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), oracy skills that include listening and speaking skills had practically been neglected in schools. It is because both of those skills are not tested in the examination. As a result, students’ level of proficiency in both skills is decreasing each year, which makes them prefer to use English in writing mode only.” (Mohd Sofi, 2003, p. 5) From the statement above, it is showed that most of the Malaysian primary school students are facing problems in improving their oracy skills that are listening and speaking skills. This problem needs to be solved by the school authorities namely teachers, and administrative parties, as it will negatively affect students’ English language development. Cross and Angelo (1992, p. 24) highlight one of the negative effects by stating that ‘the imbalance of English language proficiency levels between four main core skills that are listening, speaking, reading, and writing will limit students’ capabilities in using English effectively in the any occasions’. This situation will certainly de-motivate them to use English language in their daily life. As a result, they will never improve on their oracy skills and become a handicapped English language user, who only knows on how to read and write in the language. Based on the concern, I would like to design an English remedial programme that focusing on the implementation of oracy skills, which are listening and speaking skills. In this paper, the programme will be described in details in section A. Additionally, in section B, the principles and approaches of the programme will also be rationalised in depth so that the understanding of the usefulness of this programme in improving the students’ level of proficiency in oracy skills can be obtained. Part A: The programme The background of the programme The idea of designing this programme arises after I had conducted a need analysis towards a group of year 4 students in a school in my hometown, Alor Setar, Kedah. I had this opportunity since I was helping my auntie, who is an English language teacher of the school conducting an English language camp. In doing the need analysis, I had conducted two simple tests, which are for listening and speaking skills to the students. In testing listening skills, I had conducted a simple listening test by using a story entitled ‘Red Socks and Yellow Socks’ by Joy Cowley (See appendix A). First, I instructed them to listen to the story first. Later, they had to complete a task sheet (See appendix B), which tests their understanding to the content of the story. Based on the listening test, I had discovered that some of the students are encountered problems in obtaining information from the text listened, as they are not able to answer at least 3 out of 5 answers correctly. 1
Target of the programme The programme is designed for year 4 students. I had tested the students by doing minimal pairs activity. In the activity. Secondly. I still discovered that some students are not managed to fill the blanks with the appropriate questions and answers for the questions. The students. my English remedial programme for year 4 will be aimed to help the students to achieve those learning objectives. This shows that they are not able to speak clearly by pronouncing words accurately. which makes the conversation sounds weird and incomplete.1 Speak clearly by pronouncing words accurately. 2. who get only 40% and below will be asked to follow this remedial programme in improving their listening and speaking skills. Firstly. In doing the activity. I gave the students ample time for them to think of what questions to put in the blanks and practice the conversation in pairs.Additionally. After I had administered the first test. I also had tested the students by applying a conversation activity that requires them to fill the blanks of a script card of a conversation between two friends (See appendix D) with questions to ask and the answers that respond to the question as well. Goals and objectives of the programme 2 . Speaking 2.2 Ask questions politely to obtain information and clarification. Most of the students are not able to pronounce initial blends and final blends sounds accurately. 2. The learning objectives are: Listening 1. I am informed that the students are not able to achieve four main learning objectives in the curriculum specification for listening and speaking skills of year 4. specific details. students are required to say aloud each of the minimal pairs words (See appendix C).5 Obtain information from the text listened to in relation to main ideas. The targeted students are going to be determined based on their results of the three tests that I had administered to them. However.3 Give relevant information politely in response to enquiries made. I learned that the students are not able to ask questions to seek for information and give the relevant information politely in response to enquiries made as well. who are not able to achieve four main learning objectives for listening and speaking skills mentioned above. I had conducted two simple tests. for the speaking test. Hence. I had found that most of the students are not able to pronounce the words correctly. based on three tests that I had conducted. Therefore. In the activity. and sequences.
