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The Definition of a Solar System
A solar system consists of a star and all the objects orbiting it as well as all the material in that system. Our Solar System includes the Sun together with the eight planets and their moons as well as all other celestial bodies that orbit the sun. Besides the sun, 8 planets and their moons, our Solar System contains billions of other objects and extends far beyond the outermost planets. There are several hundred thousand asteroids revolving around the Sun. Most have orbits between Mars and Jupiter. Also, in addition to the more than 800 comets we have recorded passing through the inner part of the solar system, there are billions more lying in the area surrounding the solar system. They are in the disk of debris known as the Kuiper belt and the cloud of comets known as the Oort cloud. Next, to a smaller scale, there are countless meteoroids (some of which include cemetery debris and fragments from the collision of larger bodies), some of which approach Earth's orbit closely enough to be known as near Earth objects. Finally, billions of objects (many the size of a speck of dust) cross through our atmosphere as meteors or micrometeoroids each day, usually completely unnoticed.
Sun as the Center of the Solar System
Sun is the center and the main component of this Solar System. The Sun is categorized as a star and has size of 332.832 times the mass of The Earth. The distance from The Sun and The Milky way is about 30.000 light year, and 1,496x108 km from The Earth. Space things keep moving around The Sun because the Sun’s mass is greater than the others’. The amount of a space thing’s gravitation is also influenced by the distance from The Sun. The farther the distance, the smaller the gravitation. The closest star from The Sun is called Proxima Centaury. It is 4,23 light year far from the sun.
Sun as a Star
The Sun is categorized as a star because : 1. It radiates its own light. 2. Has the same light spectrum.
The energy is made because of the nuclear fusion.
The sun is one kind of dwarf yellow star type (type G V) In the middle size. In metalisity, The Sun is categorized as ‘population I’ star. This kind of star’s production ends longer in the solar system level, so, it contains heavier elements than Hydr ogen and Helium (that is ‘metal’ in astronomical term). The diameter of The Sun is 1.400.000 km, or in other words, 100 times longer than The Earth’s diameter. The gravitation at The Sun is stronger than at The Earth. It is 28 times stronger. The temperature of The Sun in the core is about 14.000.0000C, while the surface’s temperature is rather cold, it is about 5.000-6.0000C. Two largest amount of elements that form The Sun is Hydrogen (75%) and Helium (20%).
Parts of the Sun
The Sun consists of three layers : 1. Solar Atmosphere 2. Photosphere 3. Solar Core
1. Solar Atmosphere
It’s the outest part of The Sun, majorly consists of Hydrogen. It consists of two parts :
This layer can be seen when Solar eclipse happens in the form of white circle around The Sun. Corona contains very thick gas and its temperature is 1.000.000 K. Corona is grey because of crash of ions in high temperature.
This layer can also be seen when solar eclipse happens. Chromosphere is arranged by Hydrogen. The temperature at chromosphere near corona reaches 10.000 K, while in the outer layer is about 4.000 K.
Photosphere’s thickness is about 320 km. The light of photosphere is yellow can be seen from Earth because the hot of the gas in photosphere radiates light in strong intensity and has temperature of 5.0000C-6.0000C. Photosphere is arranged by 94% of Hydrogen, 5,9% of Helium, and 0,1% of other heavier elements. There are sunspots, facule, and granule in this layer.
3. The Sun’s core
The temperature at the core reaches 15.000.000 K and its radius is about 175.000 km (0-0,25 of The Sun’s radius). Fusion reaction from Hydrogen to Helium happens here, and The Sun’s energy is made here. It has high density, that is 150.000 kg/m3. There are convection and radiation zone here.
The Definition of Planets
A planet (from Greek πλανήτης, alternative form of πλάνης "wanderer") is a celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear
fusion, and has cleared its neighboring region of planetesimals. Planets are generally divided into two main types: large, low-density gas giants (Jovian), and smaller, rocky terrestrials. Under IAU definitions, there are eight planets in the Solar System. In order of increasing distance from the Sun, they are the four terrestrials, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars, then the four gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Apart from the planets, the Solar System also contains at least five dwarf planets and hundreds of thousands of small solar system bodies. With the exception of Mercury and Venus, all planets are orbited by one or more natural satellites.
