!

The Students' Friend AAAAAAAtbh . (33)AAAAAAAAvg,El t g&H R A=Avgr;%S ; A2011eH .

uFdzdtod.rh>unDuFdzdySmbs;pJu%l>tvHm&RvDRwbh.A
The Students' Friend is a publication of the Karen Student Network Group

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

1

w>cG;J w>,m'D;w>[H;M>rl'g (Right and responsibility)
ySR[D.cd.zdud;*R'J; p;xD.vXtd.zs.xD.0HRtd.0J'.'D;ySR[D. J cd.zdw>cGJ;w>,mvXrw*Rr;xk;uGHm woh w z.td . 0J ' .M.vD R Iw>cG J ; w>,moh.wz.tHRb.w>uG;vDRtDR J vX[D.cd.'Dbh.vHmCHmCm oh . wz.tyl R M.vD R IxH z d u D > zd ' D ; y'd . oh . wz.vXxH ' d . uD > vJ > < xHuD>vXymuJySR[D.cd.zdw>cGJ;w> ,moh.wz.oh.nge>yX>0J tw>cG;w>,moh.wz.ol0w>cJ;w> J J G ,mtHR'D;td.rl0JvXw>vJR xD.vJRxDvXeD>w*Rt*D>rh>*hR<ySRtg *Rt*D>rh>*hR<xHu>'Db.t*D>rh>*hRoh0J D h '.M.vDRI ySR[D.cd.zdw>cGJ;w>,m rh>ySRud;*R'J;t*D>'D;rh>w>wrHRCDb.q. xHuD>oh.wz.vX wvlRydmxGJ'D; w ymuJ[.cd.'Db.tw>ymyeD.w>cG;w> D h J ,moh.wz.td.0Jtgr;M.vDRI t'd uD>y,DR ok;rDRpd&dRrh>xHuD> wbh.vX [D.cd.'Db.oh.ngvXwymuJ';rR[; h D *DRySR[D.cd.zdw>cGJ;w>,mM.vDRIcDzsd vXt0Jo.qD.wH>rReXRySRxHzu>zdt h d D Cd t yS R xH z d u D > zd o h . wz.woh . ngtw>cGJ;w>,mvXttd.zsJ.xD. ym Ckm0Joh.wz.M.b.t rJm ng yb.rRvdCkoh.ng w>cGJ;w>,mvX ytd.zsJ.ymCkmM>wz.M.vDRI rk>rqgweHRtHRy0Jo;p>oh.w z.vD R qD ' .w>o;p>vXtd . vX xHqXuD>qXoh.wz.e>[l'D;rRvd b.0JySR[D.cd.zdw>cGJ;w>,mM.vDRI 'D ; y0J w eD R eD R rRvd 0 H R 'D ; qd u rd . xJ v Xytd . 'D ; w>cG J ; w>,mM.vD R I b.q.oemuh M .w>t&h ' d . vX yrh>uwdRw>cG;w>,mM.yuoloud; J w>uwdRvXtrh>w>[H;M>rl'gM.w uh>IxH'.uD>vJ>vXol0w>cG;w>,mtHR d J J oh . wz.t0J o h . e>yX>0J * h R *h R vX w>cGJ;w>,mM.td.'D;w>[H;M.rl'gph> uD;M.vDRI'fyeD>w*Rw>cG;w>,mtd.t J od ; M.yb.e>yX>vXyS R ud ; *R'J ; w>cGJ;w>,mtd.0JM.vDRIt'd 'fo;yw>cG;w>,mtd.vXyutd.rlb. d J tod;ySRt*Rw*Rph>uD;w>cG;J w>,mtd. 0J'.vDRI yrh>rRoHySRw*RM.rh>0JyrR[;*DR tw>cG;w>,mvXtub.td.rltCd J yub.[H;M>rl'gvXyrRoHtDRtCd M.vDRI 'fM.t od;yrhrh>o;p>w*R'fy o;td.tod;yo;0H.ud;yol w>'fyb.yo;M.rh>0Jyw>cG;J w>,mvDRI b.q.oemuhyo;0H.ud; yol w >M>rh > uJ x D . w>uD w >cJ v Xy cd.yCXRt*D>M.yw>cG;w>,mtHRtd. J 0J';D w>[H;M.rl'gvHM.vDRIw>t'dt*Rw cgurh>0JytDrDmvXySRtg*RtusgM. vDRIySRo;p>weDReDRupH;0JvXttD rDmrh>tw>CkxX'D;tw>cG;w>,mvDRI J t0Joh.rh>tDrDmvXwb.'dySRvXt cd.tCXRb.M.oh0J'.vDRI b.q.rh>tDrDmvXySRtg*RtusgwcD rh>vXw>tHRuJx.w>uDw>cJovXySR D h tg*Rt*D>tCdtub.qdurd.w>cG; J w>,m'D;w>vX ub.ymuJ ySRt*R tw>cGJ;w>,mph>uD;M.vDRI 'fyrh>0JySR[D.cd.zdtod;y}uX; 'd;M.b.ySR[D.cd.zdw>cG;w>,mM.vDRI J b.q.cDzsvXyb.td.'H;vXw>qD.wH> d rReXRtqXuwD>tCdyw'd;M>b.w> cG;w>,mvXytd.zs.xD.y.Ckmoh.w J J z.'H; b. M. vDRI vX w> M. t Cd rh>0JySRud;*R'J;rl'gvXu'k;M>uhRt w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRvX ySRud;*R'J;t*D>M.vDRI vDRqD'.w> o;p>oh.wz.rh> 0Jcgqlngcd.e>'D; cgqlngw>*H>w>bg vXuol.xD.0Jxu>D 'D;[D.cd.'Dwbh.tHR H vXttd.'D;w>rkmw>ck.<w>xJo;d wkRod;vX ySRud;*R'J;*D>tCdy}uX;rRvdw>cG;w> J ,moh.wz.'D;w>[H;M>rl'gvXySRud;*R 'J;ub.rRxGp>uD;M.vDRIw>cG;w>,m Jh J rh > td . 'D ; w>[H ; M.rl ' gr;uuJ x D . w>vJRxD.vJRxDvXySRud;*R'J;t*D>M.vDRI y0Jo;p>oh.wz.'fod;yokwpJRcHvX ySR*RtvD>cHw*hRt*D>us;pX;rRvdM>w> J cGJ;w>,m'D;w>[H;M>rl'gvXtrh>twD tcDynDvXtb.oh.wz.wuh>I

&0H;'d.tw>uGJ;

2

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

w>*h > vXvH m wbh . tH R tyl R =vg,El t g&H R A=Avgr;&S ; A2011eH . tbh. (33)

,qdr.rHr>D vXqhr>d 0gt Date bl;u out/ d t?
tJ;'H;xX.=&0H;'d.A ?pDRq.uqD/ tJ;'H;xX.rRpXR ?eD>'hvf,.rl/ 'gvHm'gvJ> (Design & Layout) ?Never Say Never K'shee/ w>&RvDR uFdzdrRoud;w>u%l>wz.
P.O.Box 74 Mae Sot Post Office Mae Sot, Tak 63110 Thailand E-mail: ksngktl@yahoo.com

qXuwD>rk>rqgweHRtHRyrh>wJvdRvdRurXur.ol.yd>o;0; ol.cko;ck'D;vDRo;tk;ph>uD;vDRI ubsH ; yR(9) vX udF zd zsd ; pd vX 'J u 0DR w bh. 'D; w bh. ud; eH. 'J; b. q. 2010'D; 2011eH.tHRw>qDwvJtd.tCdw>ywkmuGHmw>&J.w>usJRM.vDRI
ubsH;yR(12)

u nDudFzs;d pd20*R'D;w>cG;J w>,mvX'Ju0DRylR d 'fo;urReXRw>t*D>

!rh>unDuFdzdySmbs;pJu%l>tvHm&RvDR
obVwbh . vD R Ib.w>'k ; td . xD . tD R vX A1995A eH. vg pJ; y wh bX. t yl R A'f w> y &X o bVwbh.vX ySRz; w>zdwz.t*D>vDRI

td;xD.rJmcsH<qJxD.e>'D;xXEkmvDRoud;yw>qdrd.'fod;yyJmxHeDRz;y ySRunDzdtxH%l>uD>oJ;td.vHtywD>xJvJ.IIIw>vd.z;'d.<vd.eD>uD><vXyySR ol.p>o;bD.*H>ql.bgql.wz.uqdrd.xHw>*h>t0JtHRvDRwH>vDRqJ;vDRI
ubsH ; yR(8)

yub.[H;Cmw>yX>qXtvRuyDRvXw>obVIII
p;xD.vXuD>y,DRM>w>obV0HRtvD>cH<unDzdwz.*JRvdm0J'D;usJ;pX; 0J'o;uM>b.ph>uD;w>obV'ftrh>eD>up>w>yXvDRo;'.0JM.vDRIb.q.wkR f d rh>uD>y,DRM>w>obV0HR<w>obVwtd.b.trJmngw>obH.obk.td.xD.0J vDRIvXw>M.tCd<p;xD.zJ(1949)eH.vg,ElRtg&HR(31)teHRM.unDzwz.b. d zD.xD.pku0J';yX>qXw>vDRIunDzwz.yX>qXw>vXutd.'D;eD>up>w>yXvDRo; D d '.0JM.vDRI

!vHmt0JtHRrh>ysJ>pDRcd.wcgvX unD uFd zd o; p> w z. t *D> vX u eDR [h. vDR vdm t o; w> oh w> b. w> xH. w z. vDRIAuFd zd t od. b. w> &R vDR tDR oXvg w bh. vDRIA w> xH. <A w> ym ol. ym o; 'D; w> [h.ul.[h.z;wz.w>wl>vdmtDRvDRI A !vHmtylRw>uGJ;wz.rh>ySRuGJ;w>zd t w> xH.'D; t vD> w td. vX uFd zd t od. u xH.Ckm0JwrHRCD'D;xDbdb.I

!tw>rk>v>uG>pdrh>0J= ='fod;u[h.xD.?uD.u;tvD>/AwcgvX unDuFdzd'D;o;p>vX[D.u0DRwz.'fod;u eDR[h.vdmto;tw>xH.'D;tw>vJRcDzsd ubsH ; yR(20=21) ='fod;uok;xDxD.w>o;td.M>[D.cd.*h>0D vXchcgqXuwD>cJtHRvXunDwz.tusg uD>y,DRzdvXvJRwkR,y.uD>w*RpH;0JM. ='f od; u pdm u zD xD. u nD tw> qJ; w> weHRtHRvgr;&S;(11)oD2011 vDRI vR<Aw>pH.pdRwJpdR eH.(ql.e.rH.)vDRb.0J'.zJ,y.rk>xD. ='fod;uymrlym*JRunDudsm ='f od; u [h. ql .xD. ? w > pH; uwdRw> o uvHRpd;w>vD>vXpHmylR<uD>y,DRySRrRw>zd bVcGJ;,m/vXunDtw0XylR vJRrRw>vX,y.tuD><0h>(wd.uFd.)

,y.xH.b.u'D;(ql.e.rH.)w>rRuDrRcJ

w>*DRvXvHmukcd.=qD'D;&J(wpd>wvD>uD>uFD.wJ.)

M.td.0J'.t*R(20000)bsJ.t*h>ySR
uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

ubsH;yR(6)

3

w>vXepH;eJ
d ?yysJ ?yysywIxHOvD:qDvP to;vUwICl w Izd ; tyl : wuh I /
ql=zkzktJ;'H;xX.III zkzk{XIIIetd.ql.td.cV{gI ,qX*hReR'D;qXrk>v>vXzkzutd.b. k rkmtd.b.ck.'D;ol.zSo;nDxbwu; H D d b.uvJRcDzsb.2011eH.*hR*hRM.rh>w> d qX*hRqX0geRt'd.ttgM.vDRIzkz{XIII k w>vHRtJ.'d;oh.ngtgxD.rhwrh>tJ.'d;oH uG>tgxD.w>vXzkzttd.<td.wrHReRIp; k xD.vXw>vHRzd'.xD.oh.ngvDRo;M. d b.Ch>y,DRxDb';D b.Ch>td.clo.y,DR d l xDb'o;o;orlzuylRzs;t*D>M.vDRI d f d d J vXw>M.tCdzkzkIII'fod;'D;y ySRuvkmwz.utd.b.rkmtd.b.ck. t*D>rh>eqdurd.eJwbsbsp>uD;{gI'D;y D D h xH.b.wh>vHyySRuvkmunDzweDRb. d uDb.cJb.e;b.zS.0JoyS>uwX>'D;w>cG;J D w>,mw>obVwtd.'D;yySRvkmunDzw d z.M.b.IvXw>*h>0JtRtCdew>xH.ew> H qdurd.td.eJ'v.I'D;eu[h.ul.[h.z;e f J ySRuvkmunDzdtHR'fvJ.I 'D;zJvXyySRuvkmtd.rlb.0J vXw>uDw>cJtvD>M.}uX;ol.xD.w> td.rl'v.wuvkmvJ.I'fM.tod;yySR f J uvkmunDzwz.td.rlb.0JvXw>vD>tg d ylRtgwDRM.vDRIw>td.rlw>vD>wwDR b.wwDM.,emvXwrh>w>'fod;vdm to;b.M.vDRIvXw>M.tCd<,tJ.'d; oh.ngb.C;ySRunDo;p>zdo.wz. h tw>wl>cD.ymo;vXw>vD>wwDRb. wwDRM.vDRI ySRunDol.bD.o;p>zdvXvJR td.vXxHcsXuD>csXoh.z.wbstcgtd. D rlb.0JvXw>uDw>cJtvD>w>e;w>zS. D tusgM.vDRIvXw>M.tCd,tJ.'d;oh.
4 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

erh>tJ.'d;wJoud;w>'D;uFdzdtod.tySRz;vHmzd M.qSXevHm w>uGJ;td.oud;qltJ;'H;xX.ttd. eDRIAyem vX u'k; pJ bl ;y o; tg 'd. xD. zJ y uGJ; td. oud;vdmo;tcgvDRIA
ngb.,JyRol.bD.o;p>zdvXxHcsXuD> S csXoh.wz.vXyySRuvkmutd.b.rkm b.ck.t*D>Itw>xH.'D;tw>wl>cD.ym o;td.'fv.I'D;ol.bD.o;p>zdvX'Ju J 0DRylRph>uD;vXySRuvkmunDutd.b. rkmtd.b.ck.t*D>tw>wl>cD.ymo;td. ph>uD;'fv.I'D;vX,w>oHu>G oH';d tzDc. J d rh>wvJRto;vXb.*h>b.0Db.'D;, ChouGun;b.zkzvXuuG>uymM>, H k w>*H>p>bgp>'D;e>yX>pXR,w>uDw>cJo. h wz.M.vDRI vX=w>vHRzdwuHR0g
w>pH;qXvX=tJ;'H;xX. ql w>vH R wuH R 0g

o;ck'd.r;vXeo;td.qSXxD. b.w>xH.w>ymo;vXvXttd.vXe ylRoh.wz.tCdvDRI b.C;'D;ySRuvkmutd.b. rkmtd.b.ck.t*D>'few>qdurd.tod; yrh>ySRwuvkmCDunDzd'fod;od;yw> qdurd.rh>w>wrHRCDvDRI ySRuvkmwzkvXtw>obV 'D;xHuD>wtd.'H;b.M.wb.o*X> b. 'D; w> e; w> zSD. b. M. w td.b.I'f od; w> cGJ; w> ,m u wkR td. y ySR u vkm u nD zd t *D> M. vd. '. y b. zD. usd 'D; rR M> w> o bV vDRM. rh> w> qd u rd. w cg M. vDRI b. q. y rJm w 'H; od; y eD> cd uh> *DR w vDR *m vdm o; b.tod;M.yuM>b.w>obVt*D> usJ td. 0J w bsK; u vkm vX y rR tDR

