Frameworks (Chap 2)
o Principal/Agent Model Total Questions
o Stakeholders Model 5 discussion
 Role of ‘exit’ and ‘voice’

3 TOPIC 2 : (T3)
31/01/2011 Topic 1
The Legal and Regulatory (Chap 3)
– Introduction?
06/02/2011 Framework (Part 1) (Part 2)
 History of CG MCCG
Total Questions
 Concept of best practices (Revised
5 discussion 2007)
 The OECD Principles questions
 UK Reports – Cadbury Report 1992,
Greenbury Report 1995, Hampel Report
1998, Turnbull Report 1999, Higgs
Report 2003 and Smith Report 2003
 The Malaysian Code on Corporate
Governance 2007

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Cheah and
4 TOPIC 2 : (T4)
Topic 2
07/02/2011 The Legal and Regulatory (Chap 3)
The Legal and

Framework (Part 2) Regulatory
13/02/2011 Framework
 The role of legislation
(Part 1)
 The nature and importance of
compliance Total Questions
 Compliance Risks 5 discussion
 The functions and powers of regulatory
bodies in Malaysia
 Bursa Malaysia New Listing
 Compliance statements

5 TOPIC 3 :
(T4) Mid-term Test Independent
14/02/2011 Directors and the Board of Directors Topic 2 directors
– (Part 1) The Legal and 2 out of 3 short (Chap 5)
Regulatory essay questions
20/02/2011  Definition of Director Framework
 Types of director (Part 2) Duration: 1 hr
 Director’s service contracts Total Questions Coverage:
 Director’s induction, orientation and 5 discussion Lectures
training questions Week 1 to 4
 Multiple directorship
 Role and powers of directors
 Fiduciary duty
 Tests for breach of fiduciary duty

6 TOPIC 3: (T6)
A guide to
Topic 3
21/02/2011 Directors and the Board of Directors CG in Msia
Directors and
– (Part 2) (Chap 4)
the Board of
27/02/2011  Duty of skill and care Directors
(Part 1)
 Duty of care
 Disclosure requirements Total Questions
5 discussion
 Fair dealing by directors questions

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

7 TOPIC 3: (T7)
Topic 3
28/02/2011 Directors and the Board of Directors (Chap 4)
Directors and
– (Part 3) the Board of
06/03/2011  Director’s rights Directors
(Part 2)
 Directors’ remuneration. Directors
(Chap 3&4)
 Independent non-executive directors Total Questions
(INEDs) 5 discussion
 CEO duality
 Unitary (1-tier) vs. 2-tier boards

8 TOPIC 5: (T8)
Group Mallin
Topic 3
07/03/2011 Committees (Part 1) Assignment (Chap 8)
Directors and
–  Board independence the Board of Submission
13/03/2011  Balanced Board Directors
Before 4pm,
(Part 3)
 Role and responsibilities of the BOD Friday, 11/3/11
 Best practices of BOD – MCCG Total Questions
5 discussion
 Type of board committees questions
o Nomination Committee
o Remuneration Committee
o Audit Committee
 Members and importance of BC’s
 NC, RC and AC: role, functions,
process and best practices

9 TOPIC 5:
14/03/2011 Committees (Part 2) Topic 5 Solomon
–  External Auditor Committees (Chap 6)
o Appointment (Part 1)
o Functions & Power
o Remuneration of Auditors Total Questions
o Auditor Independence 5 discussion
 Internal Auditor
o Roles
 Internal control
o Definition
o Components
 Company Secretary
o Roles in CG
 Whistleblower
o The importance of WB
o Laws to protect WB

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

10 TOPIC 6: (T10)
Topic 5
21/03/2011 Shareholders / Stakeholders (Part 1) (Chap 4)
–  Categories of shareholders (Part 2)
27/03/2011  Board-shareholder relationship
Total Questions
 Shareholders expectations 5 discussion
 Constructive use of AGM questions
 Equitable treatment of shareholders
 Ownership rights and shareholders
 Shareholders activism
 Definition of stakeholders
 Relationship between company and
 A case for stakeholders protection

11 TOPIC 4: (T11)
Topic 4
28/03/2011 Corporate Governance Mechanisms (Chap 5)
Shareholders /
– (Part 1) Stakeholders
03/04/2011  Dual role of IS (Part 1)

 Governance role of IS Total Questions

 IS activism 5 discussion
 Myners Committee recommendation
 Areas of interest to IS
 IS activism and its impediments
 OWNCON – governance role and

