Reading Passage 1
You should spend ~ 10 nWwtes on Quatiom 1 -15 which are

A
easy
to

Chances are, you 'U use a microwave oven at least once this week - probably forget how rare they once were. As late as

(aceordicg

to re-

search) for heating up leftoven! or defrosting something.

Microwave ovens are so common today that it's

10% of U. S. hootes bad one. By 1995, 85 % of bouseholds had at least one. Today, more people own microwaves than own dishwashers.

1m. only

B

Magnetrons, the tubes tlw produce microwaves. were invented by British scientists in 1940.

They were used in radar systerrs during World War D, and were instnnnental in detecting Gennan planes during the Battle of Britain. These tubes - which are soo. of like TV picture tubes - mi.@Jrt: still be strictly military hardware if Percy Spencer. an engineer at Raytheon. (a U. S. defense COIlbactol'). hadn"t stepped
in £root of one in 1946. He had a chocolate bar in his pocket; when he went to eat it a few minutes later. he found thai the He put a
eggs

chocolate had abnoet how could the chocolate bar be? He ~

~y

melted. That dido't make sense. Spencer W&'3Q't hot the margnetron was responsible.
80

he tried an experiment. day. Spencer brought

be8

of

popoor11

kernels in the

tube. Seconds later, they popped. The
went

next

and an old

tE'4l - kettle to wmk. He cut a bole in the

side r:J the kettle. put an egg in it. and placed

it next to the

c

mapetrm. Jusl as a ooIleague

to see what was happening. the egg exploded.

netron - powered ovens to seU to the public. Raytheon

W8S

inteImed. 1bey had !he capacity to produce

10010 magnebOn tubes per week. but with Wodd War n over, mililaly purebaeea had been cut down to almost nothing. What better way to recover loet salee than to put a radar ·set di8f9rieed' as a microwave oven in every American heme? Raytheon agreed to
frequency dielectric

back the project, 1be eompany patented the fim '"high
WIDe

heating ~

" in 1953. 1hen they held a 0C8b!Il to find a which was later OIG&~

for their prod-

uct. Some came up with

o

"Radar ~,"

_·Ifie sirl&Ie word - Rt.damnge . an
O'f«l

Raytheon had a great product idea and a.great name, hut tbey.didn't _
WII8

anyooe could

afford. The 1953 model next 20 years.
tomeI8.

5 !t) feet tall,

nWroada, ooean

weiPed more than 150· poundI. and COlt $ 300}. Over the 1ine18 and hish - eDd Ie8tIUrInIIJ Wfft' virtually the ClflIy Radarange eus-

In 1955, a COOIp8Ily called Tappm intmduced !he fint miuowate cmn for ~ COIl8UIDel'8; it was smaller than the Radarange. but still cost • 1295 - more than sane small homes. 1hen in 1964. a
company perfected a miniaturi:.ed magnetron,

Japanese

and Raytheon

8000

after introduced a Radamnge

-3-

..

":. :.

"

rhat used the new magnetron. family. Finally.
1(1

It wid

for $

495. But that was still too expensive for the average American

in the 19808, technical improvements lowered the price and improve the quality enough

make microwave ovens both affordable and practical. microwaveable.

By 1988. 10% of aU new food products in the

u . S wen·

E

Here is the firsl thing you should know about "microwaves":
and vibrates
al

Like visible

light, radio waves and

X - rays , they are waves of electromagnetic energy. What makes the four waves dIU:erenU~l't.. Each has a different length (wavelength)
a
drtterent

their name because their wavelength is much shorter than ~ip;nals. The microwaves in a microwave oven have a wavelength 1.5 billion times per second - about the same natural frequency as water molecules. them
SO

and radio , and they vibrate That's
what

makes

effective

aI

heating food. A conventional oven heats the air in the oven, which then CQOb the creating heat , The
water
OIl,

food. But microwaves cause water molecules in the food to vibrate at high speeds.

heated water molecules are what cooks the food. Glass. ceramics and plastics contain virtually no molecules, which is why they don 't heal up in the microwave. When the microwave oven is turned electricity passes through the magnetron. channeled down a metal tube (waveguide) and through a slow rotating metal fan (stirrer).

the tube which produces microwaves. The microwaves are then which scatters

them into the part of the oven where the food is placed. The walls of the oven are made of metal, which reflects microwaves the same way that a IDiom reflects visible light. So when the microwaves hit the stirrer and lire scattered into the food chamber. every direction. they bounce off the metal walls and penetrate the food from
to

Some ovens have a rotating turntable that helps food cook more evenly. Do microwaves be no. Microwaves
L'OOk

cook food from the inside out? Some people think so, but the answer seems food from the outside in, like conventional ovens. into the food. The
BUI

the microwave energy only penetrates about an inch

beat that' s created by the

water

molecules then penetrates deeper into the food, cook-

ing it all the way through.. This secondary cooking process is known as ..conductioo . "

F

When sales of microwave ovens took off in the
88

late 19808, millions of cooks discovered the same

thing: Microwaves just don't cook some foods

well as regular ovens do. The reason: Because microwater tunJe;

waves cook by exciting the water molecules in food. the food inside the microwave oven mrely cooks at temperature higher than 2121='. the temperature at which the other hand. cook to
teqJeratures

to steam. Conventional ovens, on
to

as high as 550"F. High temperat.ures are needed

caramelize sug-

ars and break down proteins.

carbohydrates and other substances, and combine them into more complex flavors. So, microwave oven can't do any of this, and it can't bake, either.
Some people feel this is the microwave's Achilles heel.

"'The name microwave oven' is a misnoi

mer." says Cindy Ayers, an executive with Campbell Soup. "It doesn't do what an oven does." "It's a glorified popcorn popper ... saY" Tom Vierhile, a researcher with Marketing

IntelJi&enee.

a newsletter that Adds one

tracks microwave sales. "When the microwave first came out, people thooght they bad stumbled on nirvana. It's not the appliance the food ;ndustry thought it would be. It's a major dUJappoinbnent." cooking critic: ••Microwave American kitchen .••

wes are

still s~,

but time will tell whether they have a future in the

~4-

Questions 1 .9 U.. Paragraph F Quations 6 . & MDft 111M -9 00 n... Wonlr 10 4lIA&IIr 1M.. 6. (i) (ii} Spencer' (I Diecovery The Introduction of the Radarange (iii) (v) (vi) Spencer's Invention Ov) The Birth of the Microwave Essential Details about Microwaves Conduction Cooking ~~ The Future of the Microwaves Vi How Food Is Cooked 4X) The Conwnercial Development of the MierOW8ve (X) Yau and Your Microwave of the microwave IxO limitations 1.... Paragmph E 5.t in..F from the list of IreaJings below. UdotH. 8. W'*"_' an. S(j in boxes 1 ..5. 00t:es 6 your aIUMII!r' . We can think of a microwave as different &un oIher IJP8II rJ. Parappb C 3.aver. Paragraph B 2. The reason proce88 that staItB fnm the wtaide aDd IDD\'eB 10 the inside? that regular ovens are slower is because they don't heat Ihese 88 well.ngs than pamgraph.fol/bwin& qutI#ioN. Choose the most 3uiJabk haJdings for paragrnpIu B ..5 &ading Passage 1has six paragraphs... What is the name given to the heat 7. Write the appropriate numbers ( i-xi) NB: There are more heatJi.s. JiabI: in tern. not you will we all of them • You may we any of the headings more than once .. Paragraph D 4. of what two character- -5- .

Airbus and Boeing are 6- Ixih looking . bringing 2 But this path of development new is now approaching the end ol worthwhile technological improve- ments. Regular ovens do not heat water molecules. When these designs are pushed ideal for Asia's regional tnutk routes. extensions left. Osaka. if the statement agrees with the . Honk Kong and many others is to put more people into each aircraft. The microwave technology was invented by Spencer. due to the fact that microwave light is stronger. First involves the Aithus A330 and the Boeing to m.volwne people movers 3 The second path is to scale up capacity using four engines.15 Do the following !. with only two being de-veloped. The reason water molecules heat faster is 15. What does light immediately do once it hits the metal walls in a microwave.la'rs in boxes 10 suuemetu« agree with the injixmalwn giwn in Reading Passage 1? Write your an- 15 on your answer sheet .high .28 which are Ixued on. to meaning that big is beautiful. at 12. Aircraft and engine manufacreduce drag and fuel. 1 The obvious response of airlines faced with overcrowded airports such at those in Tokyo. not first. For trunk routes. Microwave sales are declining. Microwaves can't heat food higher than an oven can. Raytheon C:QUld~ make money out of microwave ovens 13. if the statement contradicts the int()IJI\z~9)~ Yes No Not Given if there is no infonnation on this in the passage 10. wide . and. both now which will both be seen in the colours of various Asian airlines in the mid to late their ultimate fonn over a few yems of increasing engine power. II. Reading Passage 2 You slwuJd spend aboul20 muuues on Questions 16 .en. Reading Passagt 2.gined 7476 so far as capacity is concerned . both will be in effect twin . turers have done their bit by tweaking aiIframefi basic operating costs down.bodied jets are the way to go for eoonomic efficiency. 14.bum over the years. 19908. QueStroRS 10 .istics? 9.

. same amount of work .variable cycle" turbo . flrin! \I'r'I'~.20 years away.. that of virtually all jet transports 4 But the speeds of these new types will be in the same range as since their inception in the 19505 and 1960s: Mach 0. latterly. would like to reach their de&tination faster.length dooNe deck (Boeing). By 1988. armng obviOU'l Hpplications will appear in less than 10 be trans - PacifIC and Asia . Boeing's thinking was the result of its involvement Space Administration to look at ~ial in a project with the US N.slightly higher than its own 1DDI'e recent estiBoeing's market ~jection& male 10 were based on worldwide ~ of 5. a zone mandated by the limits onmental considerations such of subsonic aerodynamics.0.85% of the speed of soond}... First is that creasing an aircraft's speed also increases its potential productivity.pollution (rom engines. for instance. . 6 conle.iUJ seats and either side . Boein@ set up a technological development.ramjet capable of (l(lel'8tmg at Mach 5. with ffl) .. succees.L~J<. 100 small. which aooount& for 23 % of the -7- .9% a year . the philosophy which led to Concorde still apply.'" ~.by . teIIIn 10 'flow8 doubling by the year 2(0) to 4. with Japan. And second is that inmeaning less units needed to do the 8 Varioos consortia in !be US. but when they 00..at premium fares . fix ~ supemonic a.because its development costs were written off by the British and French governments.t... It is too noisy. 8 million pueengeftll a day. inatead of spending boring houm confmed in a metal tube... a supenonic transport should fly at or ooly aiiptly fssw about baH this speed. Europe and Japan are to now tmdertak. wi th only 14 entering cornnercial service.at designs for what will be effectively giant 747.preJimUwy and look at parent potential shown by its studies..side double fuseto lages (Aid:u» or a full.Europe routes. than Conoon:Ie.85 (80% . impreued with the apdo . and are leading to hopes that e\'e!}'OIle supersonic transport may be only a matter of 15 . parts of 7 However.8 . The message for those with supersonic ambitions has been that if you cannot do better than Condo not even try. though the IaJ8el be highly optimistic by most. US • 224 million ptq98Da ne to deveklp a . Boeing then looked at the scheduled intemationIl market. 5 The only exception used in conunercial service is the u.. Neither type is expected years .ing smdies 10 define the market. 9 But a study by Boeing indicates that._ Cor eunmerciaJ.u . u. envir85 noise and air .ti on high teclmology for its own sake. 4fO) has teamed up with four major Western engine manu- factweI8 in an eisht year. or a rate of 5 . the historic 005t of materials and.. enviromnenta1 deeisn ~ reasons.'tI1!ti!!!J~~t1e regular supersonic trips across the Atlantic 15 years after its which other dreams of supersonic airliners have foundered: a spectacular technical success for its time. it was an equally spectacular comnercial failure.. or about km per hour.lional Aeronautics and fliPt in 1986. drinks fuel and has only been viable .2 % . the product and the technology necessary to bring this about. Some of the eff0rt8 seem applications to be found later: date of 2005 is thought to foc.

4 and a capacity of 250 .Pacific. Use liquid hydrogen as fuel to increase engine power. Asia . is a group of trans .engined jumbo jets.Europe and trans . It also eliminated routes which are mostly over land. PI«ue tIJlIl some que#iIms need more than <me letter. . aud look nut routes of less than 2500 nautical miles as uneconomic for supersonic flight. F. taking up parking bays. Develon the. Send people to their destinations more quickly. Renew study of and ultimately the production of supemonic jets." and points to Boeing says that engine .H in ~ box below. meeting the noise goals "Will he a difficult but achievable task.. 12 Major considerations for Boeing were that the supersonic aircraft should be able to use existing airports. says Boeing. and therefore C1J8tonJ. Write your answers in boxes /6 .1.1500 supersonic transports with 5000 nautical miles' range. A1uwer thefoUowing note quesuon« by choosing knus A . E._) inmhn. Increase aircraft's productivity. 0. is a potential market for IOCQ.. irrmigration IIIld this argtmI:lIlt.manufacturers' research into ways of reducing emissions of oxides of nitrogen which harm the earth's orone layer. twice as many trips as its sui:eonic coenterpart .19 In the box below are what are / weft' to be done in the aircrqfl making indu#ry. ac- coming to Boeing. various promising leads have been identified which should lead to meeting goals set for noise and exhaust emission standards.19 on. B.. Without them. the number of trips in which time spent in airports exceeds flying time will merely increase as aircraft speed rises. Develop the latest models of four . oot 14 The need for additional airports and better facilities is therefore going to disappear. ~ u.total. This.. your a. a figure which will to 607000 a day by 2015.'j and other airport services for twice as long. because of concern about sonic booms. What remains in the year 20«(). If a supeoonic aircraft per- given that less wUl s will produce rmre ~. and according to Boeing. Questions 16 . it will be on the grom:I twice as often. 13 fOnM While use of supersonic aircmft fu:m existing airports there is a downside facilities rnWtt help to to cut the nile of growth of Oeet".lateRt model" t:ti twn Pn"'.DSWer sheet. comply with the latest noise regulations and not require exotic fuels such as liquid hydrogen.300 passengers. a cruising speed of Mach 2. 'Ibis means new technology for engines .Atlantic routes which grow will account for 315(0) passengers a day. A. C.

What is the likely speed. Write)OUT iJIISW6'TS in bo:\7es 20 .tfion. D.J. Which two in the above list are reasons for future supersonic transport? Questions 20 . What is the main idea of Reading Passage 2? Choose one I.28 Vie No Mtw 17afDI One fJI' 7Wo WOft& to aNWer the folJowing que. mean good . Which one in the above list is an action to be taken to cope with an increase of passengers travelling by air? 19.e".ntJeT sheet. There are many problenM to dve in order to improve supenonic airend\. Increasing concerns for environmental considerations transport. According to the passage. What is the approximate number of paesengers tmvelling by air today? 27.23 time stopm'er{ YIN) departure supenmic subeonic superaonic arri\'al Los Aneelet (20) Tokyo Sy<hey 4 br 18 min (21) 7 hr 18 min N N Los An@eJee lAe Angeb loa (22) (23) subeonic AnseJes Symey 14 br Questions 24 . what three in the above list are actions taken to fly more people and fly them faster? 17. What is the number of jecting the mmket potential p8IIlIeIIgel'8 in the year of 201S that Boeing is now thinking of when pro~ for supersonic aireraf't? and wriIe it in bat 28 on your ~ 28. There is a renewed intetest in ooomercial supemonic transport. What is the capacity that Boeing is aiming at for the new eupenonic jets? 26. 24.. Write your answers in baxes 24 . Concorde was a technical success but 8 tullnerow failute. B. A. that the new supersonic jets will fly at? 2S.16. Which one in the above list is an action taken to produce better engines for supersonic jets? 18.28 on your on.23 Complete the lable be/QW.bye to eommereial supersonic -9- . C. from ~ JJI!t!t.

~-. Despite the final slipup. and only after the robot had com- pleted its main mission: a detailed study of the crater floor 90 m below the rim of Alaska's -active MOlUlt Spurr volcano that included a 3 . 770 . said Carnegie Mellon University robotics expert "would've wiped us out. control started to get seriously worn .~~t· . ' -~r\ -\ . Dante also discovered scant sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide in the noxious air... Among the significant results: the first maps of the crater's surface.D survey of the hellish terrain and an analysis of gases issuing fmm belching vents. \. But even a 3 . implying that the volcano.. and multiton chunks of rock "That big one .size boulders ttlOOI bet9m hurtling down n had successfully in an Anchorage.m . scienti sitting as Dante negotiated a steep. John Bares . muddy descent and ambled hot steam and poi- gases. just 130 km from Mount Spurr. the volcano study was perhaps the least noteworIhy pert of the robot's mission... it W8S a misstep.. which erupted in 1992.Reading Passage 3 You should spend about 20 mauues on Questions 29 ..Anchorage. -'~...Ie(lpl.. 3 But important as this news was to the volcano experts and the (. Alaska. Dante and left it stranded on the steep mountain slope. . pointing nervously at a video screen after a roekslide. .:. will probably stay quiet for a while. not a rock. - .Y _ .. Dante Tours the inferno 1 :-I01lOUS It wasn't until refrigerator ...day trek " _.e of . nonnally hidden by out .kg aut(l(llll!ion has its limits. 2 In the end.croppings and haze.. the 10 . " moving at high speed were beyond Dante's. that toppled Dante. .tall. which toppled. 4f) which art based on ReMing Pll$$age 3.

Whittak:.._: . for full autonomy. . . At nearly a ton. but considering that it took less than a year to to self .. which let the scientists direct it via a satellite hookup to the control room. Says Lavery: "The consensus was have had that ability .reality computer image of the landscape.... • ". The purely commercial pwpoee: gather images for a gsmelike.. and t1eSlltl\. Even more useful is a laser .minute time lag in communications. And while NASA's Lavery cautions that Dante D is still "far from any sort of flight opportunity._. or whatever Whittaker calls the next ~neration. we would 8 Another barrier to sending robots to the planets is weight: every kilogram sent into space is ex- pensive. In the meantime..l'IUlging system . That skill will be crucial if a Dante -like robot is sent to another world.based radar . is its four computers and their controlling softto ware.like robot to the moon in 1997.board video cameras enable scientists to view the terrain.a sort of light .er is already thinking about lighter models. virtual . On to says Lavery. NASA wanl!:! to launch a robot explorer toward MIllS as early as 1996.. 3(XXX) distance measurements every second and generates a virtual.aeriai Deeiped by (32) -11- .. -29 ...rJlm-d would result in a minimum 10 .. Says Bares: "It gives us a very complete picture of 6 7 What makes Dante II truly revolutionary. ... AB for Dante Ill. eVim II of whom have died exploring active craters in the past few years.'aIM:l:. Dante II would break the bank.~~~ij:. '~.sufficient.reality tour across the 9 worlds.it'.32 CDmpltIe 1M ItJbe swer tiN __ tilllrlle n w-. ." he acknowledges that much of the teclmology used aboard Dante II may fmd its way into fuIn fact. contact would probably be limited once 8 day. its task will be to spare humans f'rool £acing greater dangers on other QMatioIu 29 . Dante n ..._. Item _~: Wap (30) !!_e!ght 3m (29) 90 em l*' __ (31) Body . however. Although the robot was connected by cable a power generator and transmitter at the crater rim.that makes what's around us.•• t if we had another four or five months.. <~..negotiating n can operate indepen- its own path through the boulders. And to ture space missions.J2 Detail (1ft your an- &htId..type robots should be in hot demand from earthbound volcanologists. Dante detllly at times and did for nearly half the mission. a private company working with Carnegie Mellon 5Cienli!!l8 hopes to send a Dante .. though.

B. C. A modified version of Dante 40. E. if it is false • write Not GiNJt in dte corresponding bo. Dante II had an accident after it had (XJQIpleted its main mieeion. 37. C. 8 video cameras.Questions 33 . Qwstions 36 .D graphic image& of a deep C4\Te. Falling rocks damaged Dante U. a power generator. Dante II is not qualified for space expeditions because A. in ~ answer sheet . B. 38. B. a transmitter. To clean nuclear contaminated areas. The on . - 12 - . 39. it does not go fast erKJtJSh. it is not smart enough.35 Choose the appropriate leuer I leuers and write it / thsm in bares 33 . box in the CJtUKItr sh«t. builders had had more time. D. write nw in the oom:rponding true or jaUe ~ to the iIformolion prouickd in Reading False. a laser . To explore volcanos. 34. To inspect the heat resistant tiles of NASA's space shuttles. wriJe skltemelltS aIt If a staIA!menl 00 is true. Dante II sent 3 .board equipment of Dante II includes the following except A.resistant materials..35 on your answer Mu:et. If there U injotm6lioo about a ~. E. it is too bulky to be carried by a spacecraft. C. it needs better beat . E. To explore ocean floor. D. 36. Dante II has been used in which of the following areas? A. they would have made Dante n IlXlre intelli- gent and able to make all its decisions.4IJ DecitJe if the f~ PtUsage 3. D.ranging system. 33. H the designers and n will be sent to Man in 1996. 4 computers. it is not light eJ1OU8h. To explore the surface Of the moon . 35.

-~--~-.. _. em- n6ebdltaae· UntO wW .. write task 1 foods pnMIuces add ill the mouth wbich C8D CIIIIIe ModI decay.: . for year . at which tooth decay occuta _ Acid level ~ay ~ unlikely J'" ~ /' 3~ MQIIlflQt ......etd"feYd... CIMrty. Give.'IM..----- :10 minutes /" ..... Yau should write at least 2SO words..... dIen IIBade .... ----~.~ ~ IIIinutea ~ __ ~ S minute.....J. yOIl should use }'<lUI' own ideas.. ". Mcecuthlle.. (Hip.• _ ••. ~ __ ~~ is minutes __ ~ 40 minutes 10 minutee eaten Time 8IapMd after eating 8UQllf' / honey Writing Task 2 You should spend about 40 ttrinute& Present a written argument or cue int. people IbouId be _ "IPIIl'GfIIWe I'BIIa iD paid..... - 13-- ..~ _ De&c:ribe the iDIormadon below .Writing Test Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this You should write at least 150 words.~~----------------.. task. -Honer __ ~ ~.h'aoou. knowledge and experienee end suppo1t ywr arguments with exam- ples and relevant evidence.......... 00 this la1k • to an e4ucated reader with 00 apeciaJiet knowledee of the followof 50. tal dIIa~ EadD& sweet beahb. by low pH ... 7 • •• •• ~... _ . '" __ joying power well ... -.. ployment? do you ..... add levels are ._. while in p3IItkWN m- In SOllIe UlIIIItries abe awnee wtder is .. huil ... --c_ . odlers people C8D work uadI they 8ft 65 or '70.....u... topic.... to -reeft • tile .

i 2.1!l 8 Q. Y 15. we do not know for sure) 13. m.ro-" .5 it 4800kmI lOm:.4: ~ile9 2. F .11.• And second is . NG (although not many customers..4 hour(.:=~ .250-300 26.ll~ 51. 20 . f:Il ~ 51. Quesdons 7iJ:~2.. F (not as efficiently) 12.4 W]Do 14 - . 2. -tlrtt :1! :Ii illJ& gt:l: *.. B. I!P ~ Rf tIit11 ~ ffllH1I. .••~¥.Jt.:t {J9 1:.•A~*~~~~~*o~~~*..m~ 0 jg"~." 19. v 5. ~ lUli it.4miUion . B<J A •it~-z. A. D.3. Il £fJ. ix 11.~"flJ2O))¥ ••• i6!1l4.m 4lJlm 0 11 lito i±.!tt c J.ttml»miPJ.28 Mach: 24. Y 23.!A!Jf~11 fi 20. 8. NG 4.) 1-15 9. xi 6. ii :1. (it) bounces/ reflects 10. Tokyo 21.IELTS Reading Passage 1 Questions ~*~. 17. MI~trI.iffIo itIttB~ 1i] lojfJ 9 ~ capacity: ~_10~~ 25. IA!.t1ll7li~ First •.~~~5 ~~. N Questions 24 .I. H 18. Y (right 14.!A!. G 0 5H}~ it..kt:J9'"*lStIltt9AiftlJ ~U~ -r.~R $jl 2 ti tlfJ] (JiizP:iii IP ~ F fIl A $:~*--j!C.1J.XX)iii]. 10 hours 18 rninutes 22.0 ~.::fI3Y:~.t RL lUI B1I ~:tE 800 Jc 1(00 lP] z raJ 0 QuestiOlE 16-19 16.WII-(~. • tI! «tJ!:I2i. tflM 1 li]) 0 Mach2. Jj Do . Mach2.813]j".~:ff:~A. 23 Q .4 ttL Jft8!1l'iiJ#fF 2. water molecule. tth 2. wavelength frequency Reading Pasaage 2 Jit. .A~~~$~~~~. conduction 7. Z'1f ~ If.€JL-tliJo 1 iQ~(*. N I.lit two new extensions..