ohM.td.0JvDRIvXyuM>w>obVt *D>M.yuD>cd.pDRb;tluFHymvDRympXR usJ (4)bd vDRI xJ w rHRuhR yJm xH eDR z; uhR ol tDR w uh>I t *R wrHR y ySR ul. b. ul. ohvX t xH. qd ym pXR w> w z. t w> uwdR vk> 'd. yShR 'd.M.o; yh. eD.w*hRIySRul.b.ul.ohvXngwz. ol0'.xgvXyud;tDRvXyrSRyyS>txg J H [h.yvD>vXunDzdoh.wz.td.0J(t 'd=n.oud;n.tD.vdmto;)vDRIy vD>yo;ud;*R'D;td.Clt.zd;M.wuh>I d ytd.rlb.vXw>uD>w>cJM.yw>cG;w> J ,mrh>td.vXyurRvJRxD.vJRxDyeD>u p>w>td.rltwDRywD>'D;w>ul.b.oh M.uX.w*hRusJ;pX;ymvk>ymyShRw>qX uwD>wuh>Ius;J pX;rRvdo;vXw>oh.ng e>yX>w>od.w>oD';[;qS;rXoXbh.M. D J wuh>IyySRuvkmol.bD.o;p>vXttd. vXxHcsXuD>csXoh.wz.'ktw>xH.vXu vkmutd.rkmtd.ck.b.t*D>utd.tgrHR tuvkmvDRI(t'd=weDRtJ.'d;qSXtoud; vXpeJ.zX.wcd.vXtoud;ucd;c;'k.'g t*D>)w>xH.td.tgr;b.q.w>qJ;us;d vdmo;cHc,>b;M.rh>w>tug'd.vDRIySR D td.cHuvkmvXweDRwrRvdbb.to; l vXxH&>uD>oJ;w>xH.w>oh.ngoh.w l z.uD'.r;vXt0Jo.u[h.xD.tw>xH. d h w>qdurd.vXuvkmutd.rkmtd.ck.b. t*D>M.vDRIol.bD.o;p>vX'Ju0DRylRtd. 0JtguvkmvDRIweDRtJ.'d;rRw>vXtySR uvkmt*D>td.0JvDRIweDRwtJ.'d;rR w>eDwrHRb.td.0JvDRI

y'd.rg%S.vgzg'd;M>?uvkmw>xJo;d wkRod;w>vRuyDR/
vX=uFdzdtod.

[D.cd.bDrk>uD>y,DR'H>rd._cJ;wh; qJ;w>vR<A'D;'k;w>vXw>pkvD>cD.cd. *H>bgu%l>u&X( I n s t i t u t i o n 'D; &J. usJR b.C; w> ul. b. ul. oh ofInternational Burmese Democratic M. vDRI/A Forces)'D;[D.cd.bDrk>w>ul.b.ul. ?w>vX,ygtJ.'d;0Jt'd.u ohvXth',gegzF.pdrdR=zX'lzF.pdrdRzD. wX>M.rh>0Jw>Clw>zd;tCdy0JySRunD 0h(International Education of Indiana zdwz.yutd.'D;w>Clw>zd;qJ;rRo University-Purdue University Fort ud; w> vX y ySR u vkm xl. zsJ; xD. vX Wayne-IPFW )[h.w>vRuyDR'ftrh> u vkm w> xJ od; wk Rod; ql ch. tJ. ,l> w>qD.wH>rReXRtylRwuh>/t*h>M. teJ.%GJ.cd.usX>vD>vHRy'd.rg%S.vgzg t0JwJtgxD.0JvDRI y'd.rg%S.rh>0JySRvXygweD>xHx.pUw zJvgr;%S;5oDteHRvDRI vX w> [h. vR u yDR bsD 0J tHR cD'D;zJ1965eH.M.t0JEkmvDRrRw>yX> M.y'd.rg%S.tzdcGgtqH;uwX>pvdR qXvXch.tJ.,l>tylRvDRIzJ2000eH. zgvJRxD.[H;M>0JvDRIvXw>vJR[H;M> M. t 0J uJ xD. b. 0J ch. tJ. ,l> eJ. %GJ. w> vR u yDR w bsD tHR p vdR zg pH; 0J vX cd.usX>vDRI y 'd. rg %S. tHR vX uD> y ,DR to;ck'd.r;'D;ymuzXvXto;vXt y>rh>ySRw*RvXt-uX;'d;M>w>vRu ylRu vkm 'l. w z. cJ vXm u vkm w> xJ od;wkRod;trh>twD'D;vX'HRrdRu&h. yDRtHRtCdvDRI p vd zg u wdR vDR w> vX w> pH.uM>t*D>t0Jtd.'D;w>qXwJmvX [h.vRuyDRtrl;tHR<?ok;rDRpd&dRrR t*X>usXR'D;wwh>p>vDRto;vXok; oH,y>rh>vXt0Joh.ysHR0J'.w>rEkR vX,y>td.qXxX.0Jt*D><A'D;rh>w> *JR vdm vX t Cl zd; *H> ql. w cg vX w> obV t *D> M. vDRIA y [H. zd CD zd u &X u&d xD. zg w> u&X u&d tHR rh> w> oh. eD.xD.uhRyrd>egch.pU.'D;yw>c;yeD. t vD> rh> vD> u 0DR vX t0J oh. u [k u ,m wh> 0J 'D; rR *kR xD. y oD xD. ySR [D. cd.zdw>cGJ;w>,m'D;'Do'XunDtw>

y'd.tzDvmeDwpJ;tCdzJ2008eH.vg zhR-bLtg&HR14oDteHRM.t0Jb.w> [J rR oH tDR vX ySR zD. pk u 0JR w *R vX t [H. zJ 0h> rJ qD; uD> uFD. wJ. uD> y ,DR uD> qX vDRI t 0J [H; rl 'g vX ch. tJ. ,l> tylR'feJ.%GJ.cd.usX>w*RwkRtoHwpk M.vDRI w> vR u yDR vX b. w> [h. vDRqly'd.rg%S.vgzgtHRrh>t0Jo;o rl 'D pdR w> rR 'D; *JR vdm w> vX w> o; 'l tylRvXteD>up>w>td.rleH.,Hmvg xXtylRvXtymzsgxD.w>tcDynDt 'd. t rk> vX 'D u vkm w> xJod; wk Rod; vX uD> y,DR tylR M. vDRIA w> u&X u&dvXt[h.w>vRuyDRtHRymzsg'D; pH;0JvX?erh>wh>rRxl&RvXtwDvRvX d 'Duvkmw>xJod;wkRod;t*D>/M.vDRI 'f M. t od; y'd. rg %S. t zd rk. 'd.egbGgbGgzgph>uD;pH;0JvXty>rh>ySR'l ySRCdRvXt*D>'D;vXyySRunDzdt*D>t Cdy-uX;ymuzXvXo;vXtCd'D;qJ; rR o ud; w> rR vX t y> rR wh> 0J wkR y wkRvXyzDwX.wuh>I y 'd. rg %S. oH 0HR t vD> cH t zd rk. zd cGg td. vDR wJm wh> 4 *R tHR 'k; td. xD.0JzgzD.'h%SX>'fod;t0Joh.uqJ;rR uhR t rd> t y> t w> zH; w> rR 'D; rR w> oh.eD.xD.uhRtDRt*D>vDRIzgzD.'h%SX> tHRrRpXR0J'.w>ud;eH.'J;vXunDuD> pJ.ylRw>vd>oh.wz.vDRI

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

5

w>upD.
w>upD.tJ;'H;xX.
vX=uFdzdtod.

,y.xH.b.u'D;(ql.e.rH.)w>rRuDrRcJ
weHRtHRvgr;&S;(11)oD2011 eH.(ql.e.rH.)vDRb.0J'.zJ,y.rk>xD. uvHRpd;w>vD>vXpHmylR<uD>y,DRySRrR w>zdvRrRw>vX,y.tuD><0h>(wd.uF.) J d M.td.0J'.t*R(20000)bs.t*h>ySRuD> J y,DRzdvXvJRwkR,y.uD>w*RpH;0JM.vDRI, y.uD>rk>xD.uvHRpd;M.<weHRrk>Ch>vDRt wD>ylR*H>bg(8I9)rJ;ueH.uFL.tywD>[D. cd.tHR[l;0JtvD>cH(ql.e.rH.)vyDz;'d. [JvR0JvRIw>qJ;us;wz.ywkmuGm0J D D d H tCd<,y.uD>y,DRySRb.uDb.cJ[. H zdCDzdwz.ol.yd>o;0;0JvDRI ySRtd.vX0h>wul.w*RpH;0JvX< zJ,vJRvXthxXeJ;w>vD>tcg(ql.e. rH.)vDR0JtCd<,qJ;us;d 'D;,'hzwM>vXR d b.I,yk>tHRvJRtd.0J'.vX,y.uD>'f od;uvJRrRpHmw>zH;w>rRvDRIvXw>M. tCd,b.,d.w>vXt*D>vDRIuD>y,DR ySR*JR'd';D ySRo;0H.w>wz.vXtrh>(M>wd< 0hu.cJ.<,we.rJR'D;cFp.ch.oh.wz. d Dl ph>uD;t0Jo.wz.vJRwkR0J'.zJ,y.uD> h tCdt[H.zdCDzdwz.ol.ud>o;*DR0J M.vDRI vXuD>,y.M.<,RzSd.eH.tqX

yuGJrkmb.ySRz;vHmzdud;*RvXto;rh>td.uGJw>upD.b.C;xHvD>uD>ylRw> upD.rh>*hR< xH*RuD>*Rrh>*hR'D;w>upD.tuvkmuvkmrh>*hRqSXxD.b.qludFzd od.trJ;uphttd.oh.0J'.M.vDRIvXe*D>vHmubHs;yRtd.ym0J'.M.vDRI

uwD>MqX.w>vDRysRvDRzk;[D.cd.[l;0HR H tvD>cHvyDtxDt.0J(32)yh.wz.M. d vDR0J'.vXrk>xD.uvHRpd;M.vDRIySRtd. vX0h>(wd.uF.)(tlr;oh)wJ0'.vXw> d F J qJ;uds;tvD>[;*DRvXmvHIvh.rh.tlw z.wpH.vXRb.'D;(Bus)odvh.wz.ph> uD;w[;xD.vXRb.Irhrh>vX(Taxi)w eDReDRM.pH.'H;0J'.vDRIb.q.oemuh uso.wz.uwHmuwlm0JvRIwHRoud; J h D weDReDRM.qJ;uds;'D;tDRwM>'H;b.Irhr> h vXuD>csXvDwpweDReDR'kq;us;M>'H;'D;rh Jd J d rh>vX,[H.'X;tylRM.w>zdw>vHRwz. M.td.pl;yHmyl;M.vDRI,td.vX,y.uD> teH.20twD>ylRM.,xH.b.te;'d.u wX>vXwbsDtHRvDRM.t0JpH;0JvDRI ,y.uD>xk;xD.wh>0J ?&GSh.rD.ud/oElt FacebookvHmrJmng M.<?cDzsvXuvHRrk>[D.cd.[l;ql.tCd< d

[;*DRuGm0J'.<vXw>rRt*D>?cD.zFLxX./ H wz.[;*DRuGm0J'.<vHmt0JtR'd0'.vXvD H H J wJptylR'D;wD.xD.0JvRIwHRoud;vX d D ol.yd>o;0;wz.w>bsK;'d.r;[D.cd.[l; tHR[l;0J'.tCd<w>vDRb.,d.td.'H; 0J<w>bH.w>bXwtd.'H;b.t*h>w>u pD.ymzsg0JvDRI ql.e.rH.vyDtHRvJREkmvDR0J '.ql,y.uD>uvHRpd; Sendai t0h>ylR qlql.uvJm Sendai ubD,lRysD[;*DR uGHm0Jt*h>,y. NHK w>upD.oMym zsg0JM.vDRI ,y.uD>w>vD>tgwDRrh. tlt.uGm0J<pHmysD';odv.z;'d.tHRxH D H D h vk>bXuGHm0JM.vDRI ,y.udwdmcd.usX>&RvDR0J'. *h>*D>tlw>upD.vX< ,y.uD>tHRw> [;*DR0J'.e;e;uvJm'D;xHzu>D zdvXtwkR d vXw>uDw>cJwz.uvlRrRpXRuhR0JvX tcVt*h>'k;oh.ng0J'.vDRIypH.yh.yD. vJ.wusR<cF.vH.<yH.&l;<&l&.<ult.< d H S xJR0dR<cJe'.'D;trJ&u.wz.tHRb.w> xk;xD.&RvDR[h.yvD>t0Jo.vXql.e. h rH.uvHRrk>tHRt*h>,y.w>upD.ym zsg0JvDRI

6

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

tH,l>ySRb.rlb.'g[JqlrJ>v;'Ju0DR
vX=uFdzdtod.

