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MLA Style Citations (Modern Language Association)
This guide provides examples and the basic guidelines for citing sources following the MLA Style Manual. MLA style requires that you provide, in the text, brief parenthetical references identifying the exact part of each work you quote or base your ideas on (page number or section). Examples of MLA parenthetical references are on pages 5-6 of this guide. At the end of your paper, you must also provide an alphabetical list of "Works Cited" listing the complete citation for each work referred to parenthetically or in the text of your paper. in your parenthetical references.
Works Cited List - Examples for Print Resources
Single author: Multiple authors: Author#1LastName, FirstName(s), and Author#2FirstName(s) Lastname. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of publication. Talevski, Nick. The Unofficial Encyclopedia of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1998. Booth, Wayne C., Gregory G. Colomb, and Joseph M. Williams. The Craft of Research. 2nd ed. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2003.
For works by more than three authors or editors, you may list all as above or only the first followed by a comma and et al.
Editor(s) as author(s): Translated work: Multi-volume work: Corporate author: No author named on title page: Antony, Louise M., and Charlotte E. Witt, eds. A Mind of One's Own: Feminist Essays on Reason and Objectivity. 2nd ed. Boulder: Westview, 2002. Racine, Jean. Jean Racine's Phaedra: A Tragedy: A New Verse Translation of Phèdre. Trans. Edwin Morgan. Manchester, Eng.: Carcanet, 2000. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor. The Unpublished Dostoyevsky: Diaries and Notebooks (1860-81). Ed. Carl R. Proffer. Trans. T. S. Berczynski, et al. 3 vols. Ann Arbor: Ardis, 1973-1976. US Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. Trident Society. The Book of Navy Songs. Arr. and harmonized Joseph W. Crosley. Garden City: Doubleday, 1926. The Bible with Sources Revealed: A New View into the Five Books of Moses. 1st ed. Trans. and commentary Richard Elliott Friedman. San Francisco: Harper, 2003. The New York Public Library American History Desk. New York: Hyperion, 2003.
The formats above for names of authors, editors, translators, etc. may be applied to all similar situations, below.
CHAPTER IN A BOOK or WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY or COLLECTION
Chapter in a book: Work in an anthology: AuthorLastName, FirstName(s). "Title of Book Chapter or Work in Other Collection." Title of Book, Anthology, or Collection. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of publication. Page numbers. Johnson, D. Barton. "Nabokov and the Sixties." Discourse and Ideology in Nabokov's Prose. Ed. David H. J. Larmour. London: Routledge, 2002. 139-49. Allende, Isabel. "Toad's Mouth." Trans. Margaret Sayers Peden. A Hammock beneath the Mangoes: Stories from Latin America. Ed. Thomas Colchie. New York: Plume, 1992. 83-88.
Continuous pagination through each volume: Each numbered issue begins with page 1: No issue numbers and each issue begins with page 1: Author#1LastName, FirstName(s), and Author#2FirstName(s) Lastname. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume.Issue-if-needed (Year or Date of Publication): Page numbers. Matar, Nabil. "English Accounts of Captivity in North Africa and the Middle East: 1577-1625." Renaissance Quarterly 54 (2001): 553-72. LaGuardia, David. "Masculinity and Metaphors of Reading in the Tiers Livre, 16-18." Esprit Createur 43.3 (2003): 5-15. Franken, Lynn. "Carnival of Silence: Bakhtin and Hugo's Notre-Dame de Paris." The Comparatist: Journal of the Southern Comparative Literature Association 25 (May 2001): 110-32.
Copyright 2004 by the Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
Created by Instructional Services, Moffitt Library, University of California, Berkeley.