.(EJltxlfI19-mft Aa<J. N:.fj.. True 40.@)(~~jftl~~ ~ Dante II tI9":tC:kAlt" .llI it.m.A. pH levels drop to as little as pH 3.*~lFi.5.~rnJjj. 6070001 day 0 me *~ 28. Sweet foods.40 29..g.M6m..:. which are all cc:mmn in@redients of sweet foods.1tl!mit. Alwniniwn ~..~).13.. to. This is because lower pH levels in the mouth to dangerous levels.. the greater the opportunity for decay to oocur.¥" inferno: Jd!~. cause pH in the mouth 10 drop for a time . • . True . i& ~ oM B1J .E 9.c .lttm~fll. we find that cane sugar lowers pH levels for the lonpt period thus producing the greatest risk of the I three.L. B Reading Passage 3 Dante: 1.l ~r./ffl ~ m ff9 . Honey appears an even le56 risky ." ~. False j!. ap~1tI .if. E 7. 0 l1i] 0 D • Jf'.jl 10 the scheduled international market: )£ WI Mit fff (J.1<. Bares and whittaker JA!.-t£ Mi j&_t s!~ f1B9 ~ ~ i$ ill. however.m. When the pH level in the mouth is kept above 5..: · . 36. :f£J1t3t ~m*. By to contrast.24:iJo 34.1. ii6 X af 10IW~ as 0 ~ ~~ •• l1iJo 0 fi~ ~St writing Task 1 Anyone woo has visited a dentist baa been told that eating exoeeeive amounts of sweet8 risks hatming the teeth. B. <~~). 5 .itT. which causes the mouth's acidity to fall just above pH 4.fi 1 m. A lI~m~1k~$.m~-~o 2 7 39.!lJJlt~A1LflARJ'tffjt.::h Iiif J!. 5 32.00. ~ will ". pa!eS a danger for a 15 - shorter period: tooth decay is unlikely 20 minutes after consumption. fruit sugar.~ 1l?lt~M 8 $:0 m~ 5!to mo ~~ 1A fto ~ 4 fitt9 Bares Ji.R"" "*~"rfJitf. Approximalely five minutes after OOIl8uming cane 8u.!. Not Given jjij ~ eady 8 WJ8 trtIl! wants 118 1996.if B<J1tiit~jjJ will :lVjdP~fLat" .. 2 Dante n . They then begin to rise slowly. but do not rise above pH 5.I8fJjj"JtI!. cane 8UpI' and honey.~" . ~l~~HfHHAff8~fF.8 ii . 770 kglnearly a ton 30.ll n 0 Questiom 29 .JltmBA~*mTjt1tBJ'Hio 35.I.- .g~o 33.!~fi9.~ tal if IJJ til T Ifif fil ( 1996) . .J mfF rtf ~ Itt JJ at • JH~i if ~ t¥ 1* : ~ RI . 5.pr.a:ilifJo:tE~. By oomparing fruit sugar. •..Il!.fJltt<J John Bare80 ~JJJ J1\l~ •• .!t. sweets .5 until at least 30 minutes have elapsed. and the longer pH levels remain below 5. A. T *i'1f<:t4Illl)~fF~ 0 ~~7t<Jt!!.JlliJM 0 38.~*~Ijij ~Att:rHo 27. Top moving speed 31. acidity is such that teeth are unlikely to be in danger of decay. False 37. (~j~:)':::-t-~?t.J'o ~9='!i."1t.Rm~./f'RJ :J.

While some 65 . it would appear economical for an organisation to retain its oldand money on training new worker. the better for both the individual worker and the employer.arrv filII IMt" ~ ~ . it retwns to above pH 5...]. that the longer an able person is allowed to work.. lndeed . 100 implications. er employees when possible rather than spend time Indeed. rather than the nWllber of wrinkles or grey hairs they have. workelB wmKm. Chronological age is not always a true indicator of ability. many workers at this age do just as wen or better per- than they used to. they are longer able someone to life ex:pectancie& increase around society in the Conn of meaningful contribute 1:10 to work.~ who is statistically likely to live to 77 becomes increasingly difficult to justify. (242 words ) writing Task 2 Mandatory retirement age varies from society to society tion pressures or simply value systems. retirement at at 70.. a mandatory retirement age of 55 for by keeping able ". public expenditures are less strained.1 . At a time when 80 populations are ageing.75 within five minutes of consumption.substance. As people live longer. in paid employment for as long 1M is practicable. Employers concerned about the increasing age of their employees need only observe their work records. are that people who insist on eating sweet foods should be aware of the in- and that fruit sugar or honey appear preferable to cane sugar. Thus. People's suitability for a position should be a reflection of their perbmanee in the job. who can still ~e tbe~itv to r. Though acidity falls to about pH 4. gredients.i. 88 Remaining in one's job for as long as one is able makes sense the world. It is my belief. But they are also in need of income for a longer period.year . then. but those as yel unaffected by age should stay 00. govemmenls are less able to provide for their senior citizens..olds may Conn as not wen as they did in their past. however.5 in Wider fifteen minutes. Those doing poorly may be asked to retire.

-17- . If you cannot do a particular question leave it and go on to the nen .40 Start at the begirming of the test and WOIk throurJt it. Your ehould answer all the ques- tions..Xl QueetioII!I 28 . You can retum to it later..INTERNATIONAL ENGL TESTING SYS PRACTICE TEST(Version Two) ACADEMIC READING TEST AIL ANSWERS MUST BE WRfITEN ON DIE ANSWER SHEET The test is divided as follows: Questions 1.13 QuestionB 14 .

While not dismissing the threat. hoped to get a debate going on the uncertainties of Ute greenhouse that the global . pledge to cooperate in a United National agreement on dealing with climate change. led by White House chief of staff John Sununu . The Bush Administration had. S. including rising sea levels and severe drougbts in some areas. the President has emphasized the need for more scientific research to help determine the proper policy response. In the face of this strong sentiment. rise in the earth's avemge temperature of 1.- But the computer models that make the projectioo& P18Y not accurately reflect such factors as the role of douds and the heat ~ absoming capacity of the oceans. Scientists genexally ally lead to wanning. but 4.wanning confereffect. 50~ (3 "F to 00 that an unchecked aceumulatim of greenhouse gases will eventu- one knows when it will start. A small but vocal group of scientists contends that the case for warming is sketchy and based on inadequate computer models. The President reconfumed aU. E . especially in We5tem Europe. As these phenomena are better under~ stood. hate and persuaded President Bush to take cautious approach to the problem.13 whi£h are based J. Pn:sident Bush denied that he was taking global wanning too Lightly.Reading Passage 1 You should 8pend about 20 mauues on Questions 1 . wanning projections wiU tmdouhtedly be revised in one direction or another . have seized upon the deII.warm- ilLg threat is real and potentially serious. A Environmentalists staged Earth Day to dramatize a simple message: The planet is threatened by a host of man . many scientists still fear that global warming could take place unless strong action is taken to prevent it.50CC to S-r) as early as 2050.house gases in the atmosphere wiil cause global wanning ~ has come under considerable attack. c Last week representatives from 18 nations gathered in Washington for a global. But at least one part of the message the theory that the buildup of carbon dioxide and other green . As the Europeans point out. how much will take place or how rapidly it will l'Bhge occur. from toxic landfills to ozone depletion. The most widely accepted estimate is a. An increase in the upper part of that could produce disestrous climatic eHects. o The greenhouse dilemma illustrates the difficulty of setting policy based on uncertain projections agrt'Je (If the future.slow approach has irritated govemment officials in several other eountries . 18 - . B ~'ie Forces in Washington.made ills. most of the delegates appeared 10 agree ence set up by the White House. Instead. nus go .

to ~ng 2) :nD. No if the statement doe.. Washington conference: Said West Getman t:. Bulb has already tsken sevemI steps thai will help canbst global wanning.. "We are can not at the point where we bet the economy. It ie poISible against· .uge hss comittoi the U. Fill in the blanh wilh No MDTf! Write the toort:IJ in bous 1 . a Sununu aide. Am:Ir!g 1) earmarked $ 1 billion for glOOal cliuate researeh next year. Government shwld do nu:h mise the saaoline tax or me financial incentives to ~ efficient cam..t paragrapIu. But Administratioo offito disooumge the Wming of f088il fuels. to plant a billion trees.1 "F ) . small hut tJOCtJl P'UP c( scientist3 . Moreover. emiseions... and 3) ~ cl chlorotluoroc8rt:x.. 1Jre following are the last two paragrapIu of Rsading PaJaa(Jt! 1. draoonian action seems bighly debatF able S() 1008as the scientific evidence for the greenhouse efJect i8 . "Worldwide which they are changing the atmosphere. a cooling period inspired some forecasters to predict a return of the ice ages. MPch YoWld absorb ~ out production JDIen1 greenhouse gase6.lcing gIobtI wuming. The White Howe.. Even though some sci- entists believe the ooncentration of ~ in the air has shot up 25 % since the early 1 800s. S • Government can safely do much to more lhan it hu already done to spur energy 00Il8eI'V8ti0n. womes about the economic consequences ol foreing sudden. S. the rise has been uneven . temperature has risen by no more than O.. ( I).and even that measurement is suspect.nv1ror~f4i not action against the climatic threat \_S'... oIher tJUne.11 Do the.rom the Administration' s point of view. ~.( 4) . And enm:R virunrrentalists argue that the U. the avenage global. eials admit that Bush advanced rmsl AJrong the possibilities: tmre ci the Jlll'J8SUreS for rea8OJl8 otha' than n:d. 19 - ~.5 on your an- 1Jaan OM or Two Wonir takm from the previou. But surely the U. J itself 10 That may be The'" (3)'" is wise to oonsider the poseible eavnnic ~ before committing a major reduction in ••... (5) . however. people to bJy smaller. S 't: ( 1. drastic curbs in uses of . .F Evidence that greenhouse wanning has already started is at best tenUous.owing SlaIemenIs agrte with the __ ~ the .. by the year from tb! air. (para- graph A)? In boxes 6 .J 1 on your answer sMtt ~ Yes if the statement agrees with the group..\~~lfJj~iUe(lr... S. been complicated scientific interrelationships of climatic change have H 10 his credit. there is a broad consensus that nations at G Despite the uncertainties.. without ~ the econwny. (2)· . says 80. the White K:. From about 1940 to 1970.folJ.. buy a gmd: deal of insurance QwsIions 6 . swer sheet.. DOt I@l"e with the group. .

7. 9. An increase of carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere means a ature..ftooe didn't rq: all weekeni . Which paragraph gives an example of the idea that there is not sufficient evidence for global warming? 13. The J. More intensive study should be carried out II. 10. fonned by water vapours because of wann temperatures.Not Given if there is no infonnation about this in the passage.. Scientific conclusions to find alternatives replace fossil fuels.oog Island.n the Intemet. Nor did they hear the fmliar beep rl electronic tmil arriving m. 100 <p.which is UDUIJUIl for a pair f'i. Terror on the iIltemet A t:ine to Thanksgiving weekem.13 12. ~ jwrnalists. Questions 12 . New YOlk. in their eled1mic: ('(JCO(fi. Talks of a return of ice age are groundless since the early 88 evidence been rising lSOOs. and win start writing fur Time in Jamwuy. 6. who writes about computetll . It wasn't tartil their tenant ~ about a ~ IJJe:IIS88e (lO their answering nBChine thar the couple invesligated and discovered all was mt . Computer models truly reflect what is happening aJ'OlUKi the world.uage 2. Clouds.and hackem - {Ol' his local newspaper Newsd4y. finally shutting down his Internet access -20- . blocking some sunlight." says Quittner. although Quittner tried several log 00. may have a cooling effect by 10 8.27 which are bated on Reading Pa.tiet. are political since they may affect economy. him: ri Michelle SIatalla and JMh Quittner. Not only had someone jammed his internet mailbox with thousands of unwanted pieces of electronic mail. Which paragntph indicates that steps taken by the White House are more polit:ical than environmental? Reading Passage 2 You Jwuld spenJ abouJ 20 minutes OIl Questions 14 . was quiet in the I. B "We'd been hacked.

They just left their messages and c It gets stranger.(}verilowing cesspool of greed.. F Since then the Internet has become.level.wt of one sort or anocher .. CERT logged 1517 incidents .ted pn:motiooal mailing. What's that nobody who phoned . A~ to the Pittsburgh. mail messages every railed . In order to send Quilmer that mail bomb . We have already pillaged your million dollar research data. Sprint and a small Internet service provider called the 10 insult. someone infiltrated General Electric's Intemet Jink.. had broken into computers at IBM.. And if you woold like to avoid fUllUlCial ruin... and it ended like trus: . In the firet nine DUtIhs of 1994. strange. Happy Thanhgiving Day turkeys. people with corpo- &om alBo havin& to the CUIJIIMY" ~ CUi. A few year& earlier a single "WOOD" propm.l1&t rew seconds. Two weeks ago. a poison MOW designed to strike fear in the heart Is the I.up more than 75 % from 1993 . author af the lkt GuitJe book series and founder of • a small Internet service caUed Yoo:r Pemooal Netwofk. a small Intemet.thought up.ching trying to crack militaly files. G 1ntemet rate Firewalla acceM t for thoee bOt r.Ue1' systems to a halt. Last April a pair of publicity . which field& oompiainfA from systems operators.J.oilia:r with the jIqpt of e1eeUaUc ~. Just a friendly warning corporate America: we have already stolen your proprietary source code. They are ~ keeP the 1eD8 ol miIlicb _~ &bat act like tI."'I com- mand of the machines at the supervisory . "is to forward incoming calls to an out .from r:. for real? Is there of all the corporate infonnation managers who had booked their companies up to the infonnation superhighway only to discover that lhey may have opened the gate to trespassers. 10 aooeII the guards in a cmpondion'.mail lMISive enough to knock them off the Net. ~)IfeCioua FirewaJls typically use pa9Swoms.ofreally slate number. keys.. where friends and relatives heard a greeting laced with obscenities. 1'1'--'lIIftI'!f." 8.hWW lawyem deluged JDlre than 5000 Usenet newegroups with an Lm8Olici. triggering a flood of angry E . Adding intrigue the the Internet into an "capitalist pig" corporetions and accused those . really a terrorist group intent on bringing the world's largest computer network to its knees? The Net is certainly vulnemble to attack. alarms and other devices to Jock out intruders. -Every lIIOIIIinc we find mIIlb &om people trying 10 pry open the firewall.hued Computer Emeqency Re&ponee TeMIl. F. hWlg . forcing the company to pull itself off the netwmk while it ~ its security system..including my editor and my mother . Pennsylvania ." It was signed by something called the Internet Liberation Front. designed by 8 Cornell University student to eIplore the netwoJk t multiplied out of control and brousht hundreds of oompI.or" root" . passwords to hardly a day goes by without a oompul:er . get the (expletive deleted) out of Dodge. an even DlOl'e tempting target. operating by remote control. -21- .. fimt lobby." but the couple's telephone had been reprogrammed says Quittner. " anything of it. " o E It read like an Internet nWUmare come true.8YB Michael Wolff.someone.desisned_ security system." SJIb!IB. ex888et5 may be stored.some of them involving IlflhI'OIb that link fens of thousands of machines.altogether.the electronic equivalent of dump- ing a truckload of garbage on a neighbor's front lawn . But though such obstacles are an essential feature of any well. L. if anything.

But given the layers of intrigue and deception in the hacker ware... "If you know who was send- ing you the mail . is probably what it was. a computer . " ~--.author of Firewalls and lnlenret Securily. think it's grudge K a I!9lflg ThaI. the day Quittner was .1ITIe peropk. against Josh Quittner .sdid. In the box below are what these peopk / companies / organizations what it did by choosing a leuer from the box and wrile the leum in boxe& 14 . CERT - 22 - . regional Internet provider. L. But trying to discard thousands of messages from just isn't possible. rraeage W"ued was mail - bombed..or even a gang a>pimnt. its weak- The Internet was built to be an open and cooperative ness. We're exactly the ki~~~~:i&:If~ca the Internet its vitality and richness...20) are lJI. Quittner and Slat. the group's targets include a pair of journalists and a small.. Spec- ulation on the Net at week's end was that'the attacks IlI1Yhave been ~ some Iiwhom have actually senred Jrison time for vandalizing the ~ am telepIone systems of people who offend them. that oould just as easily be disinfonmtion broadcast !mtIer. We're says Pipeline founder James not ~~Q~!~~~»~~inb~- Mel. the legion of Thorn . And as it nasty tums out.. 14...called Internet liberation Front. you could install a filter when you don't know where they're cooling throw it away.with s:me IDl oopies ci the ~ &an the I." jog a system like Pipeline. seemed so intent Questions 14 . " J That's what is so odd about the so . Match each name wiJh (Ui$Wer sap 2. be sectioned off with those firewalls the 1..." says Vin- ton Cerf. co . an Mel executive who helped design the Internet in the late 6O·s.security expert at Purdue University. F.20 1he following (14 . a lot less safe onI even IrIlre likely on destroying. L. this one seeIl8 to have btddired." says Steven Bellovin.aIIa had just finished a 000k about the rivalry between of ~ 88I11e hackers called the Masters ci Deception and their archenemies. The Internet today feels a little less "liberto to ated t I. "It's a fragile environment. work of the Masters of Decepdon - like IDII1)' distract attention &un a rival gang ." says Gene 6 Spafford. 10ugh rity.pens warn that the technology of firewalls is 81iU in its infancy.azine. "There is no such thing as absolute secu"There is only relative risk . While it claims 10 hate the "big boys" of the telecommunications industry and their dread firewalls. H And what about the folks on the receiving end of a mail bomb? "That's a 10 one.20 00 yow sheet . ''It doesn't make any sense "I'm more inclined to to me. It alroost doesn't temlrist acts.. companies or ~ mentioned in Reading Pa.an excerpt of which appears in the current issue ci Wued mar. F.

23 Use No MOI'fJ Than 'IJne Wonk your from &ading Pa.K) in bo«es 24 . jammed somebody's Internet mailbox with electronic garI_~-C ".. What do I... Which paragraph says there is an increaae in the number of incidents to break into internal 24. a Cornell University student 17. offers an open service to millions of users F. What are used to keep network from being attacked by infiltration attempts? QussIion. sent off advertisements through E-mail that annoyed a~rliSlU~ B. ihe Internet 16. Which paragraph offen an explanation why Slatalla and Quittner work? net- 26.t 24 ..oor an.$I. L L. E. detected many attempts D. Quittner and Slatalla 19.' in boxes 21 .arge!t COOlputer network? 23.23 on your answer sheet. Their Internet access was shut down by the oolnpany. F./<' '.twer the j'oI/hwing quaIion& by writUIg the pat'lIgIYlph. tampered with the network and collapsed many computer systems G.26 An. to attract attention 20.L.15. stand for? 22. .~ . B.' . What is the name of the world's l. F. h""ili C..nre tMm in ~ 27 Crt . Ie#m (A ...uage 2 to answer the following questions.26 on (JIJ. What happened to SIatalIa and Quittner? A. penetrated a big COO'IptUly" s security system of computer netwmk H. two lawyers who wanted 18. Write answer. founded Pipeline to gain access to internal n.. Which paragraph explains how COO1plIter jamming could be done? Question 27 awose tiro letters and . 27. someone (in paragraph F) A. 21. Their E-mail mailbox was jammed. had parts of a book published in a magazine Questions 21 . -23- .' ~'~ill~~~A :':'. ".ref _ • yOUl' eu£rered the disaster? 25.noet tIwl.

Although investigations into the cause of the a~ he was frying to make a calion problem continue. Someone unloaded a truckload of garbage on their front lawn. was growing consumer concern future models of video . given the number of peoL __ L . Reading Passage 3 Perils of Electronic Radiation 1 Lust October. In November. Their incoming telephone calls were diverted to another nwnber out of New York State.. radiatio~ can interfere with the operation of other circuits and may even pose There is as yet no evidence for the latter. extraordinarily enough. __ . 2 nals ... ple who spend much of their working lives sitting in front d VDT . The reason for the change.L AII electrical circuits emit unwanted radiation. They have been sacked by the Newsday and will start to work for Time. E. the malfunction may have been due to microwaves from the telephone interfering with the car's electronic fuelinjection system. about the safety of such termi- 3 4 . As these two examples demonstrate. noise". or . a Nagoya businessman was surprised when the engine of his Mercedes Benz stopped his cellular telephone. But. D. communicate with its computers.display terminals (VDTs) used to. health problems. IBM announced that it planned to lower the electromagnetic radiation emitted on the company explained.C. · 8Creen8 and several health wami ngs • . as it is sometimes called.

box .free chambem. The fenite abambs radiation that would bounce back off ordinary wall and spoillhe ~..known culprits are the brushes of 9 All digital.frequency pulses syn- ehronise the operation of digital circuits. there are as anyone who has ever tried to listen to a radio engine's spark or watch a television near a road knows..proof: the devices can not be located far enough away from other devices to make interl'erence tmlikely. microwave ovens. Makem use these chambeB to measure bow IlII..10 the user. 14 cialist Tokin. (f 8pfcial echo . In a.ra bueinesernan's car.. of a "clock.lClb electro .. such as personal computers.shaped wan.an be gauged from the l8ct that IDK sold about 40 the6e ~ in 1989. 80th of these Japanese ocmpaniea are atrong in the ~ ma\erial pi at abeotbiog rwiiation. tt IJ10deIm and compact .mapetic rwtiarim their producbI emit.. 0IXpJI_ ooqJUter rooms and .. Both of these Japaneee companies market BpeCial tbieIdiag Q1IIfJriale inIendrd to .ddition. 15 Fenite parts such as coi1s can be inc:orpxaIed in cireuit6 to filter unwIIJled frequencies. elatraoagnetic interfeteilOO (. indueing electromaptic telligent" coamercial office buildinp. But with the proliferation of electronically controlled devices in factories. homes and 10 cars. contains a noisemaker in the form. Circuit boards can be laid out to minimise the potential for noise emitting parts to afIect each other. an iron . iot . The 16 « -25- . Those benefiting from the noise include Asahi G_ new concem about re- and 00Il8tructi0n COIIII*lY Taiaei. which is acttuilly an oscillator whose high . plugs. equipment. An indication <l how aeriGusly Japaneee mahn lake the probIemd.derived to coat smonc oCher ~. offices. Circuits C8I1 8IllOt\g all this inaudible but ubiquitous cacophony? As in 11 be designed so that they cannot unintentionally act as antennas. Entire equip- ment cases can be shielded by coating them with $peCial noise . 10 medicine J How to prevent interference occwring prevention is better than cure.abaorbing paint. In addition. The company says it expeels to sell even more this year.disc players. of ferrite. was installed in an un- foreseen position. (But this approach is id- cellular telephone in the N. fot instance. the • d doors on substance is also used to 00IIt the eg . is the electromagnetic noise also domestic spark makers gas stove and heoters. It is an ill wind that blows nobody any good. h is uaed. Other well . ) 12 13 Connectors and cables can be shielded frun inIetference with special materials. makers are beginning to adopt a more rigorous approach the problem of electromagnetic interfer- 8 ~ of the most common causes of interference.

to 32. it has not been proved that electn:Jmi18lletic radiatioo emitted by them is a health hazard from other devices to terminal operators. The ex..17 18 Demand for echo . 33.free chambers in Japan is driven by standards issued by the Voluntary Conthe council has more than 300 members. Both mM and Sony have produced low radiation VDTs. albeit only on a voluntary basis. Even though there has been growing consumer concem about the safety ofVDTs. -26- . nations in adoption international standards. trol Council for Interference by Data Processing Equipment and Electronic Office Machines." damase thal would be done to their image if something went wrong with one of Qwstions2S . Akihide Sei of the one of the council's sponsors. 30 . Established in 1985 by four industry associations. 34." Sei says .AAPAl8lDeflt feels that the general public are overrethat terminals should be placed a metre away from the operator. radiation. Now they worry about the their products . Japan Electronic Industry Development As· estimates that 60% . The WHO reronmended 31.70% of Japanese equipment covered by the council's recommendations conform to its standards. . makers would have tried to ignore the issue until a problem occurred. 19 sociation. 20 "In the past. 28..ssage 3? In boxes 28 34 on yow answer sheet write Yes No Not GiveD if the statement agrees with the wriw. The US coogeesional action to dectromagnetic Office of Technology A. 29. Systematic Ie8eIIIclI shoold be canied out to study electnmagnetic radiation..34 Do the folWwing sJaII!mentS agree with the views if the wriIer of Reading Pa. Ferrite has recently been used to make low mdiation VDI's. if the statement does not agree with the writer.ample mentioned in the first pamgaph shows that devices can be located far enough away make intetference unlikely. This initiative marks a departure for the Japanese. if there is no infonnation about this in the ~.

free chamber 27 - .H in the box belou». cellular phone B.G in the box below.t some questwru require more than one letter to answer. Which one of the following produces echo . compact . Asahi Glass E.38 on your answer shee«.t m boxes 39 . ferrite coils E. echo . International Electrotechnica1 Coovnission G. Which two of the foUowing have had economic gains from concerns about electromagnetic ation? 36. Please note zha.Questions 35 .the f~ quatioru by choosing ktters A . 35. Japan Electronic Industry Development Association tronic Office Machines H. 39.40 do not produce electromagnetic radiation? hannful radiation? 40. Swedish management and labour F. C.40 on your answer Wet.nM. PleaJe note that some qu&tiom require man! titan one letter to anstrer. Which two of the following Questions 39 . IDK B. Which two of the following are improving the quality of VDTs magnetic radiation? 37.disc player vur F.38 Answer the foUmving questions by choosing letters A . IBM C. Which of the following is I are under greater 8CIUtiny for its I their potential A.free ehembers? 38. Sony D. VolWltary Control Council for Interference by Data Processing Equipment and Elec- An. Write the answers in boxes 35 . Which three of the following are responsible for setting safety standards of electromagnetic anon? 80 radi- that they'll have lower electro- radi- A. microwave oven D. car engine G. Write the aruwer.