zJwvgtHR13oDtylRuGHmw EGHrk> 'J; t eHR M.2011 eH. uD> ,l & yR u &X(tH,l>)cD.rH;%SX>vXtb.C;'D;xH *kRuD>*Rw>rRoud;<ySRulySRunDw> rRpXR'D;[H;pXRrl'gvXw>uDw>cJtySR b. rl b. 'gvX t rh> c&HmpwRvHe> uFD>uFHRvg(Kristalina Georgieva) [J uG>0J '. w> ql rJ> v; b. uD b. cJ 'J u 0DRM.vDRI t 0J t Photo: KYALP w>[JwbsDtHRt tH,l>[h.0JySRul w> xH. td. vX ySRunDw>rRpXR uD> y ,DR xH %l> uD> vX uD> y ,DR ySR oJ;w>td.o;vX b. uD b. cJ p; u wD> tHR M. ySR xD. vX 1995 eH. b. uD b. cJ zd w vHR vHR 'D; t eH. z. u uhR td. qD ,Hm xD. 'D; rR pSR vDR uhR t vD> t vDR0Jtw>rRpXR usJ t *D> w> td. uU>uU>t*h>M.rJ> o; w -uX;'H; v;'Ju0DRySRb. Photo: ECHO RIO Bangkok / Flickr 0Jb. t Cd tH ,l> rlb.'gw8RpH;0J w cD td. 'D; w> &J. M.vDRI w>usJRvXySRb.uDb.cJwz.tHRu t w> &J. w> usJR tHR M. u wX. yD. o rJ> v; 'J u 0DR tHR vX 'J u 0DR 9 ohqXxX.vXtup>tcD.t*D>'D;u ud;0JJ'D;uFD.wJ.tudwdmcd.usX>t*h> zsX.tusgrh>'Ju0DRwzsX.vXt'd.u M>b.tcGJ;vXCkzH;CkrRw>zJuD>uFD. M> t 0J wJ tg xD. 0J vDRI ySR 'J u 0DR zd w wX> 'D; 'J u 0DR zd eD> *H> td. tg M> 4 u v; wJ.ylR'D;t*Rwz.uM>t*D>M.tH,l> C.C.vDRI 0J(5)ywD>vXtrh>< udzwz.ub.rR Fd vX=eD>rltJ.c&HmoDoDo;vD oud;w>vXu&l>'D; OCEE, RTT,CCEE &J.usJR'k; ub.pH;qXw>oH td.xD.0Jw>wJjyXyl';w>cD;w>ngw>jyX D uG>wz.vXvHmu vX*H>cD.xH;udzwz.t*D>zJvgzhR}bLtg Fd bs;zDc.<w>w,m H d &HR(9)oD2011eH.vX,dRy,DRuD>qXw; wJw>'k;eJ.w>[l; uD>&h.tl;yF.unDb.uDb.cJ'u0DRM. J w>*JR< Rapid Fire vDRIunDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRtl;yF.<*H> pH;qXw>oHuG>vX cD.xH;udvXtEkmvDRw>wJjyXylwbstR F D H x;cd.<Memoryw> rh>0J( H1, H2, M1, M2, M3, P1, P2,P3) uG > ql u bsH ; yR(23)

urRpXR0Jw>wdmusJRtw>&J.w>usJR td. 0J t *h> M> ySR b. rl b. 'g vX t [J tHR pH; 0J vDRI w> wdm usJR vX w> u rR tDR tHR M. rh> 'f w> ol. w>zs;< w> bk. w> zD. 'D; w> pk oh w> zH; w> rR w> rR vd wz.M.vDRI tH ,l> w> ym o; td. vX ySR b. uD b. cJ oh. w z. t zD cd. 'fuqD wvJuGHm0Jw>rRpXRySRulySRunDt*D> qlw>*kRxD.yoDxD.tw>rRpXRt*D>

z.tHRu[;xD.rRw>vX'Ju0DRcsXt *D>w>w[h.tDRtcGJ;b.tCdtH,l>ySR b. rl b. 'g pH; 0J vX u wJ o ud; w> 'D; uFD. wJ. ySR b. rl b. 'f od; u rR pSR vDR tw> zD. CH; ySR 'J u 0DR zd tHR t *D> M.vDRI rJ>v;'Ju0DRtySRb.rlb.'g w*RpH;0JvXtH,l>pH;0JvXurRpSRvDR t w> rR pXR ySR b. uD b. cJ weH. b. weH.vDRb.q.uqJ;rRpXR0JySRb. uD b. cJ wkR vX t qX xX. vX t u p> cD.M>wpkM.vDRI

*H>cD.xH;wDRuFdw>&hvdmrkmvdmw>wJjyXyl'D;w>cD;w>ngw>&J.w>usJR

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

7

w>yJmxHeDRz;

'fo;urReXRw>t*D> d

vX = zHqDC> (Cd.vdmuX>eHR)

td;xD.rJmcsH<qJxD.e>'D;xX EkmvDRoud;yw>qdrd.'fod;yyJmxHeDR z;yySRunDzdtxH%l>uD>oJ;td.vHty wD>xJvJ.IIIw>vd.z;'d.<vd.eD>uD> < vXyySRol.p>o;bD.*H>ql.bgql.w z.uqdrd.xHw>*h>t0JtHRvDRwH>vDR qJ; vDRI w csK; (2010) uD> y ,DR w> Ck xXtrl;b.'H;b.M.vXuGJRuvk>w> y&XylRwHeXRtw>uGJ;wcgwJb.C;? yxH%l>uD>oJ;tywD>rh>wxDM>y'k.y'g b. M. y rR eXR tDR t *D> w rh> w> t nD b./rh>0JwD0JoyS>uwX>vDRI w> ul. b. ul. oh rh> cD. w Cmz;'d.wcgvXu'k;xDxD.ySRwzkySR wuvkmtxH%l>uD>oJ;tywD>vDRIySR vXttJ.w>ul.b.ul.oh'D;*kmusJ; pX;rRvdM>0Jw*RM.rh>ySRvk>'d.yOR'd. z; 'd. w *R < 'D; ySR vX t rR M> ul. oh yD ng'D;qd;ug0JvXtvD>tusJb.b. w*RM.rh>ySRuJbsK;'d.uwX>'D;rh>ySR rR eXR w> vX t o; o rl 'DpdR ng w *R vDRI o; ck 'd. r; vX zd vHR vX pdR cJ tHR wz. rh> 'd. xD. b. vX w> 'k ; w> ,Rw>Ch>rSH[;zsd;tqXuwD>'.vJm b. q. rh> ySR b. qd. *hR eD> uD> vX M> b.w>cGJ; *hR,mb.<rRxDxD.b.t ul.ohyDngtywD>wz.vXtuyRu yRtCdw>vX,tJ.'d;pH;o;p>oh.ok {X ul. oh yD ng vX ok 'd; M. b. tDR tHR ykm rH tDR vX ok cd. Elm ylR w *hR < 'k; [l *JR tDR vX w> rR M> b. ok ySR u vkm t w> obVw>cGJ;w>,mt*D>wuh>I/w>yX> qXCkqHcHeH.tHRwrh>w>qXuwD>vX t zk. ud m zd vX R b. < b. q. y ySR u
8 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

vkm u nD w M> b. 'H; b. I u G> o ud; uhR u nD w> yX> qX t pdR yD> vlR Ck xH. oh.nguhRyySRunDtw>zH;w> rRt *h>tusdRw>vXyySRuvkmb.cDzsduGHm vXw>zH;w>rRtylRwz.rh>w>'fvJ. w > rR e XR t usJ -uX; [J 'f vJ. < w> C. uGHmtusJ[JcDzsdto;vXusJ'fvJ.M. ok u M> b. w> rR vd t *hR o rd; vDRI y ySR u nD w> yX> qX tHR p; xD. vX th ph> w>'k;wkRvDRqXuwD>cJtHR-uX;rReXR w> t bsD w z. t bsD vH vX u b. rR eXRw>t*D>C.uGHm0JvXrEkRtCdvJ. , rk> v> o yS> wX> vX zd vHR ol. p>o; bD.vXrk>qgtHRvDRysHRupD'DvDRIvX y w> rR eXR t * D> y rSHR y yS> pH; wh> 0J IIII?xGH. xD. &d> M> uD> < ySR u nD xD. &d> M>bkzD/?0.tg bd0.wJmxH<ySRtg*R 0HRw>rHR/?yrHoud;vXR<ytD.oud; 0H./ ?qSD. tg bh. qDS. yHm < qSg tg bh. qSgusXR/yClyySdR<yySdRyySD><y'D;yk>0J>y o; rh> Cl M. yubd; xD. CD 'D; xD. ql rl oh0JvDRIb.q.yrh>td.qH;z;M.yw> zH;w>rRu0H>vJ<yrh>td.vDRjyHM.yu vDR_yg<yrh>td.zk.xD.M.yuvDRvdm (vDRzSd;=vDRwJm)yrh>th.vdm yo;M.yuqd;uh<yrh>td.wyd>wvd. y'Jw'kM.w>b.chto;<xd;vXuydR ylRrh>[;zsJ;qlcdM.urR0H.ch,k>uolII 1988 eH. uD> y ,DR w> Ck xX tqXuwD>vXy KNU vD>cX.o;t uGDRylRrh>qXuwD>vXw>yX>qXuvkm 'l. tg zk ym zSd. xD. o; rR o ud; w> t qXuwD>tCd<ySRud;*R'J;C.C.em 0JvXbsDt0JtHRw>CkxXrh>wwDw-w> oXysXRok;rDRpd&dRty'd.uvDRySD>oyS> wX>vDRI rRu'Hu'guD> y,DRok;y'd. M>uhRw>pdw>urDRvHwwDw-w>b.<

b.q.wvDRySD>b.trJmng'k;vDRz; uGHmw>yX>qXuvkm'l.wz.wzk0HRw zkwu;b.'k;vDRz; y(KNU 'D; DKBA )oh0J=vXrEkR tCdvJ.y-uX;qdrd.xH'D;ymolymo; oud;IcJtHRoDoH.bSJzd2010eH.tw> CkxX[D.cd.'DzsX.'DElR'De><uvkm'l. wz.qJ;yC.tcD.wX.vDR0DRvDRt o;w*RvXtvD>u0DR'.0J<w>CkxX tHR wD {g IIIySJR 'D; w> vH. w> vD {g III p; xD.vH<rR0JvH<0HR0JvH< Media wz. ud; y ol < y ,DR u vkm '. vJm ud; ySg < u vHR'Xwz.tw>rRtg< Internent w z.td.bSH;td.ogwcsK; yySRuvkmySR yX> qX w> zd wz. ph> uD; o; yS> *hR o; p> *hR<ydmrk.*hRydmcGg*hR<td.bSH;td.ogw csK;rRwcsK;tD.wtd.ph>uD;b.I yySR uvkmtw>*JRvdmtHR*hRz;'d.ngb. q.yuCdxHoud;uhRvXyxH&l>uD> oJ;wuyRrh>tuH>tpDtd.vHqH;tg vJ.Iy-uX;xd.Clxd.zd; yo;'D;rR*hR xD. rR xD xD. o ud; vDRI vX w> tHR tCdyySRunDySRyX>qXw>zdud;*R'J; o;yS> o;p><rk.cGgwpH;y-uX;xd.Cly o; Cl Cl 'D; td; xD. o ud; y rJm csH < qJxD. oud; y e> 'D; xX Ekm vDR o ud; y w>qdurd.vXw>rRxDxD.uhRyySRu vkmtxH&l>uD>oJ;tywD>'fod;yurh> ySRrReXRw>'D;[H;CmusXRuhRyySRu vkm t w> cGJ; w> ,m w > o bV 'D; ol. xD.oud;yySRuvkmtbl.*hRwD>b. wuh>I

,qdr.rHr.vXqhr>d 0gt Date bl;u out/ d D t?
vX=pDRtJ.'HR}uh(rJ>&Rrd>)

qX u wD> rk> r qg weHRtHRyrh>wJvdRvdRurXur. ol. yd>o;0;ol.cko;ck'D;vDRo;tk;ph>uD; vDRI 'h. tD. vdm o; n. tD. vdm o; < zd o.*hRrd>y>*hRzHzk*hR'D;'DwuvkmCDxD 'g vdm o; vDR t Cd 'D; w> qX u wD> w z. ph> uD; vJR xD. t u yR u yR vX pJ th.rh>*hRw>u,Xu,Jrh>*hR'D;w>pku 0JRwz.rh>*hRtuyRuyRtCdcJ tHR ,o;td.uGJ;zsg,Jb.C;,ySRuvkm unDrk.zdwz.tw>qJ;w>vRvXt rh>(qhrd>0g)xJwrHRzdtHRvDRI , xd. o }wDR uhR ,JeH.vXtylRuGHm'D;qXuwD>cJtHRw> ylR uGHm wz. , rh> w cskK; M> b. q. t tgtpSR,xH.b.'H;weDR b.C;u nDrk.w>ulw>od;vXeH.vXylRuGHm'D;cJ tHR w> b. xGJ w z. vDRIw bsD , vJR [; vX ,dR uD> u nD u pX> cd. o 0D w zsX.t cg,xH.b.,Jw>tgrHRtgu vkm vDRI b. q. vX t usg , y mol. ymo;wcgvXtrh>0J'.CHvR,qhrd> 0gvXrdrdxgwz.vXeD>unDrk.tvdR , xH. b. ,J vX u nD rk. zd vX u pX> cd.wz.t0Joh.ym'd.0Jrd>y>zHzktvk> t v> 'd. r; rk. u eDR w z. ul; od; xD. qhrd>0gCHvRr;vJRvXck;vXoH.rh>*hR <vJRudFrh>*hRzDrhR'X.xHrh>*hRn;jyJ;b.

q. ubh.vDR0Jt*D>t o;wwlmb. I,rh>wJ'ftHRzdo.rk.zd<rk.ueDRzdvX qXuwD>cJtHRwz.ue.0Jwohwrkm wJ qX w> vDR *m vX wJjyJ> < w *R 'd. w *R'd.wJ'f0JvXySRupX>cd.?{J.===t rJ.ngwJ0JvXqhrd>0g(abmif ; bD atmuf c H ) wy.b.tCdwX>uGHm0J M.=== e. &H.zd w> qX u wD>tD.uGHmeHR<eHRtD.uGHmvg<vgwz. tD.uGHmeH.wz.wqDwqDvDRI,vJR [;u'D;toDwbsDvXupX>cd.o0Dzd w zsX. t ylR 'D;w> tHR ylR uGHm vH oX eH. t Cd o0D zd qH; b. q. CH vR vX qX u wD> w> zd w> vHR wz. t u vkm u vkm vDRI 'D; , qh. eDR 0J vX rk *g w *R t [h.wdRcd.'D;uG>uDw>,>cD,>cD'D;w pd>zd,xH.vXydmrk.zdw*Rutd.wqH Ck wqH EHG w *R wJ 0J uDFzd tD xH csD vX 'X; ylR < 'D; , uG> xH w pd>zd rh> 'fvJ. (abmif ; bD ) wukmu;qhuR[XzXbX wbXcd.olwukmb.q.,wwJtg b.I wJ w bl. ph uD; b. < w rh> y zd< y[H. < y o 0D b. M.I 'D; vJR xD. wJ o ud; yd. o ud; w. 'D; rk *g w *R 'D; , wJ tDR 'h rk. zd w *R tHR rh> ,dR rk. {g < u nD rk. {g III 'D; wJ qX ,R vX og zd rk. u nD rk. pJR pJR vDRI , qSX tDR vX 0h> ylR vX t

eD>qH;tcgvH<vXuH>rJwuyRM.vJR rR vd w> 'D; cJ tHR [J uhR td. o ud; , R vDRI cGH wv. II I jyK u vR [J uhR [JuhR vX , o; ylR wJ w> bsK; b. q. vX cd wcD wJ w bl. b. < , x; cd. t rJm u qS;cJuXm<'D;,qdurd.uhRw>urh>'f tHR 'h rk. zd vX , td. wz. wJ,R (abmif ; bD atmuf c H ) wy.tCd vJRrR M> uhR0J vDRI t 0Joh. ph> uD; rR xD. 0J u ,D u ,D vH qd rd. vDR o; vX xGH. rDR w bl. b. cD {g'k w oh. ng b. ,b.,d.xJoh.*DR'hxH.oh.*DR'ht rJmxHvDRtrJmunD;b.cJuXm<'hrk.zd w *R wJ t rd < rd yOR M> ,R zsD. cH xD cD. w bh. , u uR CkR 'D; ud&H ,g qh uR w bh.tHRvX,uvJRudFt*D>IIIqhrd>0g ,uRwrkmb.w>ud>,o;'d.r; vX ,*D>t Date out vH<rRCkmwrkmvXR b.I w>0JtHRyrh>uG>[JcD zsd ph> uD; t o; vX y eHm w> uR < yeHm cd.oh. ph> uD; vDRI vX r EkR vJ. w eHR b.weHR[D.cd.zdw>[l;w>*JRqDwvJ to;wcgb.wcgtCdIyrh>wJxJw> ul w> od; 'k w vd. wJ b. < b. q. y 0J vX t ol w> w z. y o ;u b. q; 0J 'D; oHuG>vDRuhRyo;vDRI,o;td.wJ,J unDrk.zdwz.vXokwrh>w&hvDRxH tXM>wr.w*hR'fokCHvRvXysXRvX oDtod;td.rlyXRCmuhReJxloEltHR w uh> Ird> ol. vDR u xH ok w rJ xD. vX w uGH w *hR < ol . vDR w uGH ok w rJ xD. vX 0. w *hR M. rh> , w> [h. y vD>ok vDRIzJM.,wJw>'D;'hrk.zdvX upX>'D cd.rkmr;rkmM.vDRu'ku,Du,D'D;wkR [h.xD.uhRt,J>bDCHvRwz.'D;, wJ'hrk.zdtHRyuuhRql[H.{DRIIIw>u cH vDRI 'D; zJ M. , rH yX> xD. vX vD> rH ylR vDRI
9