12 TOPIC 4: (T12)
Colley et al.
Topic 4
04/04/2011 Corporate Governance Mechanisms (Chap 9)
– (Part 2) Governance
10/04/2011  Capital Structure Mechanisms
o Bank debt as a disciplining (Part 1)
o Drawbacks of bank debt as a
Total Questions
governing mechanism.
5 discussion

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Disclosure & Transparency
 Importance of disclosure, transparency,
accountability to CG
 Key issues in financial reporting and
 BMLR disclosure policies
 BOD’s responsibilities on disclosures

13 TOPIC 6: (T13)
Topic 4
11/04/2011 Shareholders / Stakeholders (Part 2) (Chap 7)
–  Ethics and CG Governance
17/04/2011  Ethical expectations by the market Mechanisms
(Part 2)
 Ethical threats
 Concept of CSR Topic 7
Disclosure &
 Major issues under CSR Transparency
 Triple bottom line system
Total Questions
5 discussion

14 Revision Week (T14)

Topic 6
Shareholders /
– Stakeholders
24/04/2011 (Part 2)

Total Questions
5 discussion

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

This Unit Plan is:

Prepared by: Moderated by: Approved by:

___________________ ___________________ _______________________

Choe Kum Lung Gopalan a/l Raman Fong Chee Yang
Lead Lecturer Moderator Head, Department of Business
Date: Date: Date:

Notes: The information provided in this Unit Plan is subject to change by the Lecturers. Students shall be
notified in advance of any changes.

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Appendix I









Tutorial Group :

Lecturer’s Name :

Tutor’s Name :

Assignment Details

Companies Names :

Due Date : Before 4pm, Friday, 11 March 2011 (Week 8)

Important Note : Submission of assignments is the responsibility of students

Tape binding only

Student’s Details

1. Student ID, name & course:

2. Student ID, name & course:

3. Student ID, name & course:

4. Student ID, name & course:

5. Student ID, name & course:

Assignment Overall Marks: _______________ marks (out of 60)

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Appendix II









Assessment Marks Allocation Marks Awarded

1 Introduction 5 marks

2 Comparison and analysis of key CG issues 40 marks

 board independence
 disclosure and transparency
 external auditor and internal control system
 relationship with all stakeholders

3 Recommendation and conclusion 10 marks

4 Structure, layout, language and reference 5 marks

Total Marks 60 marks




Name of marker: ________________________

Signature of marker: _____________________ Date: _______________

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Appendix III


The referencing format for all student assignments and research reports is adapted
from the American Psychological Asso ciation (APA) style. The following items
show how various sources of information are referenced in the assignments or
research reports.

1. Journal article with volume and issue numbers. Italicize the journal title and
volume number.

Boyle, B. A. (1997). A multi-dimensional perspective on salesperson

commitment. Journal of Business& Industrial Marketing, 12(6), 354-

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of

organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224-

2. Book, two authors.

Toller, M., & Fielding, J. (1998). Global business for smaller companies.
Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.

3. Book, one author.

Sekaran, U. (2003). Research methods for business: A skill building approach

(4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

4. Brochure with corporate author.

BestTemp Staffing Services. (1997). An employer’s guide to staffing services

(2nd ed.) [Brochure]. Denver: Author.

Note: when the author and publisher are identical, use the word
“Author” as the name of the publisher.

5. Brochure with a writer.

Lawrence, K. S. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and writing about people

with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. New York: Research and
Training Center on Independent Living.

6. Newspaper article, one author.

Standish, E. (1999, January 19). Global market crushes OPEC’s delicate

balance of interest. Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A3.

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

7. Newspaper article, no author:

Buying Asian supplies on the net. (1997, February 12). Los Angeles Times, pp.

8. Company annual report:

Mutual Bank. (1998). Annual report. Kajang, Selangor.

9. Magazine article:

Posner, M. I. (1993, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.

10. Book, component part (Chapter in an edited book):

Kuntz, S. (1998). Moving beyond benefits. In Randolph Jacobson (Ed.), Our

changing workforce (pp. 213-227). New York: Citadel Press.

11. Edited book:

Pennathur, A., Leong, F. T., & Schuster, K. (Eds). (1998). Style and substance
of thinking. New York: Publishers Paradise.

12. Book, no author or editor:

Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfiield, MA;


13. Dissertation or thesis:

Morales, G. H. (1998). The economic pressures on industrialized nations in a

global economy. (Doctoral dissertation, University of San Diego,
1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, 52, 5436C-5437C.

Kiren, R. S. (1997). Medical advances and quality of life. Unpublished

doctoral dissertation, Omaha State University.