600 800 1000 o 400 Number of ElrnpIoyees(' 000 ) Employment In FreedOnia by &eX In 6 sectors... -------------...le(~nce) -. ~--.defence] Publie seetor (. ~ 5 and 1995 Employment In FreedOnia by sex in 6 sectol'$. Write a report for a university ttacber escrl The graphs below sbow the IlUIDbers of male in several employment sectors of the republic of ~~ You should write at least 150 words . -------.Writing Test Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task.'tailltMIe Public sector (noll . 1975 MarUr . 1000 Number of employee6( '(00) - 28 - . . .. .alion~ -~----------.deiell(le } ~----------------~a--o o 200 400 600 8O(l -------. \V ho lesale & r....__---O ~ ~ Whol~e til retail tmdt PuLlie ~tor (non . turing Communic.. 1995 Manufacturing Communications I--- -------------.

¥. it is of the diI6aJIties a student inmtabIy eocounters To what extent do you agree or cIisagne with tbis stafaDeDt? GIve reasons for your 1IIISWeI'.w.{S. knowledge and experience and ple.Writing Task 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. 10 an educated reader with no specialist knowledge of the follow- The idea of goiDg anISe OVf:I'SeM for UDivenity study is an SIDDle people.lt~~~~ &..~. and relevant evidence.~m 0 *$~fftii rJtt~Jljg-. support yoor arguments with exam- Reading Passage 1 tlUHl1i tt'J: m. •• ~.0 1. Present a written argument or case ing topic. Government j!.. But while it may offer culture. .. Whlle House/Bush A~U. A ~H j!. fossil fuels m H m_lt.)(.1J~~ lfUI Qofstioos 1.iA-.~. You should write at leas.. 2 'bJ 0 2.5 &~~~~m*~~~~. 4. 250 words . C~H 0 &:0 It . sketchy/inadequateJuncertainltenuous 3.!lit lh f.~.z IchIorotluocazbons . fflf l!fi tt.**.l:X. Carbon dioxide/Co.1 . You should use your own ideas. A .~. advantagts..D"F fi:o S. mfllt-t-m.ffi-~~~~~~~~..

:JG ~ ~:n c !A!J~4 m-il.~E:W~ Not Civen. B. IJ'iB it .F l:I::l w... K 25.H 0 Overreacting. E 16. {~{£ j( ~ ~·tR ~ "F • . A ~ )~ c 18.~U*Htrar1.tIt ~ II I'f~It:of No. W (.l: 9. Not ll'l f~ (f. 10. Yes 33.f.j~.~ ffi:H B-3 fa M rill~ Questions 28 . The Internet 24.llUHt Yes 1!xms~ . )" Ii~':f who does/did what ~Im.. No 29.i$:tiffti~~:l:1¥J Jt-=r~ fE. £~ 5.ZraJij!'_ !1i1g.•. F rflttoititl liiL !-t G ~ 26.27 14 . A.40 28.5HtHHIH!HtI {. A 38.box . \Jo IJJ!. for reasons other than'" 0 Reading Passage 2 JJt 't~. Yt>'i 1& ~o9JJJ fi~. E ~~ t'!. . Not Given 13 ~c IIIJ 8 7Fif~ffi ..oo.m ~~ f. E 23. R.--.1t..t8¥.16lio egg .~ . 14 . Firewalls/passwords .i! 6 i!IMi q 1:7f ~1E I\ut t . H 19..t\t~ tt* C .*=.$t ~JrtJ ff Question.C 31.fR-m~'& 1f ff i. F 13./fi -li] U r:J:l&)dJI. lnternet Liberation Front 22. ~ 6 FX: •. E. ft ¥ll who. M ffi.:t tp (~ 1 m tJltaJ )l$tWl-i" B:~tJZrlij 0 * ~~ 4~m ~~ 3 11--- 21l]o f. if_( f£ Ifl ~g.~ :f!J ffl k 1J '-f: £} !i!H 119 -ffl: A.i\ en iY-J IMlr~. C 27. No 32. + IE Quesiiolti 12 . ~~ 1 t)" *~ *" 34. will be designed fI:l responding to calls ~*7F ~ *-1". keys .iL - 30 - .A.5t:t··. Yes 31.13 12.Jtit (r'] ll.. D 36. NQ 35. alarms Reading~3 Jlt x: iJt 1£1 $.4' :.i!. 1ft t!i _t T ::t !!P PJ m 3lU whatc * . No 30.\ . IBlJlt.iro~ 4 W~ I €2:fIl~ 3 ~.t:.f::. Not E f1 i1-TI tJL f~ Jt')~ lfHffJIX Il!Ii! It idl) fIl #tt 7$ Bj f1:i JtL an ~~ ~.shaped walls. 11 IQ. II! ~::l!oj who If.~ 15.<! fR tr :t q:.20 0 fJ. ~ . G 21. F 17.m 14.ilt~1l (~i\'~TJ II.8.:'$ .j 1. C 20. 1§. A 15.) D ~&! 1!Jj@lJ.17.

D $ ~.~:f. en rose from 25000 to over 100000.~f~HmM tJL f:1l til itt:IP .life use of her own country.. 3<XO)() women and 65OOCX) men in both surveyed years. people who up to experiences that those who slay abroad for study open themselves 8 home will never have. men..: ... On a university campus.. not at the expense of Thus. at But while overseas study has its drawbacks.. the finance/banking sector ..4mi$1i!.. at around 7(XXO). different language.VCD under grt"~lerscrutiny:ffl~iJit~JL X:lSill~IJjtft!!. lanOf The Jl1081 obvious advantage 10 overseas university study is real .lS. Women also made gains in both. and the public sector (non bUI whirl.ap.:i: !lHt J! ~ ~ H. IfJ the difficulties are far outweighed by the advanl.related public from 425000 to 48CXXX) mained stable over the period. with its different language and cuhure. There is no better opportunity to improve second guage skills than living in the country in which it is spoken. The nwnher of men in this sector reindustries and in the defence . He or she will likely encounter IIWlY others fnm overseas and it is possible professional life. the number of men declined from 225000 to 2OXlOO.. Writing Task 1 The two decades between 1975 and 1995 brought significant changes in the representation of women -n Freedonia' ~ work foree .. but could lead to important overseas contacts in later . can be 8 frustrating and sometimes painful experience.<o rose from ahout 55(XXX) in 1975 to almost 8(X)(O') two decades later.'''. Whereas some 125000 women worked in finance and banking institutions in 1975. while the nwnber of womTwo sectors thai retained stable employment numbers for both men and women were manufacturing. Indeed. The number of men grew only marginally S8IJI(~ over the period. While a person can study a foreign language in his it cannot canpare with constant + use of the language in academic and evt'xyday life.. having used the language during one's studies offers a distinct advantage when one is applying fOl' jobs back lnne that require the language.II m . which had about defence).~llftrL.r i' 40. f§. to A similar situation was seen in the wholesale and retail trade sectvo.39. In defence. This is not only exciting on a social level.. according to the graphs. women appear to have made gains in the Freedonisn work force (243 wonJs) writing Task 2 There is no doubt that going to study in a foreign country. Moreover.:Ii BHI M fOJ U 0 . c. the foreign student is not alone in having oome fnn far away. employed 650000 women and 8501XX)men.if. the number increased to 450000 by 1995. 31 to make friends from aU around the world.

Standing of the host society. Once beyond the initial evitable sees one's own country in a new. while any anxiety about going overseas for university study is certainly understandable. the student slowly begins to get a meaningful under. it is important (301 words) to remember that the benefits offered by the experience make it well worthwhile. On returning home. one in- light. living and studying abroad offers one a new and different perspective of the world and. In conclusion. shock of being in a new culture. per· haps most important. - 32- .Finally. of one's own country. often more appreciative.

Your abould answer all the to· _ .. questions. it later... Yau CIR ... .2S QueaUoaa 26 .39 Start at the beginning of the test and wOOL return to throu&h it.PRACTICE TEST(Version Three) ACADEMIC RFADING TEST AIL ANSWERS MUST BE WRrrlEN ON TIlE ANSWER SHEET The test is divided 88 follows: QueatioJw 1 .13 QueatimB 14 . - 33 ~ .. If you cannot do a particular queetioI1eave it ..

Paragraph B 2. List of HftI. Paragraph C -34- .s seuen ~ the list of headings below..G.. A .Reading Passage 1 You sIwuld spend about 20 muuues on Questions 1 . YQU may we any of the headings more tJum once .dinp (i) (II) (Hi) A conventional way to process drinking water Removals of bacteria and viruses New methods are called for Ov) (V) (vi) An ambitious plan The continuous micmfiltration system The future of microfiltration plants MO ~ New focus: enviromnenlThe expansion <l Mantee Public's ooncems for w88le friendly technology Disadvantages of septic tanks dispoeals OX) (X) (xv A dift'erent approach to cleaning the filter 1.13 which art based 00 R. NO: There ate more headings than paragraphs SO you will Mt use all of them. Questions 1 .are nunzj!leQ~J~ swer sheet.G from 1 IuJ. Choose Write the appropri. 6 Readins Passage .ecu.Jins Pasmge J..

environmentally sound systems. Tap water is increasingly subject to from both the atmosphere and waste disposal.be replaoed often.. especially as demands on treatment 1JOW. But thQ clever part involves bow the filter is eleMed. and all liquid ~ the amount trapped in the pores of the membrane is nmovoo. o E trW.3. Pressurised air is pumped into the filter m both sides of the membmne. input to the filter is shut off.disposal system costs. This must change. For example. . while treatment accounts for just 20% . Japan's Health IIKI Welfare Ministry bepn' experimenl8 to develop new technology for clean .mbrant.. Paragraph G Treatment of Waste from Water est river or sea for disposal. incoming water fl~ through a coarse filter to eliminate large particles. enmgy and __ meD:1bnnee .. As population densities in cities increase. 'Ibm a fast . At the plant. It also involves heavy investment in pipes.activating valve is Memtec's system - 35 - . Regulations governing water quality are being lightened in response.. allowing liquid to pass.. transport accounts for about 80% of waste . That is IIDIIIll enouab to exclude bacteria and viruses. B pollution.. Its contimMJusmicrolihndion system 00I1IiIts cI .i~:~t~. Pedlaps the real diatinctive cl the 1)IBtfmI. to drinking water in Yokohama..' Conventicmal· nHmflllrltim systems dislodge solids that have lICCUDIUlated m the 8lIdace of their ~ by ~ filtered liquid back through them at high speed. as it takes 1 million litres of water to transport 200 litres of waste. but blocking particles larger than O. 2 micrometre&... 1he walls of the boIlow fibres are bWdr poIOUI. The project's focus is to evaluate systenB that use sophisticated filtration techniques based on mr. as 44 % of Japanese on septic homes are connected to eew •• bulb. This takes a lot u. In Japan._doItdf'~ by Mantee. These systems typically date back to the last century. . Paragraph 0 4. an Austmwhiclt~. pacbd ~ of thin polyethylene fibres.water systems. But they would prefer not to spend a fortune on pipes. appropriate methodt for treating waete water are needcompmies are eyeing ~ ed urgently. say filler! half -811 hour. engineerins treatment marlrets b. then through a sand fIlter + remove smaller particles and bacteria But because viruses are small ~ to to slip through sand.ii?' > . the water still must be disinfected with chlorine and left c stand for several hours before it is drinkable. Indeed. Authorities are aIao looking to ystems and the ~ tIJl8"8de backward in&astructure.: . adopI8 a different approach. Japan. but oonvenbonal treatment systems are not up to the job. and they are based on principles known to the Romans. This is inefficient.. Pamgraph F 6. Paragmph E 5. under lian axnpany.. comes from a plant that originated in 1887. At n!plar intervale.

volume markets such as is trying to persuade other large engineering companies to desJgij~~-tJ:l1~l'~1~H!icliiZtr~:ra"~ systems. Some villl8e& have evolved. Japan is facUig a IJ'IOre principle for cleaning microfiltIa- serious problem of W88te .opened to reduce the pressure on the outside. the membrane cleans itself'. Compression and sudden decompft'lJ6ion are the baaic ~ tioo filters developed by Memlec. the A S 2 . high value . The wall of water is powerful enough to lift the solids off In effect. One of the conventional treatment systems ts made up of coarse filler. Conventional water treatment systems include micro6ltation. Yes No Not Gtveo 7. The benefits to the environment will he huge. 36- . Questions 7 . if the statement does not agree with the writer. if the statement agrees with the writer.water diapoeal than Auetralia.tWi!1' stalemtnts agree with the view. 9. in such a way that by cannot be killed by chlorine.13 3heet write. The still. wine. they will be cheap to operate. The company has already demonstrated that its me1rnbrMii~un::lE Conn the core of what is believed to be the world's largest continuous microfiltmtioo plant buih at Blackheath in the Blue Mountains near Sydney. Measurements showed that the filtered water contained no bacteria or viruses.13 Do the followiTI(I on )'fJUT an.<i of tire writer of ~ p~ l? In bo:r. 8. the surface. And because it is not subject to stress.. pushing the liquid out of the pores. the filter lasts for several years.efficient. 12. F Memtec's system has been successful to in low . During 21 weeks of trials. sand.water treatment. Septic tanks in Japan are part of the modem technology of waste . tralised plants connected by hundreds of kilometres of pipes can be replaced with compact units located next to the communities they serve.s 7 .added applications. II.e. and chlorine. Huge cen- G Plants such as this have the potential to revolutionise water .pressurised air inside the fibre bursts across the membrane. Because the plants are energy . has scaled treatment up its membranes for use in high . beer and sake. 7 million) plant treated 3 million litres of sewage daily. 10. returning the water they treat to adjaoent streams.treatment infiastructure. It is used widely in the drinks business filter fruit juice.. it was cleaner than the river into which it was released.3 million (US $ 1.volume. In fact. if there is no information about this in the paseage.

when there is sufIn its essentials. the lowlanders also raise pigs.. and wild vegetables and heJbal medicinell are gatheled and wild game bunted in the ~ ~ up the hillsides. beans. and are a 8CJIUroe cl wood for household utensils. The forest5 also serve . Fa ale to be tOund in the streams and in the irri- gation system and wet rice fields. The water in the of reservoir et the top. hut by • aeries rl harriers bunches of bamboO or saplinp which allow silt.bottoms.fields above the villages. which is dWetted into a main channel (lam 1D1IIII) and from there into the different Fields.. dUIcharges back into the same stream at a point below the bottom field. Practicing wet . and fanninc tools. a trRWlg lui system consi8t:& of a tmaIl . meet: " . Stdionl The lowland cooununitie8 have developed an agricultwal system adapted to.. The MIWTItI F ooi Irrigat. grazing grounds Cor cows and butralo. cooking fuel. com and native vqetables are .ion SyRem <if Nottilem or Northem SectioD 1 strearm and rice fields dominate the landscape. 80il and liliiii to pal 1hrouP.rice agriculture in the val1ey . ~ in hill. 4 OOMtructed Water from the lam muang is measured out among the fanners aooonting to the extent of their rice fields and the amount of water available from the main charmel. is $lowed or held beck not by an impervious dam. Thailand Northern Thailand consists mainly of 101'18 IOOWltaln chains interspersed with valley bot:torM where Most of the remaining forests of the North are found at higher altitudes.13. Rice. ducks and chickens and cultivate vegetable prdens in their villages further up !he slopes.. The 8y81ftn'. Reading Passage 2 You are advised to spend aOOut 20 mimaes on QruJstitms 14 . Cleaning and replacing filters could be a technical and financial problem to many microfiltmtion plants. and partially detemrining the distinctive ecosystems of their areas. oonstruction. SedIoa 3 voir which feed& an intricate. into a 8treIm above the bip!et rice 6eld and. SectIon. branch~ ing network of small channels cmying waler in camuny ~ quantities IfuOugh cluatem of rice terraces in valley bottoms. The forests ensure ~ seasonal rainfall for the whole area and at the same time moderate l'LUlOff 80 that there is water throughout the year.25 sage 2 • . poviding both food and peel oontrol. ficient water. Al80 considered are the height of the 37 - .

be maintained and channels dredged. nels.19 on your you CUMWer sheet. this arrangement encourages everyooe to take care that no part of the system is unduly favored or neglected . when it i!l necessary to use nature for the necessitie8 of life. and it must he used in accord many the whole.p. Section 5 Rituals and beliefs connected with muang faai reflect the villagers' submission to friendship with nature. - 38 - . NB: 'J"'he7f! are more headings thnn sections. each local household often ends up with scattered hol~ over the whole irrigstion areas.raiiiinl:aged punish humans. the systems also rest on the assumption that local water is common property.t 14 . rather than an attempt to master it. Section 7 The fundamental principle of water rights under muang faai is that everyone in the system must gel On enough to survive. Unlike modem irrigation systems. simultaneously begging pardon for their actions. under which the most poweri"ul people generally end up closest to the sources of water.le1Il~fit8hu- mails. none can violate this basic tenet. The way in which Il1ll8II@ faai systems expand tends to reinforce further the claims of conxnunity security over those of In the gradual process of opening up new land and digging connecting chan- individual entrepreneurehi. no one has the right to an eseessive amount of fertile land. their distance from the main channel and their soil type. how conflicts over water use are to be settled. control of it by force. if certain boundaries are overstepped an~lj)1~ii?f. of great value and power. No one can take with the communal agreements. Thereiore . In mou villagers see thing. within 8 sometimes They govern how barriers and how the single village.L) in fx«e.. The size and depth of side . Choose ~ most suiIahk IreaJing for each J«tion from tire Jist of Iu~ (A . Section 6 Keeping a muang faai system going demands cooperation and collective management. sometimes across throe or four different sub districts including many villages. But at the same time. villagers talCt' care to inform the spirits what they intend 10 do. ~i!<l\iAtttlnfiitiCJ. Write the appropriIJU Jeuer (A .. f( uest around the reservoir is to be preserved as a guarantee of a steady water supply and a source of malerials to repair the system. Questions 14 .L) belnw. so will not use all of them . Although there ate inequalities in land holding. This power has a tavloral~leI~l~lt(i.19 Reruiing Passage 2 has 7 s«tions.channels an' then adjusted so that only the allocated amount of water flows into each fanner's field.fields. rules or common agreements how waler is to be distributed. are 10 how flow is to be controlled according to seasonal schedules. while many patterns of distribution are possible. The arrived at during the yearly meeting amount to a social contract.