" Rev. or Newspaper [remaining publication information as in examples above]: Page numbers. Margot Fonteyn. Interviewee named. Chor. Personal interview. INTERVIEWS General Format IntervieweeLastName." New York Times 30 Mar. late ed. 5. Nureyev. Vienna Symphony Orch." Newsweek 7 Mar.. Videorecording. "'The Bones Tell the Story': Revealing History's Darker Days.9.1-5." By InterviewerFirstName LastName if important. Begitchev. of Title of Item Reviewed by Author#1FirstName(s) Lastname." Title of Magazine Day Month Year of Publication: page-numbers or initial-page+ if nonconsecutive. Semiotica 93. Hazel Court. "Revenge of the Pink Collars?" Press Democrat [Santa Rosa. FirstName(s). REVIEWS General Format ReviewAuthorLastName. routine staff interviewer: Interview you conducted including date of interview: For additional examples see MLA Handbook. Patricia T. and Vienna State Opera Ballet. Rudolf Nureyev. and V. CA] 21 Mar. Name of Director.9. Dir. of Hollywood Shot by Shot by Norman K. Clarion/Warner Bros. 2004. and Robert Urquhart. Dir. 2004. 12 Apr. Anonymous 4. Down Beat April 2004: 20. Swan Lake: Ballet in Four Acts. radio/TV programs) Films and videos Film: Video recording: Title. Perf. 1998. Fredy. Group-or-Artist-or-ComposerLastName. Christopher Lee.: F2. author named: AuthorLastName. no author named: Non-consecutive pages. city ed. "Title of Review If Given.: B6-7.S. "Title of Article. 2004.7 and 5. Performer(s)FirstName(s) Last Name(s). and Author#2FirstName(s) Lastname. Manufacturer. Geltzer. Redemption and Glory.4d.d. 2004. videos." Title of Newspaper [City of Publication If Not in Title] Day Month Year of Publication. Magazine. Title of Journal. "Title of Article. Fred. Fabricant. Florence. "The Making of the Alcoholic Hero: Social Problems and Subject Identities. Jean M.1-2 (1993): 187-94. Clough. edition: page-numbers or initial-page+ if non-consecutive. W. London International Advertising Awards: U. Ann.. a New Culinary Movement Offers a Wry Answer to Fast Food. 1966. Hersch. FirstName(s). Terence Fisher.: G1+. FirstName(s). Cond. Tchaikovsky. DVD. Advertising Awards. Music by Piotr I. Publication information following the appropriate format above: Page numbers if appropriate.Page 2 MAGAZINE ARTICLES General Format Consecutive pages. each issue begins with page 1: For additional examples see MLA Handbook. Perf. Type of recording if not CD. "Title of Song If Relevant. Peter Cushing. national ed. Harmonia Mundi USA.9e. PolyGram Video. John Lanchbery. Year of Issue. "E-Global Library: The Academic Campus Library Meets the Internet. Litwack. or "Title of Interview If Given. MEDIA (Sound recordings. Golden Oldies. Interview.8.8." Searcher June 2001:34+ NEWSPAPER ARTICLES General Format Consecutive pages: Non-consecutive pages. FirstName. P. Peccerelli. Distributor or Publisher. Book review in journal. Sound recordings Specific song on a CD: Performance on a DVD: For additional formats and examples see MLA Handbook. 1989. Leon. Dubay. "The Decade of the Spy. Perf." American Angels: Songs of Hope." Title of Recording. By Aaron Cohen. Interview. New York: London Intl. films. untitled interview: Titled newspaper article. 1994: 26-27.7 and 5.7. 5. 5." New York Times 15 Nov. "Wayfaring Stranger. city not in title: Author#1LastName. . 1989. Curse of Frankenstein. Heiling. "From Italy." Rev. year of release. Denzin. FirstName(s). n. Type of interview.