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

vX=oDo.tzDr>k eR (unDuo&.w>od.vdcv.uF)d Cd.uh. H dF D h

[;z;'D;eRuuJ'fv.?
wXw eH.zdwz. weH.w0Dub.vDR qluD>ylRvXw>&hvdmrkmvdm'D;udFzd<udF o&.<udurH;wHm'D;udzdrd>y>'lzdo0Dzd F F vX uD> ylR w z. vX w> xd. Cl xd. zd; o;'D;rRxDxD.oud;yySRuvkmtw> ul.b.ul.ohtywD>vXxHvD>uD>ylR upX>cHuvdusgwz.t*D>vDRI zJ2009eH.vg'H.pJbX.tylR yudFzdwz.w>z;vDRb.ySRql,JRrk>ysD u %l> ylR vX w> &h vdm rkm vdm t *D>vDRI vDR qD '. w> y zd yvHR vX 'd. xD. b. vl>CD>oud;xH-wDRvXtqSH'D;ck.*hRr; wz.<oh.yS>vg[hw>vl>w>pdvXtzsg CH vRr;wz.'D;xd.zdvH.zdtuvkm uvkmwz.'k;,lRuGHmt0Joh.wz.t w> b. ,d. b. bD ,Hm pX> w vX> vH< w>vDRbSH;vDRwDR'D;w>b.,d.b.bD wz.vJRwkRqlvJ.CkuhR0Jtrd>vHRrd> yS> w b. vX R b. I w> o; rkm w> o; zSH rRySJRySRvJRw>zdud;*R'J;tol.uH>o; vJvDRIvXw>ol.vDRbSH;o;vDRwDRt vD>w>ol.0H.o;qXw>eHRu0J>ysD>u 'Dwz. rR yJSR yS> rk> vg [h 'D; bh. ng vDRI vX,JRrk> ysD t oh. qSd yS> vg [h t usg vX zd xD; vl>w>vl>'D;cd.zJzd rk. zd cGg w z. Ch> vDR o ud; yDS> ySD> ySJR 'D; w>ol. zHS o; nD tcgvXqdSzkC;t zl t zD cd. , vDR xGH vX w> qd u rd. ,dm t ylR vDRI uG> qd vX u pX> ol ol vX M . w pd td. 'D; e t z ok; u vXR vX u pX> u ydm uyR w cD 'l o 0D w z. zsg pd wzsX.wzsX.<w&H;uG>u'gqlvD>cHw yRrh>w>wrHRCDvDRI xH.rSu'D;vXCd.vdmusduX> H cd. w u yR < ySR o 0D zd u rsX> w z. ol. tD.zs;tdD.w>wwDR <etz ok;uvXR td. w wDR uU> uU> vDRI tD xH usd w vdm CD < vk> xH ys> rJm xH w vdm CD b. q.b.ysHRvdmo;'H;IIIw>tHRIIIrh>vJR ql ng 'D ; ol. xD. w> td. rl t oD vX t

yrSHRyyS>tw>uwdRwbDpH;0J ?wcHvXtuD>wRCDRvXtrD=w>rkm uwX>rh>'.y'hyDRvD>vDRI/t*RwbDD ?w>rRwHRyo;rh>'.yrd>trhRoyXR< yrd> t vX> qD cD.vX z. u ylR vDRI w> tD.uk;tD.yJSRvXtySJR'D;w>obVM. rh>ytd.qd;'D;zH;tD.rRtD.w>vX yeD> up>txHvD>uD>ylR'.y0JvDRI b. q. qX u wD> cJ tHR eD> vD eD> ysD> vX u bsH; u 'HbsH; u 'g y rJm ySR zd td.tgr;tCd< yrJmcsHtw>xH.wwD vX R b. cD zds *k> oD t pk> 'Ggb. y rJm csH t Cd w> ol w> 0g y eDR z; t qX t o vD w b. ud; bsD pJ CJR b.Iw>tHRwrh> w>urXur.t vD> b. ySR 'l vX> cd.zdw*Rv>v> qX M. u ,m M> w>qXuwD> vX t *hR < w> td. rl vX t yJSR 'D; w> rkm w> ck. vDRI y w>td.rltwDRywD>uwkRqlyw>qX M>u,mM>tvD>t*D>ySRud;*R'J;rh>ySR Ch>jyXw>wz.vXto;orlw>vJRcD zsdtylRvDRI'fod;yuwkRqlyw>rk>v> tzDwX.t*D>tvD>td.oyS>wX>vXy b.xJ;*H>xJ;bg<ymql.o;<'D;ukmo yS>yS>vDRI (KTWG )unDudFo&.rRo ud;w>u%l>td.'D;w>&J.w>usJRtusg wrHR( KTTC)unDudo&.w>rRvdcD F vh.udFtd.'D;w>&J.w>usJRvXySRudFzd
10 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

vX'Ju0DRylRwz.rh>*hRzdvHRvXzsdxD. udF vX uD> y ,DR y 'd. udF (0h> w ul.) w z.rh>*hR<t0Joh.t*D>uJxD.w>ol. yd> o; 0; vX t *D> = w> vX t wRw> 'D; t 0J oh. rh> u pX> zg ol vX t uG> pd 0J w z.cd;vDrRymtcd.tvl>vl>tpdpdt Cdb.,d.b.bSD0J'd.r;vXrh>,xD. upX>b.uuJuD;{gIII<,vJR'fod;ySR *Rb.uuJ{gIIIb.q.wkRw>qXu wD>b.M.xX.0HcsXw*RwykcsXud;*R 'JxD. oud;upX>ySD>ySD>xD.wpdvDRw

ylRzsJ;'D;w>'k;w> ,Rrh>u*hR'd.{g IIIrhwrh>bH.vDR rJm 'D; cd; w> [J 0H vXuG>zJub.< b. '. 0J u*hR {gIII[X. tXR III , eDR z; w> t qX t o vD tHR w b. vXR b. I zJ w &H; uG> uhR zJ csH t w> uG> ql oh. yS> vg [h t usgwcDIII[h=th IIIw>[J0HtHRtX0Juoh0JvJ.<oh.qdS IIIoh.qdSz.rk>tvk>vg[h'Dvl>'DuGm< xH 'd. uD> vJ> w z. rh> b. ol. vDR oh. qSdyS>eDtHRwyS>'kuvXmphqH;tgvJ.e *H>'G;tyOR tuvHRwb.IyS>vg[hz; vJ> z; uG; w bh. tHR oh. qSd t cd. plpl zd t xl. bsX ,k> u vm wz. td. wl> &J> vDR to; rwR[Jol.vDRtDRvJ.IIIM qX.IIIMqX.<xHuD>vXtvJRxD.vJR xDwz.ty'd.w[Jwl>vXRpheDwbh. b. 'D; ol. vDR 0J b. I rh> y uD> vg t M qX. w> td. ,XR vX td. u wDR ym t o;vXyunDzdt*D>vDRI jyKuvRzdrk.zdcGgwz.tu vk>oD.vXxH}wDRylRvH<b.wuXxD. cH'D;vlRCDRuhRtDRvDRIrk>[gvDRwcsK; rk>vDREkmywkRqlxH[Dvhcd.wDRcX.o; udF'lo0Dzd'd.qH;jyHoGgcJvXmCkm'D;udFzd rk.cGgo&.orgwz.cd;o*X>vDRycd. yo;zSHoud;uJrd>y>'D;zdvDRz;,HmxH. vdmuhR o; rH ol.usXR o; r; vDRI vX cH vX ng rh> w xH. oh. ng vdm o; eD bsD eD cD. o em uh ySR u nD t w> qJ; w> vR vX t vDR y -wXR 'd. r; vX t rh> w> wl> wHR wl> w rSHR w cg tHR w vDR wJm vX ySR

unDtod;tusg'H;b.Irkmr;vJ.vDR ol.rHo;rkm'd.r;vDRI yqDvDRy}wDRyw>td.w>qd; tvD>zJxH[Dvhcd.wDRcX.o;udFwcsK; yw>&J.w>usJRvXw>&hvdmrkmvdm&dm zSd. t u wD> wkR 'H; b. M. y b. w> uGJ rkmySRvXo0Dtbl;twH>wz.weHRw zsX. w eHR w zsX. vX eH. u wX> w> pH; bsK;pH;zSd.w>bl.w>bgt*D>vDRI b. weHR yvJRqlq.rkmyXRw>td.zSd.w> pH;bsK;pH;zSd.w>bl.w>bgwcsK;ywkR qlw>td.zSd.tvD>'H;b.M. yb.o *X>'D;ySRwRoH;xHrRtD.n.wzk =ySR w zk tHR wrR vd b. 0J pdm cJ tHR w> b. oH.cGJ.u wDRuhRMqX.cd.CXR'fvJ. t*h>b.Iemouhrd>y>zHzktw>od.vd 'k; eJ. ,kR t 0Joh. vX u b. oh u wJm uwDRxHusdxHuGm'fvJ.IIIwb.tD. wlmtD.uvDR'h.zdn.zdqSJ.zdo'D.zd wz.wkRvXxHoH;edoH;b.tCd<t0J oh.rRoH;xH0HRzD.tD.'h.zdn.zdzJvX tD.vXt0Joh.t*D>0HRys>vDRuhRxH'f od;'h.zdn.zdwz.tpXRokwvDRwlm w*hRt*D>vDRIw>tHRrh>usJvXt*hRr; wbdvXrd>y>zHzkwz.tw>oh.cGJ.u wDRpXRMqX.cd.CXRt*D>M.vDRI

w> qX u wD> b. vH uFd t zsX. (10 ) C. C. [JymzSd.xD.to; zJ xH [D vh cd. wDR cX. o; udF y &h vdm rkm vdm y o; rkm 'd. r; zd 'H zd o. w z. vX t u %l> '. 0J *JR vdm uJ [h. cD [h. eD Rvdm o; w zk t w> oh w> b. < rd> y> < o&. o rgudFurH; wHm wz. [h. cD [h.eDRvdmo;vXw>td.rlw>zH;w>rR <w>vJRcDzsdwz.< [h.ul.[h.z;vdm oud;o;vXcgqlngzdvHRwz.tw> rR vd rR 'd; w> vJR xD. vJR xD t *D> rkm ol. rkm o; 'd. r; vX w> 'k; w> ,R w> vDRysHRvDRzk;tqXuwD>yySRuvkm*JR vdmvXw*RvXtoeX.'.0JvXySRu vkmtw>bH. w>bXvJRxD.vJRxDt *D>tCd rh>w>yJmysDuGHmusJcJwbdvX y uydmqlyySRuvkmw>rReXRt*D>vDRI yySRuvkmod.'lzdwz.[H;pXRySRrl'g vXw>bH.w>bXvXy*D>zJw>&hvdmrkm vdm'DwuwD>ph>uD;vDRIcd.e>wz.[J [h. *H> [h. bg ph> uD; ySR t Cd w> &h vdm rkmvdm'DwuwD> uJuoH.*H>bgz;'d. wzsX.vXw>qXwJmtyORwohb.M. vDRI w> o; ck < w> o; rH < w> o; rkm 'k;pSH.xD.,rJmxHzJ,xH.uhR,zdrk.zd cGgvD>vJRweDRvX,od.vdb.wh>tDR vXylRuGHmwbsK;eH.wz.<,qdrd.vX t 0J oh. w z. vJR wkR wh> vH vX xH oX bh. uD> oX bh. vH< b. q. cJ tHR , xH. b. vX t 0J oh. [J uhR eDR vDRuhR tw>ohw>b.wz.qltySRuvkm
uG > ql u bsH ; yR(21)

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

11

vXrlcd.wbh.CDtzDvm

unDudFzs;d pd20*R'D;w>cG;J w> ,mvX'Ju0DRylR
K

yuGJrkmb.ySRz;w>zdwz.vXAto;rh>td.uGJ;b.C;AySRuvkmwzkzkAtvk>v><xloEl'fod;u 'k;vJ>xD.yySRw0Xtw>xH.Atw>e>yX>Aw>qJ;vXw>vR'fod;A'k;xlxD.wDRwDRySRw0Xtw> xH. M. oh vDRIA 0H o;plR qSX tDR ql uFd zd od.ttd. oh vDRIAe *D>ubHs; yR?vX rl cd. ww bh. CD tzD vm/Autd.vXe*D>vDRIAtJ;'H;xX.

vX=Moo

Photo:KSNG

xHqJ;rJ;,GR

2010< 2011 eH. u nD udF zd zsd; pdvX,dRy,DRuD>qX'Ju0DRwz.t*D> (Z O A )wtd.'D;w>&J.w>usJRvXu [; Ck oh. ng w> vX w> vD> t *R vXm b.tCd<unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRtl; yF.tylR'Ju0DRurH;wHm<ZOA, KRCEE, CCEE, CBOs, NGOs, wz.ymzdS.xD. o;'D;'k;td.xD.w>&J.w>usJRvXudFzd zsd;pdvX2010'D;2011eH.wz.u'd;M> w>cGJ;w>,RvX uCkoh.ngw>vX'J u 0DR ylR 'D; &h vdm rkm vdm t o; u oh t *D>'k;td.xD.w>&J.w>usJRzJJ vg,El; tg&H;26oD2011eH.zJtl;yF.'Ju0DRt ylRM.vDRI
D D vX=uFvol

udF zd zsd; pd t *D> w> &J. w> usJR wbsDtHR udFzdzsdpdwz. 'd;M>b.w>cGJ; w>,mvXuvDRCkoh.ngw>vX'Ju 0DR t ylR b. C; ql. cV< ul. oh<w> vk> tD.o;orl'D;'Ju0DR tw>yXw>jy;t *h>tusdRwz.M.vDRItd.'D;rk>eRcDw> jyXvXtrh>w>'k;w>qDwvJySR*h>0Dw> 'k;eJ.w>*h>cd.wDDvXtrh>Inclusive for Education,'D;w>o;0H.owl>uvmvX tJ u vH; usdm v X t b. C; 'D; w> ul. b.ul.oh'D;'k;oh.nguhRySRursX>w z.vXw>*h>w>usdRvXt0Joh.Ckoh. ngwh>0Jwz.M.vDRI

w> &J. w> usJR w bsD tHR 'J u 0DRcd.'D;w>u&Xu&dvX'J u0DRwz. [h.*H>[h>bg0Judzdzsd;pdwz.'D;udzdvX F F 'Ju0DRylRwz.vXw>&J.w>usJRwbsD tHR M. vDRI t w> &J. w> usJR w bsD tHR t w> y nd. rh> 'f od; udF zd vX 'J u 0DR ylR oh.wz.utd.'D;w>*kmusJ;pX;vXt o; u ql. rR vd tg xD. w> ul. b. ul.oh<xd.zHb.cd.'D;uvkm*Ruoh t*D>'D;udFzdoh.wz.tuH>tpDvXw> ul.b.ul.oh'D;uo;td.Ckoh.ng 'J u 0DR ylR < uD> ylR < uD> csX < 'D; u eDR cD vJ vdmo;w>xH. <w>ul.b.ul.ohvX rk>rqgweHRtHRM.vDRI vXtylRuGHmZOA td.'D;w> &J.w>usJRvX'Ju0DRud;bh.'J;vXul. ohoeX.<td.'D;udFzdzsd;pdoh.wz.w> [;vdmuG'D;Ckoh.ngtgxD.w>*h>w> J usdR<eDR[h.vdmo;w>xH.w>vJRcDzds vXudFzdzsd;pdvX'Ju0DRwbh. 'D; w bh. ud; eH. 'J; b. q. 2010'D; 2011eH.tHRw>qDwvJtd.tCdw>y wkmuGHmw>&J.w>usJRM.vDRI

uF;H rh>o;uF;zd;M>w>z;wrh>{g?