Usee's rights K. Agricultural practices J. Maintaining natural balances I . . To 1Jnt Wonb for in bo«es 20 . (20)···.t ttIaid& amriauIe the IFIIMJI\f fo4i irrigation 5')'3- - 39- . Use q. tJwe main Jt1udure.. Section 3 17..-. User's obligations L Community control 14.List of Headinp A.SlS Hill fields Villages Valley bottom Question 24 From the list below. Area Activity Getherq •.. Section 4 18.·..' . 'J~~~iii: .. Village life G .i from each space.. Section 7 QuesIWns 20 . ¥Iect ~ rem. wi1c18IIiak ~·"(2t) ~'"(23)''' .23 on your answer ~. . Water distribution principles H. "'. (22).mmities. The forests of Northern Thailand D.23 Select wotd.· ~ RaUi.. Topography of Northern Thailand C.. Section 6 19..JIg •.. Write your The chart ~ atlnCJen Pa. Structure of the irrigation system system E . Preserving the F. below illustrates the agrlcuhural syateID of the lowland con. Section 2 L6.uoge 2 10 fill the spaces in the cIaon.. Rituals and beliefs B. Section I 15.~ FOft'.

as the EJ. social status E.-----. D_ barriers E. saplings -------. because the flaws that ~ the Estonia to sink are sIw-ed by most RO ..--. reservoir C. A.range result could be a financial disaster for !hipowners since the accident has called into question !he safety of welded pennanendy fJ'l)lll thousands of similar ships worldwide.. 2 other The reassurance is needed. it is the pounding of stonny seas or the shock of collision.. '" said IMO spokesman Roger Kohn. they quickly DlO8t: the (lImfinned what shipping experts feared huge bow door of the 15566 .~~~ Reading Passage 3 F.-~ . the feature that makes them among the moet etl"tcient and profitable vessels afloat. All are equipped with large dool'1l forward and aft to pennit quick loading and un88 Joading of trucks. "The RO . N. and the U. wate_.r_8_vw_'1_ab_1_e ---J You sIwubi spend about 20 mimaes on Que.. water Question 25 From the list below.RO ships are -40- . field characteristics D. "Nothing will be excluded.salvage experts found the wreck of the ferry Estonia last week.~-~. dam F.ed bow doors shut.ton ship was gone.tonia. When such a door is in the 00'11'.. height of barriers 100UT' to f~~~~ B. The longer . A. The immediale consequence was the loss of the ship and more than 900 of the 1051 passengers and crew on board. '8 International Maritime Organization launched an extensive off femes plying the seas study to detennine what ahould be done about some 3600 mher roll. fees paid l_~_l~t~n of~. Several oount:Ms swiftly onJer. 39 which are based on Reading Passage 3.------. 28. selec: two crueruifor allocating ~-------"-~. buses and cars.RO ships. channels B.rtions 26 .----.on roll- the Arctic coasts of RU88la to the arehipelagos of the Pacific. But as the Estonia showed-and especially vulnerable to many naval architects have warned-huge 00 doors so near the waterline are dangerous weak points. "The public must be reMSured that evetything poeeible is being done . The Reason Wby 1 When underwater . ripped away whil(~ the vessel plowed through a stonny Baltic Sea shortly after midni9l1 on Sept..

ing in...ROe. 5 small Once the water was ~scad.." two or three strong blows" about half an hour before the cap6ize. otherwise it can be fatal .far less than would sink a regular ship . 6 Faced with the pmepect of further accicIentB and Ii public con&deace in RO .oould lead 10 the .. "The crew has to be highly conscientious.nation investiga- It would have been too late". crew would have been hard pressed to save the Estonia that 3 But even the most conscientious night. That means loading and unleave a large . ooeting a nearly prohib.ald he a 10M fl public oonfidence in the shipe and official demand& fur extensive. a nxmber of tive commission. 60 .. ~. The altemative co. At least three femes .dly of bow doom.can tum a nonna1 rolling motion into a ca:nplele capsize in only a matter of seconda. Margus Trw.room crewman.IIDd unprr. to stop waler from swgjng back and forth over the open decks. Investigatln surmised that the locking pin snapped unnoticed sometime during the scheduled overnight crossing &om Tallim to Stockholm. was assured by the cavernous vehicle decks that are t anolher essential feature of RO . But such bulkheads. tllpe:c.to .ROs can never be .space loading will be to throuP to tum the rear doors alMe. Murky underwater videos taken last week showed a broken locking pin hanging loosely where the huge. ooetly modifications that wooId lurtber reduce profits.e in their bow doors and were barred from sailing until repairs are made. Sweden and Finland ordered that all bow doors on ships under their jurisdictioo be welded *' permanently abut."." he said.m door..whether by accident or during a collision .-Otable . such shipe are vulnerable to a sudden loss of stebility. 80 opendoI8l1lU8t allow vehicles around at the end of the trip...because the entire bridge crew perished .." says Danish shipbuilding consultant Jens l)algaard. Many safety experts inaiet that RO . When he abandoned ship and watched it sink. the outer bow door was gone.e. 7 Welding the doors closed may be the maritime equivalent of cloIing the t. As the ship drove at 15 knots through 6 . It was an alien sound. shipping authorities throuPaUt Europe ordemd .100 bow door should have been attached. An inner door lay partly open. A relatively of water .ceilins bulk· heads are installed to limit the movement of i. fatal caprize that MIlk the Estonia.undoubtedl y more dangerous Ihan other ship types.nooming water." three . With no bulkheads amounl or walls.RO design.m seas. unleaI sturdy deck .RO fleets. "These blows shook the whole ship. he reported. 4t - . "said Tuomo Karppinen.in Dennunk and Norway . rapid doom. itive $ 9COOOOpership. leaving a meter wide gap that had let in enough water to destabilize the ship.were found to have fatigue cracks or faalty looking mechanism." But there's really nothing the crew could have done. "This was not a natural sound. and the dangerous bam itself is still there in the fonn d abe open vehicle decks. The investigators said they had no inklins as to whether the captain and male of 8 the watch knew that the bow door had been lost . Such vea&eJs might be safe. but they would no longer be RO . the broken pin allowed the 4 A surviving engine . however. The failure of any waterline door . would impede the movement of vehicles.

The owner of FBtonia did not loee nruch because both the ship and the prawmgers' lives had me8I'III been properly insured. write False if it is fols«. 8 in boxes 26 . Question J9 Which one of the following was the least likely cause for the disaster'? - 42- .Questions 26 . 38. More than 900 people died.RO ship.32 1'1re fol/. Indicate the chronological order of the eteru« by writing 1 . In boxes 33 . buses and cars to drive onto and off the ship. RO .owing are what happened to Enonia . 2 • . The ship capsized. The pressure of the waves forced the door open.following s«UemenU are true or false according to the injorrntJtioo provided in Reading Pa. 33.RO ships are more efficient and profitable because they have a laIger capacity for various kinds of cargo.. 31.RO ships. wrUe Not Given . Two or three strong blows were heard. Fewer people would have died if tIl()I'e life . 29.38 Decitk if tM. If there is M in/orma. 35. financial lose becauee the ship will carry fewer 37.ssage 3. Both the bow door and open vehicle decks JXI8e safety hazards to RO . 34. The ship sank. Open vehicle decks allow trucks.38 on your answer sheet. and oth£r similar ships. write:lhw if a stalemenl is true. 36. 30. 28. Questions 33 . A locking pin snapped unnoticed. Welding the bow door pennanently shut vehicles.. 32 . Bow doors were welded pennanently shut.tiAm about a statement. 27.saving facilities had been available. some of the people on board.32 on your answer sheet • An 26. which is why it is called RO .

faulty locking mechanisms E. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the process shown. The diagram below shows the typical stages of consumer goods manufacturing.A. sailing speed G. open vehicle deck F. a door in the bow B. - 43 - . fatigue cracks D. stormy seas Writing Test Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. doors near waterline C. in- cluding the process by which lnfonnation is fed back to earlier Slages to enable adjust- ment. You should write at least 150 words.

v 4.J!:tm ~ JtftB microfiltration ~11I r mlit tt 1'& J!i lia iii~ . BJf:ltt9sandfil. knowledge and experience and support your arguments with exam- ples and relevant evidence. Present a written argument or cast' to an educated ing topic. i 2. II. You should use your own ideas. Sewage system!: T it Septic: IPC . ~ ~ 0 No ~C Septic tanks: Yes No it~ We. <>tilers claim that men are just as good women at parenting. vii 3.MjL'lHto 13.&TiiJltm~ * 1£* * 0 t Yes" -44- .II .JlJ~*tHI1it!.i!:"'fflr!t£~f£. Reading Passage 1 Questions 1 . *'ili::. 12. ix 6. least 250 words.ik".~mB&~R9sandfiltero 0 71r 0 -~lifl~dIlU'I~JiJi~ ::ttp*lI~~lf~. You should write al of view . reader with no specialist knowledge of the follow- Many people beDeve that women make better parents than men and that tim is why M they have the greater role in ndsing children in most sociedes.p tt!J could be m1! *.ts ~ •m*trt fJI ifU91PJ IIJ!J-. 9.:li-"'Jitt*¢ Not Given Yes ~Bmo Not Given X If !tJlJ i!WJ 1. vi 7.lltM.13: l. xi 5. it !lHIi B Iiit JlJ MJ *:lI:JI/J~ 0 Microfihration: tt:li ill.nla Infmstructure: •• tfJ ~~ it. E a_ mo 3 0 til 0 r &f[Q 8. J!!Ilm Ollfll E N.~ . ycHH' poiftt Write an egay expreBDg Give reasons for your ~. 10. septic Ianks J!1iJ tf JJfijl tI9" ]! i& tI9 iiJtHi 0 0 * Jt conventiooal: ~~ tI9 . Yes E ft itB~7 Memtec ~ P] if Jfi ft(J IiM' tftst:1J t& • lIt:1J t!tt ge Ja • tl:I.Wridng Task 2 You should spend about 40 minutes on this task .

Reading PuIage 2
Questions

14 - 25

14. B 15. E 16. I 17. G

18. L 19, J
20. two correct out of: vegetables, herbal medicines) herbs t wood

21. two correct

out

of: rice.

beans.

rom,

(native)

v~~

22. lwo correct out of: pigl;!. ducks, chickens 23. (wet) rice I (fISh) 24. E, A. D [any order] 25. Two correct out of: F. A. C (any order J

Redng Passage 3

Aft~~*x.~YmM~~,~~.M._&~*.~ ••
o

j'H.M ... t)~I~"T

1994"f: 9 ~ 28 a tEbUI#.ttM.lf$.~.'fmlit

•.1t.8~

QueatIom 16 ...39

26 32111.J.".,jt~."jIJ.f£.tlJllo ... - •• ar ,"' •• TI.V.~~.$(iiJ • tt9- tit.:if'iX ft! 19lt" ,J!£ .. t!J .!tiE."'IItQ•• " ••• ~1ir ..~ ~!P ••
t(§Ij~,",.-ilMiM~.~ilfl)CJ
26.7 V.2 28.S

••• 29.8

.-1'-Jr..
o

0

~it •• ~~ •••••
30.1
31..6

3..4 ..6.0

33. False ~.Jft*.~liiJft#U$1t •• 1ii•• 34. Not Giwn 35. Not Given 36. True 31. True 38. True 39. False

611:0 bow door t$1&l •• ~~:X,opeD d6ck.U61to Ro - Ro: dl 011 _ roll., 1IPj*($*.t3f,""F,o- 8.0'- Ro allipt •••

It.

~*o

32.3

e

WrkIoa Task 1
M08t sale.
COIl8WDel'

goods 8:J tIuouF a aeria cL ......

before

tber tIIDSp

..

finiehed ~

D!Ittdy for

Raw materials and manur.ctured ~ oompriee the initial phyHcal • in the manufacturing process. Once obtained, these are stored for later UlsnWy. But JIIM!IIIbIy tint cIepeads upon the production planning sbJ8e. where it ie decided how aod in what quantiCiea Ihe IIOIed I1IIdeIials will be processed to ereate sufflCimt quantities « finished goods. The production planning stage i1Belf fullows the requirements of the goods' design '.

that proceeds from extensive reeearob. After asaembly. the products are

-.u-

inspected and tested to maintain quality control. Those units that pass the inspection and testing stages are then packaged. despatched and offered for sale in retail outlets. The level of sales. which is the end point of the manufacturing process. A product's design is the finished product.
not

helps determine production planning.

only the result of prodOCI research, but is also influenced by testing and market

market research • If the testing stage (after assembly and inepectien) reveals unacceptable problem:-; in then adjustments will have to be made 10 the product's design. Similarly,

research. which examines the extent and nature of the demand for products, has the role of guiding produet design to sui.t consumer demands which may change with time. le influenced by
product sales, also serves to foster future sales by devising

Thu... the reality of consumer goods manufacturing goes\lI. "~;\w~~~mpltelin .
('eM.

(246 WQIds) Writing Task 2

The view that women are better parents than men has shown itself
13 not to say that men are result of their conditioning.
not

to

be true tlnwghout history. This

of importance in child - rearing; indeed, they are Il108t necc:uery if children

are to sppreoiete fully the roles of both sexes. But women have proven. themselves superioI-parents
their lees aareWve
IJAture&

as a

lind

their geneully better communication skills.

From the time they are little girls, females learn about nurturing. Fim! with dolls and later perhaps with younger brothers and sisters , girls are given the role of carer . Girls see their rnoIheB in the same ll!Ile8 amd.
80 .it ,is

natural that they idemify this as a female activicy. 'Boys, in. oontraat. leem competitive
it
tneanI

roles far removed from ...

to nurture.

While boys may dream.of adtenlure8, girls' conditioning it is men, not women, who prove ...
1tQt;

means they tend to see the fulWe irI tenns of raising families. GirlH elso appear to be less aggressive than boys. In adulthood, be the
aggte$S018

to

in crime and in war. ObviGuely,: inl1lWing~
resort to

patient. geptie'manner is

preferable to a more aggressive one. Although there certainly exist gentle men

and agmsaive. wtmen. by
in inteJliFnce tests,
~i.cation
;'.

and large. females are less likely to

violence in attempting to solve problem.",

Finally. women tend to be better comroonicatom than men. Thie is, ~
where females. on average, do beHer in "er:baI.communic.M:ion &hai"'~' of utmost imp:IlUace 1ft- ~ styles of their parents. Thus, while it is all vel)' well to that
WlJI1leJl

or~,

is

children, as children tend
&uge81

tol

MemJ ~'Iana:t!adopt

the CIIIIItooJlica.tion
.~
"

a greater role for men ill raising children, let us

not

forget

are genendJ.y better suited to the parenting role. '(303 wrda)

i ':

I

.'

,.

-

.~

-46-

INTERNATIONAL EN TESTING SYS
PRACTICE TEST( Version Four)

GE

ACADEMIC READING TEST

AlL ANSWERS MUST BE WRITIEN ON THE ANSWER SHEET
The test is divided as follows: Reading Passage 1 Questions I - 13 Questions 14 - 27 Questions 28 - 40

Reading Passage 2 Reading Passage 3

Start at the beginning of the lest and work through it. Your should answer all the questions. If you cannot do a particular question leave it and go on to the next . You can return to it later.

-

47 -

Reading Passage 1

The Call of the

A

'lhe monotonous shrill of cicadas fills the humid air as a dozen orange - colored apes swing from
at

branches and vines. It is alroost feeding time

the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Center. and the res-

idents are impatiently waiting for their human caretakers to bring them their morning meal. Located 24 km from the city of Sandakan near the northern coast of Malaysian Borneo, this 4000 - hectare rain - forest reserve is a temporary home for orphaned young orangutans. people who had been illegally keeping the apes where their mothers had been killed in lagging
can take years.
88

Some were taken by Sepilok rangers from
to .. rehabilitate" the orto

the pets; otheIS were brought in from lumber camps the wild. The process

acciden~. The center's mission is

angutans by breaking their dependence on human beings and reintroducing them

B
,

Twenty - five staff ~

watch over the 80 animals at Sepilok and play 00st
to

to

the 150 or 27,

more visitors who stop by on DlO6t days. "The main thing is consetV8tion, " says ReynanJ Gondipon, the center's veterinarian.
lJOI1 CQnIlClOUB.
• It

"We try to get the local people

love the animals and become more conserva-

c

Newly - arrived orangutans are carefully examined and then placed in quarantine.

In the begin-

ning, they cry much of the time, seeking aft'ectioo by stretching out their 10118 antVI toward anyone who walks by their cages. "h's difficult when the onmgutane come in very ytlWlg." says Gondipon. "1 urge
the rangers to hug them every now and then. But later on, we
try

to reduce contact. or else they will 00-

come too accustomed

to

us.

to

D
they
are

After a few months of quarantine,

the young orangutans are slowly introduced to the surrounding
age of two,
near

jungle. At first they spend about two

bows a day playing in the open. Once they reach the
the platform where they

allowed to

roam

freely, though they instinctively stay

are

fed. bni-

luting their elders, the youngsters leam to climb, swing in and jump from trees, build sleeping nests and

search for food.

E
Iy bland

At this stage> dependence on humans still runs deep. Twice a day, rangem lug red plastic buckanimals nourishing meal of bananas and. milk; the fare is deliberateto

ets to the feeding platfonn to give the

f'<trre the

young

orangutans to look for other food for themselves. "During the froiling season.

-48-

. once a pet. The word used to II visilonl" is used a mmber rltims in the ~ (. "This encourages them to go into the forest to find their own . But there are exceptions. The target popuJation of the Orangutan Rehabilitation Center are (plea. a dozen apes swing in from the jungle and.. . B. Here they have little contact with people but are atiU brou@bl food to ~ ground.. the . ) are moved 10 a aet'dld ~ 88 pIaIban . 1. Boy ambles toward a woman and reaches for her pume Sylvia Abi.. says Gondipoo. I The rangelS see the apee' fliAht from lite c. of the oranJ gutans are so tame that they wrap their gangly arms around the guests. .m. An ~ is Jojo. bnuthing oft' the oocasionalleecb that tumbles onto them from the trees above. on . they are aI80 Ie. not before the orangutan has and G touclling the animals.... by people." At first 8 there is Iitt1e reeponse to the feeden' howls. QumkJns 1. pull themselves up to the platform. The modter. Then the ~ lID rustle oveJhead.3 Choo. though no all. in -. oil _ the tOn. C and H). It is refer to A.we also decrease the amount." whispers Janet liew. both people and apes. 3 1.. When a YOOllg ape. who di8cJiiliis1l~ with prancing and posing for a curious audience.• a pd.t. and after the mea1 are joined by some of the apes.' flashee . "The woman pulls away . apes only. " says Condipon. On a platfonn near the a way of telling the apes out in the forest that it is meal- few people are waiting neaaby.te daowe hOO) A.Ihoogh eaten her map of Sepilok. A By the sse of nine •. Someone '8 up there. "1 see her. The rangers hand out bananas as the animals take turns sticking their heads in a bucket for gulps of milk . High above in the overhead canopy. .. C. . So.+. 2. interested in studying their human observers. B..eto. 31 t who . the mother cradles her baby and caniee it. "Don't touch him. 24 who heads the J center's education division. . Most. 3. " On this day. -41 . kilcJmeter away. come &om Sandakan. ease with them. shakes a stick at the ape and yells. "Boy! ""Excuse me. we let Jojo do the job b them . orangutans fonnerly kt:!Jl& M petzr.t then some milk.. F On most morning'! visitors gather on a nearby knoll to watch the feeding. J amt.'" she tells the visitor. two feeders bellow like onmgutan8 1beir diet.. rather than let the H time. It is very hard trying to rehabilitate 10jo. Down comes female ol8Jt8UtaD with infant clinpJs to her. "he doesn't WlUlt to climb and be once fell from a tree and broke his visitors touch all the other 00IIJ8IIlan8..aip: III it shows that 88 the ani- mals become lees dependmt on people for food.aooepQo a few banan. He'U bite.. people mly.te 1M appropriaIe ldw / ldtm and Mile' it / IItmr.ow annoer shed . F.

...l '.. 24 km from the city of Sandakan. . bar.wer sMet.~.~..anas apd milk.. ~ ~.IIIIs.'-''' ~-. WhiCh parigtaph JI1€lh6ms more exptieitly that the· Iangers are al. ~ offered !D the OI'8JlgUtans . 'Wonb from gop.13 on.. 1-.~emeel"es in . to further re. Mter eeveral years the orangutans are moved to a second feeding ptatfonn .• RIJodirw. 3.I of the fJ{fN'OpI'iale pa1'OfJtCIpIr& in boxes 4 and 5 on your cw.. Reduce food during fruiting season. Qwstiom 4 . 'M . - !to - . Move the feeding place. (10) ..witb~ . 13 Complete the following the ~ for ~ .. .. people for food and eventually be able to fend for . E. B... ". (7) ••• home for about 80 orangut.~ 2. (6) . Borneo..swm No Mmi 77IIm 71tru..' ~ an. limit the dany food.. (9) .. _ : t duee ~i~ :.. . • .. ~ ... ...' r' ::. people in Sepilok .. wild animals in the area. to D..B. Which one of the following is not the rangers' effort help the orangutans to he less dependent on people? A. it gives them a chance to leam to be less ••• (8) .s on QuaIitNa·H" .5 Readin& Passage 1 has 9 parogrophs marked Ii .'(12~ '~:wi~r. Answer q61jfiiiilj"1/ I . I.. Wliichpanignlph says that!lOinl'!)'<lUng onmgutah8 eail be dl1ugeroos? 5. . A •.. __ ILl' _. Reduce rangers' physical contact with them.hieving their pwJXI6e? Questions '6 ..)'OIU ~ Jwet.which is seen as Reading Passage 2 You should spend about 20 mimcte. • _ . Write your in ~ 6 . y~ orangutans whose mothers have been killed... D. 4.:(t~~~ . Brush off the occasional leech that tumbles onto them. ..•• ( 11) . .. They~Y an indicator of the rangers' stJCCfJ(!6. orangutans living in the wild.~e. C. On a platfOlJll ~ the ground. L.siunnUu:r o/Reading Passage· 1. ... A center to rehabilitate ~ fOlPlg. ~~ is ruIJ ~ eocne OOIl5eIV~on •. ''".. '. C..

meaning of will .l force. have confirmed that this protein is indeed the blood factor that makes fal mice thin. creating a sort of artificial Siamese twin..~j'll~L'--~ Amge n. or obese. ~~ :~. for one.~_~. Hesearehers nrust first demonstrate that leptin benefits people as weU as rodents and that it causes no serious side effects.. So he began to hlUlt for such a gene.l' Calif . Friedman. 5 Because leptin is produced in fat tissue. Fnedman and his colleagues pinpointed the ob gene in both average . however. mediately began to lose weight. the ob. everything reverses. when Douglas Coleman. providing at long last detectable quantities of the protein they called lep- 4 By injecting leptin into obese mice. including Friedman's. They then inserted the tin. 2 The search for leptin began in the 1960s.. at least. marvels Friedman. NQnnal mice then respond to weight gain by turning out more leptin. "These animals. . and metabolism slows.Loss Nirvana A substance thai makes fa.' _~ the biiotee hnicalfi Inn ~ l.. after the G : ~~ . In uorrua u:.S.. applying new tools developed by the field of molecular genet ice .size mouse . one that played a vital role in regulating appetite and metabolism. As a result. it buoyed the spirits of millions of lifel :. hunger pangs increase. experiments. three separate teams of researchers. a researcher at the Jackson LaboMaine.weight and obese mice.~ Wi.he reasoned. gene. In fact.-". But the obese mice cannot produce leptin. the news carried by the journal Science ·th un< _ last week-lhat Friedman and his colleagues at the Howerd Hughes Medical Institute and New York City's thetock \ • Rockefeller University had discovered a magieal potion that melts fat in a matter of weeksIN. But they are still trying to puzzle out just how it works. This suggested that the blood of nonobese mice carried a potent biochemiagent was present in such minuscule quantities that no one was able to isolate il. the more leptin its cells should speeds up. Momentarily. the brain strives 10 keep body weight stahle and fluctuations small. When leptin is high.The secret faetor. it appears leptin may act in a feedback loop like the temperature sensor in a thermostat - or in this case a .. In such fashion. Sure enough. late last yem. 3 Friedman picked up the challenge.S. after eight years of effort. so their make. for human use. non gene into bacterial cells. whether this me elixir+called leptin . .IB. began studying a strain of obese laboratory mice. In a series of ingenious the fat animal imBut the mysterious ratory in Bar Harbor. it could be five to ten years before Ieptin is approved in the U.Weight . t IS too slender) be a stunning pharmsoeutical success or just another "miracle" cure that never pans oul. fatstat " - to tell the body whether to turn metabolism and appetite up or down. mice thin just might work for humans too 1 In the U. the falter an animal is. early to predict. Coleman surgically joined the blood vessels of an obese mouse to those of a normal . Even if all goes well.mist be produced by a gene thai was defective in the obese mice.. body temperature drops.. the brain. thet holds the liteense on -(. get fat because they think - 51 - . Thus when leptin is low. where one in three adults is seriously overweight. WhaL happened then was astonishing: cal messenger. their appetites slacken and their energy consumption brains never receive this vital message.".

if anything. however. Just because researchers have rot noted womsooJe side efyet. reversing more typical cases of weight gain. cm. Most experts. the discovery of leptin is occasion for celebration. the obese mice started regaining weight as soon as the injectiUlS stowed." he pre- diets. weaken muscle ~ leptin appears 10 weight. many fi whom have been struWing to keep their weight in check. Leptin. they point out. In the labomIory experirnenIs reportOO last be eiiher in.years of guilty eating and self .fat food.e No MIRY 17tan TIwe Wonlr from WI'Ik your CIlU'MIerS in bo:uo." People will still have to lose weight the hard way.America alone." 9 Regardless of what eventually happens in the marketplace.swallow" thin pill" dieters have dreamed ri foc so long. - 52 - . tum lean mice into starving wretches.LaRoche described h not useful for many other overweight people.they're starving." It'll be like diabetes: you still have to exercise an! watch yrur food intake. does not IretUl that none will ~. In .21 on your QI'Lt'Wflf" Wet.rti0n8 Dr. AJ. CJtoo.s 14 .may finally he on the way. the ~)nnerly fat cannot afford to becorre less vigilant. an obesity expert at the Medical College of WlSCOI'ISi. concur that defects in the ob gene are not likely be therapeutically IQ be a major reason for obesity in people. as one might fear. there are more than SO million aeriously '''(14)·'' people. leptin would probably have Imler the skin for life. one that probably consists of many other equally powerful oompounds. To the milliOll8 of seriously overweight Americans.m:l Kissebah. On the basis of such data.n. then stop losing t food intake and their metabolism. nonnal mice stabilize both their Obese mice likewise reaeh an optimal leanness . To 00 its l«ll'k.21 Complete the f~ the pwsage for each an. For humans have an oh ¥ene that is virtually identical to the mouse gene. company Hoffmann . 7 What about side effects? Injections of leptin do not.tKIi!'I'. each of which could lead to new drugs. 8 fflCts h) Many experts find these plans too optimistic. does this have to do with people? Perhaps a good deal. The pattern of weight loss is also encouraging . is a serious drug. and then when we give them the protein. Even with a hoo3t &un sorrething like leptin. After losing weight. '!'ben the. summary of Reading Passage 2. not the easy ~ to . researchers from Amgen reported. Quntions 14 . for example. they get thin because they think they're fat!" 6 What. sponded by cutting their food intske and shedding the extra grarm. and it is possible that at least some folks have trouble keeping off kilos because of a mutation in this gene. critics say. For unlike extreme calorie restriction which can dissolve fat while leaving lean tissue intact. But that does not mean leptin might In last week '8 Science. a team (If researchers from the phannaceutical mice by giving them unrestricted access to high .ectOO daily or ~ week. The news cani. help with a ~ condition .ed by Science is the best these people could hope for. It has provided scientists with a new avenue for exploring a still poorly understood metabolic pathway. Amgen (which paid Rockefeller University S 20 million for patent rights to make products based on the oh gene ) has announced that it hopes to begin conducting human trials as early as next year.recrimination .