"Title of Dissertation. "Smart Bombs." Harvard Gay and Lesbian Review 30. 1998): 407-425.com/>. . Ruth. United States. Day Month Year of access <URL of database search page>.virginia. "Race." MLN 113 (Mar.2: 16-.edu/pmc/>. and Revolution: The Cultural Politics of Interracial Encounters in Cuba. and Sven Strömqvist. Year. UC Berkeley Libraries. Location of Library if Needed to Identify It. Hattersley. 2003). 2003 <http://www. Nadine Therese. Title. Michael.iath. 12 Dec. Day Month Year of access <URL>. U of California. Peggy J. Name of Agency #2. and the Rapture: The Vanishing Bodies of Imperial Apocalypticism.ingentaselect. Gale Group/InfoTrac. Cong. Electronic Publications (Web and Internet) ONLINE JOURNAL ARTICLES From a Library Subscription Service with Full Text (e. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume if given (Year or Date of Publication): Page numbers if available. ProQuest. For more examples. granting institution. "Fresa y Chocolate: The Rhetoric of Cuban Reconciliation. Gale Group/InfoTrac. There are many forms and irregularities in citing government publications." Essays and Studies Annual (2002): 41-59. JSTOR. Peter Yoonsuk." Title of Journal Volume. Salter. Name of Agency #1. Committee on Un-American Activities. For theses. FirstName(s). 1968. 2003 <http://gw. or MS Thesis. Expanded Academic ASAP.21.Page 3 GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS General Format Agency as author: Name of Government. Number of Congress. ProQuest) Provide in this order. Subversive Involvement in Disruption of 1968 Democratic Party National Convention. but insert the type of degree. Paik. Goetz. FirstName(s). Gender Watch. Day Month Year of access <URL>. 2003 <http://journals. treat as unpublished. Berkeley.6.proquest. DISSERTATIONS and THESES General Format (Unpublished works) Unpublished dissertations: AuthorLastName. Cambridge Journals Online.jstor. Washington: GPO.galegroup. Title of Site or Database if Different from Title of Journal.org>. "Title of Article. Berman. 1st sess.g. UC Berkeley Libraries. Romance. "The Effects of Bilingualism on Theory of Mind Development.org>. and date between the title and the publication information. 90th Cong.. UC Berkeley Libraries. 12 Dec. and Author#2FirstName(s) Lastname." Written Language & Literacy 5 (2002): 253-87. Subscribing Library or Consortium. Ingenta Select." Postmodern Culture 14." Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 6 (2003): 1-15. "Discourse Stance: Written and Spoken Language. "'Born to Thraldom and Penance': Wives and Mothers in Middle English Romance.com/itweb/>. 1996. Treat published dissertations like published books. JSTOR article: From journal publisher: From journal distributor: Santi. Enrico Mario. replace Diss." Title of Journal Volume. Pagination provided in PDF version: Only starting page number provided: From a Journal Publisher Site or Database Distributing Journals (usually reproducing print version in PDF format) Provide in this order. Hearing before the Committee on Un-American Activities." Diss. Serial Killing.Issue-if-needed (Year or Date of Publication): Page numbers. Hrafnhildur Ragnarsdóttir. Fernandez. FirstName(s). "Title of Article. Journal available only in Web edition (no print equivalent available) No pagination: Provide in this order.Issue-if-needed (Year or Date of Publication): Page numbers or beginning page-. Session of Congress. and Author#2FirstName(s) Lastname. 12 Dec. 5.cambridge. Date of publication. 12 Dec. House.com/vl=1325936/cl=79/nw=1/rpsv/~3632/v5n2/ s5/p253>.1 (Sep." Diss. and Author#2FirstName(s) Lastname. omitting what is not appropriate or relevant: Author#1LastName. 12 Dec. Place of Publication: Publisher. David. 2003 <http://infotrac. 2003 <http://ceres. FirstName(s). with MA Thesis. omitting what is not available or relevant: Author#1LastName. UC Berkeley Libraries.. Degree-Granting Institution. Title of Database. 12 Dec. MLA style does not consider inclusion in Dissertation Abstracts to be "published". omitting what is not appropriate or relevant: Author#1LastName. Name of Service. UC Berkeley Libraries. 2003 <http://www. "Rock's Role in Gay Liberation. see MLA Handbook. Number of publication.
