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Thermal Power Station mainly consists of Boiler (steam generator), Turbine and
Generator and auxiliary system for the above 3 main components.

To ensure safe operation the Generator, different protections are given. The
Generator protections are classified into Class-A, B and C protections, depending upon the
magnitude and nature of fault and its effects on the Generator operation.

Some of the protections coming under Class-B protection are listed below:
1) Generator-Negative phase sequence-II stage
2) Generator Transformer back-up E/F protection
3) Generator back-up impedance protection
4) GT, UAT-A/B winding and oil temp protection
5) Under Frequency protection
6) Tripping from turbine side (through Automatic Steam Turbine Tester -ASTT)

The above causes will energize the Class-B master protection relay 86T4, which is a Fast
Acting Relay. This will trip turbine first, creating reverse power condition and the Generator
will trip on Reverse Power Protection.

Reverse Power Relay is a sensitive poly phase induction unit, intended to provide
Reverse Power or Under-Voltage interlocking. When the turbine is shutdown, in an
emergency, there is a risk of over speeding of the Generator, and, if the Generator Breaker
opens before the Turbine Stop Valve is completely closed. Even if both are simultaneous,
steam trapped in the casing of the large Turbine may be sufficient to cause over speeding.
The sensitive power relay retains the Generator on load until the onset of motoring
and then operates to open the Generator-Breaker. To prevent the operation due to power
swings when the Generator is being synchronized, it is desirable to employ a definite time
delay unit.
When there is Reverse Power sensed by Reverse Power protection relays, these
relays along with their built-in Auxiliary-relays, in series with Turbine stop valve contacts,
will energize and after 2 sec (2 Timers) / 8 sec (1 Timer) and 30 seconds, it will energize
Class-A protection Relays, which will give open command to generator breaker.

As such four numbers of external timers and relays are being used for this protection
management scheme.

Our project is to deal with different types of protections related to Reverse Power
Protection by modifying the existing system with Embedded Based System so that all the
above four timers can be replaced with one system.