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Published by: Sadiki Onga on Apr 02, 2011
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Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters
An Introductory Course By Professor A G Constantinides MSc, EE4, ISE4, PhD

Professor A G Constantinides©



Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters
Contents 1-Introduction
1) Introduction to Digital Signal Processing 

Review of background DSP Review of mathematical methods Review of discrete-time random processes and linear systems

Professor A G Constantinides©


AGC DSP Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters 2) Multirate techniques and wavelets  Introduction to short-time Fourier analysis  Filter-banks and overlap-add methods of analysis and synthesis  Introduction to generalised time-frequency representation  Wavelet analysis  Multirate signal processing  Interpolation and decimation  Efficient filter structures for interpolation and decimation Professor A G Constantinides© 3 .

random processes and linear systems  Introduction to statistical estimation and estimators  Biased and unbiased estimators  Einstein/Wiener Khintchine Theorem  Estimation of autocorrelations  Means and variances of periodograms  Smoothed spectral estimates. power spectral density functions. leakage Professor A G Constantinides© 4 .AGC DSP Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters 3) Classical spectrum estimation methods  Power spectrum.

AGC DSP Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters 4) Modern spectrum estimation methods  Introduction to modern spectral estimation: Principles and approaches  Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) and Efficient estimators  The Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) or Autoregressive Power Spectrum Estimation: Principles.  The MEM equations and Levinson/Durbin algorithm Professor A G Constantinides© 5 .

AGC DSP Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters 4) Modern spectrum estimation methods (continued)  Introduction to Linear Prediction  Linear Predictive Coding using covariances and correlations  Cholesky decomposition  Lattice Filters  Linear Prediction of Speech Signals Professor A G Constantinides© 6 .

AGC DSP Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters 5) Adaptive signal processing  Introduction to adaptive signal processing  Objective measures of goodness  Least squares and consequences  Steepest descent  The LMS and RLS algorithms  Kalman Filters Professor A G Constantinides© 7 .

AGC DSP Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters 6) Applications  Communications  Biomedical  Seismic  Audio/Music Professor A G Constantinides© 8 .

 Why Butterworth responses are maximally flat.  When to choose an IIR and when an FIR filter Professor A G Constantinides© 9 .  Why Chebyshev and Elliptic responses are equiripple.AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Digital Filters  In this course you will learn:  How to choose an appropriate filter response.

AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS How do you design FIR and IIR filters from specifications on amplitude performance? What are multirate systems and their properties? What is interpolation / Upsampling and Decimation / Downsampling? How do you design efficient Decimation and Interpolation systems? What are frequency transformations and how do you design these? How accurate is the DFT as a spectrum estimator? Professor A G Constantinides© 10      .

AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS What are short FFT algorithms? How do you choose the required wordlength? What are Fast Convolutions and how are they realised? How do you deal with a DSP problem in practice? Professor A G Constantinides© 11     .

AGC DSP Course content Assumed DSP background DSP Background folder      1-Introduction 2-z transform 3-transfer functions 4-Signal Flow Graphs 5-digital filters intro Professor A G Constantinides© 12 .

AGC DSP Course content 2-Digital Filter Design  1-Digital Filters (FIR)  2-Digital Filters (IIR) 3-Multirate 1-Interpolation_Decimation Professor A G Constantinides© 13 .

AGC DSP Course content 4-Tranforms  1-DFT  2-DFT_one2two  3-general transforms  4-Wavelets 5-Finite Wordlength  1-Finite Wordlength Professor A G Constantinides© 14 .

AGC DSP Course content background in Mathematical Background folder) 1-Fourier transform & DFT 2-FFT-based Power Spectrum Estimation 3-Modern Spectrum Estimation 4-Intro-Estimation 5-Eigen-based methods 6-A Prediction Problem Professor A G Constantinides© 15 6-Spectrum Estimation (Assumed       .

AGC DSP Course content 7-Adaptive Signal Processing  1-Adaptive Signal Processing 8-Applications  1-Applications  2-Applications Professor A G Constantinides© 16 .

AGC DSP Digital Signal Processing & Digital Filters BOOKS  Main Course text books: Digital Signal Processing: A computer Based Approach. Addison Wesley  Other books:  Digital Signal Processing. McGraw Hill  Mathematical Methods and Algorithms for Signal Processing. Addison Wesley  Digital Filters. Antoniou. S K Mitra. Roberts & Mullis. Todd Moon. McGraw Hill Professor A G Constantinides© 17 .

y Batch-to-Batch component variation. y High discrete component count Interconnection failures Professor A G Constantinides© 18 .AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Analogue Vs Digital Signal Processing Reliability: Analogue system performance degrades due to: y Long term drift (ageing) y Short term drift (temperature?) y Sensitivity to voltage instability.

AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Digital Systems: y No short or long term drifts. Professor A G Constantinides© 19 . y Relative immunity to minor power supply variations. y Digital system simulation is realistic. y IC s have > 15 year lifetime y Development costs y System changes at design/development stage only software changes. y Virtually identical components.

AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Power aspects  Size  Dissipation  DSP chips available as well as ASIC/FPGA realisations Professor A G Constantinides© 20 .

AGC DSP Applications Radar systems & Sonar systems y y y y  Doppler filters. Identification Professor A G Constantinides© 21 . Target tracking. Clutter Suppression. Matched filters.

 Spectral Analysis. Professor A G Constantinides© 22 .  Image enhancement.  Image filtering.AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Image Processing  Image data compression.  Scene Analysis / Pattern recognition.

AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Biomedical Signal Analysis  Spatial image enhancement.  3-D reconstruction from projections. (X-rays)  Spectral Analysis.  Digital filtering and Data compression. Professor A G Constantinides© 23 .

Professor A G Constantinides© 24 .  CD and DAT.  Multi-track mixing .  Filtering / Synthesis / Special effects.AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Music  Music recording.

AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Seismic Signal Analysis    Bandpass Filtering for S/N improvement. (Wiener and Kalman. Predictive deconvolution to extract reverberation characteristics. Optimal filtering.) Professor A G Constantinides© 25 .

AGC DSP DIGITAL FILTERS Telecommunications and Consumer Products These are the largest and most pervasive applications of DSP and Digital Filtering  Mobile Communications  Digital Recording  Digital Cameras  Blue Tooth or similar Professor A G Constantinides© 26 .

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