Day Month Year of access <URL>. ONLINE NEWSPAPER or NEWSWIRE ARTICLES From a Library Subscription Service with Full Text (e. Div. FirstName(s).edu>.com/raq/bonedanc. and Author#2FirstName(s) Lastname. Date of Electronic Publication or other Date. The David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Raphael. Date of publication.publicagenda. U of Kentucky. 1 Apr. Literatures. Sponsored by The Danforth Foundation. Place of Publication: Publisher. Melville. and Author#2FirstName(s) Lastname. Carolyn.. Jane. or The Whale. UC Berkeley Libraries. 2004 <http://www. Herman. such as Last Updated.lexis-nexis. Additional significant descriptive information. If Given. "Title of Article. Dept. Carter. Schevitz.com/features/nationalaffairs/ featuregen. Bloomington: Indiana UP. UC Berkeley Libraries. Day Month Year of access <URL>. Harvey. Place of Publication: Publisher.lib. AuthorLastName. Following Djuna: Women Lovers and the Erotics of Loss.g. Day Month Year of access <URL>. Allen.org/PID/11381>. 1 Apr. Published on a Website of electronic texts An e-text supplier: A WEBSITE or WEB PAGE WITHIN A WEBSITE General Format Author Following Applicable Rules Above. FirstName(s).virginia. "Emma Goldman Hailed As Equal of Willa Cather As 'Best Cook. Day Month Year of access <URL>." Title of Magazine Day Month Year of Article or Publication: page-numbers if provided. if appropriate." Androgyny RAQ (Rarely Asked Questions).shtml>. "Europe Shocked at Images of Killing of Americans in Iraq. New York Times in Historical Newspapers Index: From a Website or Web News Service Newswire: ONLINE BOOKS From a Database Provided by a Library NetLibrary: Author#1LastName." Rolling Stone 23 Mar. "Title: Subtitle of Part of Web Page. "Title of Article.html>. FirstName(s). Lexis-Nexis. 31 Mar. Television interview conducted June 1-15." San Francisco Chronicle 8 Nov." Title of Newspaper or Newswire [City of Publication If Not in Title] Day Month Year of Publication. June 2000." Issue Guides: CHILD CARE: People's Chief Concerns. 2004 <http://www.: A19. of Modern & Classical Languages." Title of Newspaper [City of Publication If Not in Title] Day Month Year of Publication. Author#1LastName..shtml> Public Agenda. 2004 <http://web. with sponsors: .edu/ArtsSciences/Classics/rhetoric. Moby Dick. The Ford Foundation. & Cultures. Lexis-Nexis Academic. Title of Book. FirstName(s). of Classics.cfm?issue_type=childcare&list=3>. 1 Apr. "Welcome to Armageddon: The White House Hasn't Found Any Weapons of Mass Destruction Because It's Looking in the Wrong Place. Title of Book.com/universe/ form/academic/s_guidednews. UC Berkeley Libraries. 1 Apr. NetLibrary. Sponsoring/Publishing Agency. "'Hermaphrodite Protagonist': The Misreading of Bone Dance.html>.edu/toc/modeng/public/Mel2Mob. final ed. ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times. Electronic Text Center. 2000. <http://www. FirstName(s). 2004.berkeley. Published by an academic institution: Published by an individual: Website published by corporate author. edition: page-numbers or initial-page+ if non-consecutive. 31 Mar. "Regent Ties Dropout Rate to Admissions Policy: He Says Those with Low Entry Scores More Likely To Quit.rollingstone. "Two-thirds of parents say having one parent stay home is an unrealistic option in today's world. 1 Apr.html>. and the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation.asp?pid=2834>. Miles. NewsBank) Lexis-Nexis: AuthorLastName. 1 Apr.com/ dailynews/092/world/Europe_shocked_at_images_of_ki:. 1933: E2. "Title of Article.boston.'" New York Times 19 Mar.netlibrary. 2004 <http://www. 2004 <http://uclibs.uky. Day Month Year of access <URL>. 2003. 1996. 1857-Current file. Tanya. no pages: Author#1LastName.org/issues/ pcc_detail. Day Month Year of access <URL>. Charlottesville: U of Virginia Library. 31 Mar. Wardell. 2004.chaparraltree. A Glossary of Rhetorical Terms with Examples. 2004. not issue. 2004 <http://www.Page 4 ONLINE MAGAZINE ARTICLES General Format Date of publication from article. 2004 <http://etext." Title: Subtitle: Section of Page if appropriate. Date of publication." Associated Press 1 Apr. 2004 <http://www.