.27 Do tIu! following 27 on YOUT answer suuemenu agree with the views of the wriler of Reading Passage 2? In boxes 22 - shett wriiI! Yes No if the statement agrees with the writer. on the other hand. and appetite..s successful trials on humans. 23 .According to Dr. After reaehing-: (20 ) . of leptin.4f) which are bated on Reading Passage 3.. cannot produce leptin and therefore their"'( •••aft: 18) led to believe that they need more food. gene. • this gene.I. he found Ieplin. 26. many experts and should be dealt with extra caution. Instead.. wiU be available to people in need through doctors' prescriptions.. Both obese mice and nonnal mice have leptin in their bodies..they stop losing weight. ( 16)' .. If· . Friedman never found abe gene that was believed to control weight. h will not be a silver bullet in ter it. Reading Passage 3 You sJwukl spend about 20 minute3 on Qutstions 28 . 80th obese mice and normal mice have the oJ. Dr. The ob gene causes the fat cells to produce the honnone leptin .. Friedman..gene . overweight people will still have to Qtustions 22 . keeps mice eating and (I7 ) . After being given" •( 19) . IT excess leptin is present. the more hormone is produced.. 27.. 53 -- . these mice start con- swning less food and burning more fat. if the statement does not agree with the writer. 25 .related compound called Nonnal mice can produce leptin which keeps-: weight gain in balance.. . Not Given 22.. thus reducing the amount of fat. if there is no information about this in the passage..controlling effect.(15) leptin which adjusts: . Friedman and his colleagues have identified an obese . and gaining weight. Though leptin clearly has a weight. . after being approved by health authorities.. The mort' fat. the brain signals the body to reduce food intake and to become mort' active. 24 .eptin. Obese mice. he and his colleagues have discovered that mice have a gene that is responsible for controlling their weight.. the ob gene.

Paragraph F 33. You may WIt! any of the headings mol? than once + (n An educated mother often way (iii) Woman are still (jV) Puzzles of behind the sexes (v) Areas in which women are better (vi) Education is the most important Mv Great changes taken place in the last M. particularly concerning adult literacy. Paragraph C 30. su. NB: 1hert art more headings than pamgrapks so you will not sm'!U parogrophs A . school enrolment . Paragraph G Oosing the Gap A Striking progress towards sexual equality has been made in the pM! t\ro ~. Write the appropriate numbers ( i-xi) 28 . Paragraph B 29. and maternal mortality rates. Paragraph E 32.iuJhle headings for pamgrapks B in ~ . among the 9O)m -54- .33 Reuding Pass~ 3 h& swer sheet. Choose the mou.G from the l~t of headings below.33 Q1I your an- use all of them.G. Why women are in a disadvantageous OX) Schooling and fertility rate 20 years position (x) Govermnent action needed to help women (XO Mental dift'erences betueen the two sexes 28. Paragraph 0 31.QwsIions 28 . Nonetheless.

Better education reduces fertility in several wa)s. E If improving the in the interests economic opportunities of women brings such benefits . women make up only 7 % . simulatIon study of 72 countries around the world shows that. As one would expect. credit B sled The empirical evidence is strongest in the case of education. omen·" are typically only 60% -1{)% those of men. nclitl-.and this raises c Studies from individual countries point out that one year of female schooling can reduce the [ertilif all doubling female secondary . of increasing their income? To answer this question. In latin America. But there is also a PO" lug l~nsensUS among de\'elopment emnomists lhat it would also do a great deal to promote faster econutrition. rIO women outnumber men by two to one: 60% of the 130m children with w~ access to primary. education is an important factor in raising output. in this way. why do households themselves not allocate their existing resources accordingly. children .<.educated women tend 10 marry later. if women are provided with mort" opportunities for education. better . of both men and women.mak~ 55 - ing body . For any "'or a star1. instance. From a theoretical point of view. dUet~ I the. show that making it "asier for them to borrow can do more poverty and raise investment than lending to men.ih .3 to 3.. examplt'. for little access to credit from t1w formal banking system in most deHowever. other fa£~lors were held constant. however.ase. bUI the World Bank says that there may be other channels too. ferlibt~· implies more capital accumulation per worker . and know more about contracep- o As we" as having fewer children.educated workforee . •• - illitf'ratf' people in poor countries. and thereEvidence from World Bank surveys in fore healthier. access to nomic growth. these findings mise an intriguing question. why do sexual inequalities persist at all? Put anit is necessary to understand how economic decisions other way. A. educated women are more likely to have berterfed.9 children and lowered the nwnber of births by al- most 30%. F Fconomists have customarily thought of thi"'household as a single. or" unitary". -::!"'H" ad- m = . incll'.. studies from Bangladesh. there seem to hf' . f • jJ . and so adds 10 t~ effective cost of bearing children. decision .who will themselves be better educated. is like growth. econornntry's In the ease of women's education. and property rights. First. Few would deny that narrowing this gap yet further would make for a fairer society. it raises the value of women's time. it increases the potential wages that wonlt'n can command.average fertility ralp in 1985 from 5. Because it improves a country' S of human capital. where a veloping countries. women gel disproportionately Vietnam and C6te D'Ivoire suggests that the probability of a child being in school Education and nutrition are the clearest links connecting grealf"r equality and economic growth. for OOITOWet'S. within households are made.school are girls~ and .. Nicaragua. Pakistan. Households were thought to m&ximise their welfare by allocating income and other resources to ..'Ory suggests lhat a better . tion Also. to put ~ly because they are assumed to have no collateral to offer.school enrolments in 1975 would have re- ity ratt' bv between 5% and 10%.11 % of 10 number of schemes steer credit poor women. with the mother's own education. educating women seems to reduct:' fertility. ie th.

.. However. Write yow answers in boxes 14 . decisions bargaining power Hf different household members. patterns of people bt live different occupadons aclecturer. kids and these kids are more likely to . ( 40) . -the Accoo:Iing to of education received by women cone- more education they receive.. Give Write a report for a university 56 - . access It has been found that education c... fail to capture the full benefits pretty obviously.i. according to some economists...l'C\"11'JY~~!l''''~ Women. there does seem to be that promote equal opportunities.!iOllS be in an unfair "(39)"·include.. or both. well as because of outside factors. such as access to credit. Compared with illitbe achieved through other channels. is as c106t': 85 change laws and regulations in ways This to to intervene to correct sexual inequalities. markets fail to capture the full benefits of society or investing in women. Some economists have analysed the household as a .. Alternatively.. as reflected in wages and prices. Writing Test Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes 011 this task. e.being. ami they assume that the welfare of the individual . As a result. case for government action to help women.J. The chart below shows the sleep cording to a QmadIan study. the fewer children they have. members does not necessarily move in parallel with the welfare of the member has his own preferences. ReB.40 on your anstrer sheet. Comp/d. Each family model of household behaviour may be incomplete. position when opportunities for education.•coUectivt':" entity .. desating the information below. in tum. So one rationale for the persistence of inequality.e the following $wnmalJ Woman's situalion all over the world have improved. and women are in a weaker bargaining posi- tion because of social and . World Bank surveys. Studies have indicated that the amount lates with"·(35)· . greater equality and··· (38)"'can for women 10 too. These benefits.. The World to Bank concludes that governments should try. educated mothers tend to have-: (36) . is that markets society of investing in women. wherever possible.the members that promised the highest rates of return. lo:. statistics show that they are sill in a much di~vantageous into consideration. this "unitary" 10 consistent with this view of household decision . tend to be in a weaker G Whether it is to address a market failure or to improve the relative bargaining position of women Ii within the family..{ to of Reading credit and "'(34)"'are taken women is the 111081 important factor in improving women's economic status. 0 4 Passage 3.. are not reflected 10 in wages. Choose No More Than Thrte WonLi from the passage for each answer. Households therefore make choices that fail maximise their well.. (37) . would be both fair and efficient-which Questions 34 . and. economic policy gets a free lunch. erate women. if~.making.

)'~FT$~o -57- ._.. j' I lor .. 'Ibe __ iD ... It -«4.. bIft' ..B...1 iuthIae peopIe'l ideIS.. .ho~~:. .9.. IIIftIt .~!IJ:fllctN~~~l'i"'. ... Passagel (••• )fIJ ~JEo ~JIt.......JttJ:I::~ ~XM~7I~A~~~~ ••W~~~~~~*~~~~... media. ndIo .FT pilla(*II. .... You should use your own ideas. oawake Writing Task 2 You 8houJ.d spend about 40 min:ute6 on Ibis task... wtdt dIIt • . arsuments with exam- R.possible reasons ror tile cIi1fel'elK'eS.... To wII8I GIve Y OIl should write at leaet 2SO WOlds.....'. do yuu. knowledge and experience and support yoor ples and relevant evidence. Present a written argument or case 10 an educated reader with no specialist knowledge of the follow~ ing topic."...

I c. ". tfHHrtr R::fii WJW1I~~:(£ ~ ~ 'P1:. A a:o ¥UJIlJIJ A.H m-.E Ro Q 10. iii. A...'m. a kilometer away 12.J!t~A" I 2. 0 fat ~«iJ!J m.fl)1I!tfjJ1M:(tf. 17.!t.G.11 IiiM • fatness X 0 *:tE X tj:l :±Ill 0 . ~iA:1g f. fJ • A.~ 7 . C . I explicitly: 13JJ IiifI 6. contact 13. F 5. injections 21. the wild/the forest/the jungle W.f*jl P4 leptin{t(J tJ J.tp1i ob ~~ • .'. C . an optimal leanness ~jfl7 1Jt£E fl Ahmed Kissebah 23.ftj. Not Given x~iSt~. 1lJ t$.13 I.~dm41Jj.w '.". § l¥J c implicitly( ~ 9. energy eOrisumpfiori • ![~ 16. A B B n I¥.It leptin ~ • ~ if] tIt.~~Ji!. OlII8Cious 7.tflJfmllfl~ia] 0 .58- * i!I •• ~H$·~6..LIt ii~t-E ~tfl.~~o 14 ..~ 4.t ~~ tlt . A".~ ~ t€i:lX ~:t II it.". 06 ~m~~~.'4'~~···' fei.W 21iJ iIU2*. if :i:11 W fl ~::.. 0 * 0 ~ 0 I 18. ..!1tf*. 0 Reading~2 ~ t.J Jlt..) ( Rl if rfJ .. it it8 JL ~ ~ 1M~ ~ A .RJiJEJW.f ~ Ji BtJ---n ~ If ~ weight gain. obesity mJf~5 am 41lJ brain(.:tit t£ BtJ) w.J~ 7N~ • {EI. JlJ tfJ He M:tiE~ ~ Dr.J!:fP f 1. dependent on A W:fiJ§~iilG A J?i m 3 'iiJ" 1 @It *. E [~~och:*Jt" it A.27 fatstat: 0 14. metabolism Ii.~.' ".8 ~ o 20.m. Yes ..Questions 1 .' ".jft 3 fi.IA!. food intake II9=' Btl keeps-: in balance m j!:I: .~~:St 22. (fi Jlt .t.D :iSJ j.' 15..g • I!~ob ~frW1t Questions Hf.$1'15 ~.' li~m:tMQ lhennoatat: 8iMi •• *:)to"·.gfAi*P:ittIJ .f !li~ 0 ~x*~7M~~~m~ft~~~~~~~~~L~~-~~~~~~~ftW~~m~ . I ItQ H~ ~ I .1to ~Mtf!i'. •• :t. overweight fat ::tf ft J( •l' jf IYf 0 obese1JlI~m 0 iii] 0 .'.~ t£ m13l ~ ~ M. ~ -tJ e f1ft(J tI ffij ~ ~ appetite'. temporary 8.jBE 8 m.) .db~:~1d~.. A .~ . -'''. B. at ease E fi~ 2 llJ !A!.!i...I visitors J\!. brains 19..L B9 ob ~ flUi ~ fiL ~ ~ 7t ~ JIt.1' f6~ *Y 1HiX •.C 3. IiR<J .~.. twice a day 11. ". defectivefit is defective )\!.~:t I. 4lt.4 tiM 3liJ 0 5.

. and start their day 7 a. culture nonns W~Ta!ikl ..t~ ~ . m. i rigbta 31. to 36. Similarly. 011 peJhape because their jobs are eapeciaU. Fmally.fiJ 0 M fII G fitlt -Ii) 0 Differences in sleep patterns appear A Canadian study has pointed out • retlect differences in indivi<mla' occupations. be better educatedIbe in school IP"TifJl£.. they will sleep !tun 10 p.d be . 10 comfort their babies for a couple ci hours.It A Ft. ix 34. Yes ~®~ 26. getting up .*.&JI. (bargaining) . m. m. clDIchen. Another occupation associated with broken Bleep tchad .t~-Wk '*'pg:t: Il the ob gene(!%!.00. economic growth 39. :t: J.. to 7 a. up to deal with tmelpnciee in the middle of the night.&@: 3 . m.. m.f* leptin J1i tJ9 leptin JK ~:tl ~ • 0 )( 0 C~ 4 m~ leptin 111]).. 3 mL {$~ . . &om 11 p.~J!tfl¥. m. iv 32.1f X ~ tt9l1 i!b'E ~ 0 t£.. Typically. m. They tend to ftltire to bed w...t.y be __ the early aftemoon.w.Ja-liJ .H.• 'keep their trucb on the road over long periods t tend to sleep in two 3 . but DIP for two hours 01' 110 in at around 1 a.00.J.IlI.~.hour blocks..!pdinn..tJ. No 25. They then go beck 10 bed 10 wake II 6 a. 38. 24.• .1Ul 1*.t. one between 7 . m. By contrast. 1bu& the influence m one's (239 words) sleep pattern is worthy «COIIIideration when ebooaing an om.37 '" II 0 D •• 0 IliJlt •• 37 . m. This may be hecauee the oentIaI activity in their lives.__t -Jlfttj~fjIJ .. hut. m .. fuIl.. fewer/better .it F mta Mo It. (their ) fertility ( rate) 36. eepeciIIly due wiIb .. study. 0 •• ~F positim 40. busiDeII6 executives sleep oonsecutive hams. * 11$ if m 7 protein 27.. ._ it that dooun. . tend to sleep when their babies do. 10 8. J[ .W leptin. at 1 a.:'P~ Friedman"'pinpointed 0 1£ M. _.fed/bealthier 37.y busy and 8b'ee8ful they sleep fOr 6 haur& average. ~~ ~ ~ 1!t> leptin. for example. but n.. Clio 35. viii 0 33. ptobabIy becauee eX their _ daylipt hours. truck drivers. . :$t~ M honnoneC~ 4 m:~ 3 10) m leptin.f-II:ill! ~ ~ • ~~.. nutrition/property 30. m. Yes ReadIng PassIIge 3 QuefJdoos 28 . and 8DOIher from 4 to 7 p.40 28.time moIbem.. takes place in no~ around 5 a..-~Jf~~ •• 1 -fi] lHS T .m. that atOOenta typically sleep for a cm8eCUtive 8 - hour period each night.fU IhlLUi B1HIB. vi 29. JIf . No 26 ..._ . Yes .

say. tend to values of their owners. Most of us will never meet prime ministers or presidents. to our homes and work- it is likely the media's influence will grow even stronger. A popular figure such till Michael Jackson would never be so well known were it not for the media' s extensive reach into every society on the globe. places and people. our eoooeptions of. on the media we have allowed them to mould our notions and opinions of events. When it is time to cast our vote. (333 words) -60- . Indeed. how the representing the is the • good • side and which the 'bad' is determined (or us by reporters the public begins to ~~t'. is an example of the media's enormous sway in this regard. our elected officials spring from television images and newspaper stories. clothing styles and films.Wrldng Task 2 The mass media have a powetful influence in shaping our lives. We have come for infonnation and entertairunent. we will make our decision based media portray the candidates. sure enough and read in the major media. Thus I would argue that the mass media' s influence is certainly great. with technological advancements such as the Internet bringing even more fonns of electronic media places. The so called • global youth culture' . Though few of us probably think about it . in which one finds young people around the world displaying a in- terest in music. societies and governments.t~~~~ fonn opinions that reflect the coverage and.~~. C(lImIlOIl The media are also influential in the way they facilitate the spread of culture and lifestyle. but anyone who is regularly exposed to the media will OIl have an opinion of them. to depend QUI' 00 them and in doing so we let them affect important aspects of But in our dependence lives. We are similarly swayed by coverage of wars. The tmdeniable usefulness of the media in almost instantly providing infonnation about events around the world is largely taken for granted.

ca 15 ~29 QueationI 30 . turn to it skip it and re- later. - 61 - . If you are having trouble with a ~. .40 Remember to anrwer all1he quMtions.IELTS ~*~_~~Rli INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE TESTING SYSTEM ACADEMIC READING TEST WRITE ALL YOUR ~ The test is in 3 sections: ON 1JIE ANSWER SIIEET Queetiona 1 "':14 Queeti.

So the science of iceberg tracking is still as much descriptim 88 predictim. embaIking only on<." second half of the Roes ice front will break elf is also 1m open question. to lite place and order in which B . The lIIIlIlitoring isn't ByBtematic: It's a by . dubbed B - water and 10 times bigger below. and they're naned according they originate." which "We could have had. infrared light.osical satellites. The icebeJgs are monitored by polar . The most enonnoos Antarctic betgs are rare and elusive.15. C\ll'reIIt leagues at the science foundation are trackiJ18 the progress of B . Antaretic betg to Julie Palais in the office of polar Progranll 800Ie who in tum forwarded it to MaeAyeal. northern edge of the Ross Ice Shelf.15 a couple of days before the ice center did. Melted. Neither he t"I(X anyone else has ever witnessed firsthand the calving of an Antarctic berg. The lion gallons of water. does it make any sound? That koan is more than just a meditative exercise for Doug MacAyeaI. Only one or two major So MacAyeal 8Wlpect~ berg! had calved from the R088 ice front during its latest 50 . as the ice sheet moved slowly but lIUld. stretches more than 300 miles a 300 . There are plenty of cracks on the shelf that never amount to anything.year advance. concerned about his own weather.product of from meteoroJ. Now MacAyeal and his coltrepidation. antipodean CiOWUns.mile -long at the National Science Foundation.:e every few decades in umraveled seas and rarely straying far from the frozen continent.Reading Passage 1 You sJwuld spend about 20 muuues on Questions 1 . is the fifteenth big in the bers to breS off the B quadrant of Antarctica since the center started ~ weekly reviews of images 19708. for eumple. is the size of Connecticut above to and his associates in March when satellites spotted the largest berg in recorded history separatins from the arrival. ThU8 the stalion UIaIIII@eC at MeMwdo.15 with Unlike their icebergs usually get trapped in a eUcurnpolar lbat keeps them - 62 - . a glaciologist at the University of If 80 iceberg breaks loose from Antarctica and nobody's Chicago who has spent decades pondering the vast Antaretic ice sheets. says Jacobe.OIbiting satellites using miCr0wavf:8. like sections of a chocolate bar.n Victoria Land to Cape Colbeck. only m:.14. The other side may come off any day . it would fill about half of Lake Michigan' s basin with 250 trilMacAyeal could detect cracks in the ice sheet parallel the front and spaced about 20 miles apart. In satellite images. Unfortunately.by . which am based on Reading Passage J. that was 20 miles wide. about half of the ice front came off. that "It oould have been the whole length of the ice front. and the process still mystifies polar experts. and radar. He emailed the snapshot of !he 183 . IceheIgs seemed to be breaking off at the cracks. spied the satellite image of B .long iceberg When or how the towan:I the Ross Sea. new So there was much rejoicing among MacAyeal 15.23 . MacAyealsays.mile .y the shelf was due for another big break. Birth of An Antarctic Super B15 Iceberg it.

Cracks in the Antbergs to global wanning. southern Ross Sea.15 would supply the city's water needs for 500 to be So far. an icebeQ DDCh laqer than C . obeerved since the advent of remote sen&ing satdlite equipment ill the Questions 1 . "The oofy problem is that their travel is undirected. 16 could beoome grounded and block the shipping channel. An iceberg the size of B . More definitive infonnarion may be avaiJable in a few yeam. . Iceberg C . ieebergs the size of B . after MacAyeal poets autl~w." Butcher said. The new iceberg poses some cause for ooncem for resupply ships serving the U . a spokesman at the Natron. a result of slobal wanning. LO In the back of my years ••. dubbed B ." Ff'. cinity of the McMunlo Station before this year." West noted that in Mareh.15 and C . West said. and during those decades they travel thousands of miles.16 have never been obeerved in the viStill. S. S. That prevents them from wandering into major shipping lanes farther north.15 might cause trouble closer to home. S.. "At the moment. we just don't know. head there's an inkling of a possibility thai we might learn enough about icebergs to someday direct one up U16 Angeles. Mac..based agency staffed by members of the U. ing this 000 80 we're going to be monitor- very closely through the season. because we don't understand the history of the ire shelves ~ to know". which scientists dubbed C ."swirling like a whirligig around the continent.l Science could simply drift oft' to sea • West emphasized." says MacAyea1.16. is typically resupplied via cargo ship in middle to late February. It was detected by satellite on September 27. h's dif6cult to say what is going happen with is.by 11. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Welt echoed Butcher's point dJ8l iceberg CBut it is equally poeBible that the iceberg to . C-16 In September 2<XX). ~1fiAlI8tatioos and seismic sensors on the shelf. the berg W88 almet • large 88 !he state of Con- According to West. AlltareLic research station on Roes Island. but thinning in peripheral parIS of Antarctica. long by 2S miles wide.l Ice Center." says MacAyea1. which is where McMwdo Statton is located. some 345 square miles in area. though the exact date of cleav~ The new icebetg. It's possible that this iceberg may drift enough 10 impact the area where the ships will be~.\yeal doesn't see any evidence that global wanning is affecting the Ross lee Shelf and its calving. "This one is of particular interest because of its proximity to RoM Island.16 also broke . West was reluctant to attribute the breakaway ice- "Certainly at the moment you cannot MY that it'. But B . other researehers report that the ice sheet ~ for the seoond time in lees than a year. the U.lUOdation. necticut. We8l said.. measwed about 170 milal. a Maryland . ter West. "These giant icebergs last for decades without melting. . At 4250 square miles( 11007 square kil0meter5).5 miles wide. B -15 Iceberg Q& applying 10 - 63 - . y f:roItl the Ross Ice Shelf near Rooeevelt Island.6 CI&sifr the follou»ng ~ A.16 is being tracked by the Nationa. measures 30 miles is W1known due to the extensive cloud cover that has persisted over the IOrl!. arctic ice shelf have been clesel y early 19708. Navy. That berg.15. which can hoet between 200 and 1100 people said Pe- depending on the time of year. 8 nWR~ebeil1! the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica. The station..