2010eH. uD> y,DR rR 0J w> CkxXvXttJ.'d;'k;eJ.zsgxD.vXok; rDRpd&dRy'd.yXw>vXursX> w>b.o; M.t*D>M.vDRIw>CkxXbsD0JM.xHuD> ud;bh.'J; usd.xD.trJmcsH<rRvJ>xD. t e> eJ uD> vJ> vX u xH. e> [l b. w> vDR qD t *D> M. vDR I w> Ck xX tHR vJR to;*hR*hRb.b.vXy'd.t*D>vDR'D;
12 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

uF; zd; y. wH. rR M> 0J w> z; 'D; p; xD. yX w>M.vDRIqDw vJw>tgrHRtg uvkm *hRr;vXt*D>vDRI 2010eH.w>CkxX0HRtvD>cH w>ys>xD.uhRrk*gtD.qgpl.uFHRvXw> 'k;CmtvD>'D;ySRy,DRzd'D;xH*kRuD>*R oh. w z. ol. ck o; ck wul. oh. rR y. wH. *JR uvH. y> u0HR e uG> *hR z;'d. w u;b.tJ.'d;igM>t0Joh.vXu[J*JR u vH. yF; ySR vDRI b. q. vX y 0J u nD rd>zdwz.t*D>ytD.rhR0HRyb.yXEkmy w bH. vD cD vX Ch> ylR -wR ylR vX pH. 0H tDR u csK; qX csK; u wD> t *D> M.vDRI ('X;uF;zd;M>w>z;vH'X;ezXEkmewbH.
vX=uFztod. dd

wyXRvXod.uGD.'H;b.vD.) yrh> uhR u 'g uhR M. uF; zd; rR M> w> z; b. q. qDvDRtw.yXw>jy;tusdRtusJwM> 'H;b.Iy0Jo;p>wz.y}uX;qdurd.'f vJ.(w>uD>y,DRM.yXw>vXpDRyRog &U.toEl{J>?ee;oH/)w>CkxX0HRt 0J oh. qSX tg xD. tok; vX u [J xD. ,D>unD[D.u0DR'D;uM>yX w>cJvXm t *D>vDRIursX> zd Ch> rSH [; zsd; tg xD. wu; b. t 0J oh. od. 'l '. vJm pH. rHS [; zsd; uhR vX unD zd t usg wvH yD; y; M.vDRI(exH.{g?w>M.b,h.r;uFt H rh. eDR /)p; xD. vX uD> y,DR w> Ck xX 0HR t vD> cH 'D; wkR vX cJ tHR w> qD w vJ

td. 0J vX ttXw u yR 'k uG> *hR 'd. r; vDRIy'd.vXng'D;cJtHRM.rh>'.w>'H; vD>vD>vD>(od.xD.bSJ.oHusHwJeRvX ,J>'kw'kCDM.eo;yhReD.vH{g)

unDursX>A8Auv;bsJ.rXb.ch.rlywkmy,DRok;w>xD.'k;

w>*DR=egbGgbGgzgzJvJR[h.vDRvHmqJ;pkrk>usX>ql(U

K

Embassy )tqXuwD>

unDursX>xHzduD>zdA8Auv; bsJ . Ch x D . 0J ' .w>ouG H > un;ql bDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.%GJ.cd.usX>b. ch . rl t td . 'D ; [D . cd . csXxH u D > cd . e>t*Rttd.vXurXM>qD.cH etzAok;y'd.vXuywkmuGHmtw> xD.'k;unDzdM.vDRIA unDursX>xHzduD>zdA84<00A*R vXttd.vXunDu>pJ.tylRqJ;pkyeD. D tvHmouG>un;qlb.ch.rlttd.vX H urRpXR'f o d ; uywk m uG H m y,D R ok ; tw>xD.'k;t0Jo.tvHmub.w>[h. h

vDRtDRqlAb.ch.rltpkyRM.vDRIA'fM.t l od ; vH m tH R ub.w>[h . vD R ph > uD ; tDRqlxu>D cd.e>t*R'ftrh>uD>tJuvH; H udwmcd.usX>A'hb;h AcJ;r%l><AtD;p}xhv,g d udwmcd.usX>uFLvh.,.uhv;M.vDRIAvHm d w>ouGH>un;tHR ub. w> [h.vDR qlxHuD>8Abh.tcd.te>vXty.Ckm ,y.<AeD.0h<AuFXreH.<A'Jr;<ApU;'h><A'D;cJe '>wz.vDRIAvHmw>ouG>H un;tHRb.w> qD . xG J t D R vXunD z d w >u&Xu&d A30AzkvXttd.vXxHu>D 15Abh.tylR'D;

rh > w>tqd u wX>wbsD v XvH m w> Chx.b.w>qSXxD.ql[.cd.xHu>D cd.e> D D ttd.vXunDzdwz.M.vDRIA unDursX>A8Auv;bsJ.vX twl>b. y,DRok;w>xD.'k;wz.tHR qJ;pkyeD.'D;Chx.0J'.bDr>pXzS.u&X D k d teJ.%GJ.cd.usX>b.ch.rlvXu[H;*h>0D wkRvDRwDRvDRvXw>uywkmuGmuD>y,DR H ok;rDRpd&Ry'd.tw>xD.'k;ursX>xHzu>D zd d d 'D;w>rRxD'gySRcGJ;,motk;oySDRwz. M.vDRIAvHmw>ouG>H un;tHRb.w>&J. usJRtDRvXunD'DuvkmpXzSd.u&Xch. tJ.,l.AM.vDRIA o&.rk.pH.zd&.ph.vXtrh> ch.tJ.,l.teJ.%G.cd.usX>pH;0JvX<?t J tHRrh>w>tqduwX>wbsvXursX>ywD> D rk.vXuD>y,DRtylRvXtb.uG>qX. rJmw> rRxD'gySRcGJ; ,mt w> ChxD.ql bDr>k pXzS.u&Xttd.M.vDRIAuD>y,DRok; d rk>rRur.0J'.'k;,RuG>rh.'D;uG>xD'gySR D D ulySRunD,Hmwh>vHM.vDRIAy0JcJvXm yChxD. bDrk>pXzSd.u&X eJ.%GJ.cd.usX> vXupl;ugtpdurDRvXu[h.w>qD.o eH;uD>y,DRok;y'd.vXuywkmtok;w> xD.'k;'D;w>rRxD'gySRcG;J ,mvXunDu>D pJ.
uG > ql u bsH ; yR(24)

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

13

rJmxHzb.vDRqSK0J d

o;p>oeX.

w>pH;0JvXysXRwbsDM.ySR'DwHR 'Doud;td.0J'.cH*RvDRIySR'DwR'Doud; {XqXxH;[h.vDReRvHmy&Xwbh.vDRIzJ H D D cH*RtHRrh>0Jr.w*R'D;cGgw*RvDRItydm M.wbsCqXbVuG>vDRw>y&X'D;qdu k D rk.w*RtrHRrh>0Je>qXobV'D;ydmcGgzdw rd.0J';vXto;ylRtd<rh>,wJur.tDR D *RrHRrh>0JpRqXxH;vDRIt0Jo.'DwRo wrHRrHR'D;to;'d.,RwcD{g<'fvJ., D h H J J ud;cH*RtJ.b.vdmto;'d.r;vDRIzJqX woh.ngb.Ib.q.'fv.'fv.,u J h obV[;w>wylRylRM.qXxH;ydmpd.tDR td;xD.z;uG>wbDe.<t0JuREkmqlt'X; l D d D 'D;[;'D;tDRvDRIcDzsdqXobVrh>ydmrk.zd zdyRvXtrHv>rHc.'D;td;xD.z;0J';rh>vX w*RvX'd.w>b.ydmrk.'D;'d.w>*hR'D; twHRoud;wJzsgtw>tJ.tDR'D;t0Jt CHvRtCdqXxH;b.,d.ySR*RurR[; o;zdued;b.r;to;vDRI'D;t0Jto; J D h *DRtwHRoud;rk.tol;oh.vRuyDRt ued;b.q.to;ck0vRcDzsdvXt0Jp> Cdxbt0Ju>pl.twHRoud;rk.'D;rR uD;tJ.b.qXxH;'fM.tod;ph>uD;vDRIvX d d G pXRtDRxDbdvDRIqXxH;&h'D;obV,Hm w>tJ.b.z;'d.tylRvXcHwoDcHoDt D xD.,HmxD.'D;qdurd.0JvXto;ylR'D; 0JupH;qX0JvRI'D;qXobVpH;qX<qXxH; J f H tJ.b.0JqXobV'd.r;'D;'fo;t0Jwzsg tw>uG;zd'tR= d J qlwHRoud;qXxH;td.<,GRu tw>tJ.eD>eD>vXqXobVuoh.ngb. 0Jt*D>t0Jqurd.xD.0Jt<qXobV{X qd.*hReRxDbdI'fvmtHRtod;vDRIqX d d erh>ySRw*RvXqXxH;tJ.b.tDR'd.r; xH;{X<rh>vXewJzsgew>tJ.,RtHRrh>t h h vDRIrh>eoh.ngeJp>{gtd<,ub.wJzsg eD>uD>{g<rhr>teD>uD>'kr>w>o;ckvX, h h J k xD.,w>tJ.vXqXobVvDRI,rh>w *D>vDRIrhr>w>vdmuG',wwl>vdmew> J J wJzsg'kt0Jwoh.ng'D;uwl>vdmb.zk; uG;b.IvXw>tJ.tgqXuG;usXpSRzsX. ySRvX,rJmngvDRIwbsDCDqXxH;oh. vDR[JvXewHRoud;qXuGJ;vDRI,GRu d eD.xD.to;'D;t0Ju;vHmy&Xwbh.'D; qd.*hRb.eRxDbwuh>w>bsK;<t0Ju;GJ JG vHmy&X0HR'D;vJRqSXu'D;qlwwt.vX d d d uG;0J= J d J qlwHRoud;rk.qXobVtd. uvJRqSXM.qXxH;t*D>vDRI'D;wdwvR D D ,GRuqd.*hReRxDbr>h ewHRoud;qXxH; qSXM.qXxH;'D;qXxH;uG>vDRwbsCo; d H d D tw>qX*hRvDRItJ.'d;wJ,eRwpJ;zdeR zdtRued;0J'.r;vDRIqXxH;uhRqlv>rH J D 0Ho;plRwl>vdmtDReDRI'ftRvDRqXobV ylR'D;td.xD.z;0Jr>h w>vXtrkmto;'D;pH; H {X<p;xD.vX,&h';eRM.,xH.ew>CH 0JcXto;uH>ylRqX{XqX{X<,w>uG;J rh>t D h w>vRw>ymol.ymo;'D;w>ouJ;y0; eD>uD>vDRIvXcHt0Jo.cH*Ryrh>wJvXt D rh>w>vXb.,o;'D;,tJ.b.,JeRvDRI zk.M.,HmxD.,HmxD.uJx.'Dw>tJ.wD J h tcJtR,wJzsg,w>tJ.eR'D;qX,JvX 'Dt.b.vdmto;'d.r;vDRIt0Jo.cH H d euwl>vdm,w>tJ.vDRIrRM>tD.uJyR *RzJtymtJ.wDvmto;tcgrh>ySRrRvd l 'k.ylR'g[JvXewHRoud;qXxH;uGJ;<0HR'D;w>zdvDRIqXobVrRvdcGHwDR'D;qXxH; D G qXxH;vJRqltwHRoud;t*Rw*RvX rh>ySRwDRwqHvRIqXxH;oHu>qXobV d trh>pDRwdw';rXtqSXvHmy&X'D;wdwd exD.uFew>ynd.rh>rEkRvJ.I'D;qXpH;qX d D D d vJRqSXqlobV0gtd.'D;pH;b.tDRobV tDRI,w>ynd.wqHwR,uxD.uFo
14 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

0Ho;plR,ReDR

&.w>rRvd';,uod.vdw>vDRI'D;qX D obVoHu>G u'D;qXxH;eJp>h uD;erRvdw> 'D;ew>ynd.rh>rEkRvJ.IqXxH;pH;qXw eH.tHR,rh>zsx.wqHwR,uvJRxD. d D D uoH.o&.w>rRvdr>h 0HR,urRw>vX ySRuvkm*D>vDRIt0Jo.cH*RwJvmto; h d tw>ynd.'D;qlngwqDwqDwvmt J d o;vXtw>tJ.t*h>'D;qXxH;pH;b.qX obVwpdRtHRqX{Xeurh>,o;orlwR H oud;vDRI,CkxXeR'D;,uwD';D eRvDRI wb.rRzSD.,o;w*hReDRqXph>uD;pH; b.qXxH;<qXxH;{X,Jp>h uD;,CkxX, o;orltwHRoud;xJeRw*R'D;uwD,J 'D;eRvDRIzJt0Jo.wJvmto;'D;emM> h d vdmto;vDRI zJw,Hmb.qXuwD>zJM.qX xH;td.'D;twHRoud;cGgtg*R'D;twHRo ud;wz.wJtRqXxH;{X,xH.ydmrk.vX D xHx.w*Rt0J'.w>*hR'D;vJ;'D;eRvDRI d uGJ;M>tvHmrD.,uqSXM.eR'D;t0JpH; qX,w>tJ.wDt.vHb.q.wHRoud; d wJtRerh>xH.'kepGvRI'd.w>*hRM.ew> D J D tJ.wDtp;wz.tp;'H;vDRzJM.xk;M. vdRqXxH;to;wbsC';qXxH;uG;vHm D DD J y&Xqlzxt.'D;twHRoud;qSXM.tDR'D; D l d zDxp>uD;rh>ydmrk.vXrJmo.tg'D;uG;qX lh J ph>uD;qXxH;'D;uJx.ph>uD;'Dw>tJ.wD D vDRIqXobVwcDwoh.ng0Jb.'D;qX obVydmcGgtg*RuGJ;M.tvHmb.q. t0JwuG;qX0Jb.IySRrh>uG;M.tvHmw J J bh.*hRcHb.*hRt0Jp;,w>tJ.wDt.vH h H d ,wl>vdmeRwohvXRb.vDRIqXobV rh>ySRw*RvXtwD'D;qXxH;vDRIb.w [grh>zJvg'HRpJbX.'D;ySRbl.rR0Jy';qX JG D obVtJ.'d;vJRCkm'D;tuFDvDRIt0JwJ

qXM>uhR,uD>obV
xH u D > vX,td . zsJ . xD . rh>0J,'hyDRtvD> td.ySJR0J'D;w>CHvR xk ; M>yS R tg*Rto; td.ySJR0J'D;w>xl;wDR yS R tg*Rrd . M>o;vD ,yS R uvk m vXwD v d R tJ . wl > wrS H R wH R oud ; uD > obVrh > uD > unD w>M>ogunD z d * D > uvk m *R[J * k m M>'D ; rR[;*D R yunD u D > ,uD > obVvXCH v R 'f o d ; uM>b.uh R eR ,yS R uvk m oh . wz. b.*moG H . *mpD R 0J ' . cJ t H R td . ,H R ,J ' D ; eR cD z sd ' k . 'gw>rRe; zJ,td.qdrd.xD.uhR qXM>uh R ,uD > obV
54321 54321 54321

vX=eD>tJ;pf_zhz(tHw>x.) D l
uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH. 15