1. students should be able to give response to at least 50% of the enquiries made by giving relevant information politely.2. The principles of conducting speaking skills are: 1.5. The programme is going to enable students to confidently grasp some elements of the two skills. 2. and 2. 2. 3. Based on that. which are listening and speaking skills well. The principles are divided into the principles of conducting listening lessons and the principles of conducting speaking lesson. 3. 2.3. The principles of the program In this section.The programme is also guided by some goals and objectives. 2.5. 2. 4. 4. 2. I had outlined several principles for both listening and speaking skills that guide me in maximising the students’ learning experiences. students should be able to pronounce at least 5 words of initial blend and final blend sounds accurately. as the rationale of these principles will be discussed later in part B of this essay. The principles of conducting listening lesson in the programme are: 1. The goals are: 1. At the end of the programme. The programme is going to help students to achieve the four learning objectives of year 4 syllabus for listening and speaking skills. Speaking activities should be supported with appropriate stimulus. 3. which ensure the effectiveness of it in assisting the students to improve and develop their oracy skills. which are 1. 3 . The objectives of this programme are: 1. At the end of the programme.2. At the end of the programme. Listening activities should be in a top-down process Listening should be an active process. Teacher should provide the students with adequate preparation in the practice stage before the students enter the production stage. The programme is going to provide the students with an adequate amount of preparation and practice in assisting them to obtain the learning objective easier. The programme is going to provide the students with the positive learning environment that is full of fun and enjoyment. students should be able to ask at least 4 appropriate questions in obtaining some information and clarification. Teaching speaking should be free from anxiety. students should be able to answer at least 50 % of the comprehension questions of a listening text. I will just mention the core principles that guide the process of the remedial programme. At the end of the programme.
In group discussion. I had selected three learning approaches that are suitable for the learners. All of the approaches are hoped to help the students to achieve the learning objectives easily. and communicative approach. which are audio lingual method. Igneri (2006. The exercises used in the programme All of the exercises in this programme are in line with all of the learning approaches that are planned to be implemented in the programme. Chamot (1995) agrees if the students’ learning processes are guided by useful and practical learning approaches.5. as the elements of those learning approaches are going to help the students to accelerate their language ability. Based on this. Therefore. Communicative Approach Learning Learning a task sheet Audio lingual Method Main Exercises Learning approaches based on the announcement the Post: 4 . or total physical response. All these three approaches will be implemented interchangeably throughout the programme in helping the students to obtain the learning outcomes of the programme. total physical response. I had planned to apply various learning approaches that are suitable for the students and meeting the students’ needs. p.1 simple announcement and understand message Listen to – Completing listened. Communicative Approach – Peer correcting.5) claims ‘it is importance to apply the most suitable approaches in learning.Approaches of conducting the programme In conducting the remedial programme. The correlation of exercises and learning approaches are very important. This is because all of the exercises apply the concept of audio lingual. it would be easier to develop their knowledge and skills in the targeted language. in administering this programme. I had planned to do exercises that are based on all learning approaches that are going to be implemented in this programme. The list of exercises is shown in the table below: *in order to gain clearer insight of the exercise table please refer to programme scheme of work in appendix F) Lesson Skills 1 Listening skills: While: – 1. as it is a medium for the students to obtain the targeted skills and learning outcomes. or communicative learning approach.
While: – Answering 5 questions that based on details of the story listened. the words Audio-lingual method 2. completing a task Communicative sheet that requires them to Approach decide the demand of the questions. Audio-lingual method 3 Speaking: While: – Pronouncing individually.1 Speak clearly by pronouncing words accurately. – Making decision whether their friends pronunciation are correct or not by standing up.2 simple recall Listen text details to and by – In group.2 Ask questions 5 . Total Physical Response 4 Speaking: 1 segment: Asking questions 2.2 Listening skills: Pre: 1.5. Total Physical Response Post: – Showing understanding via TPR: moving to the station. details main point or Learning answering simple ‘Wh’ questions.
