Business Communication

Adaptation and Selection of Words

Adaptation Fitting the message to the specific reader. Method of Adaptation ‡Visualize your readers. 

The Basic Need for Adaptation

feelings thoughts knowledge background

The Basic Need for Adaptation

Adapting to Multiple Readers 
Write for the lowest level.  Try not to talk down.

Governing Role of Adaptation Stress simplicity by using: 
simple words  short sentences  short paragraphs

This depends on: ‡ ability to use language. ‡ knowledge about the reader. .Suggestions for Selecting Words Selecting the Right Words A major part of adaptation is selecting the right words. ‡ good judgment.

Use Familiar Words ‡ Familiar better. . words communicate ‡ Write the words you would use in face-to-face communication with your readers.Suggestions for Selecting Words 1.

Suggestions for Selecting Words Unfamiliar Words Terminate Endeavour Utilize Ascertain Discontinue Perform Familiar Words End Try Use Find out Stop Do .

Do: The company lost much money last year. . Don·t: The conclusion ascertained from a perusal of pertinent data is that a lucrative market exists for the product. Do: The data studied show that the product has good demand in the market.Suggestions for Selecting Words Don·t: The company operations for the preceding accounting period terminated with a substantial deficit.

.Suggestions for Selecting Words Don·t: One monkey succumbed unexpectedly apparently as a result of an untoward response to a change in feeding regimen. Do: One monkey died from overeating.

Suggestions for Selecting Words 2. ‡But it does not mean that all short words are easy and all long words are difficult to understand. Use Short Words ‡Short words generally communicate better. ‡Use a long word only when you think your readers know it. .

Suggestions for Selecting Words Long Words Modification Verification Indeterminate Duplicate Accomplish Detrimental Determine Short Words Change Proof Vague Copy Do Harmful Decide .

Do: This old sales strategy will not work in today·s business. Don·t: They acceded to the proposition to terminate business.Suggestions for Selecting Words Don·t: This antiquated merchandising strategy is ineffectual in contemporary business operations. . Do: They agreed to quit business.

Suggestions for Selecting Words 3. Spell out and define as needed. ‡But use them in case of outsiders with caution. Use Technical Language with Caution ‡Use technical words while communicating with people of the same field. ‡Avoid legal terms as much as possible. ‡Use initials and acronyms cautiously. .

‡Verbs are the strongest words. Some are weak and dull. . Some words are strong and vigorous. ‡Adjectives and adverbs are weak words. Nouns are second.Suggestions for Selecting Words 4. Select Words with Right Strength and Vigor ‡Words have personalities. They involve judgment.

Suggestions for Selecting Words Weaker Words Stronger Words Dismissed Fired Female Mother parent Untrue Lie Additional Bonus compensation .

vehicle. desk. incompetence. road.Suggestions for Selecting Words 5. . loyalty. etc. pen. These words mean real things: chair. ‡Abstract words cover broad meanings² concepts . etc. and the like: administration. ideas. Use Concrete Language ‡Concrete words are specific words having sharp and clear meanings.

Suggestions for Selecting Words Abstract ‡ A significant loss ‡ In the near future ‡ The majority ‡ A constant low temperature Concrete ‡ A 53 percent loss ‡ By Thursday 1200 hours ‡ 62 percent ‡A constant temperature of 10° C .

it receives the action. It communicates better and makes writing more interesting. In passive voice. the subject does the action.Suggestions for Selecting Words 6. Prefer the Active to the Passive ‡In active voice. . ‡Active voice is shorter and stronger.

inspect the Haque.Suggestions for Selecting Words Passive Active The office will be Mr. Haque will inspected by Mr. committee. office. . new These policies The were enforced by committee the new enforced these policies.

Prefer the Active to the Passive ‡But passive voice is not incorrect.  when the writer wants to avoid accusing the reader of an action. It is rather preferable to use passive voice:  when identifying the doer of the action is not important.Suggestions for Selecting Words 6.  when the performer of an action is .

‡ Camouflaged verbs are abstract nouns and they often require passive voice. ‡ Avoid camouflaged verbs by: .Suggestions for Selecting Words 7. Avoid Overuse of Camouflaged Verbs ‡ A verb is camouflaged when it is changed into a noun and used with an action word in the sentence.

Suggestions for Selecting Words Verb Apply Noun Form Use in a Sentence Application Make an application Discuss Discussion Have a discussion Cancel Cancellation Make a cancellation .

terminated. Select Words for Precise Meanings ‡ Writing requires a knowledge of language. ‡ Shades of difference exist in the meanings of similar words or synonyms. decease. check expire.« bucket.Suggestions for Selecting Words 8. Synonyms canned. kick the . discharged. separated. croak. Word fired die dismissed. pass away.

continuous  farther vs. Select Meanings Words for Precise ‡We should learn the specific meanings of some words.  affect vs. further ‡Use correct idioms.Suggestions for Selecting Words 8. . effect  continual vs.

race. Avoid Sexist Words ‡Avoid words that discriminate against a person because of his or . or disability. sexual orientation. age.Suggestions for Non-discriminatory Writing Avoid words that discriminate against gender. nationality. 1.

This can be done:  by rewording the sentence. his) while writing for both sexes. .  by substituting neutral expressions.Suggestions for Non-discriminatory Writing 1.  by making the reference plural. him. Avoid Sexist Words ‡Avoid masculine pronouns (he.

Avoid Sexist Words ‡Avoid words masculine words.Suggestions for Non-discriminatory Writing 1. derived from Sexist chairman businessman Salesman on Non-sexist chairperson businesspers Salesperson .

Avoid Sexist Words ‡Avoid words that lower status by sex.Suggestions for Non-discriminatory Writing 1.  Lady doctor  Female teacher  Male nurse .

region. or Sexual Orientation ‡ Words that stereotype all members of a group by race. nationality.Suggestions for Non-discriminatory Writing 2. ‡ Words that present members of . or sexual orientation are unfair and wrong. Avoid Words That Stereotype by Race. Nationality.

4. Avoid Words That Stereotype by Age ‡ Words that label people as old or young can arouse negative reactions. Avoid Words That Typecast Those with Disabilities .Suggestions for Non-discriminatory Writing 3.

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