54321 54321 54321 54321

54321 54321 54321 54321

54321 54321 54321 54321

qdtuFzr>,J>eHRuFp.vDRrk>xl.cg<t d D J k D H 0JwyuvJRuG>ySRrRyGe.,vJR,oud; J JD wtd.tCd,uvJR'D;eReDRIqXxH;w cDtX.vDRph>uD;vDRIb.q.qXxH;wcD wJymwh>0JzxvXyvJRtd.oud;0J0RvH D l H tCdt0JvRtd.oud;zDxvRIqXobV J l D wcDt.cd;qXxH;'D;qXxH;w[JvXttd. d eDwbsb.rk>[gvHw>qXuwD>b.vHt D Cdt0Jx.vXtoud;ydmrk.t*Rwz. H vJR0J'D;t0JvJRydmtoud;rk.tcH'D;t 0Jwb.toud;rk.vXqXxH;uvJRCkm J w>'D;,Rb.q.,cd;t0Jw[JewbsD D b.tCd,[JymecHvRtwHRoud;rk. d D pH;b.tDRqXxH;vJRz;,HmvHt0Jw0u JJ vJRtd.oud;tw>tJ.wDzxvRIqXo D l D bVe>[lwbsCo;zdb;r;vXuoh.z; D D l vDRIb.q.t0Jymql.to;'D;vJR0J'; D uG>w>b.q.to;zdqurd.'.vXqX d xH;vDRvXto;ylRqdurd.0J=qXxH;{X< ewJvXeCkxXeo;orltwHRoud;xJ ,Rw*R'D;euwD';,RcJtRb.rEkRe D H rRb.zSD.,o;vJ.IwHRoud;zduGJ;M. ,vHmb.q.,wuG;J qXb.,tJ.'. eR,wD'eRvDRIerR,RtHR,rJmxHzw D d z.b.vDRqSK0JvRIcDzsvX,tJ.b.eR D d tCd,wl>b.,J'tRvDRItdo;w>qg f H ub.r;,RvJ.IqXobVvJRuG>yGJ[J uhRb.q.'DweRrHwM>b.'D;qdurd. '.w>vJRylRuGHmoh.wz.vDRI

vXcHrk>qh.xD.'D;qXxH;[JuhR qlqXobVtd.'D;pH;0J0o;plR,ReD.rh>vX H ,tX.vDReR'D;,wrRvXySRb.tCdvRI J D 'D;qXvXw>eHRurStylRpH;b.0JqXxH;< H qX{X<b.rEkRtCdevD,RvJ.<evJR qlyRt*RvHwrh>,RerhvRqlyR*RM. S J S ,uysJeusJvDR[h.uhR,*DRzd'D;,w> y&Xoh.wz.cJvXmeD.IcJuXmuuJx. D b.zk;w>wHmwmvXe*D>eDRIb.q.rhr> h qXxH;wcDtw>tJ.wvXm?obV/ b.tCdC0o;plR0JqX{X0Ho;plR,ReD.I hH cDzsd,rh>ySRrJmo.tgCde.I,Chun; D vXeuwl>vdmb.uhR,ReD.ySRt*R,w tJ.vXRb.I,uuhRtJ.xJqXw*R{dRvDRI ,uwJb.eRw>tHR[JuJxD.to;cD zsdvXwHRoud;rXql.,RtCdvRvXcH D qXobVe>yX>uhRqXxH;'D;cH*RvdmqX obVwl>vdmuhRqXxH;vXw>tJ.tw> o;td.'D;e>yX>vdmuhRto;qXobVoh. ngvXeH.uwX>w>'d;pJ;bl;xD.vHtCd t0Jw*h>vdmw>eDwrHRvXRb.'D;wl>vdm qXxH;'D;uG;[h.*H>[h.bgvdmto;'fo; J d tuzse.uwX>w>'d;pJ;t*D>vDRIt0Jo. dH h cH*Rtd.'D;w>e>yX>vdmto;'D;yltRu H wX>uGm0JztRvDRIvXylzw,k>tHRtzD H J H d cd.okw>b.'fv.Io;p>'kuvJRcdzsb. l J d 0Jutd.oh.oh.weDRtusgvDRI

54321 54321 54321

(q.'d ' d R pd ) rJ > &Rrd >

w>CJRyltoeX.
vX= eD> 'D v> xl ( rkm }wDR u nD udF zd ySm bs; pJ u &l> ) tH wl> x. wDR xD uFd

w>ul.b.ul.ohtuH>tpD

w>pH;0JwbsDM.o0Dtd.0Jw zsX. o 0D w zsX. tHR td. ol. vDR t o; vXw>vl>zdwvl>t'Dcd.'D;o0DtHRt cd.tCXRM.td.'D;oh.zd0.zdvXtCH vR *hR r; w z. vDRI vX w> vl> zd w vl> tHRtcD.xH; wcDxHrlusdzdvXtqSH*hR r;[J,GRvDR0JwusdvDRIvXxHrlusdtHR t uX> eHR M. td. ph> uD; 'D; pHm ysD oh. w z.'D;vXpHmysDtylRM.q.zduD>zd'ftrh> ye><usD><rJmwJ;vJ;wz.tD.tq.t wd. usd. oD. vDR o ,k> 'd. r; vDRI vX o0DtHRtylRM.tgwuh>rh>'.ySRrR0JR tD.rhRwz.vDRI t0Joh. wz.woh. ngw>ul.b.ul.ohtuH>tpD'D;w> ul. b. ul. oh t vk> t yOR b. I 'D; w> pH;0JvXo0DwzsX.tHRtylRM.ySRtd.0J cH*RvXtrh>pDRq.qSH'D;eD>zDtJ.<ySRcH *RtHRzJto;td.9eH.tcgM.w>rRt o; vX ySR td. vX 0h> ylR w *R [J ql o 0D tHR 'D; ym 'k; oh. ng e> yX> ySR oh. w z. tHR vX w> ul. b. ul. oh t *h> t usdR M. vDRI ySR t *R w z. w u e. Ckm 0J b.Irhrh>ySR'D;oud;cH*RtHR'due.0J'D; ol.ql.o;*JR0J'd.r;vDRI b.weHRzJrk>[gvDRtqXu wD>zJuvHRqSHzdwz.[JxD.0JuzDuzD 'D; xd. zd vH. zd w z. uhR ql t w> td. w> qd; t vD> t cg M. ySR 'D; o ud; cH *R tHRuGJxD.vdmto;'D;vJR0JqlxHuX> eHRzJoh.z;'d.wxH;tu'ktzDvmM. 'D; qh. eDR u wdR o ud; w>M. vDRI rhrh> vXpDRq.qSHwcDwJxD.0J'ftHRzDtJ.{X y rh> td. '. 'f tHR vDR M. w rh> vX y w> td.rluvJRxD.vJRxDb.Iwu;b. y w rR vd b. w> b. I t Cd , qX wJm vDR,o;vXo&.vX0h>ylRw*RM.rh> uhR 'D; , u vJR ydm t cH 'D; , u rR vd
16 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

Photo: Moo Rah

b. w> 'D; w u; b. , u xH. b. ph> uD; w> vX , w xH. b. w z. t u vkmuvkmvDRIvXw>wymol.ymo; tylRzDtJ.ph>uD;wJxD.0Jq.qSH{X,R ph>uD;,w>ymo;'D;,w>qdurd.rh> 'feRtod;ph>uD;vDRI w ,Hm w rD> b. 'D; o &. vX 0h>ylR w *R M. uhR 0J 'D; ySR 'D o ud; cH *R vX t rh> pDR q. qSH 'D; eD> zD tJ. cH *R M. vJRydmo&.tHRtcHql0h>ylRM.vDRIySR 'D; o ud;cH *R tHR rh rh> ySR vX w rR vd b.w>emouhtw>'due.td.'D;oh . ng ym uJ o &. o rg ol. uh o; yS> *hR 'd.r;M.vDRIt0Joh.vJRwkRqlo&. t [H.'D;o&.'D; t[H.zdCDzdoh.w z. wl> vdm cD. qX t 0J oh. *hR *hR b. b.vDRIySR'Doud;cH*RtHRrhwrh>ySR'D; yk>0J>b.q.t0Joh.tH;xGJuG>xGJvdm o;*hRr;'D; o&.'D;tySR[H.zdCDzdw z.tJ.b.t0Joh.'d.r;vDRI b.zJudFp;xD.xD.tqX u wD> M. o &. uGJ xD. t 0J oh. cH *R vXm 'D;vJRqJ;vDRM>0JtrHR'D;qSXt0Joh.cH *RtHRvXudFvDRIt0Joh.cH*RvXmo; ck 0J 'd. r; vX t rR vd b. w> t Cd M. vDRIySR'D;oud;cH*RtHRrRvdw>to; plRr;wutkupGgvXtw>rRvdtylR eDwbsDb.Irhrh>wcDt0Joh.*kmusJ;pX; ql. ql. 'D; w> zH; w> rR rh> vDR b. tDR

M.w*h>ylR0JeDwbsDb. Io&. <o&. rk.wz.tJ.b.t0Joh.cH*RtHR'd.r; wu;b. ySRcd.ySRe> ySRo;yS> ySRb.rl b.'gwz.<'D;tgM>tM.twHRoud; w z. tJ. t 0J oh. cH *R tHR 'd. r; vDRI w>pH;0JvXySR'Doud;cH*RtHRrRvdw> ph>uD;zFJ;'d.r;vDRIt0Joh.zsdxD.b.0J wwDRb.wwDR'D;vXcHM.t0Joh.zsd xD. b. 0J zF. pd rdR udF *hR *hR b. b. M. vDRI'D;to&.vXtqSXt0Joh.w*R M.o;ck0J'd.r;'D;ymuzXvXb.to; vXt0Joh.cH*RtHRtCd'd.r;M.vDRI t 0J oh. cH *R tHR zsd xD. 0HR 'D; rRbsK;rRzdS.uhRto&.'D;t0Joh.wJ b.to&.vXuuhRqlt'lto0D'D; rR 'd. xD. xD xD. uhR t 'l t o 0D M. vDRIzJM.to&. [h.tDRtcGJ; 'D;ySR'D o ud; cH *R tHR uhR 0J ql t 'l t o 0D M. vDRI t qd u wX> zJ ySR 'D o ud; cH *R tHR uhRwkRM.'lzdo0Dzdwz. urXur.0J 'D; w eDR t usg w oh. ng vX R t 0J oh. '.vJmb.vDRI zJM.tcgt0Joh.t'lzdo0Dzd w z. [J td. o ud; tD tg r; 'D; oH uG> 0J vX w> *h> w> usdR w z.vDRI ySR 'D; o ud;cH*RtHRwJyF;uhR t'lzdo0Dzdwz. vX t w> vJR Ck M> w> ul. b. ul. oh t*h>tusdRwqDb.wqDM.vDRIzJM. ySR'lzdo0Dzdwz.oh.ngb.uhR0Jw>

ul.b.ul.ohtuH>tpD'D;'lzdo0Dzdw z. ym zSd. xD. t o; 'D; bSD xD. 0J udF w zsX.'D;qSXtzdtvHRqludFM.vDRIzJM. pDRq.qSH'D;eD>zDtJ.uJo&.<o&.rk. vXo0DtHR'D;vXcHw>ul.b.ul.oh td.zsgxD.uhR0JvDRIzJw>ul.b.ul. oh td. zsg xD. 0J t qX u wD> M. 'l o 0D tHR vJR xD. vJR xD uhR 0J vX w> ud; u yR'J;M.vDRI vX w> M. t Cd , 'D yk> 0J> wHR oud;vXw>tJ.tDRcJvXmoh.ok{X<y ySRuvkmvd.b.ySRvXyub.rR'd. xD. xD xD. uhR ySR u vkm vX w> ul. b.ul.ohrh>*hR<w>zH;w>rRw>pH;w> uwdRvXusJud;uyR'J;vDRIvXw>M. tCdryuuG>vdoud;pDRq.qS'D;eD>zD f H tJ. cH *R tHR M. w uh> I y rh> Cll r ; y ySdR < yrh>ySdRr; yySD>vDRI ySRo;yS>pH;0J yzk.xD M.yvDRvD>vDRIvXw>M.tCd rfyok wzk.xDvDRpdRw*hRrhrh>wcDyuymzSd. xD.oud;yo;ClClzd;zd;'D;rRpXRuhR yySRuvkmwz.M.wuh>I

wH R oud ; tw>tJ . w>o;td .
vX=(xH x H . )rJ > &Rrd >

'D;CHvRvJRql0>vX?w>rkmtd.[H.'D; h td.0JzM.vDRI J w>rkmuJxD.oxhz;'d.rHR[l o.zsgw*RvX0h>wzsX.tylRM.vDRIw eHRpDRvXySRvXtrh>oxhzcgG w*R[JvXw> J d rkmttd.'D;pH;eub.rRqgo;?CHvR/ wkRvXttJ.,R'D;pH.vDRvXe[H.ylRw uh>IIIrR'f,wJeRIII 'D;t0Jo.'Drg0RcH*RvXmo;wrkmz;'d. h ngvDRICHvRM.oxhzdcGgw*RuG>tDR *hR'D;zJt0Jb.wrHRrHRrRpXRtDRvDRI'D; ?w>rkm/p;xD.rRqgo;?CHvRvDRI tcD.xH;wbsp;0JIIIo;bd{XIIIytd.cH*R DH rkm'gcD<ySRwrSR[Jwbsywtd.b.rkmrkm H D b.Iyw>rRtgxD.wcDvRIwJ0vX?CH D J vRtrJmng'D;CHvRto;wrkmb.<cH bswbsID IICHvRIIIe[H;,ph{gIII,phvR D D r>'D;CHvRwJtDRvX,w[H;b.I'D;? w>rkmpH;0JIIIySRw>ur.ySRwJubl.{gIII 0HR'D;[;uGm0JvXCHvRtrJmngwbsCD H D vDRIoXbswbsb.zJ?CHvR'D;w>rkmt D D rgtD.*DRw>tD.tcgt0Jw0,ymvDRy J J oH;zJpDReD>cd.(Table)M.rh>exH.b.{gIII 'D;CHvRwJ0?[XmtXIII,wxH.b.'D; J w>rkmvJRql?CHvRrH'X;ylR'D;Cdx.w> D

ulw>uRoukRq;';'X;ylvRI'D;CHvR D [D.'D;?w>rkm[;xD.wuD>cg'D;[JuR h xD.qltrH'X;zJtrgtd.'D;[D.[ho;vDRI ,b.,d.vX?CHvRutd.b.zS.zS. D D ,m,mtCd<,rRvDR'fo;utJ.oxh d zdcgG?pDDRvXySJt*D>,rRvDRCHvR<eo; xD.o;[ho;qg,R{gIIIw>rkmoHu>G ?CH vRvXto;ylRvDRICHvRymvDRto; vXutJ.oxhzdcGg?pDRvXySJR'D;rmvdm 0JvXcJr>qh.u[Jt.pd>tDRvDRIzJCvR k d H wtd.tcgw>rkmqdurd.xD.,rh>vJRql xH*RuD>*R*hR'gcDIIItCdyR0Jv;r;vDRI k Sh J 0HR'D;zJw>rkmuvJRxD.ubD,Rtcg<CH l vR[Jp.ud;w>rkmvXvJRw*hR,oh.ng H vXmvH<?vXySJR/wJ,RtCd,[Jud; eRvXeokwvJRw*hRvDRIyutd.uhRrkm rkm'fvXngtod;eDRIII'D;w>rkmtX.vDR0Jrm k rkm0HRuhRtd.vXo0DrmCHvRol.zSo; k H nDuhR0J'fvXngtod;vDRICHvRwcDzsD uhRto;'D;?vXySRySR'D;w>ol.zSo;nD J J H *hRr;vDRI'D;t0Jo.vH>G *RtHR?oud;tw> h tJ.tw>o;td.urh>w>'ftHRvDRI

w>pH;0JwbsDvXo0DrkmCHvR tylRM.ySR'DwR'Doud;td.0Jc*RvDRIt H H 0Jo.rHRrh>eD>CHvR'D;pDRw>rkmM.vDRIt h 0Joh.rh>ySRrRohtD.b.wz.vDRIt0J oh.p;xD.vXoht.uFM.vJR'fo;od;< d d d [JuR'fo;od;w[;z;eDwbsDb.It0J h d oh.zsz.pdrRuF0RrRuhR0J't0Jo.o; d F d d H f h pJo;ql.rR0Jtod;vDRIrhrh>pDRw>rkmw cDzsu0RvJRtd.uhR0Jq0>'D;vJRM>trg d dF H l h zJM.vDRIrhr>eD>CHvRwcDo.vduRw>zJ h d h t0Joh.o0DvDRIweHRvXw>wymol. ymo;tylR'k.'g[J';rR[;*DRo0DrRoH D ph>uD;ySRo0Dzy.Ckm'D;CHvRrdygph>uD;vDRI d
uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

