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MATRICES

Matrices – definitions

Programme 5: Matrices

Matrix notation

Equal matrices

Addition and subtraction of matrices

Multiplication of matrices

Transpose of a matrix

Special matrices

Determinant of a square matrix

Inverse of a square matrix

Solution set of linear equations

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

Matrix notation

Equal matrices

Addition and subtraction of matrices

Multiplication of matrices

Transpose of a matrix

Special matrices

Determinant of a square matrix

Inverse of a square matrix

Solution set of linear equations

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

arranged in rows and columns to form a rectangular array. There is

no arithmetical connection between the elements. A matrix has no

numerical value and despite a determinant, rows and columns can

not be interchanged.

5

7 2

For example:

6 3 8

is a 2 × 3 matrix, i.e. “2 by 3” matrix.

Example

5 6 4

3

2 1

is a matrix of order 4 × 3 (Four by Three)

1 9 5

7 8 7

0 7

4 2 is a matrix of order 3 by 2.

1 3

7 9 1 5

6 3 2 7 is a matrix of order 2 × 4

Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

Row matrix

A row matrix consists of a single row. For example:

(4 3 7 2)

Column matrix

A column matrix consists of a single column. For example:

6

3

8

To conserve space in printing, a column matrix is sometimes written on

one line but with “curly” brackets. For example the abovementioned

column matrix can be shown as {6 3 8} which is the same column

matrix of order 3×1.

Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

A single number may be regarded as a 1×1 matrix, i.e.

having 1 row and 1 column, e.g.:

[5]

Double suffix notation

Each element of a matrix has its own address denoted by

double suffices, the first indicating the row and the

second indicating the column. For example, the elements

of 3 × 4 matrix can be written as:

a a12

11

a13 a14

a21 a22 a23 a24

a a32

31

a33 a34

Example

6 5 4 5

− 6 3 − 1 6

1 10 2 − 5

0 6 9 − 2

(b) the element 1 can be stated as a31

(c) the element -5 can be stated as a34

Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

Matrix notation

Equal matrices

Addition and subtraction of matrices

Multiplication of matrices

Transpose of a matrix

Special matrices

Determinant of a square matrix

Inverse of a square matrix

Solution set of linear equations

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Matrix notation Programme 5: Matrices

general element in brackets or by a capital letter in bold type.

a

11

a12 a13 a14 For an (m×n) matrix

a21 a22 a23 be denoted

a24 can be denotedbyby(aij()aor ororbybyAA.

ij ) (a)

a a32 a33

31

a34

Bold capital letter

x1 For a row or column matrix

x can be denoted by ( x ) or ( x) or simply by x.

2 i

In handwritten work, we can indicate bold - face type by a wavy line placed under the letter,

e.g. A or x .

~ ~

Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

Matrix notation

Equal matrices

Addition and subtraction of matrices

Multiplication of matrices

Transpose of a matrix

Special matrices

Determinant of a square matrix

Inverse of a square matrix

Solution set of linear equations

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Equal matrices Programme 5: Matrices

Matrices – definitions

Programme 5: Matrices

Matrix notation

Equal matrices

Addition and subtraction of matrices

Multiplication of matrices

Transpose of a matrix

Special matrices

Determinant of a square matrix

Inverse of a square matrix

Solution set of linear equations

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Programme 5: Matrices

Addition and subtraction of matrices

corresponding elements. For example:

4 1 4 +1

2 3

8 9

2 + 8 3 + 9

+ =

5 7 6 3 5 4 5 + 3

7 + 5 6 + 4

5 10 12

=

8 12 10

Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

Matrix notation

Equal matrices

Addition and subtraction of matrices

Multiplication of matrices

Transpose of a matrix

Special matrices

Determinant of a square matrix

Inverse of a square matrix

Solution set of linear equations

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Programme 5: Matrices

Multiplication of matrices

Scalar multiplication

Multiplication if two matrices

Multiplication of matrices Programme 5: Matrices

Scalar multiplication

individual element of the matrix is multiplied by that

number. For example:

3 2 5 12

8 20

4× =

6 1 7 24 4 28

That is:

k aij = kaij

Example

every element-not just one row or one column as determinants,

e.g.:

10 25 45 2 5 9

35 15 50 = 5 × 7 3 10

Multiplication of matrices

Programme 5: Matrices

Multiplication if two matrices

Two matrices can only be multiplied when the number of columns in

the first matrix equals to the number of rows in the second matrix.

element in the ith row of the first matrix by the corresponding element

in the jth column of the second matrix.

For example:

Multiplication of matrices Programme 5: Matrices

Multiplication if two matrices

b11

a11 a12 a13

If A = and B = b

21

a21 a22 a23

b23

31

b11

a11 a12 a13 a11b11 + a12b21 + a13b31

then A.B = . b21 =

a21 a22 a23 a b + a b + a b

21 11 22 21 23 31

b31

23

8

4 7 6 4 × 8 + 7 × 5 + 6 × 9 32 + 35 + 54 121

Example 2 3 1.5 = 2 × 8 + 3 × 5 + 1× 9 = 16 + 15 + 9 = 40

9

Multiplication of matrices

Programme 5: Matrices

Multiplication if two matrices

If A = ( aij ) is an n × m matrix and

B = ( bij ) is an m × q matrix then

C = A.B = ( cij ) is an n × q matrix where

m

c = ∑ aik bkj

ij k =1

The product of an (n×m) matrix and an (m×q) matrix has order (n×q)

Example

7 1

2 4 6 14 − 8 + 24 2 + 36 + 18 30 56

(aik ).(bkj ) = .− 2 9 =

21 − 18 + 20 3 + 81 + 15 =

23 99

3 9 5 2×3 4 3 2×2

3×2

Multiplication of matrices

Programme 5: Matrices

Multiplication if two matrices

Only a square matrix can be squared, e.g.:

A= ⇒ A = . = =

5 2 5 2 5 2 20 + 10 35 + 4 30 39

In matrix multiplication, A.B≠B.A, multiplication is not commutative, e.g.:

5 2 41 16 32

9 2 4 71 30

A = 7 4, B = A.B = 55 26 52 , B.A = 29 14

− 2 3 6

25 9 18

3 1

and, A is post-multiplied by B.

Matrices – definitions

Programme 5: Matrices

Matrix notation

Equal matrices

Addition and subtraction of matrices

Multiplication of matrices

Transpose of a matrix

Special matrices

Determinant of a square matrix

Inverse of a square matrix

Solution set of linear equations

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

Transpose of a matrix Programme 5: Matrices

called the transpose of the original matrix and denoted as AT or Ã.

For example, if:

4 6

T

4 7 2

A = 7 9 then A =

6 9 5

2 5

The first row becomes the first column,

The second row becomes the second column,

. . .

. . .

Example

4 6

4 7 2

A = 7 9 ⇒ A T =

6 9 5

2 5

4 0

2 7 6

A= , B =

3 7

3 1 5 1 5

A.B = , (A.B ) =

20 32 79 32

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