OR Dostoyevsky's echoes this in his diaries sometimes (2: 38-39). 2002. General rules governing MLA in-text citations begin on page 7 of this guide. Down interviewed. . David. Trans. Ed. For readability. IN-TEXT REFERENCE CORRESPONDING WORKS-CITED ENTRY Citing an entire work.as noticed in Nabokov often (140. provide only page numbers or section identifiers in parentheses. "From Italy. London: Routledge. 1926. OR A song published by the US Naval Academy in 1926 makes this clear (33). David H. Dostoyevsky. Interview. 3 vols. OR LaGuardia observes. Paik. Citing a work by a corporate author "Quoted passage" (US Naval 33). Berczynski. Fyodor. 12 Dec." Discourse and Ideology in Nabokov's Prose. 2003." Postmodern Culture 14. national ed. so that your in-text references will match whatever is the initial element in the alphabetized list. Citing more than one passage in the same reference ." in the U. Proffer. New York: Hyperion. Serial Killing. Crosley. T. a New Culinary was one of the first allusions to slow food Movement Offers a Wry Answer to Fast Food. Ragnardóttir. Maryland.com/ If more than three authors. As reported by Berman. and harmonized by Joseph W. and Sven Ragnardóttir. Do not repeat what is incorporated into nearby text. or a work with no page numbers or other clear subdivisions Fabricant's article in the New York Times Fabricant. By Aaron Cohen. Barton. Johnson. US Naval Academy at Annapolis.virginia. Citing a work by multiple authors Your text or "quoted passage" here (Berman. If your text gives the author's name (or title for works listed by title).S. and Strömqvist 256). "Masculinity and Metaphors of (LaGuardia 7-8). 16-18. OR Johnson saw this in Nabokov often (140. Ruth. OR This is documented even in the New York Public Library American History Desk (302). 2003). Beat April 2004: 20. 12 Dec. Reading in the Tiers Livre. The Book of Navy Songs. Hrafnhildur Ragnarsdóttir. "Smart Bombs. Arr. s5/p253>.edu/pmc/>. Strömqvist. Citing within a multi-volume work "Quoted passage here" (Dostoyevsky 2: 3839). Trident Society. Garden City: Doubleday. <http://ceres. New York Times 15 Nov.3 (2003): 5-15. Peter Yoonsuk. "Quoted passage" (7-8). 146-47). Ed. and the Rapture: The Vanishing Bodies of Imperial Apocalypticism. The New York Public Library American History Desk. et al. Citing a work listed by title This occurred frequently at that time (NYPL American History Desk 302). cite consistently with your vl=1325936/cl=79/nw=1/rpsv/~3632/v5n2/ work-cited list: list all last names or the first. 2003 Strömqvist (256). "Nabokov and the Sixties. "Discourse Stance: Written and Spoken Language. 139-49.. MLA style requires you do this using brief parenthetical references mentioning the author and page number(s) referred to. It is therefore wise to prepare the works-cited list first. Paik writes eloquently about this theme. Larmour.: B6-7. your text continues. The Unpublished Dostoevsky: Diaries and Notebooks (1860-81). you must indicate to your readers not only the works you used but also exactly where in the work you found the material.Page 5 In-Text Parenthetical Citations . Berman. 14647)." Esprit Createur 43.ingentaselect. or ideas in your paper. 1973-1976. Florence.. S. D." Written Language & OR Literacy 5 (2002): 253-287.MLA Style Wherever you incorporate another's words. facts. et al.1 (Sep. keep references brief. a one-page work.one author Your text or "quoted passage" here LaGuardia. and UC Berkeley Libraries.iath. Carl R. Citing a passage within a work with page numbers . 1989. J. Ann Arbor: Ardis. Hersch made this point repeatedly when Hersch. Ingenta Select. Fred. 2003 <http://www.