Photo: Moo Rah

17

unD'zo0DzymzsgxD'gxHwrX>trl;zJ r;%S;14oDteHR ld d
vX=uFdzdtod.

zJ u rsX>'D ; oD c gwz.xD ' goud ; 0J w >uwD x H w rX>w>&J . w>usJ R

Photo:(KSNG)

unDw>uG>xGJu[ku,mxH usdxHuGm( Karen Rivers WatchK R W ) tySRrRoud;w>oh.wz. td.'D;tw>[l;w>*JRvDRqDwuwD>zJ vgrR%S;A14oD<AweHRCDzJw>rR0J'. [D.cd.'DzsX.w>xD'gxHwrX> vXw>b.rR*hRxD.uhRxHusxumtrk> d H G eHRt*h> KRW ySRrRoud;w>vXt&J. usJRw>w*Rymzsg0JM.vDRI unDw>uG>xGJu[ku,mxHusd xHuGmysJ>pD>ySRrRoud; w> oh.wz. &J.usJRrRoud;0Jw> [l; w> *JR ym zsgxD'gxHwrX>vXw>vD>cHwDRzJrkm }wDRuD>&h.vXtrh>0JCd.uh.'D;rJ>cg x.vXw>ymzS d . rRoud ; w>'D ; vD>u0DRursX>oh.wz.t*D>M.vDRI eD> u 'k vX u nD uFd zd ySm bs; pJ u%l> vX t vJR ym Ckm rR o ud; w> vX rl; w bsD tHR pH; 0J vX w> &J. w> usJR vX w>rRw>xD'goud;w>bSDxD.xHwrX> tHRrh>w>vXt*hRvXursX>wz.t*D> 'D;tvD>td.vXw>urRtDR'fod;xHw

uvkm'l. zJ'&J.uD.pH. 'k;td.xD.o;'fo;d u'k;oud;w>t*D>
vX=uFdzdtod.

rX>w>&J.w>usJRtHRokwuJxD.w*hR t*D>M.vDRI t 0J wJ tg xD. 0J vX xH w rX> w>&J.w>usJRtHRrh>uJxD.oyS>uwX> M.yySRunDxHzduD>zdwz.wu;b. vXuvkm'l.t*Rwz.t*D>ph>uD;uJ xD.w>uDw>cJohM.vDRI ySRvD>u0DRrk.yS>vXtvJRw> ymzsgtrl;vXtwtJ.'d;ymzsgtrHRw *RpH;0JvXw>rh>bSxD.xHwrX>M.yvD> D td. vD> qd; 'D; w> zH; tD. rR tD. usD; w z.u[;*DRuGHm'D;yo;orl'.vJmu vJR wkR ql vJ. M. ywJ t vD> w td. vXRM.b.Io0DzdvXt[JxD.w>&J. w>usJRwbsDtHR wz.uGJ;vDR0J'.vX vHm usdR t vdR vX ? y w vd. b.Cd. vdmusdxHwrX> b.<Cd.vdmusdtHRrh> y w> td. rl< y wkm uGHm w> ol. xD. Cd. vdm usd xH w rX> w> &J. w> usJR w uh>I [;uFHxHwrX>tHRurR[;*DRyw>td. rl/w>*h>wz.tHRM.vDRI KRW tySRvXtvJR&J.usJR w>vXrl;bsD0JtHRw*RpH;0JvX'lzdo0Dzd 'goud;etzok;y'd.t*D>vDRIuvkm'l. w>u&Xu&do.wz.tHRrRw>td.zS. h d vXwvgtHRp;xD.vX 12 oD=wkR 16oDvXuF.wJ.=uD>y,DRuD>qXw>vD> D wwDRvDRIw>td.zS.0JtRb.w>xD.tDR d H

vXttd.zJCd.vdmusdeHRwz.ud;eH. 'J;t0Joh.td.'D;w>vk>w>ymxHusd'D; y 0J y vJR ym Ckm rR o ud; w> vX w> xD 'gxHwrX>w>&J.w>usJRvDRIursX>w z.tJ.'d;vXCd.vdmusdtHRu,GRvDR obV'D;t0Joh.wz.wtJ.'d;vXw> u wD xH w rX> b.I t 0J oh. w z. b. wl>w>cHq;'ftrh>wcsK;w>[JwDxHM. y,DRok;[JxD.[H;M>w>bH.w>bXrX ql.rXpd;'lzdo0Dzdtd.0JM.vDRI weHRCDtHRM.uD>y,DRySRuG> xGJ xH usd xH uGm u &X xk; xD. &R vDR 0J '. vHm 'D; Ch xD. 0J vX w> u y wkm uGHm w> bSD xD. xHw rX> vX uD> y ,DR xH usd wz.tylR'D;xHuD>vXtbsXvDRph'ft rh>w%l;<uF.wJ.<th',g<bJuvg'h;w D H z.uywkmuGHmph>uD;tw>&J.w>usJR vX w> u bSD xD. xH w rX> tHR w uh> t *h>M.vDRI xH w rX> vX w> u bSD xD. tDR oh.wz.tHRtd.0J'.vXuvkm'l.w z.tw>td.w>qd;tvD>zJy,DRok;w z. [J xD. rR w> xD. 'k; t vD> 'D; xH w rX>wz.rh>uJxD.M.ursX>vXtuxd wz.ub.pH.rSH[;zsd;uJxD.ySRb. uDb.cJM.vDRI w>&J.w>usJRtrl;zJ[;uFHvD> u0DRwuyRursX>[JxD.0J utgM>oXu,RC.C.vDRIo0Dzo.w d h z.td.zsgySR'D;w>wl>b.cD.b.<Aw>b. J ,d.b.bSD'D;w>ol.yd>o;0;'d.r;t *h>ySRvXtvJRxD.ymCkmym*D>vXw> &J.w>usJRbsD0JtHRw*RpH;0JM.vDRI vXw>zD.w>pku0JRuvkm'l.cX.p; (51) *R'D; wX>yD.oud;0J ok;*h>0D< 'D; xH&>uD>oJ;*h>0D';w>qD.oeH;oh.wz. l D tHRrh>td.xD.vXuvkm'l.wzkztzDc. k d 'f o d ; uxD ' g'k ; oud ; t*D > M.vD R I w>td. uG > ql u bsH ; yR(24)

uvk m 'l . w>u&Xu&d v X trRw>ywkmw>c;'D;wrRw>ywkmw>c; (12) zk < ymzSd.xD.o;'D; 'k;td.xD.0J uvkm'l.zJ'&J.uD.u;'fo;w>u'k;xD d
18 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

xgtoeX.

KSNG

vXe*D>

unD udFzd ySm bs; pJ u &X u %l> td. xD. 0J o ukR vX u nD u vkm rh> w> u pD. vX t rkm xHqJ; rJ; ,GR 'D;0g c; [H; vdm pk ym zSd. xD. o; xH CDR cH u qD 0g vh rRo ud; vX w> ul. oh rk> }wDR 'D; udF zd [l; *JR ql rJm ng y u b. vJR rJ> v; %Sdusd rJ> cD. cg 'D; bsH; ' 0J> cg ql ng qX u wD> wkR td. ySR vH ,Hm wh> r; t eH. cH qH cd. e> vJR ylR w> y nd. wkR CDR vX y zHb. Cd. y*H> ql. o; p> yh> %Sg o;'l vX ySJR w> oh. ng CHvR vDR tJ. yol;oh. vX u vkm *D> y [h. wh> tg bsD y xH. w> *h> uD bSg%SJ vX o; w zsX. CD rRwh> <rRzX < u rR 'H; eD w bsD y o; w qH; uFd zd {X unD udF zd ul. oh *H> bg ql. xD bd u vkm *D> y rh> w rR r wR u [J rR M> ySR

o; p> {X u nD o; p> 0. w bd w wJm xH b. e td. 'fe usdm e usm bD. od. u [J th. xk; eR eJ e vD> ,J vX , vDD> yrh> [h. vDR o; eD> uD> bs; pJ wD eH y*X> usXR ClCl ql y w> rR eXRIII vX = pDRwkRvXrl(tl;yF.) xHqJ; rJm ,GR unD udF zd ySm bs; pJ u%l>

unD zd oHusH qJ; vR ym zsg xD. y 0J ud; *R unD vk> v> xl o El ym zsg xD. o ud; ClCl unD eD> w ,> ym zsg rh> ySR u vkm w> M> og vX y ySR u vkm t *D> y u *km usJ; pX; eD> eD> y u vkm y rh> ym qH; w,Hm b. y u vD> xHG *JR qX xX. ym zSd. xD. o; vX u vkm *D> rR o yS> oh. ng vDR yo; xD bd unD b. tJ. u nD zd oHoH rlrl u vkm *D> y w> oh w> b. [h. xD. u nD zd oh. ng vDR o; vX u vkm *D> usJ; pX; rR y rh> rR vX yJSR rl 'g w> rR eXR u rh> y w> o; qH; w *hR u nD zd td. eJ 'D; w> Cl w> zd; rR wD tD. wD eJ xD bd e ySR u vkm u zsd; pd , ySR u vkm ud; t *R , qX *hR b. ok 'd. r; zJ ok td. w ylR v> v> rfok u ylR 'k.ylR 'g vX w> zH; w> rR t ylR rf u yJSR 'D; w> o; 'l rRtD. u Jud; t *R rh> , w> qX *hR ok tg III
19

w> qX *hR qX 0g ql , ySR u vkm t td.
vX=eD>eH.oDzD(KSNGtl;yF.) , ySR u vkm u nD zd rf ,GR qd. *hR ok xDbd rf ok u ySJR 'D; *H> bg rh> , w> qX *hR qX 0g rh> td. ,Hm vdm o; b. q. ud; bsD 'J ; , xH. rSH b. rh> td. b. ,J vX vD> ,HR ud; bsD 'J; , xH. w rSH , ySR u vkm vX , tJ. oh. eD. b. ,J ud; eHR 'J; , xH uD> , 'h yDR vD> , tJ. 'd; uhR ,J eD> uD> y 0J u nD z dud; *R xD bd rR pXR vdm y o; ySR w *R w 0HR w> rHR rSHR yS> vX ysXR pH; wh> vH
uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

yub.[H;Cmw>yX>qXtvRuyDRvXw>obVIII
vX=uFdzdtod.

vXw>&J.w>usJRwbsDtHRursX>< ok;'D;yXjy;cJvXmySReD.*H>utd.0J(500) bs.C.C.vDRIvXw>&J.w>usR0JtR J J H tylR<w>eDRvDR0J'.(w>pJyeD.)wcgvX ?ursX><ok;'D;yXjy;b.w>uG;vDRCmtDR J vX(w>pJyeD.)tvdRM.vDRICardtHRt w>ynd.rh>'fo;w>uyJmz;eDRz;ySRunD d P oo vXt[Jx.w>rRvRuyDRunDw>yX>qX ht: D SFM p;xD.vXuD>y,DRM>w>obV (62)0Dw0DtRuoht*D>M.vDRIySRvXt H 0HRtvD>cH<unDzwz.*JRvdm0J';us;pX; d D J 0J'o;uM>b.ph>uD;w>obV'ftrh>eD> f d up>w>yXvDRo;'.0JM.vDRIb.q.wkR rh>uD>y,DRM>w>obV0HR<w>obVwtd. b.trJmngw>obH.obk.td.xD.0J vDRIvXw>M.tCd<p;xD.zJ(1949)eH. vg,ElRtg&HR(31)teHRM.unDzwz. d b.zD.xD.pku0J'D;yX>qXw>vDRIunD zdwz.yX>qXw>vXutd.'D;eD>up>w>yX vDRo;'.0JM.vDRI weHRtHR2011eH.vg,ElRtg&HR w>*D R =ok ; cd . usX>zd ? pD R bD u F D . [J / (31)unDzdwz.rRvRuyDR0J'.unD zJ t vJ R vD R orH o rd ; od . 'l t qXuwD > w>yX>qXrk>eHRvXw>vD>tgwDRM.vDRI vXw>M.tCdunDzvXttd.vXunD (w>pJyeD.)wtd.b.wz.M.<vJREkm d uD>pJ.ylRwz.rRvRuyDRph>uD;0Jw>yX> vX( Ground )ylRwM>b.M.vDRI'f*hR'f qXtrk>eHRySRxD.(62)0Dw0DzunDu>pJ. vD.*hRu,J>rh>ySRvXttd.vXvD>u0DR J J D ylRw>vD>wwDRM.vDRIw>&J.w>usRwbsD zJM.wz.td.'D;(w>pJyeD.)ud;*R'J;C. J tHRb.w>p;xD.tDRvXok;cd.usX>'D;ok; C.vDRI'D;w>&J.w>usRtylR<td.'D;w> J zd';cd.e>zdwz.[JEmvDR[H;M>tvD>vX ud;o}wD(4)xH.'ftrh><(1)unDuvkm D k w>rRvRuyDRysDz;vJ>tylRM.vDRIvX ub.td.pHmtd.usXR'fyRwuvkmtod; S w>&J.w>usRwbstRcd.e>vXt[Jx. 'D;ursX>wz.ud;yolx.0J<?ub.td. J D H D D 'D;y.Ckmy.*D>tgr;vDRIcd.e>weDR'ft pHmtd.usXRoXbsM.vDRI(2)unDuvkm D rh><ok;uhe.*H>(5)ok;uhc.<okc.usX>zd wrh>uk>b.?rh>ySRobV<oXbsDph>uD; D d d ?pDRbDuFD.[J/ok;uheD.*H>(5)uD>&h. 'D;eD.*H>(3)unDt.w>rkmw>ck.xD'gw> J cd.?y'd.pDRxJ'X.'D;unD'uvkmpXzS. wwDw}w>'l'l?xD'g'l'l<oXbsD0HR'D;t D d u&XeJ.&G>cd.usX>?eD>pH.zd&RphRwz.M. uwX>wxH.vXtrh>eD.*H>(4)w>rRb. J vDRI'D;cd.e>vXt*kRt*Ry.CkmvXw> 'dunDw*Rv>v>rh>w>rRb.'dunD &J.w>usJRwbsDtHRtd.tgr;vDRI 'Dwuvkm?'k;vDRyS>uGm<oXbsDM.vDRI D H
20 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