Mercury is the innermost and smallest planet in the Solar System, orbiting the Sun once every 87.969 days. It completes three rotations about the axis for every two orbits. The perihelion of Mercury's orbit processes around the Sun at an excess of 43 arc seconds per century; a phenomenon that was explained in the 20th century by Albert Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. Since
Mercury is normally lost in the glare of the Sun, unless there is a solar eclipse, Mercury can only be viewed in morning or evening twilight. Comparatively little is known about Mercury;
ground-based telescopes reveal only an illuminated crescent with limited detail. The first of two spacecraft to visit the planet was Mariner 10, which mapped only about 45% of the planet’s surface from 1974 to 1975. The second is the MESSENGER spacecraft, which mapped another 30% during its flyby of January 14, 2008. A final flyby took place in September 2009. MESSENGER is scheduled to attain orbital insertion around Mercury in 2011, and will then survey and map the entire planet. Mercury is similar in appearance to the Moon: it is heavily cratered with regions of smooth plains, has no natural satellites and no substantial atmosphere. However, unlike the moon, it has a large iron core, which generates a magnetic field about 1% as strong as that of the Earth. It is an exceptionally dense planet due to the large relative size of its core. Surface temperatures range from about 90 to 700 K (−183 °C to 427 °C, −297 °F to 801 °F), with the sub solar point being the hottest and the bottoms of craters near the poles being the coldest. Mercury’s surface is overall very similar in appearance to that of the Moon, showing extensive mare-like plains and heavy cratering, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years. Since our knowledge of Mercury's geology has been based on the 1975 Mariner flyby and terrestrial observations, it is the least understood of the terrestrial planets. As data from the recent MESSENGER flyby is processed this knowledge will increase. For example, an unusual
crater with radiating troughs has been discovered which scientists are calling "the spider”. Unit 4.2
The Hot and Smolder Venus
Venus is the second-closest planet to the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. The planet is named after Venus, the Roman goddess of love and beauty. After the Moon, it is the brightest natural object in the night sky. Because Venus is an inferior planet from Earth, it never appears to venture far from the Sun. Venus reaches its maximum brightness shortly before sunrise or shortly after sunset, for which reason it is often called the Morning Star or the Evening Star. Classified as a terrestrial planet, it is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because they are similar in size, gravity, and bulk composition. Venus is covered with an opaque layer of highly reflective clouds of sulfuric acid, preventing its surface from being seen from space in visible light. Venus has the densest atmosphere of all the terrestrial planets, consisting mostly of carbon dioxide, as it has no carbon cycle to lock carbon back into rocks and surface features, nor organic life to absorb it in biomass. Venus's surface was a subject of speculation until some of its Secrets were revealed by planetary science in the twentieth century. The ground shows evidence of extensive volcanism, and the sulfur in the atmosphere may indicate that there have been some recent eruptions. However, the absence of evidence of lava flow accompanying any of the visible caldera remains an enigma. The planet has few impact craters, demonstrating that the surface is relatively young, approximately half a billion years old.
Earth, Our Home
Earth (or the Earth) is the third planet from the Sun, and the fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest, most massive, and densest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets.
It is sometimes referred to as the World, the Blue Planet, or by its Latin name, Terra. Home to millions of species including humans, Earth is the only place in the Universe where life is known to exist. The planet formed 4.54 billion years ago, and life appeared on its surface within a billion years. The physical properties of the Earth, as well as its geological history and orbit, have allowed life to persist during this period. About 71% of the surface is covered with salt-water oceans, the remainder consisting of continents and islands; liquid water, necessary for all known life, is not known to exist on any other planet's surface. Earth's interior remains active, with a thick layer of relatively solid mantle, a liquid outer core that generates a magnetic field, and a solid iron inner core. Earth interacts with other objects in outer space, including the Sun and the Moon. This is a sidereal year, which is equal to 365.26 solar days. The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.4° away from the perpendicular to its orbital plane, producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface with a period of one tropical year (365.24 solar days). Earth's only known natural satellite, the Moon, which began orbiting it
about 4.53 billion years ago, provides ocean tides, stabilizes the axial tilt and gradually slows the planet's rotation. Unit 4.4
The Red and Rocky Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is also referred to as the "Red Planet" because of its reddish appearance, which is caused by iron oxide that is prevalent on its surface. Unlike Earth, Mars is now a geologically inactive planet with no known tectonic activity. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere may be a giant impact feature, covering 40% of the planet. Until the first flyby of Mars occurred in 1965, by Mariner 4, many speculated about the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. This was based on observed periodic variations in light and dark patches, which appeared to be seas and continents; long, dark striations were interpreted by some as irrigation channels for liquid water. From all the planets in the Solar System other than Earth, Mars is the most likely to harbor liquid water, and thus to harbor life. Geological evidence gathered by unmanned missions suggest that Mars once had large-scale water coverage on its surface, while small geyser-like water flows may have occurred during the past decade. In 2005, radar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles, and at mid-latitudes. The Phoenix Mars Lander directly sampled water ice in shallow martian soil on July 31, 2008. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. Observations by NASA's now-d efunct Mars Global
Surveyor show evidence that parts of the southern polar ice cap have
been receding. Unit 4.5
The Giant Jupiter
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. It is a gas giant with a mass slightly less than one-thousand of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant (known as Jovian) along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The Romans named the planet after the Roman god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, making it on average the third-brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. (Mars can briefly match Jupiter's brightness at certain points in its orbit.) Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 63 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these moons, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.