UMI. Publication information: o Publishers' names. 1996. Omit initial articles in corporate authors' names (a. House. Corporate names as authors are written out. Santi 410). and all principal words (nouns. or trans. Eng. provide all names. If each issue begins with page 1. enter (n. like GPO. ask your instructor. Periodical elements: o Volume. a colon. If there is no date available. not W. If you wish to use italics. Enrico Mario.7 and 5." but MLA style recommends using a more descriptive heading such as "Works Cited. each followed by a period. UC Berkeley Libraries.g. If no author or editor is named.org>. Invert the name only of the first author given for alphabetizing. adverbs. business abbreviations (e. Omit the articles (a.9e. after a period. then the title of the review title (if there is one) in quotes. For titles in other languages see the MLA Handbook. as an article title. add a period and the issue number directly after the volume number: 14. an. !. translator (not inverted). Following the individual work or volume translated. o Editors. or Anonymous. treat the editors as authors (name precedes the title. and supply additional information in brackets only if it will help your reader). Commas are generally used to separate items within an element. for by. 12 Dec. capitalize the first letter of the first word. and Revolution: The Cultural Politics of Interracial Encounters in Cuba. except for colon between location and publisher of books. Corporate authors are groups whose individual members are not identified on the title page. Publishers). Insert the corporate author as author (before the title) even is identical to the publisher. "Race. and page numbers. o Corporate authors." MLN 113 (Mar. begin the entry with the title. As author." "Works Consulted. Do not use Anon. Press.8. the). If the author is an editor or translator. substitute ed. and the inclusive page numbers. In English-language titles and sub-titles. of (neither underlined nor in quotes) followed by the title of the work reviewed. See MLA Handbook 5. verbs.8. use the person interviewed (name inverted). Omit first names and initials in publishers (e. state Trans. New York Times). and publication information.Norton. Give the reviewer's name (if provided) as author. o Place of publication.. periodicals. OR This is noted by both Fernandez (55-56. o Publication date not provided.. This is because italics may not be sufficiently distinctive and recognizable for material that is to be graded or edited. Provide the interviewer's name after: By . o Translators. coordinating conjunctions or the to in infinitives. prepositions. If several cities are list.). For cities outside the United States. For online publications.g. Use commonly accepted abbreviations. Titles of books. 2003 <http://www." Authors. followed by a period. JSTOR. 130. For an edited book without a named author. List the elements that identify the work's author. first named in inverted order). MLA style recommends always underlining instead of using italics. CORRESPONDING WORKS-CITED ENTRY Fernandez. to distinguish from Cambridge). 130) and Santi (410). Provide the full title of books and other works. Inc. the last word. follow the journal title (underlined) by the volume number.4. and other whole works are underlined. o Capitalization. including leading articles (a.d. Santi. Periods are generally used between elements in references. underlining. This applies to titles of books and periodicals and to other elements in your paper where italics might seem appropriate. o Italics vs. Use a colon and space to separate a title from a sub-title unless the title ends with ?. Shorten "university" to U and "university press" to UP. separated by commas with and before the last (not &). pronouns.. MLA Style Rules Governing Reference Lists • General. o Reviewers and review citations.). Wiley not John Wiley). or −. For more than three authors. 1998): 407-425.. the). Romance. "Fresa y Chocolate: The Rhetoric of Cuban Reconciliation. 3. the year of publication (in parentheses). Nadine Therese.g. Do not capitalize articles. o Anonymous works. After the title of the interview (in quotes) and the title of the work in which published (underlined). followed by a comma and et al. Or you may list all authors named in the work. For journals with continuous pagination throughout a volume. except in titles of periodicals such as journals or newspapers (e. o Punctuation. you add elements stating where and when you retrieved the document and giving your reader the means to retrieve it again if it is still available. Berkeley." Diss. For two or three authors.W. the). Then write: Rev. a comma. issue. Co. o Heading. Use standard abbreviations as in MLA Handbook 7. Titles of articles and chapters or other parts of larger works are in double quotation marks. Norton. o Interviews. U of California. the word by and the names of the author(s) of the work. adjectives. title. an. provide the abbreviation for the country if it might be ambiguous for your reader (Cambridge." or "Annotated Works Cited.jstor. The works-cited list is sometimes referred to as a "bibliography. and descriptive words (Books.9. Titles. Provide the names of authors exactly as given on the work (do not abbreviate.Page 6 IN-TEXT REFERENCE Citing more than one work in the same reference Two writers noted this (Fernandez 55-56. and subordinating conjunctions). Separate titles with periods (inside final quotations and not underlined). Titles follow authors (or editors if no named author). provide only the first. an.2 If there are no issue • • • • . give only the first author.