Almeida, D. M. (1990). Fathers’ participation in family work: Consequences

for fathers’ stress and father-child relations. Unpublished master’s
thesis, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

14. Unpublished paper presented at a meeting or conference:

Myers, C. (1998, August). HMOs in today’s environment. Paper presented at

the Conference on Medical Insurance Solutions, Chicago, IL.

15. Proceedings published regularly:

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Cynx, J., & Williams, H. (1992). Hemispheric differences in avian song
discrimination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 89,

16. Unpublished manuscript:

Pringle, P. S. (1991). Training and development in the ‘90s. Unpublished

manuscript, Southern Illinois University, Diamondale, IL.

17. Article from a printed magazine, reproduced online:

Norwalk, P. (1999, July 17). Training managers to help employees accept

change. Business Line. Retrieved June 17, 2001, from: news

Note: Do not end a path statement with a period, because any stray
punctuation in a path will hinder retrieval.

18. Article from an online magazine, no author listed:

Housing market fueled by rising consumer confidence, low rates. (2003, June
12). Builder Online. Retrieved August 11, 2004, from

19. Article from an online newspaper:

Zaino, J. S. (2003, June 12). Learning a little discipline. Chronicle of Higher

Education. Retrieved September 10, 2003, from 2003/06/2003061201c.htm

20. Article from a printed journal, reproduced online:

Many articles online are the exact duplicates of their print versions. If the
electronic form is identical to the printed version, add within brackets “Electronic
version.” This allows you to omit the URL.

Bowler, D. M., & Thommen, E. (2000). Attribution of mechanical and social

causality to animated displays by children with autism [Electronic
version]. Autism, 4, 147-171.

Add the URL and date of access if page numbers are not indicated. For example:

Chatterjee, S. R., & Pearson C. A. L. (2002). Trust and managerial transition:

Evidence from three small Asian economies, 9(4). Retrieved August
30, 2003, from

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

21. Information or article from an Web site:

Heathfield, S. M. (2005). Leadership and sponsorship in action. Retrieved

June 23, 2004, from

Lowe, G. S., & Schellenberg, G. (2005). Employees’ basic value proposition:

Strong HR strategies must address work values. Retrieved March 5,
2005, from

22. Information or article from an Web site with no author:

The state of employee satisfaction. (2004, January). Retrieved July 25, 2004,

Customer service culture and attitudes towards CRM in Europe. (2005,

January). Retrieved May 15, 2005, from salesforce_emeareport.pdf

23. Online information or article from an Web site with no author and no copyright or
publication date:

Employee satisfaction survey items – Sample job satisfaction survey questions

(n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2005, from http://employee-satisfaction.


(a) The APA style recommends listing only those works actually cited in the text,
so you would not include works for background or for further reading in the

(b) DO NOT number the entries in the Reference section. All entries must be
made in alphabetical order.

(c) References by the same author (or by the same two or more authors in the
same order) with the same publication year are arranged alphabetically by the
title (excluding A or The) that follows the date. Lowercase letters—a, b, c, and
so on—are placed immediately after the year, within the parentheses.

Examples of Reference Entry:

Kaufman, J. R. (2001a). Control of …

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Kaufman, J. R. (2001b). The roles of …

(d) For Malay names:

i. Enter a Malay name under the first element of his/her name unless it is
known that he/she treats another element of his/her name as a surname. In
that case, enter under the surname. For example, Sopiee is the surname and
Norda is the given name,

Sopiee, N.

ii. If an abbreviation is used for a word denoting filial relationship, i.e., b. for
bin, bt. for binti, follow the referencing style as above. For example, to
reference Ali bin Adbullah and Nawah binti Ahamd,

Adbullah, A. Ahamd, N.

iii. If a name does not have the word denoting filial relationship and you do not
know which one is the surname, enter the name as found. For example,

Ismail Hussien

iv. Ignore the given title of honor, rank, or position. For example, to reference
Haji Abdul Majid and Dato’ Sopiee Norda,

Abdul Majid (If you don’t know which one is the surname.)
Sopiee, N. (If Sopiee is the surname.)

v. If the title of honor, rank, or position is hereditary, enter by the title fist and
follow by the names found. For example, Ungku, Syed, Nik, and Wan.