Write the an· ~ in 1Joxe. This ( These )iceherg( s) was ( were) directly seen fU'8thand &eparating at the exact location it oc- Questions 7 . 4.die ice LuxImass frmt which both ioeberp separated? 8.15 was 170 ice front? mile8iong.B. The iceberg( s) originated from the Roes Ice shelf. 3. 6. The scientists are worried about thilf ( these) icebetg( s) rtntliiitr"'1iVl 2. -64- . not melt for seveml decades. 7 . The iceberg( s )is( are )dangerous beeauee it is( they are )c:lrifting towards the Ross Is land shelf. amwer the following questionJ. C . 5. 7. Neither Iceberg Write the appropriate letrel3 A .10 on your anstm' Wid . While B .10 Using No Mun 77tan 1"'.14 on your anMcitI' sheet. The icebeIg( s) will probably drift to Los Angeles. but yet are reluctant to acknowledge? 9. bow long might it have been if it bad cracked all way up the Questions 11 .16 Iceberg C . 1.D in bares 1 .6 on your answer sheet. Both Icebergs D. What is the name of . This( These )iceberg( 8) will probably curred. What is lhe phenomenon that the scientists in the p888IIge many people are blaming the creuion of theee icebergs 00.14 Complete 0w0Ie )'OW' ~ w summary beIoau : from 1M bat btlow 1M IUDImfJI)' antllllrile tItttm in bottta 11 . An ice shelf break is compared to the breaking fl what connon food item? 10.Wonly from the pauage.

One of the problems with the monitoring of these icebergsi in-" ( II ) ... nor can it be seen precisely where an iceberg: rates, it usually drifts in a ",(13)"', in the north. thus we can say that

~~!{~i.-irel~/g_~~ks
threat

and
to ... (

sepa14)'"

predictive descriptive timely

shelves cracks

pattern

global wanning
water supplies

drifts
swirl undirected shelves

fast
systematically

Shipping lanes

Reading Passage 2
You sage 2.
are

advised to speru1 about 20 mitwles

on

Quations IS .. 29 rdUch are based on Reading Pas-

Lack Of Sleep Alters Hormones,

Metabolism

A

Chronic sleep 1088 can reduce the capacity of even young adults to petform basic metabolic func86

tions such

proc:e88ing and storing carbohydrates

Of' ~

bonnone secretion, report researcbeJS from

the Univemity of Chicago Medical Center in the Ock:llB 23 issue of endocrine function - changes that ~ after lese than one week.

17ae lancet. Cutting beck from the

standard eight down to four houra of sleep each night produced IIlriking changes in gluooee tolerance and
the effects of advanced age or the early stages of diabetes -

of reeearchen who extended pnwious researeh. into cognitive eR'rets and focused on physiological effects . Funding for this study was supplied by the Research Network
The study was
team

B

conducted by a

on Mind - Body InteIactioos of the MacArthur Foundation( QUcago) ,the U. S. Air Foree Office of Scien-

-

65 -

lific Research and the National Institutes term effects of acute.

Q(

Health.

Although many SlUdi.es have examined the short -

total sleep deprivation on the brain, this is the first to investigate the impact of

chronic, partial sleep loss on the body by evaluating the metabolism and hormone secretion of subjects subjected to sleep restriction and after sleep recovery.

c
o

"We found that the metabolic and endocrine changes resulting from a significant sleep debt mim-

ic many of the hallmarks of aging;" said Dr. Eve Van Cauter. professor of Chicago and director of the study. "We suspect that chronic sleeMIH~

could also increase the memory loss ."

seven ty

of age - related ailments such

¥N~lm~

Cutting hack on sleep is an extremely common response to the time pressures of modem industrial Millions of shift workers average less than five hours per workday. of sleep loss.
to

societies. The average night's sleep decreased from about nine hours in 1910 to about 7.5 hours in 1975. a trend that continues. ies, however. Previous studhave measured only the cognitive consequences

E

Van Cauter and colleagues Kanne Spiegel
enetgy

and Rachel I..eproult chose

focus instead on the

physiologic effects of sleep Ices, how sleep depri\l8tion altered basic bodily ftmctions such as regulating blood sugar levels. storing away from

food and the production of various honnones. They followed

The first three nights the subjects were allowed to sleep for eisht hours; from 11 p. m. to 7 a. m, The next six nights they slept four hours, from 1 a. m. 10 5
II healthy young men for 16 COO8eCUtive ~ts. a. m, The following seven nights they spent 12- hours in

bed. from 9 a.

D1. to

9 p. m. All subjects re-

ceived identical diets. The researchers ooll!Jlantly assessed each volunteer's wakefulness and heart rate.

They perfonned sleep studies on the last two eight - hour nights. the last two four - hour nights; and the
finlt and last two 12 hour nights. They perl'onned gluoose tolerance teats the sixth day of deprivation and of recovery.
OIl

the fifth day of sleep depriva011

tion and the fifth day of sleep reeosery , and monitored glucose and honnone levels every 30 minutes

F
with

They found profound altemtions <l glucose metabolism. in some situations resembling patients
type -

2 diabetes. during sleep deprivation.

When _ted during the bei8ftt of their sleep debt. subtheir blood sugar levels following a high - carbo-

jects took 40 percent longer tMn nonna! 10 ~

hydrate meal. Their ability to secrete insulin and to ~ 10 insulin bo&h decreased by about 30 percent. A similar decrMse in acute insulin I1l8(IOO8e is an early IDIl'ker fi diabetes. The difrenmces were partieularly marked when caded in the rnonIinp. "Under sleep debt
~t

our young lean sub~

would have responded to a morning glUCCl8e toItnnce lest in 8 m.mer OOIIIieeent with ewrent diagnostic eritena fur impaired glucoee tolerance, ;; .... the aullMa. Impaired gIuooee toIenoce is an eerly symptom
of diaberes. Sleep deprivation aiM altered the production

and action fl other hormones. darq>ening the secretion of thyroid - stitnu1ating honmnes and increasing blood levels of cortisol, eepecially during the afternoon and evening. Elevated evening cortisolleveJs are typical of naach older subjects and are thought
85

to be related to age - related health probkms such

insulin resistance and memory impairment.

G

All of these abnonna1i~

quickly returned to baseline during the recovery period, when subjects

66-

spent 12 hours in bed. In fact. as the subjects spent more than eight hours a night in
ry

bed. their laborato-

values moved beyond the .. normal" or baseline standards,

suggesting that even eight hours of sleep does

not produce the fully rested state.

Young adults may function best after more than eight hours of rest each night. .. While the primary function of sleep may very well be cerebral restoration."
cally, could have long lenn adverse health effects. " note the authors, .. our

findings indicate that sleep loss also has con .... equences for peripheral function that, if maintained chroni-

Questions 15 ...20
Reading passage 2 has 7 paragraphs A - C.

nwnbers ( i-xi)
NB: There

in
art

yOW"

answer section 15 -

20. so you will
not

more htadliMs than paragraphs,
than

we aJl

of them.

You may use any

0/

the

heacJi.nss 1TUJf'e

once.
List of HNdings

(i)

Details of Findings

(j;) (iii)

Recovery Process
Problem of Sleep Deprivation in Today's Society Relationship Main Finding Health Effects
to

Ov)
(v)

Aging

Researchers and Their Unique Focus

(vi)

M~

Me

Methodology OX) The Primary Function of Sleep (X) The Hallmarb of Aging (XO Cerebral Restoration

IS. Pamgraph B

16. Paragraph C"
17; Paragraph D

18. Paragraph E 19_ Panigraph r
20. Paragraph G

-

67 -

Questions 21 & 22
Name the two GenenJl 22.
areas

that this study looked at that affect the human health in pa.ssage 2. UsttOO

ing No More Than Two Wonts for each answer. write these

areas ~parately in answer section 21 &

Questions 23 - 29
Are the following
slalemtmls

supported by the re~h

in neaauu

Ya1~e~il~l .Wjrlte~:Y..Q~rJulSWe·rs m

boxes 23 - 29 on YOUT OItS'Wer sheet .
Yes

if the statement is supported by the research if the statement contradicts the research if there is nothing that either supports or contradicts the statement

No Not Given

23. People who get less sleep often have the same symptoms as those people who get old, 24. The study looks at
not only

the effect on the brain but also metabolism and honnone ecretion.

25. Jf a person gets 8 hours of sleep. the body's energy will be restored. 26. The main function of sleep is to restore the body's metabolism and honnone levels. 27. People are sleeping fewer hours than they used to.
28. '[he study does not conclude that

sleep loss will definitely increase the severity of age - related
memoty

ai lments such as diabetes. hyperten8ioo. obesity, and

loss.

29. Beyond 12 hours some d the same symptttns found an sleep - loss will return.

Reading Passage 3
You are adWed
to

spend about 20 minu.Ies on QuaIIon.t

3IJ ... 41) dich

ate

based on ~

PWl-

sage3.

JIJ.....
What would you think was the bigat
i~ nuclear blasts,

fw AIieas Wlda • PC
CDIJIlUtin8
project in the world? Something to do with simulat8CDIe

perhaps, or forecasq

climate changIe, usin@:
IIlOl'e

vast: system that occupies acres of

pRlCieely. any radio signals they might be beaming out. And it's being carried out not on 800le tnOl'I8t:n:UIsyMem. but by about 2.3 million peISonal computers scattered around the world. as part of a project begun by the Search for Extratem!I8tria Intelligence ( Seti) group. It's called Seti @ home t and consists of a 8IIIBIl oomputer program which runs
dio signah; received fn:m outer space. looking for a steady signal that doesn't come
88

floor space? Not at all. It's the !If!8I'Ch for aliens -

a screen-

saver - that is. when you aren't using your computer - and chugs through the complex data anaiY1'is of ra-

from Earth and which

-68-

CI. distrihuled. more powerful than Deep Blue. apin - of.y a computer science proat Berkeley who the maiIto: Seti@home.s.besides its size .is the fact that all the processing is being done completely voluntarily. Asci White would have to run non . Now. Released last year on May 16. if your computer is usually just turned off at night. results I'tlSults. What misbt be even nicer. Such ~ are encoded by nliltiplying together two very 1aq.even 2. The Seti package is a small downloaJ which it passes the iJtstaIls itself . 7 hundred million trillion (3.. Ihe superoomputer that defeated chess champion But Asci White is only one machine{ which will be used to The statistics for the Seti @ home project show that earlier 14. finding potential and even predicting climate change. other organiastions are hop- tap into thie powerlul market for .5<000 users in 203 oountries. With the message net would issue volunteers around the net with a venOOn fl the llI'lS&'Ige and 8 computer prognun for their PC telling it to find It'ICOrd prinr: rnume.3 million of them . Based in Austin.and that since the done a grand total of 3.26 trillion operations per second .stop for about nine months . and using the Internet to eornauthors' agreement.I oompaniee inlere8ted in U8ing idJe eonputer time avai1ab]e over the Intemet. according they could possibly stack up against the huge machines such IBM in July which covers an area equal to three tennis courts 88 to our best guesses about what they might do. distributed work better when broken into IIIMll pieces . other complex problems which the structure of proteins. PCs . David Anderson. any data back online to Berkeley. fonnerl. Various precautions are taken to make sure that users cannot fiddle the analysis which ~ts you alien contact would be redone independendy.more than three times faster than the recorded speed of any other computer. Seti imists. they are also bringing more powerful to computers to bear. » process 8 ChWlk of The Seti project was probably the Iastest growing Net phenomenon(at least. 7 20) operations.at least. but that has not been a centrally coordinated project with distrihuIed effort. Seti@1Kme was not the first project to use dWrihuted ~ over the Intemet: that was ahmst cntainly distributed. and two million this SUIIIDler.lIIUDelciaJ.\Jil:Ipui'LA' its users have To reach that. municate their results.7~1)t-I1.t'eOOI'dtd origjnal. Now. a Cf. the computer unveiled by carry and can oot 12 trillion calculations per second . It then begins analyzing a small packet of data .but by that lime. in just one day it added another 20000 . within 10 days seti @ home had 3. It passed the one million mark in SeptedJer 1999. so that in the coume of the project's life the average time taken data has fallen from 18hr 35min 14hr 46min.. now works as mPni8ed chief technology officer for United Devices. is that you could have the option of being the fim person on the pLmet to SJlOI: a signal COOling from an alien civilisation .Iy by the Arecibo radio telescope • and once it has checked it for any constant sipal SlJfiIPling alien intelligence. the Seti @ home project would have outmore people join.net) t Conned in lWT to crack mmyption keys to coded tressage. TenIS. What also makes the seti@ home project remarkable .or you might earn a few pounds letting those spare processor cycles solve problems for omneroial fessor at the University of Calif~ cocnpaniee.might -not sound as though Asci White. Certainly • seti itself could never pay for !OIIlething 000tpal1Ihle with Asci White. Other -69- .distributed.such 88 WU8velling drug candidates. run it even further. until the music file- sharing program Napster came along).IIIIpU&iag" to solve But if your ma- chine finds exb'aterrestrial life then ing to will get the credit.e prime numbers.lies in a particular range of frequencies that aliens would be likely to use . it is oow recruiting commercia. The statistics show that to 88 and 1000 limes \. net( www..

"It's the world' 8 largest superoomputer. look for because we Quntions 30 - 34 Complete the table below. He posted a diction" to rne&'!Ilge solve on the Net ooting that the WOIkwould try to introduce "fuzzy prewhich is boom- reflect the variation of risks and probabilities in the forecast. Myles Allen of the Rutherfonf Appleton Laboratory in Oxfmdshire had the idea of using distributed computing climate simulation. You ~l Parabon says il might has government customers worth a few pounds a month.. sells a product which there. net tS<m replies in 2 weeks •." Xerox Parr. with 200000 computers. weeks. TurboUnux.. net is working with the UK's Sanger than 18CXXX)Pentium II 266 - Centre near Cambridge on mapping to the human genome: its conunmity of 60000 participants.21 . chief scientist at mailto: Seti @ home and director of the Berkeley Seti program.34 on your Name ci company '"(30)''' project ansMIm for each an. At the same time distributed. But for now t the project to beat them all is Seti@ home. eo we can fud weak sigaals and pUIee signab. sereensaver work in biotechnology. are equivalent more MHz computers working Oat out around the clock. fonnerlyof potential clients that their data will be safe out on the Net: . 88 Another ~y. In autwm last year. The are not can distribute worlt within a company for its idle ~. t or technology space '"(32)''' FUDCtioo ~ Searches £or sipls in outer 14. rather than just one "best guess" . "It's made our search 10 times more sensitive. and the man credited with inventing the Ethernet net wotking system. thinss we oouIdn'.•(34) . sueh NASA and the US Defense Oepartmmt. People with serioos trust results coming £run wveliable machines owned by total.. didn't have enough computing power . Write sIwt. And certainly if to try to you can find the right project ~ Internet users will happily lend a hand. No MolY 11IrrII 17rH WMIr from the ~ your amwer in boxe! 30 . ~.distributed projects now undeIway are seeking <Art Fermat numbenl( of the fonn 1 + 2 2n). project site got 15(0) replies in two ing now. Applied MeIa~.neer.he distributed processing ~es 10 So the dem!md is certainlyoot ~0IlS face though is that they have first m penruade their likely &aid Bob Metcalfe. problem would . And another ~y. 'The "Casino ." said Dan W erthimer.26 triDion operations second 12 billion ~ons ood per Simulate··· (31) ..person oompany in financial and phannaoology menl for their mschines' time per unit of ~ done. Helps I!Olve"'(33)'" Mapping the human genome per sec- Casino project Distributed. Panilion Canputalion... But it js the a 45 .. <lOmpUlem - 70- ..

beIM4Its.1989 1989. IOCiIIIIDd enrirollmental 71 - ...1990 ~ 46. You should write at least ISO words. Write a report de8ctibbc the tnwIs iP proflts fIhown iD die table. Table I: Company FrUits Before Tax. Napster is growing faster than seti @ home 39. By Indusby ($ million) Period 1986~ 1987 1987 -1988 1988 . The purpo'3e of the original mass computing project W&'iI to find large prime numbers . 38..'iO 6615 Mining 3840 3816 3540 4992 Retail Trade 612 Other 1232 1. The reason thai people are reluctant to use a mass COfllaputiiru ty than with the cost of it. David Anderson still contributes to seti @ home.. but It can .he follooJing statements agree wUh the information ginn in Reading Passage 3? Write your swers in boxes 35 ~ 40 on your atJoJWf'r meet. (ID- Yes No Not Given if the statement agrees with the jnformation if the statement contradicts the infonnation if there is no infonnation on this in the passage seeuri- 35.QuestUms35-40 Do . Writing Test Writing Task I The table below PI'! tots iDformadoD about the AuRraIIam etUDDy in abe late 1980s. :. 36.511 1696 Yn 8617 7810 886 1349 1373 Wrltiag Tast 2 Write 81\ essay expreesing your views OIl the following topic: TedJDolotD' am IJI'q: _. 37.. The commercial side of mass et:mputing is OOoming because people who sign up pay a small fee for the service. 40..eli @ home is based in Austin Texas..

ROlS lee Shelf Reading Passage 2 Questions 15 .T 24.1 29.T ~72- .#lIl1i(~.) I. rather Ihan benefits. global wanning 9.T 36. seti@home 31 .T 39.NG Reading Passage 3 Questions 30 .2OOXX> 3S. 1 You should write at least 250 words. glucose tolerance 22. knowledge and experience and support your arguments with examph~s and re-levant evidence. iv 17.14 ~*~. You should use your own ideas.probleJm. viii 19. F(no fee) 38. swirl 14.NG 37.one has witnessed either iceberg at the exact location) 7. shipping lanes 4C 5C 6.40 30.T 28. F( only metabolism and honnone secretion) lS. D (00 . In relation to new tedtnoIogy. chocolate bar 2C 3 D to.F 26. climate simulation 34. the primary duty of Governments sbouId be to focus on potential problems. systematically 12. ii 21 . i 20.NG 16. IELTS Reading Passage 1 Quesdons 1. 300 miles 11. C( McCamy is located at Roes Jsland) 8.29 15. nuclear blasts 32. v 23. endocrine(functioo )chaoge 27. Asci White 33. iii 18. cracks 13.

to less than a quarter of their 1989 level. after fluctuating just below $ 4 biUion for the previous three years.nent with the power to veto the introductioo. to Another problem is that.NG Writing Task 1 The table shows Australian company profits before Manufacturing. (214 words) WritingT_2 It is true that new technologies can create serious social and environmental prchlems. Sc:metimes a technological advance in one area can lead to US space program has been further developed and applied in many other cannot 8l'eII8 8 surprising certainly breakthrough in another. Some people would arsue that govet1llIleDts.in Other Industries the fall was particularly sudden.6 billion. where profits reached almost $5 billioo in 1989 ~ 1990. The best apptoach is to poeitively of new technokWes and to focus on their benefits. The most important sector was Manufacturing.1990. (279 words) 73 - . After consis- peak as $ 8. tax for the period 1986 . The table indicates that the year 1989 was a turning point for the tent rises from 1986 to 1989. is that it is very difficult to know in advance what the full effects of any new technology will be. In an increasingly disadvan.1989. The problem with this approach.1990 in (our sectors: Profits were vet)' uneven across these four Other Industries. 2 billion almost $: I . And Ute depend on government bureaucracies to make accurate aseesaments aboot Ihese matters. where profits nearly doubled from 1986 to 1989 to strongsteady below economy.4O. Any problems that may ari. where profits had been steady during 1986 .es. techoology which originated fran the of life. to In growth in profits for three years from S 1 . New technology is es&ent:i4l for a oountt'y'& economic deve\opmem. ~tive global economy another oounuy may well go ahead with its introduction. seemingly urueIated area • For eumple. profits in Retail Trade levelled off in 1989 . have an inp:Rtant watchdog role to play and that they should ~t to establish whether a pmp:eed technology is likdy to have any hannful effects. The question is whether governments should focus on these probl~ when they are formulating policies relating 10 new technology . Retail Trade ~ sectors during the four year period. of certain technologi. The history of science and IechnoJosy bas many fascinating examples of unexpected developments.ie can be dealt with after implementation. while those in Manufacturing and Other lndustries both fell . Mining. This is seen as an aspect of ~vetnrmnt looking after the public interest and showing cmcem for the welfare fA its citi- zens . Only Mining.4 billion.4 billion in 1989 .1990.1990. doubling-to just below $ 1. however. showed a significant rise in profits in 1989 . Profits in Retail Trade also ly during the four year period. 7 $ 0. followed by Mining. where one fPvemment might decide tht~ first oountry may severely emourage the developnent ban the use of a new technology. These people would invest pen. itself by such an action.

If you are haviR« trouble with a question.29 Questioos 30 .15 Que8tions 16 .INTERNATIONAL EN TESTING SYSTEM PRACTICE TEST ( Version Six) GE ACADEMIC RFADING TEST WRITE ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON 1IIE ANSWER SHEEr The test is in 3 sections: Reading Passage 1 Reading Pa&sage 2 Reading Passage 3 Remember to answer all the Questions 1 . ~-----------------------~--------------~~ - 74- .42 questions. skip it and i I return to it later.

Education 2COO.year . Ameri cans did excel in one part of the test. a survey of leisure and study habits . he promises." South Korean and Taiwanese students whipped Americans in the math and science exams for 9 .olds. (Notable nonparticipants: 68% 67% 63% 57% each country 10 administer The test. The first lAEP.although the distinction was nothing to be proud of. i i ! average of 67 percent OOT- Koreans were first with 78 percent South Korea 78% 76% 74% rename his program " Mission: Impossible." B The tests.Reading Passage 1 You are advised to spend abow 20 minu. IAEP officials say the 175(0) students they tested last year were com- panahle as possible. mly six oountrie8I rtPns. called the International ANessment Testing Service. in this eecond Gerwhich didn't want to spend the money it cost test. The United States ranked near the bottom. American students science. and Japan. A 81\ tional ~ts have been criticized because of the difflCUlties ci ~ tests a represeetative major complaint has been that other countrie6 test only their very heR IIludenlB while the United States sampling. S. 69% 68% Scotland Spain United States Ireland Jordan Scholastic Aptitude Tests. which dropped rut when South Korea joined. As U.. will lead the world in math and But judging by the results of international On the science test for 13 .teJ an Questions 11 An "F" in World Competition A ! I President Bush calls his plan for fmng schools . - 75 - .01- l I I I Taiwan Hungaty RU8Sia Slovenia <is. 811 achievement tests released last week. in 1988. 20 participated. Bush may have to I rect. which also runs the of Educational Progress (IAEP). "It was ucation goals to DOt among our six ed- lead the world in the amount of TV our Italy Israel Canada France students watched . were adroinitItered by the Educational included many. Secretary of Education 73% 71% 70% 70% 70% 69% Lamar Alexander noted.and 13 ." In that year.year . ) Other internastudents fn:m different cultures. Americans got correct.

rather than physical sciences. I think we have oonflictin@: feelinp about people who and 88 pan!Rt8. Americans got 65peI'Cent of the questions correct. Taiwan's top 10 percent got '17 to 100 percent conect.year . 9- Test orpnizelll say they believe U.97 percent of the questionS right. the Untied States) devoted catiom others (China. says Diane Ravitch. mat- . f scbolamhip is admired. Under Secretary of education. U. . was once COI'Widered Mieeioo: Impoesible. kids fall way behind. compared with 68 percent for Koreans..year . . students didn't measure . Ravitch says the program will be biger and broader in scope than a similar lnitiative launched after Sputnik 1 in 1957. S. with quantity. U.S. Nine . "As a nation. where our kids are still learning arith- D Even me very best American 10 percent of Americans was much greater than that of the top ple.old Americans came in thin:!. Grew>rY AJq. " G Despite the results. Attirudee towanl intellectual achiemnent are abo important.olds. S. we call oor bast students nerd or dweeb.blt! with biology than physics or chemistry. the lop scores. teachers are more comforta." In math. kids may have done better because the year . - 76 - .olds. Last week he 8IIIlOUIlCed that about • 2 billion cumntly in the ~ 00 of various federal agencies will go to math and ecience education.C ntetic. but the school day is longer. averaged 75. E Tbere was one small bright spot. For 13 . from the highly structured to the progressive. Education Secretary Alexander says be hasn't given up on American k. But America's top 10 percent ~t only 83 . the gap between the American and Asian youngsters was especially wide. with the emphasie retraining teachers. Students who reed and did a lot of homewod:: scored better than those who and plopped down in front of the 1V for howe every day.. Use of spare time was closely correlated with academic sue- however. and survey results indicate that U . The national pi then was to be rust on the rmon. Success redpe: The tests' organizers say the results don't indicate any particular recipe for sueThe U. Nine . school year is molter than that of 1I106t. not Americall students actually spend more time in school than ters says Ravitch. 8JlIlOtlI"lCefl about band practice or whatev«. the countries that did well emphasized geometry and algebra. s. Quality of time. we send conflicting ~ to our children about being smart. Among 13 . they were again near the bottom in science. On average. S. That.ids. schools do a good job of teaching science to young children.year . too.. Swte (Israel.BCOring 10 percent of 13 . the Koreans. in the math test. " The countries with high scores used a wide range of teaching methods. S. the Koreans' 73.olds' science test concentrates OIl life science.S. Advanced curriculum helped. In Ma says E1'S Pree. in science . old Americans got an average of 58 percent correct.old Koreans got 96 to 100 percent of the questions right.ident are 1IRIBI1. Mffit of •. "In abe V. This doesn't necessarily mean that U. S. U. cess f & lot of money to educame home Spain) spent less. F cess.year the American avemge was 55. Koreans. rlJIitly other coentriee . the bighest . As they get old- er.year . after Korean and Taiwane:se children. A lot of time in American classroome is intenupted.

