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Unit operation report
Group (1( 3/30/2011
Faculty of Engineering Chemical Engineering Department Cairo University Rotary Drum Vacuum Filter Unit operation report Submitted to: Dr/ Ahmed Sherief By: Group Hussein Taha name Ebthal Hamed Ebthal Mohamed Ibrahim Nasser Ahmed Ibrahim Ahmed Ashraf iu Ahmed Gaber Ahmed Khalid Ahmed zakria Ahmed Safi Sec 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Bn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9 10 Date: 30/3/2011 I .
Table of content Title Abstract 1.1Drum deck 3.2 Agitator 3.4.3 cloth belt discharge 3.1 knife discharge 3.4. Manufacturers 7. Design equations 4. Mechanical parts 3.4.2 Drum operation 2.1.1Duty of the bridges 3. Principal and theory of operation 2.4.1 General theory 2.3.2string discharge 3.1Drum 3. Cost 6.3 Filter valve 3.1required area of drum 4.3 design of air suction rate by vacuum pump 5. Summary References 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 II .2power required 4.4 roll discharge Page III 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 6 7 7 4.1.2 Drum speed variation 3. Introduction 2.4 Discharge system 3.3 Handling of cake 3.
we will talk about its theory of work. cost and how to calculate it and its famous manufacturers Rotary drum vacuum filter is a solid liquid filtration equipment depending on using vacuum to suck liquid a cross a filter medium and filtrate it from solids then removing the solids (cake) The importance of this equipment that it has various applications in the industrial field The advantage of this equipment that it is relatively small space. low cost and easy to be maintained III . principle.Abstract This report is concerned about the rotary drum vacuum filter. design equations. mechanical parts.
Principal and theory of operation 2. The main advantage of this equipment is its relatively small space. the cake rises above the slurry level in the filter tank and air is drawn through the cake. This pressure differential cause's transport of liquid through the filtration surface while the filter medium arrests solid particles and a cake is formed. As the drum rotates. A pressure differential between the surface and inside of the drum (or disc) is applied by means of vacuum.1 Drum operation 1 . Fig2. forcing out liquid. it has various applications in the industrial field. *Cake removal zone is operated under high pressure.1 General theory All Rotary Vacuum Filters operate on a similar principle.2 drum operation The drum is commonly divided into three zones: *Cake building zone is operated under vacuum pressure. low cost and easy to be maintained 2.1. Introduction Rotary drum vacuum filter is a very important tool for solid-liquid separation. *De-watering zone is operated under vacuum pressure. The liquid (filtrate) exits the filter through the internal piping and the vacuum head 2.
consistency and structure. The wash liquid is fed onto the cake either directly by means of wash devices such as weirs or spray nozzles.The control head divides the filter drum into the different sections for filtration. The filtrate from the wash zone can be drained off separately from the mother filtrate. 3. and following its emergence is washed (to remove impurities or to extract more product).3 Handling of cake The filtered solid layer emerges from the suspension as the drum rotates. which covers the entire drum and which is specially suited to the cake thickness. suction drying and cake discharge.1 RDVF detailed figure 2 . 2. The filtrate (clarified liquid) runs off through the separator receiver and is discharged by pumping. suction-dried and discharged from the filter cloth. washing. so that in the course of one revolution each point of the drum area passes through these zones in succession. The filter cake is discharged by means of a discharge device of some kind. Mechanical parts Fig 3. or of a wash belt lying on top of the cake.
or no agitator.1 Drum A multi-compartment drum type vacuum filter consists of a drum rotating about a horizontal axis.2 Agitator Some units contain an oscillating rake agitator (slowly moving agitator) in the trough to aid solids suspension in the slurry reservoir. although submergence can be set for any desired amount between zero and almost total.1.Rotary drum vacuum filter consist of: 3. connected through piping to the drum centre and out through a central outlet valve at one end of the drum. 3. Others use propellers.1 to 10 rpm. The drum surface is covered with a cloth filter medium which retains the cake and the filtration takes place as each section is submerged in the feed slurry. Variable-speed drives are usually provided to allow adjustment for changing cake-formation and drainage rates 3.2 Drum speed variation Most drum filters operate at a rotation speed in the range of 0. 3 . without disturbing the cake formation. arranged so that the drum is partially submerged in the trough into which the material to be filtered is fed (slurry). Each section is an individual vacuum chamber. paddles.1 Drum deck: The perphorated surface of the drum is divided into a number of longitudinal sections of about 20 mm in thickness.1. 3. Most drum filters are fed by operating the drum with about 35 percent of its circumference submerged in a slurry trough.
to a point that it is cut-off and blow takes place to assist in discharging the cake.3 filter valve Fig3.3. Adjustable bridge blocks enable the optimization of form to dry ratio within the filtration cycle as well as the "effective submergence" of the drum when the slurry level in the tank is at the maximum. When a sector enters submergence vacuum commences and continues through washing. if required. Internal piping manifolds connect the valve with various sections of the drum. 4 .2 Component arrangement of a continuous filter All drum filters (except the single-compartment filter) utilize a rotary-valve arrangement in the drum-axis support trunnion to facilitate removal of filtrate and wash liquid and to allow introduction of air or gas for cake blowback if needed. A typical valve design is shown below. A valve with a bridge setting controls the sequence of the cycle so that each sector is subjected to vacuum. The valve has on certain filters adjustable blocks and on others a fixed bridge ring. blow and a dead zone. The valve controls the relative duration of each cycle as well as providing “dead” portions of the cycle through the use of bridge blocks.
