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Then by deﬁnition of inverse we have AA−1 = I = AB so AA−1 = AB. Multiplying both sides on the left by A−1 , we have A−1 (AA−1 ) = A−1 (AB) (A−1 A)A−1 = (A−1 A)B A−1 = B. We conclude that A−1 is unique. Let A be an nxn invertible matrix. Prove that (At )−1 = (A−1 )t . Proof. This proof is in the book. When is it true that (A + B)(A − B) = A2 − B 2 ? The left side is equal to (A + B)(A − B) = A2 − AB + BA − B 2 . Thus the two sides are equal when A2 − AB + BA − B 2 = A2 − B 2 −AB + BA = 0 BA = AB.

List 5 conditions equivalent to A being invertible. 1. det(A) = 0 2. A is row equivalent to I 3. A is row equivalent to an upper triangular matrix with non-zero diagonal entries 4. Ax = b has a unique solution for all b 5. Ax = 0 only has the trivial solution (the trivial solution being x=0 Suppose that A = P DP −1 where P is an invertible matrix and D is a diagonal matrix. What is A100 ? We have A100 = (P DP −1 )(P DP −1 ) . . . (P DP −1 )(P DP −1 ) (100 times) = P D(P −1 P )D(P −1 P ) . . . (P −1 P )DP −1

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Thus A100 = P DD . . just raise each entry to that power. Notice that each P −1 P = I. .2 after regrouping. Note: This is useful because calculating powers of a diagonal matrix is very simple. Later in the course we will discuss when writing A as P DP −1 is possible. . DP −1 = P D100 P −1 .

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