The 8core6 received by the top 10% students are more clustered together. American 13 . South Korea sent their top students to participate in the lAEP. intelligent 88 their 9 . - 77- . Students do a lot of homework instead of watch 1V for. if there is no information about this in the passage. 70% of the questiona at the IAEP was answered oorrectly. Bright kids are ridiculed. if the statement does not agree with the writer. 3.7 sheet write with the writer.. J. A lot of money was spent 011 education after the Russians had sent oft' the fust apacecraft. Decide u:hich Ct>UIIIry as mentioned in &aJing p~ IQ (COIiIIIries) / rep.emenls agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage I? on your answer In boxes 1 . 1t. American 13 .year . 6. 9. 2.hours evayday. The results of the 3 rd lAEP indicate that Canada and Franee did equally well. Teachm enjoy teaching physics better than chemistry. 5. Refused to participate in the IAFP due to fmancial oonoem6. Neither Gennany nor Japan took part in the latest IAEP.Questions 1 . 12.year . 10. 7.olds are not . 13.year . 15.7 Do the following stal. meet.n (s) is no each IIatement rtfon and write )WI' t amwer in 1M corresponding box in 1M IJIL!tW" en in the cormponding box .olds did better than their Csnsdien counterpens . School time is not weD spent. Scottish children have beaten the English kids in the latest lAEP. Questions 8 .old brothers and sisters. if the statement ~ Yes No Not Given 1. If tkre information about fIW in the ~ write Not GW· 8. 14.ed 10 some countries / regions.15 The foUowing statements are relas. 4. American children spend more time watching 'IV than children £rem many other countries.

it would bum your mouth and throat. Within ten years of its introduction. with virtually no side . and was desperate for something milder.. aspirin became the moat commonly prescribed patent medicine in the world for two reasons: (1) it actually 78 - workoo. And even with water. nmphine.29 which are based on reading passage 2. chemists finally succeeded in isolating the bark's active ingredient. the substance was so unstable and difficult acid. His immediate supervisor was Heinrich Dreset' j the inventor of heroin. Hippocrates. He had literally burned holes in his stomach trying to relieve his rheumatic pain.. found that it worked.effects • Hoffinan reported his findings to his superiors at Bayer. was salicylic acid. salicylic acid wasn't safe. In 200 B. and (2) wilike heroin. Spiraea ulm. it was thought to be a non . Then he gave some to his father.Reading Passage 2 tou are advised to VN!ru/ about 20 minutes on Questions 16 . In 1823. In 1853. The name was derived from the Latin term for the "queen of the meadow" plant. Unless you mixed it with water. which was an important aource of salicylic acid. it was so hard on the stomach lining that people who took it became violently ill.aria. except one. So Hoffman read 10 through all the scientific literature he could find. Salicylic acid had given Hoffman's father multiple ulcers. Working 01\ to make that Gerhart had abandoned it. and other power- . In its pure form. Hoffman decided 10 make his own batch of Gerhart's acetylsalicylic it in his spare time he managed to produce j 11 purer j more stable form than anyone had been able to make. the .•. selected to describe the drugs hemic painkilling properties. complaining that their stomachs felt like they were "crawling with ants . (At that time. C.. father of medicine" • observed that chewing on the bark of the white willow tree It soothed aches and pains. However.) Dreser studied Hoffman's acid.addictive substitute for morphine. Heroin was a brand name. He discovered that every scientist who had tried neu- tralize the acidic properties of salicylic acid had failed . a French chemist named Charles Frederic Geduut had improved the acid by adding sodium and acetyl chloride . He tested the powder on himself successfully. The problem was. and in 1899 Bayer bepn selling their patented acetylsalicylic acid powder to pzysicians under the bmnd name aspirin. It eased the elder Hoffman' s pain.creating a new compound called acetylsalicylic acid. they introduced aspirin pills. A year later. it was so powerful that it did damage at the same time it was doing good.. The History Of Aspirin In the late 189Os.

"This was a period of time when a person only had a life expectancy of 44 years because there was no medicine available .. until 1995.. it had few side .rut drugs at that time. Aspirin" trademark was lost in 1921. which by now had boon Americanized ~o"nay-er. ) ~er)jng continued marketing aspirin under the Bayer brand name. for example) that combined aspirin with caffeine or other drugs.. Then they ran into problems.bon 01". A bottle of aspirin in the medicine cabinet was as conunon in American households as salt and pepper were on the kitchen table. Sales exploded. World War I made Genntmy America's enemy. Steven Weisman. gargling .(6)'" Qwmiets '"(7)''' PersonI~ Gedwt Bayer .20 on JOlU" answer sheet .20 ~ the table below. ( 18}'" Jm 19U~ Sold its busineM Bayer Bayer'a aaeeI8 were . Questions 16 . large or smallteething pain. and demand for the new drug ~ at a fasl~~iI~ the patent on aspirin . Go~e!j. there were also hundreds of products ( Anacin. and in t 918 the U .S. and whell it proved effective at reducing fever during the influenza epidemics at the start of the twentieth century.worth in the tirst year. and the .lind there was M other drug like it . Bayer used its aspirin profits to build a massive new factory in upstate New York.only medicine." The original American patent for aspirin eipired in 1917. it had the world wide market to itself..counter drug business for $ 1 billion. Anyone who wanted to make and sell aspirin was now leplly free to do 80. and rubbing aspirin against a baby's gums even helped sooth Aspirin was initially a prescription .the COII~(If In l~i~lbrt:Jlj\l.'" 1823 -- ISS) Mixed acetyl chbide and ~ C'l Aspirin to ..the .. s.. Write J'OUT aruwm in boxes /6 .effects. 1915. "Aspirin very quickly become the most important drug available . It seemed to be able to solve any problem.. They auctioned the factory off to the Sterling Products Company of West Virginia. EVlft em. Year . when the Getman Bayer bought Sterling's over . There was nothing on the market like it. (20)'" - 79 ~ ...rspirin dissolved in water eased sore throats. its reputation &S a miracle drug spread around the world. ( 19)'" U. But the focus of h In 1916. Use No Mon 1JJa 1'IIrw WorM from tM pcwtJ6(' for each answer. says Bayer representative Dr.. By the 1930s there were more than a thousand brands of pu re aspirin on the market.~lt~~ry.ovemment seized Bayer's American assets under the Trading With the Enemy Act.iJiJl soon get in the way. and sold $ 6 million . They 'Illllll~iately started manufacturing the drug for the American market. petition .. (The two Bayers woold not reunite again f.

Heroin E. The Ught of the Twenty .E in boxes 2 J .25 on your answer 'sheet . ~-------.tor E to an invention. . Name the main reason that acetylsalicylic 28. Acetylsalicylic O.29 Use No More 1'7um Three Wolds to answer the foll.first Century A A scientific discovery is often made long before someone is able to put it to use. Why were many Write your answers in boxes 26 acid was better than salicy lie acid. None mentioned Acid Gerhart QuesJions 26 . as occurred more than thirty years ago with the discovery of coherent light and the invention of the Iaser . NB : You ma)' use a letter more than once. What event made Bayer unpopular with Americans. 26 .29 on YUUT answer slIM.---~-. SG companies able to copy Aspirin after 1921.-----(21) Hippocrates (23) Hoffman r----. Salicylic Add C. 27.owing questions. Besides going to a doctor. scientists discovered how to split atoms decades before the invention of the atomic bomb and the use of atomic power to produce electricity. Steven WeiSllliID Inventors (22) Chemists ill L823 (24) Dreser ( 25) B. what other way could you buy Asprin after 1915? Reading Passage 3 3. But sometimes discovery and invention happen at the same time..Z5 look at tlu jOllowing lisss of inventors and irwentWrLS. Choooe if there U no injimnatWn in the reading passage. 80- .Questions 11 .----. Match each inven. -----____j * Exampk Dr. For example. 29. Write the appropriate letters A .

are excited in such a way that they produced coherent light.. pemooal oompukn have .B The word laser stands for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.thin gIaM fiber. on part of a 0011.. age spots.que is being used in a variety of ret to study how plants convert swdight into enetIY tluougb the process of pbo- loilyntheeis.. and birthmarb. In eye operations. o Some of the to DKJ6t important uses of lasers are in medicine. to reattach a retina and prevent excessive bleeding of tiny blood vessels in the eye. process.elopnenta ill caaputer technolocY are· hMod on laeers. the most modem telephone technology WOlD by changing to infonnatioo can be 81m OIla luer disk( called a CD . A laser beam can completely destroy a cancerous growth without leaving behind any dangerous cancer cells that could start a tumor. the atoms 50 its strength is very spread out. is much stronger. moving in only one direction and concentrated in a In this of a certain substance. - One of the earliest uses was to make extremely precise measuremen the distance the moon was measured to within a foot. I. a laser can be used. and to take a . such as a crystal or a gas. .. but a laser is simply a device that produces a strong light. and many of1he most ~ de. in any direction. or even on individual atoms and molecules. sound waves into pulses of. called a laser beam.ROM) and reed by a computer. to To many poo- plt~ lasers are very mysterious. The light from a laser. This tecbni. From laser printers (includill8 the newest rolour printers) • to tecbnoIomr by which whole encyclopedias of optical disks that have hundreds of times as much memory 88 ~ floppy disb... Laser light is created by a process called stimulated emission. In factories. A laser beam can be made narrow enough to focus 00 a single cell.. luers have been used to remove skin di8CO- loorations like freckles. Inetead eX changing sound waves to electricity that travels through copper wire.. More recently. One such fiber can cany mllre than a million oonversation. In 8Upermarketa. Some denti8cs have even started using lasers for painless treatment of teeth and gums. The light from the laser is called coherent light because it is light that only moves in one direction.aeers have also made a big difference in the way telephooea 'o'nd. c As soon as the laser was developed.. a scarce and valuable natural resource. A person working with a laser can aim this coherent light. scientists began to . laeen are molutionizing ocmputem. In fact. and the speed of light was measured to within a thousandth of a mile per second. 81 - are used to cut cloth and harden metals.. as well 88 in everyday life. like the light from the sun or light from a bulb. F ~ Ltsem also have many U8f!II in business and industry.for eumple during chemical reactions. moves away from its source in all directions. a laser at the checkoot counaer reads the . IU!'r~ ~ . trap" arums and molecules ~ search projects . laaen are now being used to .. lasers can be used in stugery to open and dose incisions with no danger of infection.snapshot" of the cbemicaI reactim that is the first step in vision when light hits the retina of the eye. Lasers are also important in the treatment of cancer. As time passed.. at the same time! An added benefit is that this technology lessens the need for copper. incoherent light. btU . narrow beam. _ chanpe to hmoes and wmkplacea. many more applications for the laser were developed.. E Over the past twenty )'eatS.. In contrast..... laser light that travel through hair .

Choose tk 1fWJt suitable the li. Wrire the appropriale numbers (i . Yau mar use an.tt of headings below. so you will not we all Ffrom of them. Paragraph F Questions 35 . Paragaph E 34.price codes on the packages.xi) NB: There are more ~$ than paragraphs.Qre than once.36 Name the Two 7)pa of liBht in tenns <if their ~ from cIaeir SOUIt't. - 82- .ssage 3 has six paragraph. Write the answm in.first century • QuesJions 30 . These are just a few of the thousands of uses for lasers. Paragraph B 31.36 00 'J'OfIT CI1'UIPIV 1hMt.34 &ading Pa. Paragraph C 32.. Using No Mort TIran :nne Words for tach answer. Paragraph D 33. Lasers art' used in our homes in music CD players and videodisc players. .s. The laser is truly becoming the light of the twenty . of List of (i ) (il) Medical Applications Marriage with Computers H'*"np Olil Ov) (V) WiD ~ Laser Computers and Telephone Better Business Laser and Technological Innovators Industl)' (vO User Application in Business and 'What It Is and How It Is Created Lasers and Communication OX) (x) Early Uses Discovery and Invention Development of User's Application 0<0 ~-""'7"~'-'--~-~ --- - - - r l ~h -- . the h&:uiings /l'l. - _ ' ---- 30. which offer much better audio and video reproduction than we get from audiotapes or VCRs.00ra 35 .

laser light is stronger because it is concentrated. 67% - 83 - . beIn'.42 Do the folWwing suuemerus refiec! the claims of the writer in Reading Passage 31 In OO~ 37 . 38. 39.. Ught nonnally travels in all directions ... Lasers have had an overall positive effect. There is radiation involved in creating laser light. Write re- port (or a university lectureI' de9crtbiDg the Wonuadoo. . 40. Writing Test Writing Task 1 You should spend about 2() minutes on this task. You should write a minimum of 150 Boys: Subject woms. Geography J~ Spom ~ A!.e 1 10 Matha 63% 65% 69% Science 70% 72% 74% 73% rr---- 63% 68% 70% 64% 62% (()% 71% 74% 75% 78% 13 60% 58% r--15 . 42.'m·"'~' 37.Questions 37 .. In the beginning scientists had a lot of trouble thinking of applications for the laser. wbkh nained the average perunt~ qe IDIII'ks SIl'OI'ed by boys and ~ of diIfet eat aaes in several school subjects. 4l. Coherent light and laser are the same thing. The tables below are tile results rK researth.42 Yes No Not Given if the statement reflects the writer's claims if the statement contradicts the writer if there is 0(1 information about this in the'ijjij~lIt·ir.

1:tT 13 #BCJllTa9Ji!UI.lItFB9 F m~H'i!I~~~W7}~Uttptf. Not Given B f!i: ilJJJltW •• tr 7 Wj lX.iIB'eo 6.A.~tbT 15 ~..~~Z~.ti.J"~liUl"" Questious 1 .ff ~ ~~ 0 2.~M~~~W~~. II••• tfdl:" El!.I1" 4 .fi. ~f&$~~..Jl ifjj ~:1! 118 poesible :i:~ f+ ~F * 0 #* ~~~~~olli~.@.JUiW T. 9B't 1':I!!ltfflMJ •• ~~o 5.. Not Given B at tr9:1ts -=: -f:iJ 1!mFf J:.~~ftifif!ftlo MI.mll::tg1H!J. Q • Q * ~~~#~~~.JXilli(t9# . No ~.I:t ~ IIi~ . Yes !l!. You should use your own ideas.x~i§~ JIt~B. mI:1f]Jffl ~ *:8•.aw.7 I."J&IK •• . Should the goveroment encourage a certain % of these jobs to be reserved for women? You should spend no more than 40 minutes on this task. ~W«~i1lfiiJ .T~Rt. Yau should write a minimwn of 250 words. Not Given E ~iJt~1iI9 ~t3. B 5::Ji8.r 84 - who doesIdid what ~o @BJ3IfttJA what.til :Ii!~ilX:f& ~ tt •• lAEP J5 -1i] ~ :l!il.~~:af!.Cit}! No.*ag~tx:It*II.~ IS 1-•• . Rading~l :t.Girls: Subject Science Geography 64% 65% 69% 73% 64% 15 70% 72% 68% WritingTR 2 Topic: Moet higtJ leyel jobs are done by men. Jftll:ff ~.~x~*~~~~Q ~8-15 7.'P{l:JllW IS 1'-0 ~..~iltlilf (t.~ T tQ:ijt IN1ft Not Given.*Jftll.!A!.~o . Yes . A ft ~ Americans did excel in one part of the test ••.. TtiiII tp irt the 3td lAEP fa. 1§JJ~. Not Given :ttpil~:1f 20 t-1N~.flk M rt:.lft 13 Not Given" 3.'PJlJIii Y 13 ~.1iJ 1ft {fg as comparable 't.rsJltli-~~~t(o .T(RJ&fJU~~o tn.l Ui t=R • JL -f.-tl'.ft~•• *x. J!tttU who.jJrj. knowledge and experience to support your ~ with examples and relevant evidence.

1:. E was 1O&t counter 22. E 24.. ':'F fii] ~~ i-rt • :f.85 f .. NG 38.::¢': tt 1:. Slovenia. 9.{€J.AA: ~ tJ J!I! '" 'ft $o m"*)c rp -* Gtt #J clustered f: jJ. ix 32. 13.tJ • _f: -I.* m f Reading PaswIge 2 Questiom 16 . Sterling 23. The U . practice: jf trit*~~ ff Q ~m~ 13. D 25.L Korea.~ i'. The subjects for which the highetlt average scores were recorded were Sport at 78 % (boys).S. Science. Israel E 0 J'-~ tt z 18] fF tt ~ 10. we call our best students nerd or dweeb" 0 Scholarship: j!..WorldWarI 28. salicylic acid 17. Geography.. Jt ~ ~ iiij .29 16.. S.tc~IIiO!ltr~H~TiVjJi¥~. and 15 aooon:ting to sex. jiij ep iiI . *IV. NG 42. scholarship is admired. vi 3S.U~~TI<-Flfl@tl$. tp ~ .Jilt ~ (fIJ 0 !A!.l!l'! if . 10. S . Korea 12. coherent/incoherent 36. f1! 19: ft Korea /F fit J: 11.ff !f:lliUllff Ii}]!~ 1'-iil ~ I. Taiwan _.t ~ ~ ~ tJT . Languages and Sport by children aged 7.t.l!~ ~:it Nerd ffl dweeb xt if $ iJU!~ fflmz n~1i jJ i&A.. over 20.*It!~p" ~F 8!: J:f:I Attidutes toward intellectual achievement are also important. In As ia. N 41. i 33. seized 21. Nol Given '*' tt& ~ [!!I ~J ~ !/iii'. Gennany ~ B li 0 *~ . In the U. The U.:tf!l8. y 40. no acidic properties n. W' jij DIl . Y 39... Italy. 0 :tt:p~!. vii 31. sodium 18.42 30. and . T.8. incoherent/coherent WritingT_t The tables show averaged pereentage ecores achieVed in the school eubjecta of Maths. Y 34. Taiwan. .S.f. Not Given 14.lemark 29. B Reading Pa!sage 3 the Questiom JO . ITii:.iK~ B9 o ~ 0 15. C 26 . ii 37. 1899 19. The U.

and Sport. while scores for girls ranged <=JOII. At a young age cal office. were negligible. the problem of wUair employment distribution appears to oome from social con8 percentage veruion and not competence or tlUe ability. improvement can he observed in these ranges of scores: Maths (63% Science (70% . powerful. in which scores for girls steadily declined from 65% The other significant exceptions that ernergaf were that both boys and girls recorded a slump be- tween particular ages...aths and Um~ for sport actually increased by 3% during this period. On the other hand.. For boys.. to observe the patterns that emerge In general. it is significant that at the age ugNi a score of 64% for this subject. with these two subjects also comprising the lowt'st recorded scores at 60% and 70% resPf. I believe society could benefit if more women were in postions of power and therefore I think the govenunent should reserve of these jobs for females.. and demand a lot of responsibility are held by men. If the govenunent set a quota for hiring women to do hi@h ment itself.64 % ).than perfect society . such as workmg in the govern- be ambitious in their life plans and contribute a less . and Geography.= _-'-<' . men hold the ID06t girls are not encooraged not 10 pursue politi- or professional prestige . (first reason) Firstly. males in this age range perfonned better in Sport The other significant pattern that emerged from the data was that boys and girls both went through a at different ages for the different sexes.ut 750/< (~irls). Science 2 %.64%). on average. Writing Task 2 sJwnp in performance.phy by 6%. and females performed better in . (62 % . between the ages of 7 and 15.75 % ). SCOres For girls. but that this slwnp happened M(lI. for both boys and girls. tively . Science 1% and Geogn:. business success. when scores in Maths feU b) 1%.('Boys Apart from these two subjects thl" perfonnancc of boys and girls was comparatively similar. The strongest subject for each ~'X was revealed to be the weakest for the opt posite sex.73%). Geography (63% . Languages . and its rise from 65 % to 75% also constituted the greatest margin between scores for any two particular age groups. when M. As a result.. these tables show that in this study. children tended to improve as they got older. For boys the ages at which this ocboth fell by 2%.. To sum up. 67%).t of the jobs in society thai are high . Science (69% .level work. 10 the general trend were languages. tended to score hight'r in Geography. then peIhaps women would be ruore inspired to level wotk. curred were 13 B«l)/il' SCOTffl Languages and Sport by 2 %.Langnages . it Geography can be observed in these score Maths (64% - 680/0).paying. in which scores for boys steadily declined from 10 62% at 7 years 1058% at 15 years. 18I1@P!: and Sport (71 % -78%).86 - . For girls this happened between the ages of 10 and 13. IQ alike aver- and Science the data is examined in terms of age It is more interesting groups. However.. things.72%). to 15. The exceptions 60%. . and Languages (62 % . with scores ranging from 63% between 62% and 64%. boys are told to do these hiP level jobe hut this does to mean they are very good at wIw they do... . I do not believe this situation aroee because women are incapable of doing high . The differences between to 70%.languages. The increase in for girls for this last subject. was the greatest overall improvement across the different age groups.

and both were equally qualified and had the same experience and background. Furthermore . and prestige. if the man was less qualified and less woman. to be roles for who can and cannot have hlgh . Despite some of the obvious problems I believe thai men and women can and should share power. Although not written or made into law. For instance. selves and begin j" a to while women might think less of them( Final statement that supports my opin- depend on government "charity".'ven IJl/. Sexism in the workplace will not just magically disappear.tenn. Even more . ion again.men might feel bitterness and resentment. This is to say that some qualified men might be denied a job while some unqualified women would be given one. - 87 - . the man would still probably get the job because of his uf high level jobs for women would work to fight the On the other hand. wealth. It is a cause worthy of our efforts.level jobs. regulations in the workplace for hiring women would not be a new ~hing. To sum up. there are many arguments against thf'if~~l_Q!1j!l~l1ISiYstf that the injustice 811d discrimination could be reversed.level j()b and determining an appropriate percentage. there seem. 1 have outlined some advantages and disadvantages of making quotas for the number of women in high level jobs . People would doubt whether a women with a high level job was "truly capable" . there is little than the a percentage doubt who would gel the job.(~:ond reason) Furthermore.' country.Nonetheless. a quota system would break down some barnet'S in the short . the problem of sexism at work could be worsened instead of being overcome. there is the problem of defining what high . Also. if a man and a woman both competed for the presidency of a company or . )-.