Ungku Abdul Aziz Enter as Ungku Abdul Aziz if there is no surname

or if you don’t know which one is the
Syed Hassan Ali Enter as Ali, S. H. if Ali is the surname.
Nik Safiah Nik Karim Enter as Nik Karim, N. S. if Nik Karim is the
Wan Ahmad Abdullah Enter as Abdullah, W. A, if Abdullah is the

(e) For Chinese names,

i. Enter the surname first. For example, Wong Mei Mei,

Wong, M. M.

ii. If a name contains both Chinese and non-Chinese given names, enter
the initial of non-Chinese given name before that of the Chinese given
name. For example, Johnny Chin Kai Wai and Thomas Lee Ah Beng,

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Chin, J. K. W.
Lee, T. A. B.

(f) For Indian names,

i. If the name appears as Subramaniam Periasamy and Periasamy is the

surname or family, enter as follows:

Periasamy, S.

ii. If the name appears as Subramaniam P., enter the same as follows:

Subramaniam P.

iii. If the name appears as S. Periasamy, enter the same as follows:

S. Periasamy


1. Personal communications such as interviews, telephone conversations, e-

mails, group discussion, messages from bulletin boards (electronic or white
board), letters, and memos would not be listed in the reference list at all. Such
citations would appear in the text only. Provide the date of the personal
communication as exact as possible. For example:
Increasing the role of cable companies in the industry is high on the list
of the company, Day Cable and Communications (Georgia Stainer,
personal communication, March 2, 1999).

2. When a work has more than two authors, cite all authors the first time the
reference occurs in the text. In subsequent citations, include only the surname of
the first author followed by “et al.” (insert a period after “al”) and the year. For

First citation in the text:

Williams, Smith, Bradner, and Rosen (2000) found that …

Subsequent citations in the text:

According to Williams et al. (2000) …

3. For any work with no author name (such as online article, newspaper, or
magazine article, or a chapter), cite it in the text with the first two or three words
from the title and the year of publication. Use double quotation marks around
the title and capitalize the first letter of each word. For example,

… (“Buying Asian Supplies,” 1997)

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

4. For works with corporate authors, the names of the corporate authors are
usually spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. However, some
corporate author names can be spelled out in full when it is first cited and then
abbreviated thereafter. For example,

Cited in full for all citations in the text:

… (University of Michigan, 2003)

First citation in the text:

… (National Institute of Mental Health [NIMH], 2001)

Subsequent text citation:

… (NIMH, 2001)

5. To cite a specific part of a source as a direct quotation, indicate the page

number of the source and abbreviate the word page (p.), in addition to the
author’s name and year. For example,

“……” (Cheek & Burn, 2004, p. 332)

6. To cite two or more works within the same parentheses,

i. If the works are of the same authors in the same order, arrange them by the
year of publication.

ii. If the works are of different authors, arrange them in alphabetical order and
separate them by semicolons. For example:

… (Edeline and Wrangler, 1995, 1998)

… (Balda, 1999; Kamar, 1996; Pepper & Jones, 2000)

7. For citation of a work discussed in a secondary source, you would give the
secondary source in the reference list, and give a citation for the secondary
source in the text. For example, if McClelland’s work is cited in Coltheart’s
study and you did not read the work by McClelland, list the Coltheart’s
reference in the References. In the text, use such citation as:

McClelland’s study (as cited in Coltheart, 1993) suggests that …

Note: Refer to the official web site of APA for more information.

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance

Language Explained:

CITING means formally recognizing, within your text, the resources from which you
have obtained information.

BIBIOGRAPHY is the list of sources you have used.

REFERENCE is the detailed description of the item from which you have obtained
your information and cited in the text.

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance


Berg, B. L. (2004). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (5th
ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Bjork, R. A. (1989). Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive mechanism in human

memory. In H. L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of
memory & consciousness (pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E. D., & White, L. A.
(1993). Role of early supervisory experience in supervisor
performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 443-449.

Dickinson, M. (2000). Giving undergraduates managerial experience.

Education & Training, 42(3), 159-169.

Gibbs, J. T., & Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of color: Psychological

interventions with minority youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Heathfield, S. M. (2005). Leadership and sponsorship in action. Retrieved

March 15, from

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in
organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,
45(2), 10-36.

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July
15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

Rosental, R. (1987). Meta-analytical procedures form social research (Rev.

ed.). Newbury Park, Ca: Sage.

Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status.

The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.

Suntharajah, S. (2005, May 1). Too many jobless grads. The Star, p. 3, Sunday
Star Special.

Tan, S-Yin (2004, February). From school to office: A guide to entering the
workforce. Personal Money, 30, 32-38.

Tang, F. H. (2004, February). A new-year hope [Letter to the editor]. Personal

Money, 30, p. 8.

Unit Plan of UBML3033 Corporate Governance