without parentheses. 1998. 2003.Page 7 • numbers and each issue begins with page 1. One of the following may therefore be preferable to providing a long. New York: Modern Language Association of America. Joseph. The purpose for giving the URL is to allow your reader to retrieve the document again. Electronic publications. All references in the text must clearly point to specific sources in the list of works cited. Call number: PN147 . preceded by a comma. MLA style does not recommend the use of footnotes or endnotes in research papers except to add a content note not appropriate as part of the text of the paper. The MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. a version number. or comp. If a URL must be broken. Do not include ed. provide a complete citation as you would for the print version. Page numbers are unnecessary when referring to a whole work. and scholarly publishing. 2. provide only the information about the electronic resource. • If the best way to tell your reader how to find the document is to tell how to navigate from a URL. provide the URL of the search page from which your reader could retrieve the document (as in JSTOR articles). the date of electronic publication of latest update. MLA Style Rules Governing In-text Parenthetical References In parentheses. provide initials (before the last name.. and writing theses. see the MLA Handbook. provide a word of title in addition to the last name. Include the initial http:// or other protocol identifier. If you have more than one work by the same author. 6th ed. Provide information about the electronic source used. followed by a period. less official manuals or online style guides that purport to explain MLA style. and never introduce hyphens. Do not include months or days even if in the reference list. If you have more than one work by authors with the same last name. 3. Provide the inclusive page numbers if the article appears on consecutive pages. trans. such as the title of the site (underlined). an editor's name. o Issue dates and page numbers in newspaper and magazine articles. reasonable URL. Need More Specific Example or Help?? If you consult other. complicated URL: • If the URL is very long. follow the rules for print insofar as possible. provide the last name of the author (do no include suffixes such as Jr. A comprehensive guide for graduate students. For web-based publications. and similar information. If no print equivalent exists. not inverted order) for each author in the text and in parenthetical citations. If the article begins on one page and then skips to another page. scholars. or unique to a specific access. Provide the page number(s) or parts after the author and date for quotations and references to a specific part of the work. enter the word Path: and follow it by the sequence of links to click on from a stable.5-9. followed by the date and other specifics needed. providing details on copyright. Follow this publication information by a colon and a space.. in this sequence: 1. Give the URL immediately following the date of access. Joseph. provide the edition. and then the section if relevant. dissertations. Separate the links with semi-colon. please be aware that these sometimes contain errors which conflict with these official MLA guides: • Gibaldi. break it only after a slash /. the name of any sponsoring organization for the site. If a print version is referred to. provide as applicable. complicated. be as specific as possible in order to help your reader find what you are referring to. state Annual in place of the volume number.) followed by the year of publication.G53 2003 (Doe & Moffitt Reference and other locations) • Gibaldi. For newspapers. Do not include volume or issue numbers even if provided. 2nd ed. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 5. New York: Modern Language Association of America. For un-authored works. omitting some of the scholarly publishing details and options. For web pages without page numbers. legal issues. For annual publications where the year is the volume number. provide only the initial page followed by +: 17+ or C6+.G444 1998 (Doe Reference and other locations) 8/14/06 JB . Enclose URLs in angle brackets < > and place a period after the end bracket. For electronic sources not accessed through the Web. Call number: LB2369 ." a synthesis of the rules most important for research papers. Provide the date you accessed the document in day Month year format. Follow the title of the publication by the date of the issue in DD Month YYYY order. and professional writers. Known as the "MLA Handbook. designate the issue by including the month or season in parentheses before the year of publication: (May 1992).9. 5. 4. For online publications. use the first few words of whatever is the first element of the reference in your reference list.