2.Dead Zone Bridge: This Bridge opens to vacuum once a compartment submerges. Once the cake starts to emerge from the tank the valve is gradually opened and fully opened when the entire drum face is wrapped with the cake. It is to be noted that in some applications.3. 3.Vacuum and blow zones separating bridge: This Bridge cuts off the vacuum so it is slightly wider than the internal pipe port. compression rolls or belts are used to close possibly cracks in the cake before washing or to further dewater the cake by mechanical compression. Since in continuous operation both lower and upper zones are under vacuum this bridge is slightly narrower than the internal pipe port so that the vacuum is continuous and the cake is held onto the drum.Start-up assist bridge. : At start-up the upper vacuum zone is open to atmosphere and a cake may be formed only when closing the valve that controls this zone.1 Duty of the bridges Fig3.3. 5 .3 Duty of valve bridge 1.
3. n order not to damage the filter cloth.1 Knife discharge Fig3.4. It is normally used for granular materials with cake thickness greater than about 6mm. 3.4 Discharge system 3.2 String discharge Fig3.4. then there might be danger of its blocking by fine particles and by successive consolidation by the scrapper blade.4 Knife discharge Consists of a blade that removes the cake from the drum by direct contact with the filter cake. a safety distance of 1 to 3 mm between the blade and the cloth must be observed.5 String discharge 6 . If the residual layer is made not of filter aid but of the product.
chains or coil springs have also been used) tied completely around the filter at a pitch of 1 to 2 cm. they lift the filter cake from the medium and discharge it at the discharge roll. This type of discharge is recommended for gelatinous or cohesive cakes.As the strings leave the drum before the discharge point. passing over the discharge and return rolls . the advantage here is the ease of washing both sides of the cloth before the cloth returns to the drum.4. 3.4 Roll discharge Fig3.Uses a number of parallel strings (wire.3 Cloth belt discharge Fig3.4. The disadvantage is in the need for an additional control device for the guidance of the cloth. 3.6 Belt discharge Is based on taking the cloth endless belt off the drum in the same way as with the string discharge.7 Roll discharge 7 .
( K: ratio of specific heat of gas at constant pressure to specific heat of gas at constant volume. / : : Time of filtration. Design equations For continuous flow.1 Required Area of drum: Time of filtration: = .F: time factor.5 to 3mm.hp= : cubic feet of gas per minute at intake conditions . neglect resistance of filter medium 4. which cannot be handled effectively by either of the previously described designs. The cake is usually removed from the roll by a knife. The cake thickness is small here from 0. sec viscosity of slurry.seccake resistance 4. is designed to be greater to the roll than to the drum.Use a roll. by giving the roll a rough surface or because of the presence of residual cake on the roll. pa. The cake is transferred from the drum to the discharge roll by adhesion which. 4. pa.4) .Q: volumetric flow rate. which rotates at a slightly greater peripheral speed than the cake and is in contact with the cake.V: volume of filtrate. : theoretical horse power. Incompressible cake with (constant pressure drop). sec. and F= (0. -Actual horse power 8 . . This type of discharge is designed to discharge tacky cakes.2 Power required: – 1) : specific . : concentration of solids in slurry.3-0.
and discharge trough. lb/hr ft lb dry-cake solids/ : fraction of total : the fraction of this area immersed in the slurry filtrate . drive motor base plate. suction valve.3 Design of air suction rate by vacuum pump: : Viscosity of air at temperature and pressure surroundings. 5. 0.: the specific air-suction cake resistance. feed box with inlet and drain nozzles. 20% consistency (percent of solids in feed stream) Design Basis: 1st Quarter 1998 Dollars-Material: A285C (Low and intermediate strength carbon steel plates for pressure vessels. lb/hr ft surface available for air suction. driver consisting of rotor. multi compartment cylinder shell with internal filtrate piping with polypropylene filter cloth. worm.5 tons per day/ square feet solids handling rate. two pillow block bearing with supports Defaults for Drum Filter Medium filtration rate.) Cost 2009= cost from figures* = cost of figures* 9 .4. Cost Drum Filter is a vacuum type. gear reducer and .
com Aaron Komline-Sanderson Engineering Corporation Abhishek filtertechnik Peterson filters www.petersonfilters.com 11 .scmp.net.1 Cost vs.com www.com www.abhishekfilter.Fig5.aaronequipment.India Salt Lake City. area chart 6.komline.USA Mumbai.USA Web-site www. Manufacturers Company name Shanghai chemical machinery plant City-country Shanghai-china Chicago-Chicago New jersey.cn www.
check references below. Report discussed RDVF briefly to more details . rotary drum vacuum filter is fundamental support in any industrial scale .as previously shown its simple principals. 11 .Summary Finally this report discussed one of most important filters in industry. design equations and famous manufacturers. components. work theory.
solidliquid-separation. 2009.Peters and Klaus D. lecture 4.References 1-http://www.Timmerhaus plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. 7-Dr. unit operation course.J M. Robert h.http://www. 5th edition. Coulson & Richardson's Chemical Engineering.komline. 4. Perry.htm 2-Ladislav Svarosky. fourth edition. 2002. RICHARDSON. 2000 3. COULSON & J. green.com/docs/rotary_drum_vacuum_filter. McGraw-Hill. Perry's chemical Engineers' Handbook.html 5.Don w. Ahmed Sherif. Eighth Edition. fifth edition. solid liquid separation. F. 3rd year chemical engineering department 12 . 6-Max S.com/VacuumFilters/Drum/drum.2003.
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