Saturn, The Ringed
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest planet in the Solar System, after Jupiter. Saturn, along with Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune, is classified as Jovian, meaning "Jupiter-like", planets. Saturn is named after the Roman god Saturn. The planet Saturn is composed of hydrogen, with small proportions of helium and trace elements. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 k m/h, significantly faster than those on Jupiter. Saturn has a planetary magnetic field intermediate in strength between that of Earth and the more powerful field around Jupiter. Sixty-one known satellite orbit the planet, not counting hundreds of "moonlets" within the rings. Titan, Saturn's largest and the Solar System's second largest moon (after Jupiter's Ganymede), is larger than the planet Mercury and is the only moon in the Solar System to possess an atmosphere. Saturn is probably best known for its system of planetary rings, which makes it the most visually remarkable object in the solar system. They extend from 6,630 km to 120,700 km above Saturn's equator, average approximately 20 meters in thickness, and are composed of 93 % water ice, and 7 % amorphous carbon. There are two main theories regarding the origin of Saturn's rings. One theory is that the rings are remnants of a destroyed moon of Saturn. The
second theory is that the rings are left over from the original nebular material from which Saturn formed.
Uranus, the Giant Ice
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun, and the third-largest and fourth most massive planet in the Solar System. It is named after the ancient Greek deity of the sky Uranus (Ancient Greek: Οὐρανός) the father of Cronus (Saturn) and grandfather of Zeus (Jupiter). Though it is visible to the naked eye like the five classical planets, it was never recognized as a planet by ancient observers because of its dimness and slow orbit. Sir William Herschel announced its discovery on March 13, 1781, expanding the known boundaries of the Solar System for the first time in modern history. Uranus was also the first planet discovered with a telescope. Uranus is similar in composition to Neptune, and both have different compositions from those of the larger gas giants Jupiter and Saturn. Uranus's atmosphere, while similar to Jupiter and Saturn's in its primary composition of hydrogen and helium, contains more "ices" such as water, ammonia and methane, along with traces of hydrocarbons. It is the coldest planetary atmosphere in the Solar System, with a minimum temperature of 49 K (–224 °C). In contrast the interior of Uranus is mainly composed of ices and rock. Like the other giant planets, Uranus has a ring system, a magnetosphere, and numerous moons. The Uranian system has a unique configuration among the planets because its axis of rotation is tilted sideways, nearly into the plane of its revolution about the Sun. As such, its north and south poles lie where most other planets have their equators. Seen from Earth, Uranus's rings can sometimes
appear to circle the planet like an archery target and its moons revolve around it like the hands of a clock, though in 2007 and 2008 the rings appeared edge-on. Unit 4.8
The Sea God Neptune
Neptune is the eighth planet from the Sun in our Solar System. Named for the Roman god of the sea, it is the fourth-largest planet by diameter and the third-largest by mass. Neptune is 17 times the mass of Earth and is slightly more massive than its near-twin Uranus, which is 15 Earth masses and not as dense. Discovered on September 23, 1846, Neptune was the first planet found by mathematical prediction rather than by empirical observation. Neptune was subsequently observed by Johann Galle within a degree of the position predicted by Urbain Le Verrier, and its largest moon, Triton, was discovered shortly thereafter, though none of the planet's remaining 12 moons were located telescopically until the 20th century. Neptune has been visited by only one spacecraft, Voyager 2, which flew by the planet on August 25, 1989. In contrast to the relatively featureless atmosphere of Uranus, Neptune's atmosphere is notable for its active and visible weather patterns. At the time of the 1989 Voyager 2 flyby, for example, the planet's southern hemisphere possessed a Great Dark Spot comparable to the Great Red Spot on Jupiter. These weather patterns are driven by the strongest sustained winds of any planet in the Solar System, with recorded wind speeds as high as 2,100 km/h. Because of its great distance from the Sun, Neptune's outer atmosphere is one of the coldest places in the Solar System, with temperatures at its cloud tops approaching −218 °C (55 K). Temperatures at the planet's centre, however, are approximately 5,400 K (5,000 °C). Neptune has a faint and fragmented ring system,
which may have been detected during the 1960s but was only indisputably confirmed in 1989 by Voyager 2.
