PROTEIN MEMORY FOR COMPUTERS Akshata.s.revankar E&C,8thsem Usn:2mm7ec002 Email:aks_rev2000@yahoo.

com

Abstract:
While magnetic and semi-conductor based information storage devices have been in use since the middle 1950's, today's computers and volumes of information require increasingly more efficient and faster methods of storing data. While the speed of integrated circuit random access memory (RAM) has increased steadily over the past ten to fifteen years, the limits of these systems are rapidly approaching. In response to the rapidly changing face of computing and demand for physically smaller, greater capacity, bandwidth, a number of alternative methods to integrated circuit information storage have surfaced recently. Among the most promising of the new alternatives are photopolymer-based devices, holographic optical memory storage devices, and protein-based optical memory storage using rhodopsin , photosynthetic reaction centers, cytochrome c, photosystems I

and II, phycobiliproteins, phytochrome.

and

Introduction:
This seminar focuses mainly on protein-based optical memory storage using the photosensitive protein bacteriorhodopsin with the twophoton method of exciting the molecules. Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-harvesting protein from bacteria that live in salt marshes that has shown some promise as feasible optical data storage. The current work is to hybridize this biological molecule with the solid state components of a typical computer. In response to the demand for faster, more compact, and more affordable memory storage devices, several viable alternatives have appeared in recent years. Among the most promising approaches include memory storage using holography, polymer-based memory, and our focus, protein-based memory.

and the scientists become successful in building prototype parallel processing devices. In the past few decades. much research was carried out in several laboratories in North America. and Japan. the purple pigment grows in salt marshes and has evolved to exist in half-a-dozen stable states within a convenient. forms the basis of a variety of applications and devices based on bacteriorhodopsin that are now beginning to emerge. It functions like a light-driven photo pump. reversible photo cycle. Protein Memory Chip Advantages: 14. Naturally occurring. and protein-based neural networks. a light harvesting bacterial protein. and converts light energy to chemical energy thus can be utilized to frame protein memories. but the bacterial proteinBacteriorhodopsin (bR)-has generated much interest among scientists.What is protein memory? Several biological molecules are being considered for use in computers. changes its mode of operation from photosynthesis to respiration. Advantages and Applications of Bacteriorhodopsin Bacteriorhodopsin is an excellent molecule for photonics. Europe. This robust system. The range of potential applications for which bacteriorhodopsin (bR) has been ENERGY PATTERN . is the basic unit of protein memory and is the key protein in halo bacterial photosynthesis. Under exposure to light it transports photons from the hollow bacterial cell to another medium. three-dimensional memories. coupled with the emergence of genetic engineering. Bacteriorhodopsin.

bR is protected against photo-induced breakdown . In addition. It includes: 1) Reversible holographic memory 2) Ultrafast random-access memory 3) Neural logic gates 4) Spatial light modulation 5) Nonlinear optical filters 6) Photonic-crystal band gap materials. Evolution has perfected these functions over billions of years.Investigated is remarkable. 7) Pattern-recognition systems 8) High-contrast displays 9) Optical switches 10) Pico second photo detectors. and most recently among companies seeking to build battery conserving. Part of the attraction of natural materials is that they often perform very complex functions that cannot be easily synthesized. long-life computer displays. often performing better than humandesigned materials ever could. biophysicists. Shining two lasers of different wavelengths alternately on the protein flips it back and forth between the two colors. Bacteriorhodopsin is also an attractive material for all-optical 'light' computers because of its two stable protein forms.by its structure. the protein's photoelectric properties could be used to manufacture Photo detectors. singlet oxygen and free radicals . which are too unstable to be used in any commercial device. 15. Several research groups have already used bacteriorhodopsin as . quick-change proteins like bacteriorhodopsin could also be used in a kind of electronic writing. If controllable. In the last 25 years. Unlike many other biomolecules. bacteriorhodopsin has excited a great deal of interest among biochemists. one purple and one yellow. Conclusion Bacteriorhodopsin has attracted the attention of scientists interested in using biological materials to perform technological functions.which is caused by reactive oxygen.

retrieves. and transportability protein memories enhance the multimedia capabilities of computers to a great extent. instead of specifying the address of the memory location. USA. Researchers are now closely following the way human brain stores.com www.seminaronly. good reliability. With fast random access capability. They are trying to duplicate the capability of information retrieval by inputting a part of it. Enormous access to information and manipulation and storage of data in minimal time add to their reliability. And every possibility is there that in the near future we will be able to carry a small encyclopedic cube containing all the information we need Reference: www. to build a biological computer.scribd.computer memory and as the lightsensitive element in artificial retinas. and acts on information. much work is still required to make a fully operational computer with memory that mimics human brain. has succeeded in developing similar ones.com . we are on the threshold of new and exciting era in the wonderful world of computing. Indeed. Though a group of researchers headed by Robert Birge of Suracuse University. Also. Unlike disk memories where physical contact with the magnetic head is required to Read/Write information. protein memories use laser beams. the advantages of optical data storage accrue to such memories. or any related aspect. which improves their life with reduction in wear and tear.

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