3 Give relevant information politely in response to enquiries made. – Practice the conversation in achieving fluency. with confidence.politely to obtain While: information clarification. and – Students construct ‘Wh’ Communicative Learning questions in pair conversation Approach with guidance. Communicative Approach Learning Learning Learning Learning seek information. Communicative Approach – Presenting the conversation. 6 . Communicative Approach Post: – Perform the conversation Communicative Approach 2 segment: Give relevant information Learning Learning 2. While: – Constructing questions to Communicative Approach – Constructing answers in Communicative Approach Post: – Practice the conversation. giving relevant information.
which resembles the real minimal pairs that will be tested on them first. which are one for listening and another two for speaking. Firstly. Moreover.5 Obtain information from the text listened to in relation to main ideas.Students’ Assessment In determining the students’ achievement in this programme. I had decided to implement a listening test that requires the students to firstly listen to a conversation between two friends (see the transcription text of the conversation in appendix G) and then answering a task sheet (see appendix H) while they are listening to the conversation for the third time. I will look at three major things. I will look whether the students manage to put the auxiliary verb (helping verb) after the ‘Wh’ word. specific details. In doing this test. By implementing this test. the students will be assessed by following two main criteria. which are the accuracy of questions and answers form and the fluency of the conversation delivery. On the other hand. I had planned to assess the students on their confidence level and clarity while they are delivering the conversation. The task sheet needs the students to tick the correct answer for each comprehension question. One student will be students A and another will be student B. Secondly. in testing the speaking skills. Finally. it helps me to discover students’ levels of attainment of the learning outcome: 1. Additionally. I will give the students a minimal pairs’ card (see appendix I). I will observe the coherence of the students’ questions. whereas in round two student B will ask student A questions. in determining the students’ fluency in delivery the conversation. In checking the accuracy of ‘Wh’ questions form. The first test is a pronunciation test. in assessing the students’ answers to the questions. It is because it will enable the students to practice on their pronunciation before the test. All of these tests will be conducted in two different days (refer to the scheme of programme). The second speaking test is a conversation test. I had planned to implement 3 tests. which requires the students to complete a card of script (see appendix J) with appropriate questions and answers. In the test. 7 . This helps the students to gain confidence later that will lead them to be able to pronounce the minimal pair words correctly. For listening. I will check whether the students are able to put the ‘Wh’ words into the questions appropriately. There are 6 comprehension questions in the task sheet and the questions will check whether students are able to understand the main and supporting points of the text listened. In administering the test. I had planned to apply two speaking tests. The test needs the students to pronounce the minimal pairs of initial and final blends words individually to the teacher. and sequences. I will check the appropriateness of the answers in relation to the questions asked. Student A will start the round one by asking student B questions. students will be divided into pairs. The card will be given to the student approximately five minutes before their names will be called.
The students just need to tick in the column of the faces to indicate their opinions towards the implementation of the programme.2 Ask questions politely to obtain information and clarification. The questionnaire will be presented in a simple form. In applying the top-down process of listening. This relation is definitely helping the students to understand the listening text better. but also capable to obtain the main ideas and supporting details of the text. Nesamalar. By applying this.3 Give relevant information politely in response to enquiries made. 2. The first principle is listening activities should be in a top-down process. teacher and pupil interaction. students will be exposed to a listening text that requires them to recall on their previous knowledge. I will also administer a questionnaire to the students (see appendix L). I had planned to implement two main principles in the listening activities of this programme. it will help me to discover the students’ achievement of the learning outcomes: 2. Programme Evaluation In evaluating this programme. Morley (2001) explains it is beneficial for the students to involve in this process. In listening part of the programme. 8 . Saratha. as there is a support. The rationale of selecting this process is due to the factor that it is very helpful in enabling the students to understand the listening text easily.1 Speak clearly by pronouncing words accurately. they will not only manage to comprehend the text well. Apart from that. it would be easier for me to gage students’ level of interest and benefit that they gained throughout the programme. Part B: rationales of principles and approaches Rationales on principles In this part of essay. pupil response. As a result. and pupil participation in teaching and learning activities. which is the previous knowledge that will allow them to construct the meaning of the listening text.By applying these two tests. and Teh (2005) claim the process will enable the students to use their previously learned knowledge to predict the kind of information that they are going to listen. The analysis of these elements will enable me to discover the effectiveness of my programme in improving the students’ oracy skills. The observation checklist is aimed to help me to analyse the elements of my teaching and learning process namely teacher questioning technique. I had constructed an observation checklist (see appendix K) that will be given to another teacher. The objective of administering the questionnaire is to see whether students enjoy and gain benefit from the programme or not. in which smiley faces will be used. as it will help them to relate on what they are about to listen with what they are already know. I will rationalise every principle that I choose to guide the implementation of my remedial English programme. 2.