Asteroids, sometimes called minor planets or planetoids, are small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun, especially in the inner Solar System; they are smaller than planets but larger than meteoroids. The term "asteroid" has historically been applied primarily to minor planets of the inner Solar System, as the outer Solar System was poorly known when it came into common usage. The distinction between asteroids and comets is made on visual appearance. Comets show a perceptible coma while asteroids do not. The first asteroid discovered was Ceres, discovered in 1801 by
Giuseppe Piazzi. At that time, referred to as a
planetoid asteroid already as many as hundreds of thousands of asteroids in our solar system found, and now this new discovery with an average of 500 every month.
Comets are small, frozen mass of dust and gas revolving around the sun in a parabolic or elliptical orbit. Comet tails always moving away from sunlight, because the force of solar radiation. When comet approached the sun, its surface becomes vaporized by the heat. This evaporation causes a bright light. Big ball of gas and dust appear around the nucleus. Ball of gas and dust are called “Coma”. Comet in the sky a long tail similar to incandescent light or
long hair female. Therefore, comet tail was often
called the star or star-haired long. The brightest comet ever observed the Comet Halley, with the appearance of 76-year period. Comet parts are:
nucleus, coma, a cloud of hydrogen, and tail.
Meteoroid are a solid objects moving in interplanetary space, of a size considerably smaller than an asteroid and larger than an atom. When entering the atmosphere of a planet, meteoroids will be heated and will be partially or completely evaporated. Gases along the path will be ionized and glow. Impressions of luminous gas is called a meteor, or shooting star. If some of these meteoroids reach the ground, it will be called a meteorite.
Satellites as Accompanist Planet
A natural satellite or moon is a celestial body that orbits a planet or smaller body, which is called the primary. Technically, the term natural satellite could refer to a planet orbiting a star, or a dwarf galaxy orbiting a major galaxy, but it is normally synonymous with moon and used to identify nonartificial satellites of planets, dwarf planets, and minor planets.
Artificial satellites are object constructed by humans and placed in orbit around the earth or other celestial body (see also space probe). The satellite is lifted from the earth's surface by a rocket and, once placed in orbit, maintains its motion without further rocket propulsion. The first artificial satellite, Sputnik I, was launched on Oct. 4, 1957, by the USSR; a test payload of a radio beacon and a thermometer demonstrated the feasibility of orbiting a satellite. Indonesia since 1976 has become a State which has a satellite as a means of telecommunications. At that time Indonesia was the
third country in the world who use its domestic satellite communications system, after the USA and Canada.
Moon as a Satellite Earth
The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite and the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System. The average centre-to-centre distance from the Earth to the Moon is 384,403 kilometers (238,857 mi), about thirty times the diameter of the Earth. The common centre of mass of the system (the barycentre) is located at about 1,700 kilometers (1,100 mi)—a quarter the Earth's radius— beneath the surface of the Earth. The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth every 27.3 days (the orbital period). The Moon's diameter is 3,474 kilometers
(2,159 mi), a little more than a quarter of Earth's. Thus, the Moon's surface area is less than a tenth of the Earth (about a quarter of Earth's land area), and its volume is about 2 percent that of Earth. The pull of gravity at its surface is about 17 percent of that at the Earth's surface. The Moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth with respect to the fixed stars about once every 27.3 days (its sidereal period). However, since the Earth is moving in its orbit about the Sun at the same time, it takes slightly longer for the Moon to show the same phase to Earth, which is about 29.5 days (its synodic period). Unlike most satellites of other planets, the Moon orbits near the ecliptic and not the Earth's equatorial plane.
The relative sizes and separation of the Earth–Moon system, to scale. The yellow line travels from the Earth to the Moon in the same time that an actual beam of light would take to reach the Moon from the Earth: 1.255 seconds at the mean orbital distance. UNIT 7
Beside revolving the sun, earth also turns around on its axis. The rotary motion or earth around its axis is called earth’s rotation. It takes 24 hours to complete one rotation or 360° of longitude. It means that 1° of longitude is reached in 4 minutes. The effects of the earth’s rotation are: - The sun and the other celestial objects appear to move from the east to the west. - There will be a time difference between the places with different longitude. - Changes between night and day. - A bulge around the equator and an oblate around the poles.
