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PROGRAMME 5

MATRICES

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions
Programme 5: Matrices
Matrix notation
Equal matrices
Addition and subtraction of matrices
Multiplication of matrices
Transpose of a matrix
Special matrices
Determinant of a square matrix
Inverse of a square matrix
Solution set of linear equations
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices
Matrix notation
Equal matrices
Addition and subtraction of matrices
Multiplication of matrices
Transpose of a matrix
Special matrices
Determinant of a square matrix
Inverse of a square matrix
Solution set of linear equations
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

A matrix is a set of real or complex numbers (called elements)


arranged in rows and columns to form a rectangular array. There is
no arithmetical connection between the elements. A matrix has no
numerical value and despite a determinant, rows and columns can
not be interchanged.

A matrix having m rows and n columns is called an m × n matrix.


5

7 2 
For example: 
6 3 8 
is a 2 × 3 matrix, i.e. “2 by 3” matrix.

Number of rows is stated first and the number of columns second.

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Example
5 6 4
3
 2 1 
is a matrix of order 4 × 3 (Four by Three)
1 9 5
 
7 8 7

0 7 
4 2 is a matrix of order 3 by 2.
 
1 3

7 9 1 5 
6 3 2 7  is a matrix of order 2 × 4
 

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices
Row matrix
A row matrix consists of a single row. For example:
(4 3 7 2)
Column matrix
A column matrix consists of a single column. For example:
6
 
 
 3
 
8
 
To conserve space in printing, a column matrix is sometimes written on
one line but with “curly” brackets. For example the abovementioned
column matrix can be shown as {6 3 8} which is the same column
matrix of order 3×1.

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices

Single element matrix


A single number may be regarded as a 1×1 matrix, i.e.
having 1 row and 1 column, e.g.:
[5]
Double suffix notation
Each element of a matrix has its own address denoted by
double suffices, the first indicating the row and the
second indicating the column. For example, the elements
of 3 × 4 matrix can be written as:
a a12
 11
a13 a14 

 a21 a22 a23 a24 
 
a a32
 31
a33 a34 

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Example
6 5 4 5
− 6 3 − 1 6 
 
 1 10 2 − 5
 
 0 6 9 − 2

The location of (a) the element 3 can be stated as a22


(b) the element 1 can be stated as a31
(c) the element -5 can be stated as a34

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices
Matrix notation
Equal matrices
Addition and subtraction of matrices
Multiplication of matrices
Transpose of a matrix
Special matrices
Determinant of a square matrix
Inverse of a square matrix
Solution set of linear equations
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrix notation Programme 5: Matrices

Where there is no ambiguity a matrix can be represented by a single


general element in brackets or by a capital letter in bold type.

a
 11
a12 a13 a14  For an (m×n) matrix

 a21 a22 a23 be denoted
a24  can be denotedbyby(aij()aor ororbybyAA.
ij ) (a)
 
a a32 a33
 31
a34 
Bold capital letter
 x1  For a row or column matrix
 x  can be denoted by ( x ) or ( x) or simply by x.
 2 i

 x3  Lower-case bold letter


In handwritten work, we can indicate bold - face type by a wavy line placed under the letter,
e.g. A or x .
~ ~

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices
Matrix notation
Equal matrices
Addition and subtraction of matrices
Multiplication of matrices
Transpose of a matrix
Special matrices
Determinant of a square matrix
Inverse of a square matrix
Solution set of linear equations
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Equal matrices Programme 5: Matrices

Two matrices are equal if corresponding elements throughout are equal.

A = B that is ( aij ) = ( bij ) if aij = bij

Thus the two matrices must also be of the same order.

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions
Programme 5: Matrices
Matrix notation
Equal matrices
Addition and subtraction of matrices
Multiplication of matrices
Transpose of a matrix
Special matrices
Determinant of a square matrix
Inverse of a square matrix
Solution set of linear equations
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Programme 5: Matrices
Addition and subtraction of matrices

Two matrices are added (or subtracted) by adding (or subtracting)


corresponding elements. For example:
4 1  4 +1

2 3  
8 9  
2 + 8 3 + 9 

+ =
5 7 6   3 5 4   5 + 3
7 + 5 6 + 4 
 5 10 12 

= 
8 12 10 

Thus the two matrices must also be of the same order.