if the students follow the guide of pictures when they are talking. Apart from that. A research conducted by Department of Psychology of Wichita University of Kansas (2002) proved that an active listening approach is very efficient in helping learners to comprehend the text listened. the principle is also helpful in making the programme more fun and enjoyable. as the process of it exposes and teaches them with the essential skills to unpack a listening text effectively. I also want to integrate the principle of providing appropriate stimuli to elicit speech among students. On the other hand. students will be involved in an active process of listening that contains the activities of constructing meaning of the listening text actively namely identifying main points and supporting details. as it can be an indicator to check whether the students are really knowing their speech or not. Besides. The example of this is if the picture portrays two boys running. The rationale of me choosing this principle is because I realised that students especially children are indeed needed stimuli as supports for them to trigger their ability to speak. If the teachers are not able to take appropriate action in overcoming the situation. By applying this principle. The stimuli that I want to use in the programme are mainly pictures. Firstly. and Dawes (2006) explain when the students are free from any kinds of stress and depression in a language learning. as the language is not familiar to them. teacher will be able to provide assistance and help to 9 . This definitely helps the learners to be able to highlight the main and supporting points. and notes. as it is very helpful in generating and guiding their ideas towards the topic of speech. which will assist them to build a solid understanding of the text. it would be easier for them to enjoy the activities. in enhancing speaking skills. This will lead students to enjoy the programme and improve on their speaking skills at the same time. If they are talking about other things namely three boys running or two girls running. It is because according to Kayi (2006) students are often anxious and nervous when they are instructed to speak in a foreign language. It happens when the students feel more secure and less anxious to get involved in the activities. 1989). which may slowing the students’ English language development. When this happens. Grugeon. the students should talk about two boys running. the stimulus is also beneficial for teacher. The reason beneath of the implementation of this principle is active listening is an effective way to build a solid understanding of a text listened. which can illustrate the content of the speech effectively (Wright. I also had planned to apply three basic principles. Smith. Smiljanic and Bradlow (2009) supported that with the existence of stimuli especially pictures students will be able to talk more in an accurate way. This will certainly make the students’ motivation of learning the speaking skills decreasing. they are on a wrong track. they will be able to talk more with full of ideas in an appropriate way. students’ interest towards speaking activities will be negatively affected. Hubbard. and guessing the meaning of the unfamiliar words. Secondly. Therefore.The second principle that I want to apply in the listening activities of the programme is listening should be an active process. It is because picture stimulus is a tool. distinguishing facts from the opinions. I want to incorporate the principle of reducing anxiety from the students towards speaking activities by structuring the activities from the easy to more difficult.