.. QueJItions 1 ..INTERNATIONAL EN TESTING SYSTEM PRACTICE TEST( Version Seven) ACADEMIC RFADING TEST WRITE ALL YOUR ANSWERS ON tHE ANSWER SHEET The test is in 3 sections: Reading Passage 2 . Reading Passage 3 R~ . It later...42 1 I ! l If you are having bWbIe with a question...15 Questions 16 . ... r all the _..30 Questions 31 ..kip it and ! return to i - 88 - ..

of conflict so as to to accept it' 8 to create the right intensity it is only to realize its functional benefits. While oonllict lncreacs hostility between groups.the -89- . CoJYlict vstion. and en- trenched attitudes. F. Greyhound. more ~ kvel of knsion. Morrison Knudsen. Y00 see namea like E. 1he cxmnon thread runbecame ccmplacent and unable or . at the seme tmprooe. not becauee they have too tmeh. acknowledge that there may be times when ~rs will purposely want increase its intensi- ty. ex\enl./lict.al threa18 tend to cause a 8IOOP to puB together 88 a unit.. management can drastically change the existing power structure. and to depersonalizati for each other. In fact. W. pattems.Reading Passage 1 You are advised to ~nd ahout 20 minules on Quettions I Conflict: Good Or Bad For An Organization? A logical We've made considerable progress in the last 25 years toward overcoming the negative stereotype now given to conflict. to more trust and openness. intemal differences and irritations dissolve. The successful solution of a conflict leads to greater effectiveness. it has been found that as the number of minor disagreement inereMee.. Eastern Airlines. General MoaoD. It's an effective device by which current intenIctioo. Hutton. Kmore orpnizations matt. facilitaJc group ~. enhances the chances of solv- ing the conflicts in a way satisfactoty to all parties ooncemed. group think. Rather. and clears the way for inn0time. while.Ling tIuougt these companies is that they sLagnated. the IlllIDber of major cla!lhes deoreases .ations devoid of oon- Conflict provide6 to 8 number of benefits to an organization. nu. Con- . to greater attraction of members for each other. B Conflfct u a means Conflict by which to bring aimsl radict:d ~. and Dipal~. let's briefly review bow stimulating oonOict can provide benefits for an otganiration.rem Union. and other debilitatina diseases. Take. When the level fl tension is very low.:ationol effectiveness. probab1y fail because they have too little conflict. Their ~t lmwilling to Iaeiiitate change. Gimbel's. group and organi. Most behavioural scientists and an increasing nwnber of practicing managers that the goal . . Groupe or organir. These organizations could have benefited by having had more oonflict . The stimulation of conflict initiates the search for new means and pis. stagnation. Intergroup conflicts raise the extent to which membem identify with their group and increue feelinp of IIOlidarity.){effective management is not to eliminale conflict. the parties are not sufticienlly IOOtivated to c do something about 8 oonOict.t bringJ about a sliRhdr hiper. Since conflict can he good for an organization.a look at a list of \sIge organizations that have failed or &Uffered senOtl8 :6nancW eetbacb over the past decade or two. met are likely suffer £rom apathy. In fact.

will reduce opportu· Any rnanagp. just because conflicts exist is no reason to deify them.F from the list oj MaJings below. Gxnpetition is healthy. NB: There are more heaJin&$ than paragraphs.level executives. Ifrite the appt'OJII'iate numben (i . Conflict. You may u. Competition is 1Wl the same as conflict. than once . succeed in elimination conflicts are likely to be appraised neptively. Choo. II may not be possiHowever.'1 the majority of senior executives in or- In the traditional view. any conflict will be seen as bad. Failure to follow this advice might result in the premature departure of the manager. inefficiencies c! conflict can be ~. Conflict is behavior directed against another party. the whole his or her role and supports his or her teammates. so yoo will not ute all if them. physical aggression. it's the SOlIIl'C of organizational vitality. F whole argument about the value of conflict may be moot as long ganizations view conflict traditiooally. on the other hand. labour grievances and strikes. conlliet is dysfunctional. whereas competition is behavior aimed at obtaining a goal without interference from Mother party. mties for advancement. in tum. Competition and conflict should not be confused with each other.5 Reading Pasroge I has six paragraphs.functions I kind.se any of the Ireadin«s more ( I) (ii) (in) Motivating Effect Change in Thinking wwams Conflict Examples of Conflict and Survival -90- . ~stions 1. The most obvious are increased turnover. and it is one of management's major responsibilities to keep some kind of {con- ilict intensity as tow as humanly possible. !Jte to eliminate it completely. Some The negative cm~quence$ sabotage. employee satisfaction. Management sometimes creates teamwolk by minimizing internal conflicts and facilitating internal coordination. can he destructive. Since the evaluation of a manager's perfonnance is made by higher . The and list of negatives associated with conflict is awesome.suitable ~ for paniQOph B . 8.x) in boxes I . D It may be true that conflict is an inherent part of any group or organization.5 .!e the nwst . Conflict works A successful work group is like a 8 . those managel'8 who do not This .~~~fS~~~iS1leam team works well. When becomes gwater than the sum of the parts. decreased between work units.r who aspires to move up in such an environment will be wise to fol- low the traditional view and eliminate My outward signs of oonflict. E against such an objective.

91 - .ler &heet.tWer sheet . There was not enough ronflict at K . 11. More conflict is always better.. Paragraph E 5. Paragraph F Questions 6 .. Paragraph D 4.15 Do the. Paragraph B 2. The author believes that not the right view of conflict is to and create the right 8.15 00 your tJlISII:. 10. The political danger of judged by _ managing conflict is great for rnanasers because their perfonnance is Questions 9 .followin8 sttJIemmt3 apt with the injormatioo gWen in &atlitw p~ I? Write)1XU' an- swers in. boxes 6 .8 on your an. Write your aIM'Wm in. Yes No Not GtveD if the statement agreea with the ~ if the statement contradicts the infonnation if there it! 00 infonnaIion on this in the JlIIII8IIF 9.8 Use No More Than :nuw wontv to answer the following questions . _ try 6. boores 9 . Conflict increases efficiency. Paragraph C 3.mart so it stagnated. A lack of this can cause some <npniuation to suffer from apathy 7.(iv) (v) (vi) The Danger to Teamwork Political Danger of Conflict When Cooflict May Not Be So Good Conflict Destroys Teamwork Searching for Solution through Tension Conflict and Change Benefits of Conflict tviV ~~ ~x) (x) I.

10 play with children and to talk to them. . 14. whifh are not 88. Teamwork on !hI:' whole is one area that hf.. but critics es. What parents do with to children is critically important. playgroup or school place for every four . comparing children's achievemenl8 in maths and litemcy. Professor Pam Sammons. as well as self . who played games with nwnbem and Jetteni. found that playgroups and private day nurseries tended to do much let!IS well than IlUI'IIeI')' sc:bool8. Music helps children connect the outer world of rnovement and eound with the inner wwid cl feelin8s and observations . Small disagreements can help prevent bigger ones.by listening and imitating. There are more staff for each dilld in nureeries than in reception classes. 'me author feels that modem academics are still viewing conflict in the wrong way.nefit. Finger play such as in a child's creativity and social development using promote. She said the fmdin8s emphasUed the importance of policies for supporting families of under . took them to the library and taught them son. 10 spend about 20 minutes on Qfustiotu 16 . Low tension and low motivation may be related at times. day can> and reception classes. motor skills and coordination. Parents who have no help their children. But what the mother did with the child was even more importo rant.esteem . But government . Young children - 92 - . than 2OCX) been thought to be the key to children's who measured the attainments of more children at the ages of three and five. which combined education. said: "Children's progress is not all detennined by social diud\'8Ellage. We need to ~ educational qualifications can still do many ~ parents. Mothers' (raiher than fathers') own educational achievements have long progress at school. This research is consistent with previous studies that show the benefit of mother play in other areas other devices 8llCh as music and toys. Researchers from Oxford. Education are investigating early years education.hal mothers can compensate for their lack of exam success if they offer their under . of' London University's Institute of Educati()n. for example the government's Sure Start pl'OfJllUllllef. Cardiff and London universities. Those who talked frequently their children. read to them.~2. The researchers. Children learn l1lU8ic the same way they learn langua&e .funded research suggests . particularly ycutIp ones.threes. 13. 15.ss and nursery.12.old. language development.fives activities linked to literacy and numeracy .30 Mothers who did badly at school can still roost their yOUJl@ children's academic performenee with stimulating aetivities at home.y that 100 naty children are in school reception class- equipped for them.~ the least from conflict. Reading Passage 2 You are advised .year . found that their mothers' education is important in ac- counting for djffe~ between children. MPs on the Select Committee for DOW Ministem have provided a mnsery.tbyrnes had a significant effect on their attainment both at the ages of three and five.

lire proud when they ~ing a song and t homemade or store . they call do the accompanying finger movements. Ql.. NB: An answer may be used more tI}an once. Researehers suggest that mothers give babies ample of opportwlity for "hands . . however.tage for each ansurs . spin. and take any gym down once your baby is thai fit small hands comfortably. Besides the spinning. The infant will often converse WIth animals prancing on the crib bumpers or revolving on a mobile. . playpen or crib) that have a long. A mother has a ment of purposeful movement by giving her baby's hands swaddled or tucked under a blanket (except outdoor in cold variety of objects thai are easy for small hends should offer these objects from the side. Use No MolY 1Jaa 1Jfte wont Write your aruwers in boxes 16 .ould behave toward one another. 10 music also It'aehes important pre . . make .. And since young babies usually won-t grasp objects that are directly in front of them. Even very small babies can socialize with there.rt"ading skills.. pull and poke. dial- they also teach the concept of cause and effect.•.. a young infant can set in motion accidentally \rith a swipe d a and pressing sk. many of which your baby won't be able to inlehlionally i~. ( 18) . Beware of those.. but some of which even ale.ills these toys~. • variety of parts for baby to grab hold of. As youngsters use small drums or other percussion instruments ClUJ Babies become social beings through watching their parents.19 Complete the table below. and through interacting with them and the rest of the family and later with others. and those that baby can put their mouth on will help Rattlt'S bring relief when teething begins. Listening play the rhythmic pattern of words. babies' hand movements are totally random. later.ustions 16 . hand or foot. Toys thai help babies with social development are stuffed animals . ( 16) . ~3 - StufIt'd an. They also suggest motheIS use cradle gyms (they fit acroee a carriage. and thai don't require fine dex- terity . . an important skill.up play also help children 10 books and opportunities for develop social skills In the beginrung .bought).Helps children to understand the cause and effect of movement. from &he pas.mals help babies with . with strin~ more than 6 i~hes • able to sit up. pushing..believe and dress ..on" experience with the following: • to them suggest providing a pick up and manipulate. hands will move with more purpose and control. animal mobiles and dolls. Another useful play device is an activity board that requiree a wide range of hand movements to opermaneuver for a while.. a mother Those with two lwtdles or grasping surfaces allow a baby 10 pass them from hand to hand. ( 17)'" Babies learn how to behave with ooe another. It is a crucial time to begin teaching by example how people l'l. Activity Usefulness . 19 on your answer sheet.

_ ~_ _ 19. $0 ~. Write the ap- IlT'OpriaIe Ieum (A .Buy 20.•.26 on your answer sh«l.lre8 I. (19)' . One way build motor eki& in a child is to'·· 22.30 Do eM following .30 VII'ite: -94- . phrase more than 0i'ICe. parts for the baby 10 play with E . Offer it fum the side of the baby child's imagination G. Even if yw have no educatiooa1 qualifications. 16.. It is important that cradle gyrm do not··· 24 . If you give an object to a baby you ebould'" Qutstions 27 . _ Questi6". •• 21.. Lnprove a child" 8 dexterity H.~ may use any c. Stuffed animals can be used to-·· 2S.::::: B • Improves a F.u of phraJe3 to complete each key point below. 18.rkJIemt!nII 1f'!!I«t IN clainu in &oding PtI6ItJIIt 2 in ~ 27 .~ 17.J) from the li. yoo should··· 26. Cradle gyms should'" 23. many toy1 PIacirJs snall objects in the crib is a good way to 10 .J) in boxc 20 . Have strings more than six inches long C .26 Choose one pIuwe (A .Make believe . Build !IOciaI skille J. Play and talk with your child D. NB: There are more phrases A .Have variety cI. sentenlJeJ.J than. ~ facial feab. 20 .

Young babies at all ages benefit from mothers who talk and play panes with them. Wcddwide ~ of !he m.. 8bains eX parasitee is aleo OJ" euoerhetinc emergiJI8 in areas where it ID)Ie previowdy under cotibol endioated. rer.me 1raftIIen. The YIlt .s. Rur. The text sugests one key problem with reception classes is lack of staff per chlld. The gecgraphical 81M affected by malaria has shrunk eonsidmalaria ~ an enotm:)I. diapIacecI pereons Malaria epidenriCB relate to political upheavals. Mortality due to malaria is eetimated 10 he over 1 millim deaIhe eerh yeer. Rrading Passage 3 3. the situatioo. Malaria anned conflicta and mue m uadti .Yes No Not Given n..S% of GPO in Africa. lor. ooets include the price of More than any odIer dieeMe.re puIicuIarIy as"ected. and in Africa espedally. inhabited by • total cl tome z.e.e is eQnated to be in Ibe mder rl300 . but control is crea!Ied risk of the diseaae is linked with ~ UIe Ined 10 activities like road building.estimaIed to be 1 % . and and labouren entering endemic areas.. eooncmic difticulties..risk groups are wtneIl durins non - u. lives t despite the fact that malaria is a cwable dieease if promptly diagno8ed and adequately Ireated. worlalays t:reatmeol and envimmnental p.. There is no shortage of nurserings.. malaria hits the poor. In DIBI1y developing oountriefl..ging and agricultural and irription projects. if the statemenl reflects the writer's claims if the statement contradicts the writer if there is no infonnatioo aOOul this in the passage 88 Stuffed animals help babies develop language they converse with them. paticuIarty in "fra:dier. and kills more people than any other oonmnmicable disease except tuberculosis.l ocmmmitiea.. and o&en Mincidee with the rainy season. Traillllnill8ion of malaria is atfecIed by climaIe and ~. Malaria is a public health problem today in than 90 oountrie!I. playgroup or school places. World Health OrganIzation Report: Malaria Malaria ill by far the world's most important tropical parasitic dieeaae. minin8. 28 .. and pmrentim.cIru@: resistant W88 of ~..500 million clinical caeee each year. Other hiP JftP8DCY. CoeIs to oountriea include coets for control and lost . 29. Moft: than 90~ 01 all malaria C8IeI ~ in eub .lIJ toll in eAbly over the past SO yean. For the individual.oblems. Other The ~ is re CIIU8e8 beoomiJt8 in land JIme difficult and pins are being eroded. and bt income.4OO million people . especially in remote l'UIIi __ with poor acceI8 to beahh aerrioes. In m iIB IIpI8Id rnovemenI8 include global climatic chanrF.haran Africa. .40% cl the world's population. 'DIe rainy season -95- . jcrity rlcIeatIa oocur among y«Ulg children in Africa. 30. diaintegmrion cl health services. E Asia. areas like the Amazon and in S.

malaria disease and deaths can be reduced. In affected countries. and hence transmission of the disease.. of the disease. but more severe. Mea8uree which protect apinst the disease 8ft but not against infection include chEmoprophylaxis. In absolute numbers.. in- found in chrysanthemum . g . hours developing symptoms . the average cost for each nation in Mrica to implement malaria control programmes 18-estimated per person for a country of to be at least $ 300(0) a year. It is a death toll that far exceeds the mortality rate from AIDS. repellents. Disease management. to maIaria ooobol. sccording to bard..endemic parts of the world.IS often tl time of intense agricultural activity. a single bout of the disease costs an estimated equivalent of to working days. creation of clams. when poor families earn most of their annual income.aria can make these families even poorer.Iaria is a eursble disease. DDT..tU'8eIed to thoee at greatest risk.. Handomised control trials show that about 30 per cent of child deaths could be avoided if children slept under bed nets regularly treated with recommended insecticides such as pyrethroids. t in terms of strains on the as many as 3 in to hospital beds are occupied by victims of malaria. In Mrica. irrigation schemes.. of malaria. Measures that poteet apiplIt infeclioo are directed Prevention of malaria encompaases a variety of measUIe6 against the moequito vector. infection or against the development of the disease in infected individuals.~ UNICEF. while El in£luence veeto&' breeding not Nil\o has an impact on maIaria because the associated weather disturbances sites.• e. These can he penonaI. a change in the risk of malaria can he the uninteruied result of economic activity or agricultural policy that changes the use of land (e . It is 4 besic right of affected pop. impairing their physical and intellectual development. bed nets. ·lIrr'n" ~ Unlike earl). such a. pyrethroid'" are derived from a naturally . of age. This amounts to about six US cents ( $ 0. outbreaks may be larger.ge are ehronic victiulf. Quantitacoincident with ENSO (El NinoISau:them Oscillatioo) events have been the popuJatioos affected may not recorded uround the world. that may protect . as has been shown in many eoomries. where malaria reaches a peak at harvest time and hits yoWJg adults especially families dear only 40 per cent of land for crops compared with healthy families. malaria kills 3000 children per day unIfer five yean.. Mrican children unand fatally afflicted children often die less than 72 Yet protection of children often be aflPf der five years of a. -96- . costs of malaria in sub . M>(·ticide>. In malaria .'. The disease has now spread \0 hipland areas of Africa.g. In spite of drug resistance. or community/population ~~des or environmental ananagement to er houaehokI) ~ protection measures e. commercial tree cropping and deforestation) . l!<!Sy. m those children who survive. and will remain effective for 6 to 12 The estimated costs of malaria art' enormous. "Aa- . Researeh indicates thai affeded The direct and indirect According to 1997 estimates. g.treme weather events correlated to EI Nifto. Many areas have experienced dramatic increases in the incidence of malaria during ex. Mrica exceed $ 2 billion. Although there is if these are used properly and f. Moreover. malaria also drains vital nutrients from Can ehildren. tive leaps in malaria incidence 88 only bave high levels of immunity. (individual protective clothing. for example. . through early diagnosis and prompt ~ q.use of insecti- measuRl6 control lmn8miSilion. is fundamental. not only a limited number of inevitable bunIen. nw. "Global warming" and other climatic phenomena such as "El Nirto" also play their role in increasing the risk.06) 5 million people.

Questions 31 .ht: autJwr be/. These are particularly hip.. on whom rnalaria has it.swer sIreet . sanitation and conununity devel- opment. Because these rely 80 much on labour they are especially hatd bit. Children and pregnant women.~ as refon'inIs to -----Sub - Saharan Mrica SA Cost of malaria Disease management EI Nino eM DM Malaria epidemics Malaria fatalities Rural commcnities ME MF EL RC yOUT Write the appropriate letters in boxes 31 . NB. water supply. for very }'(IW'Ig children. 35. It must be an integral uation. 34. 33.ieve$ can cure Malaria.42 Do the following s~~rs statemenU agree with the itiformation gitJen in &ailing p~ 3'! Write your an- in. boxes 38 . 32. are especially important. including community and people working in education.35 Classify the following description. A large area which is the wont for malaria. for control must be sustained and supported by intersectoral collaboration a all levels and by monitoring.35 on answer sheet. _ Questions 38 . you may we any ans1UeT mo~ than 0Iia1 • 31. of national health development and community action.u lations and needs to he available wherever malaria oecurs. These are often greater in area& suffering from climate change. training and eval88 well as by operational and basic research.42 on your an. write these hro areas ~y Name the Two Cl«u ~ Two Wordf for each answer. Hisit after it takes effect but not 80 bigh if any measures are taken. Yes No if the statement agreeS with the infonnation if the statement contradicts the infonnation -'J1- . 37. 36. Using No More Than in an&WtT !tdion 36 & 37. greatest impact in most parts of the world. Questions 36 & 37 tMt t. part environment. Malaria control is everybody's business and everybody should contribute numbers to it.

. The biggest reason rural places are hardest hit is 42. 40. "Should crtmtuh be pmislwd widlleR&dtl jill terms itated usiDg.Not Given if there is no information 00 this in the passage 38. Chemoprophylaxis is not a protection against the Ul~~. Topic: Compare the types of communication med iD 19628Dd in 1982. flR'~.-- Writing Test Writing Task 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. C'J'!llllDlmity service . Global wanning and EJ Nii\o are causes of 41..aIgcafecI aad rehaIJil. to society....o. although it will save money in the long run. 8p"daIW audieDce 00 die y 00 should write at least 250 words.. You should write a minimum of 150 words.. CMe IR' re.. to 811Hlurated ' before beiD& re -Introduced DOD: or ... 39. Some strains of malaria cannot be treated with standard drugs.. WritingT_2 You should spend about 40 minutes on thi8 task.... Malaria will take a great deal of resources to combat...." Present a written above topic.... - 98 - ..

IELTS Reading Pa6mge 1 Questions 1 . We can see foe each . y 40.. activity board 17. 10. NG 42. Y Reading Passage 2 Questiom16-30 It}. y Reading Passage 3 Quatiom 31. N 2. N (it does not prevent infection) 36. iv 5.1. E 25.Y 14. C 21. N I3. N (but they facilitate them) 41. I 2. develop social skill 24. G 30.year . x ~*~.) 9.year . Plunpt treatment early diagnosis 38.w. v 6. higher level executives 15. stuffed animal toys 1R. SA 32. NG 8. NG (It only mentions it didn't have enough of the right kind of conilid) 11. there are significant ~ -99- .42 31. Early diagnosis! prompt treabnenl WritiDg Task 1 The two pie charta compare dilferent metboda of communication used in 1962 and. y 28.-t::(~. NG (the study only mentions 3 and 5 . MF 37. constructive conflict 7. CM 34. ME or MF 33. 1982. that for the three mediums surveyed.olds ) 20. He 35. N (does not 008t nruch relatively) 39. Y (one for every 4 . F 27. social development 19. intensity 12.old child) 29. vi 4. H 26.15 I. A 22. iii 3.

'The telephone. A good example of this was the re- of the Bihlemum Trail.ll. leased.t they remain outside of society they not only are a danger.integrate these people into society. In this paragraph. and that at leat long time irunates often unused to. Firstly. at 60iK becomes the most used fonn of communication. whlch both povide the prisoners with and provide the public with much in Western Australia. by 1982. It is my opinion that even assuming limited effectiveness. but also cost society a 101 of money . Punishing criminals with long jail terms in actual fact punishes the avemge civilian just 100 - much as the I II . it is also true that neither offers a more effective soluI ion .introduced soci- . rising from we make it clear. cent construction. Arguments against rehabilitation are usually rehabilitation programmes IfUite the opposite. Similarily . letter wril iog was the most popular form of IXKnmunieation. effectiveness of programmes whi<:h seek . figures.:ally valuable. to wwk in oommunity service projects. it is indeed true that rehabilitation programmes often come at great financial cost to the publie. doubles to 30%. Longer jail tenns would entail even greater costs.~~~n--OOtI 10 That is to say. the type U~ of computers. they should he punished with long jail sentences instead. the smallest of that yean. they are effective enough in preventing repeal ofcannot fences. accounting for 50% of the tIJ 10- tal . Writing Task 2 TIlt' ways in which a society deals with those who break the Ofteo th(~ debate is centred around the value of rehabilitation adequate punishment.~ty. hut with rehabilitation up. programmes are often not effective. and moreover nor do they offer a cheaper solution.cally and practi- based on two points. including workplsee integration and deadline responsibilities. One is that given the great expense not represent to the taxpayer. this figure fell just 10%. and the re . and unprepared for civilian life. programme5 and projects the opportunity at least exists 10 make some of these costs Prisoners can be put valuable training.. there are many who question both the principles behind. which time period we ate writing about. However. because it follows 88 that whi\t. we can see that the use of the phone and computers during this same period have both risen dramatically. We can understand OK using this of phrase. By eontrast . Wt-' (No need to use 15%. However. Though it 10 be denied that there is some truth both of these points. )Ovem. though it does seem unfair that criminals receive taxpayer fmanced education programmes. I I I it is in everybody's best interests to re . and that. The other is that it is not fair that criminals receive expensive education programmes.educate criminals befQre they are re . it offers pri80DefS more ~ that they repeat Secondly. Don't repeat "the year" again and again. these progranunes are ethi. 35%.offend. 10 pro~~~. can see some important changes in the forms of communication employed during the two decades surveyed.In 1962. It is also true that rehabilitation mates quickly re . More importantly. hut the upkeep of prisoners is expensive anyway. a MOkm hiking track with facilities all along the way. needed senrjreo. During Ih~s constructioo project inmates received instruction in various different areas of die building trade.ramme is more when they are reoffend simply because they are effective than not having one at all. and that upon release 800le in- it cannot be denied that baving a report rehabilitation proe.

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