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions Programme 5: Matrices
Matrix notation
Equal matrices
Addition and subtraction of matrices
Multiplication of matrices
Transpose of a matrix
Special matrices
Determinant of a square matrix
Inverse of a square matrix
Solution set of linear equations
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Programme 5: Matrices

Multiplication of matrices
Scalar multiplication
Multiplication if two matrices

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Multiplication of matrices Programme 5: Matrices

Scalar multiplication

To multiply a matrix by a single number (a scalar), each


individual element of the matrix is multiplied by that
number. For example:
3 2 5   12

8 20 
4×  =
6 1 7   24 4 28 
That is:
k  aij  =  kaij 
   

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Example

It means that, in inverse, we can take a common factor out of


every element-not just one row or one column as determinants,
e.g.:

10 25 45 2 5 9 
35 15 50 = 5 × 7 3 10
   

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Multiplication of matrices
Programme 5: Matrices
Multiplication if two matrices

aik bkj = cij


Two matrices can only be multiplied when the number of columns in
the first matrix equals to the number of rows in the second matrix.

The ijth element of the product matrix is obtained by multiplying each


element in the ith row of the first matrix by the corresponding element
in the jth column of the second matrix.

For example:

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Multiplication of matrices Programme 5: Matrices
Multiplication if two matrices
 b11 
 a11 a12 a13 
If A =  and B = b 
 21 
 a21 a22 a23 
 b23 
 31 
 b11 
 a11 a12 a13     a11b11 + a12b21 + a13b31 
then A.B =   . b21  =  
 a21 a22 a23  a b + a b + a b
 21 11 22 21 23 31 
 b31 
 23 
8
 4 7 6   4 × 8 + 7 × 5 + 6 × 9 32 + 35 + 54 121
Example 2 3 1.5 =  2 × 8 + 3 × 5 + 1× 9  =  16 + 15 + 9  =  40 
  9      
 

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Multiplication of matrices
Programme 5: Matrices
Multiplication if two matrices
If A = ( aij ) is an n × m matrix and
B = ( bij ) is an m × q matrix then
C = A.B = ( cij ) is an n × q matrix where

m
c = ∑ aik bkj
ij k =1

The product of an (n×m) matrix and an (m×q) matrix has order (n×q)
Example

 7 1
 2 4 6    14 − 8 + 24 2 + 36 + 18 30 56
(aik ).(bkj ) =   .− 2 9 = 
21 − 18 + 20 3 + 81 + 15  =
23 99 
 3 9 5  2×3  4 3   2×2  
  3×2

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Multiplication of matrices
Programme 5: Matrices
Multiplication if two matrices
Only a square matrix can be squared, e.g.:

4 7  2 4 7  4 7  16 + 35 28 + 14 51 42


A=  ⇒ A = .  =  = 
 5 2   5 2  5 2   20 + 10 35 + 4   30 39 
In matrix multiplication, A.B≠B.A, multiplication is not commutative, e.g.:

5 2  41 16 32
 9 2 4    71 30
A = 7 4, B =  A.B = 55 26 52 , B.A = 29 14 
 − 2 3 6
25 9 18   
3 1

In the product A.B, B is pre-multiplied by A


and, A is post-multiplied by B.

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Matrices – definitions
Programme 5: Matrices
Matrix notation
Equal matrices
Addition and subtraction of matrices
Multiplication of matrices
Transpose of a matrix
Special matrices
Determinant of a square matrix
Inverse of a square matrix
Solution set of linear equations
Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Transpose of a matrix Programme 5: Matrices

If a new matrix is formed by interchanging rows and columns, it is


called the transpose of the original matrix and denoted as AT or Ã.
For example, if:
 4 6
  T
 4 7 2
A =  7 9  then A = 
6 9 5 
 2 5  
 
The first row becomes the first column,
The second row becomes the second column,
. . .
. . .

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text


Example

 4 6
 4 7 2
A = 7 9 ⇒ A T = 
6 9 5 
2 5  

4 0
2 7 6
A=  , B = 
3 7

 3 1 5  1 5

35 79 T 35 20


A.B =   , (A.B ) =  
 20 32   79 32 

STROUD Worked examples and exercises are in the text