The earth’s revolution is the movement of earth around the sun. when the earth revolves, the earth axis is not perpendicular to the planet of the ecliptic, but it has an axis
tilt 66.5°. The orbital period of the earth is 365¼ days or one solar year. The earth has four different positions on its orbit:
On March 21st On March 21 , the sun is located exactly at the equator. So, from March 21 to June 21 , the northern hemisphere will be spring, and the southern hemisphere will be autumn
B. On June 21 On June 21, the northern hemisphere is more exposed by the rays of the sun, which is apparently located at 23.5 ° N latitude. So from June 21 to September 23, the southern hemisphere is in the winter, meanwhile the northern hemisphere is in summer. C. On September 23 On September 23, both the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere are far from the sun, which is apparently located at the equator. So, from 23 to December 21, the northern hemisphere is autumn, meanwhile the southern hemisphere is in spring. D. On December 21 On December 21, the sun is apparently located at 23.5° S latitude. So, from December 21 to March 21, the southern hemisphere is in summer. On the contrary, the northern hemisphere is in winter. From the explanation above, we can see that the sun seems to move from equator to the 23.5° N latitude, go back to the equator, move again to 23.5° S latitude and go back to the equator. The displacement is called the apparent motion of the sun.
The effects of the earth’s revolution are: Changes in season. Changes in the length of daytime. The apparent motion of the sun The appearance of different constellations every month.
Eclipse is caused by the shadow of the earth or the moon when they are in a straight line. The shadow is divided into two regions, are: - the main shadow or the umbra the umbra forms a cone -shaped region of shadow from the earth or the moon. The moons umbra has a length about 370,000 km, meanwhile the earth’s umbra has a length about 1,376,000 km. - the outer shadow or the penumbra ♦ lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs when the moon enters the shadow of the earth. The earth positioned between the sun and the moon. As the consequence, the sunlight is blocked by earth, but the moon is not completely dark. A total lunar eclipse occurs when the moon pass through the earth umbra; a partial lunar eclipse occurs when the moon partially crosses the earth’s umbra; and penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the moon enters the earth’s penumbra.
A solar occurs when the moon’s shadow crosses the earth’s surface. The moon is located between the earth and the sun. when the earth’s umbra crosses an area on the earth’s surface, a total solar eclipse will occur on the area (about 6 minute). The solar eclipse takes place at daytime. A partial solar eclipse occurs when the moon’s penumbra crosses an area on the earth’s surface which is partially blocked the sunlight on that area.
♦ Ocean tide The high tide is the rise of the sea water level meanwhile the ebb tide is the reduction of the sea water level. The earth is effected by the gravitational force of the moon, and the water is more effected by moon’s gravity that the land. As a result, the areas which are in a straight line with the moon’s gravity undergo a high tide. Due the earth rotation, he ocean tide in an area is altered every six hours. Thus, a place will experience a spring tide and neap tide twice a day. a. the spring tide the spring tide occurs around the full moon and new moon, when the sun, the earth, and the moon are in a straight line. Because the earth’s gravity and the moon’s gravity work an opposite direction, then its result ocean tide. When the sun’s gravity and the moon’s attract the earth in one direction, there will be a maximum tide range.
b. the neap tide the neap tide is the minimum tide range which occurs in the first or third quarter of the moon, when the sun’s gravity and the moon’s gravity are perpendicular.
Did You Know?
Copernicus crater on the Moon.
This figure shows the beam pattern of dust thrown from the crater of one billion years ago, when an asteroid the size of the diameter of more than one mile (1.6 km) crashed into the moon.
Mars Approached Earth
This picture was taken in the minutes march toward Earth at closest position in 60,000 years on August 27 2003. In this picture, this red planet is 34,647,420 miles (55,757,930 kilometers) from Earth.
Jupiter’s Giant Red Spot
Giant red spots is a huge storm system in Jupiter. He was spinning like a cyclone, with a speed of 430 km / hour. This storm, which is twice the size of Earth, the first time
astronomers have witnessed during the 17th century telescope directs them to the planet. More than 300 years later, he was still in progress.
When Saturn travels around the sun 29 years, its slope allows us to view it from different viewpoints. Saturn also gives the slope of the seasons. Picture bottom left shows the fall season in the south and the top image shows the winter.
Uranus’s Sparkle Clouds
Color difference in this picture shows the altitude. Green and blue areas indicate where the atmosphere is bright, allowing sunlight through deep into Uranus. Yellow areas and grey, an area where fog or clouds reflect the sun. Red and orange colors indicate very high clouds, like a cloud Cirrus on earth.
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