facilitate them to talk on a right track again. By applying this principle. the amount of exposure of the language to the students will be increased. and Teh (2005) support this by noting that different purposes of speaking namely transmitting information. As according to Yukari (2006) an adequate amount of exposure to the target language in the classroom will assist students to acquire the language better. The reason why do I want to implement these audio visual aids is because audio visual aids are very effective in grabbing the students’ interest towards the subject and topic learned. This situation will assist to lead the students’ to learn the language better and effectively. Finally. students cannot generalise approaches. I believed that the students will be able to come out with a very good speech that enables them to achieve the learning outcomes and improve their speaking skills for the betterment of the language development. Thus. I already came out with a checklist (See Appendix L) for the students that will remind them on things that they need to do in the preparation or practice phase. I had planned to employ this approach in some of the learning activities. Rationale for approaches In this part of section B. especially a foreign or second language. It is because children are easily get attracted with the colourful moving objects. By doing this. I will conduct the learning activities by using audio visual aids in order to instil a new form of a language habit. Apart from preparing the students for the production phase. I want to implement the principle of providing an adequate preparation for the students before the production stage. and pictures cards. and exchanging greeting require different approaches. Garcia (2008) supports this by claiming that students will be able to open up their minds. if the instructions are only given in target language. Saratha. procedures. I will also rationalise each approach that I choose to be applied in the activities of this remedial programme. and formats of other speaking tasks to another speaking task. I will apply it in my teaching instruction. Firstly. Sword (2000) explains 10 . As a result. but also assisting teacher to provide an adequate support and guidance to the students. Nesamalar. Firstly. I am going to apply this approach in two ways. it will permit students to do a sufficient amount of practice that will help them to complete the speaking task successfully. In doing this. which helps them to maintain a good perception to the language. The audio visual aids that I am going to use in the programme are mostly video. In doing this. as they are already familiar to the language. still pictures. As a result. it opens the students’ mind to accept the language. asking for information. which in this context the accurate way of listening and speaking of English. they are indeed required a reminder guideline and ample time to prepare themselves to obtain a good product of speech in the production stage. whenever they feel familiar and get used to a certain language. this principle is planned to be implemented due to the facts that oral lesson often involve complicated procedures. It is very useful in not only helping the students to learn. I am going to implement the audio lingual method. procedures. recorded conversation. where the instruction will be given to the students in the target language. and formats. Secondly. The rationale behind this is.
children will be able to imagine and play. students will be involved to do a project that requires them to find information of their friend personal information like hobby. This will certainly give me an opportunity to provide assistance to the students in achieving the learning objectives by correcting their mistakes and amending their misconception towards the contents of the lesson. my programme will be more useful to the students in helping them to improve on their listening and speaking skills. while they are learning. as they learn significantly more if they are allowed to move from one place to another. In doing this. Secondly. and the interview session of a Malaysian public figure or super star that can be found in ‘Youtube’ website. as it fulfils their needs of moving around while they are learning. and favourite stuff. I will involve the students with real communication activity. In addition. The final important learning approach that I want to integrate in my programme is communicative approach. Another learning approach that I want to apply in this programme is Total physical response (TPR). This will definitely enable the students to do many interactive activities with 11 . I will use the authentic materials in guiding the students to complete the activity successfully such as the real conversation between two people.children like pictures and moving objects. students need to go to either correct or incorrect station to indicate their level of understanding towards the pronunciation. It is obvious that if they are not fully understand the contents of my teaching. For instance. in which students are going to get engaged in activities that require them to show their level of understanding by moving some of their body parts or acting it out. via the implementation of pictures. By implementing this. it is important to engage the students with movement in the learning process in order to enable them to learn the language better. they will conduct a different movement or acting that contradict to what I am expected of them. I want to apply TPR due to the fact that it is also useful in enabling me to check on students’ level of understanding towards my teaching. By doing this. in practising asking questions to seek for information and clarification. it would be easier to get the students’ attention and interest towards the topic learned. since it satisfy their needs of imagination and play. Therefore. A research done by American Psychological Association (2006) proved that children are always involved in many imagination mental activities that lead their ability to play in everyday life. There are two rationales of why do I want to incorporate TPR in this programme. TPR is a suitable learning approach for primary school students. I am intended to incorporate this approach in some of the learning activities. Hence. ambition. 17) supported this by claiming that ‘it is very beneficial to allow students to move around while they are learning. Shalaway and Beech (1999. For instance. p. as they will learn best in that way’. that will later facilitate their learning to be useful and beneficial for them. which based on the real life situation. Firstly. in activity of ‘which is the correct pronunciation’ that will be conducted on Wednesday of week 2. a research done by European Education and Training Division (2008) proved that students at the young age need extensive mobility while learning. The reason of implementing this approach is due to the factor that the communicative approach is efficient in encouraging students to practice their language more often in a real life setting. Consequently.
2.1. this programme is also expected to grow the students’ interest in using English in both means of communication. Conclusion In conclusion. if they are often engaged with the educational interaction with their peers’.2. Additionally. Thus. which are one for listening and two for speaking that will be administered on two final days of the programme. which is not only writing. Therefore. it will make the students’ development of oracy skills grow positively from time to time. All of the students’ achievement throughout the programme will be determined by three sets of test. It is because via the peer interaction. The completion of this programme is hoped to enable the students to achieve five learning objectives of year four English language syllabus that are 1. 2. but also helping each other collaboratively in improving their level of attainment in the skills.5 with the integration of five learning principles and three learning approaches. 2) highlights one of the advantages of peer to peer interaction in learning by stating that ‘students will be able to improve on their oracy skills of English.5. this remedial programme is designed to help the students to improve the levels of their listening and speaking skills in English.their peers. and 2. p. students will be not only able to practice their oracy skills. but also listening and speaking.3. 2. Belchamber (2007. in the future the students are supposed to listen to English and speak in English more often in any occasions of their lives. (4010 words) 12 .
& Dawes. Nervada. The advantages of communicative language teaching. Inc. R. J. Cross. The art of active listening. Department of Psychology of Wichita University of Kansas. (2002). P. (2008). Australia: La Trobe University Language Centre Press. (2006). E. Teaching speaking and listening in primary school. 13 . L. (2007). The National Teaching and Learning Forum. from http://adlcommunity. Teaching goals inventory. H. U. 2-3.com/articles/55975.. 2010. from www. Effectively implemented a blended learning approach. The Bilingual Research Journal. & Angelo. (2008). Mobility creates learning opportunities. A. Audio-lingual Method. European Education and Training Division. K. (1992). United Kingdom: David Fulton. 19 (3). Hubbard. (2006). Teaching speaking: Activities to promote speaking in a second language.. (2006).References American Psychological Association. Melbourne. Grugeon. (2006). Life-like color pictures aid children learning. 379-394. Retrieved March 21. Austria: European Education and Training Division Inc. N.. 1 (6). Garcia. Igneri.php/11/Documents/Eedo_Knowledgeware_whitepaper_Blended_Learnin g_AMA. Kansas: Witchita University of Kansas Press. USA: University of Nervada Press.net/file. Smith.. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. T. Chamot. 2010. Retrieved March 20. C. (1995). L.pdf Kayi.php Belchamber. A.medicalnewstoday. Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach.
L. (1989).). from http://giftedservices. J. Smiljanic. in Marianne CelceMurcia (ed. Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Wright. Shalaway. 3rd (Ed. 2010. New York: Scholastic Inc. Retrieved January 21.).Mohd Sofi. C... R. A.au/handouts/I%20Think%20in%20Pictures%20-%20The%20Visual %20Spatial%20Learner. S.). from http://kajianberasaskansekolah. A. L. C. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Aural comprehension instruction: principles and practices. (2006). (2009). A.com/2008/04/article70. (2005). Pictures for language learning. Nesamalar .wordpress. 14 . (2003). Selangor: Fajar Bakti Sdn Bhd. (2000).. you teach in words. (1999). Learning to teach:. Yukari. Saratha.files.Not just for beginners. S.com. Retrieved March 21. The Audio-Lingual Method. G. ELT methodology: Principles and Practice (2nd ed. & Bradlow. 3(1). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Germany: Simple Machines LLC. English language teaching in primary school: policy and implementation concerns. Sword. K. & Beech. Teaching and Learning Guide for: Speaking and Hearing Clearly: Talker and Listener Factors in Speaking Style Changes.doc...96103. essential guides for all teachers.pdf Morley. L. & Teh. Language and Linguistic Compass. 2010. I think in pictures. (2001).
Appendices 15 .
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