?ySRwuvkmvXtzD.pku0JR 'D;b.'k;w>M.rh>ySRwuvkmvXtzS.vDRI D yrh>uG>u'guhRcJtHRM.<yxHzduD>zdu rsX><yySRuvkmzS.'d.r;<vD>wtd.usw D J td.b.<b.Ch>rSH[;zsd;b.wkRvXySR xHyRuD><td.vXup>vD>up>us<tD.w S J td.<tD.wult.wvXtd.wb.qd;w D b.I tCdM.<zSD.vDR,mvDRvXmvH< emouhM.?o;orlw[;xD.'H;b.'D; w>yX>qXM.wvDRyS>D b.ItCdow;'D;w> qXuwD>td.'H;vXyub.uG>xHuRy h

Photo: SFM

w>yX>qX0JtRM.wrh>trkmt,k>vXy H ub.ydmtDR'D;yub.[H;M>Cmw>yX> qXtvRuyDR0JtRb.Iyub.[H;M> H w>vRw>uyDRM.vXw>obV<tCdM. vXyub.uG>qX.w>vXw>obV<rk>r qgweHRtHRyuwkRvXw>obVM.<tvD> td.vXyub.wRw>'D;chcgw>td.o; cJtHRw>yX>qXtcDynDM><?y'k;w>tX w>oD<w>wwDw}w><w>wb.bs;b. D 'gwz.M.y'k;tDR< tCdM.yub. td.rlwDwDvdRvdR'D;rRw>b.bsD;b. 'g'D;y'k;w>vXtwb.b.tCdM.yu ol.xD.w>vXtb.Iy'k.y'gvXy'k; tDRcJtRM.wrh>tw>ul.b.ul.ohtg H M>ySRb.Iyrh>ySRwuvkmCDwxXCD'; D

Photo: SFM

[D.u0DRwcgCDvRIIywM>w>obVu D rh>vXyw>vDRwlmvDRumtCdvDRI y'k.y'gvXy'k;tDRtHRuohM> ySR<usX'd.M>ySRwrh>b.I0HR'D;uyXql. yXqd;0J'.yySRuvkmwy,lmCDM.wrh> b.I,emvXy}uX;M>b.tDRM.yuM> b.vDRItCdM.ywrR'H;w>vXy}uX; rRtDR'H;b.'D'.M.vDRItCdo;M.w> l yX>qXM.,tJ.'d;wJ'tR?ywo;vDvX f H w>yX>qXutd.*X>0J,m,HmxXxXb./ H yurR0HRuhRw>yX>qX0JtRvXw>qXu H wD>zk.udmtylR'D;w>obVuM>t*D>M. rl'gtd.vXy0JySRunDzd(Karen)wz.t pkyRud;*R'J;'d.'d.qH;qH;bD.bD.yS>yS>'D; l 'lzo0Dzxzu>zd<uFzo;zdc.e>ySRb. d d H d D d d k d
ubsH;yR(11)w>ydmxGJ

rlb.'gtpkyRvDRIw*R'D;ud;eD>*R'J;, l tJ.'d;vXqXuwD>cJtRM.<,o;vDvX H ?ySRt'l<ySRtwD';ySRto;*hRCkm'D;,R D 'D;ySRrh>*hRyuol.xD.uhR?w>o;'l<w> o;wD'D;w>ol.*hRo;0gvXyo;ylR'D; y[H;oud;uhRrl'gvXcgqlngt*D>M.< ok;cd.usX>zd?pDRbDuDF.[J/pH;0JvDRI w>ys>uhRw>&J.w>usJRwbsD tHRvX?w>o;0H.,uD>unDw>o;0H. 'D;wuwD>CDo;rk>'d.uvJRuymuGm'D; k H uhRu'guhR0HR'D;w>&J.w>usJRb.w> ywkmuhRtDRM.vDRIrRM>tD.uJyR'k.ylR l 'gud;eD>*R'Jwuh>I

vX ch ylR yS> ylR u pX> cH u vd vdR vX t ySJR'D;w>CH;w>phRw>'k; w>,RtvD>wz.tCd ,ymuzXvX,o;vX t 0J oh. 'd. r; vDRI w> qD.xGJrRpXRt0Joh.rh> w vX w ySJR b.q. w>

o; b. 'd w> o; [; *DR w zsg vX t rJm o. vdm eD w bh. b. rh rh> w cD vX w> CH;w>phRtuwD>tHRt0Joh.ymuzX vX t o; oh vX rh> ySR vX nd uGHm eD> u p>tbsK;uJ'D;wl>w>zSD.w>,moht CdvDRI vDRy-wXRqH;'d.vJ.uG>u'D; vX udF zd rk. cGg w z. w cD vJ. < rh> tD. b.xJrhR'D;tHo.CH;CH;phRphRuluR rh>wtd.ql.ql.bSJ.bSJ.b.q.t

rk> v> td. o yS> wX> vX rk> w eHR u uJ xD. b. ySR ul. b. ul. oh o yS> wX> vDRIuG>u'D;vXrd>y>wcDrh>rRtD.b. rk>0JRvXw>'k;w>,Rtuql;uwhRylR uDuDcJcJb.q.w>rk>v>woHb.t w>rk>v>td.0JwDeHvXrk>utd.0JweHR zd vHR w z. u uJ xD. b. xH uD> ySR u vkmtpk'k.pkwDRvDRIvXw>uDw>cJw> e;w>zDS.tqXuwD>yySRuvkmud;*R 'J; td. 'D; w> rk> v> w> qX M> u ,m M> vXt*hRwz.vDRIyySRuvkmtw>rd. M>o;vDw>qXM>u,mM>wz.tHRr wRuwdpXRrRpXRtDRvJ.III , ySR u vkm II , ySR u vkm < ,vd. b. ok w> rR pXR ok u vd. b. ,w>rRpXR<,w>ul.b.ul.ohty wD>rh>wxDrh>wxD.b;wkR,'k;xl.zsJ; xD. ok vX w> qD . wH> rR eXR t ylR oh b.q. 'fytl;zdtgzsX.ymzSd. vdm o; wh xD. o ud; bsX. z; 'd. t od; xd. ol vX t vD> qD 0g vX t vD> y ym zSd. y o; xd.Clvdmzdvdmyo;vXw>o;wzsX. CDtylRM.yw>rReXRtzDwX.tHRtd. uhR'.yoXo.wubsH;bh.vDRIzJ, *H>,bgtd.wh>'H;wqH;wuh>tHR<, uusJ;pX;zJw>ohtd.'D;,R'D;uXRCm oud;y0JMqX.tw>rJw>rgvXtySJR 'D;uoH.uoD<oh.*H>0.pJwz.'D;yu cgxD.oud;ycD.wurJmb.wurJm ql y ySR u vkm t w> rR eXR t zD wX. t *D> rD. =, xH , uD> < , ySR u vkm < , M qX. cd. CXR vXtxl;wDReR{X[;z; 'D;eRuuJ'fvJ.III

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

21

ySmbs;pJw>upD.

w>y&XvXunDuRvhvRySR'due>w>zdwz.t*D>III JG d

Photo:KSNG

xHqJ;rJ;,GR

vX=D.J

Moo Kay

unDudFzdySmbs;pJ u%l>bSD*hR xD>tuGJRvh vdRoMvX,dR<y,DRuD> qX unDb.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRylRuGJRvh vdR o M w z. cD zsd t ylR uGHm usd. ph w> qD.xGJrRpXRwb.vD>b.p;w*X> w usXR'D; oMwz.b.[l;*JRuhRvXt eD> up>t*H>tbg'D;oM weDR tw>zd w>vHRqH;vDR[;*kR[; *DRtCdoMcJ vXmC.C. b.ywkmuGHmto;'D; t cJtHRoMvXt[l*JRuhRb.vD>b.p; M>cHzsX.vXtrh>rJ>v;unDb.uDb. cJ 'J u 0DR 'D; tl; yF.u nD b. uD b. cJ 'J u 0DR M. vDRI t ylR uGHm uGJRvh vdR o M td. 0J ,J> zsX. vX u nD b. uD b. cJ 'J u 0 DR ,J> zsX> vX t rh> ed. zd < tl; yF. < rJ>
vX=uFdzdtod.

v; < rJ> v; tl; 'D; rJ> &R rd> 'J u0DR wz . M.vDRI o M cH zsX. tHR [l; *JR uhR 'f t ylRuGHmtw>&J.w>usJRtd.ympXR0Jt od; vX t 0J oh. t ySR w 0X w z. t *D> b.C;'D;uD>ylRw>upD.<uD>csXw>u pD.'D;'Ju0DRw>upD.ud>ud>vXRvXR w z. M. vDRI w u; 'H; b.td. ph> uD; w> &R vDR w> u pD. t o eX. 'f t rh> < w> wJ yl rkm e> vX zd o. w z. t *D> 'D; w>eHRurSHoeX.<ql.cVoeX.w>vdm uGJ o eX. < w> u wdR vk> 'd. yOR 'd. <w> uwdR'd'D;w>ol.0H.o;qXtoeX. w z. M. vDRI w bsD w cD. Ck M> w> u pD.vX (thxXeJ;)tylRvXunDw>u pD.oMwz.ymxD.0JvX'Ju0DRzd-uX;

oh. ng 0J wz. M. vDRI 'D; 'd ; M> b. w> upD.ud>ud>vXRvXRvXunDudFzdySm bs;pJu&l>vD>cX.o;qSXvDRM>tDRM. vDRI uGJRvhvdRySRrRw>zdvXunD b.uDb.cJ'Ju0DRylRtHRrh>'.ySRudFzd tw>rRoud;tCd'fod;udFzdvXtrR w>b.C;uGJRvhvdRwz.urRvdtg xD. o; u oh t *D> t 0J oh. td. 'D; w> &J. w> usJR vX udF zd w z. u vDR [H; M> w>upD.ud>ud>vXRvXRvX'Ju0DRylR cDzsd[;oHuG>(Interview)'Ju0DRol.uh o;yS>wz. b.C;'Ju0DRw>upD. w z.xDbdM.vDRI uJGR vh vdR o M vX u nD udF zd ySm bs; pJ u &l> 'k; td. vX u nD b. uD b.cJ'Ju0DRylRwz.tHRrh>0JxJ'Ju0DR wbh.t*D>'D; 'Ju0DRweDReDR'.vJmcD zds vX u pX> usg t Cd zD .'d u e. w oh ud; wDR b. M. vDRI w> &R vDR t 0J tHR rh>xJweHRwe.&H.'D;&RvDR0JzJ[gcDt qXuwD>vX FM 95,100 MHz t bX. pXR M. vDRI u nD udF zd ySm bs; pJ u &l> t uGJR vh vdR w> &R vDR 0JR usdR t 0J tHR t ylR uGHm M> w> rR pXR vX ( Internews )b.q.tcJtHRw>rRpXRw td.eDtzk'H;b.M.vDRI

unDuzymbs;pJu&l>eH.uwX>w>td.zS.'d.(15)0Dw0D dF d S d
unDuFdzdySmbs;pJu&l>eH.uwX> w>td.zS.bmw>rRtDRvXrJ>v;'Ju0DR d 'D;b.w>wlmvdmtDRvX%SdusdunDuFdzd ySmbs;pJu&l>eh.vDRIw>td.zSd.b.w> rRtDRp;xD.zJvg'H.pJbX.27oDwkR29 oD2010eH.M.vDRI'D;vXw>td.zS.wbsD d tHRySRxD.w>td.zS.cJvXm59*R'D;ySRxD. d w>td.zS.wz.rh>0Ju&l>tzk10ymzS.xD. d d to;M.vDRvXw>td.zS.wbstRb. d D H
22 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

Photo: KSNG

Photo: KSNG

w>uG>u'guhRb.C;unDuymbs;pJ dF S u&l>w>zH;w>rRoh.wz.'D;u&l>wzk'; D wzktw>zH;w>rR'D;0JRusR0JR'ho.wz. d h tw>zH;w>rR'D;qDvDRymvDRuhRw>zH; w>rRvXcgqlngt*D>eh.vDRI

vXw>td.zS.wbstRytd.ph>uD;'D;u d D H &l>oh.wz.w>jyX'ftrh>III w>uwdRowlmuvmw>jyXw>yF;jyXyl w>o;0H.owlmuvmoh.wz.M.vDR w>uwdRowlmuvmw>jyXySRrRM.cd.

z;wXrh>0JIIIxHq;rJ,RunDuzymbs;pJ J G dF d S u&l>=pDRzdwvc.z;(2)xH;CdmcHunDudF d dd zdymbs;pJu&l>=pDRuFXrJc.z;(3)uFz[; S d dd l *JRu&l>=eD>rkm,lmzD<w>yF;jyXylc.z;(1) d xH;qJ;rJ;,GR'D;0gc;ymzS.cd.z;(2)xH;CDm d cH';uFz[;*JRcd.z;(3)&SusunDuzym D d d l d d dF d S bs;pJu&l>w>o;0H.owlmuvmw>jyX cd.z;(1)pDRw>rs>xl=rJ>v;unDuzym dF d S bs;pJu&l>cd.z;(2)pDRzdwv=xH;qJ;rJ; d d ,GRunDuzymbs;pJu&l>cd.z;(3)&Susd dF d S d unDuzymbs;pJu&l>w>xk;jyXw>*DRcd. dF d S z;(1)xH;qJ;rJ,runDuzymbs;pJu&l> G dF d S cd.z;(2)uqD0gvhunDuzymbs;pJu&l> dF d S unDuzymbs;pJu&l>w>td.zS.w>&J. Fd d S d w>usJRtHRb.w>ys>uhRtDRvX?unD 'Duvkmtw>o;0H.M.vDRI

u&l>zd?ydmcgG/oh.wz.jyX0J'.(Miss IDP)tqXuwD>'D;w u&l>zdoh.wz.jyX0J'.(Drama)b.C;xHvD>uD>ylRw>td. S k csK;vXEkmvDRw>jyX'H;b.tqXuwD>pH.nD.uGD>orHord;tDR o;'D;w>qDwvJyR*h>0Dw>'k;eJ.<zJr*gw*RuwJmuwDRto; d D d 'D;'k;oh.ngvDRtrHR'D;td.uwJmuwDRCmto;tuwD>I vXuCh>y,DRuwD>ud;zS.uhRt'H.tzd';xXzS.w>zdw>vHRI
ubsH;yR(7)w>ydmxGJ

rRuG>cd.Elmw>wd>eD.M>qH;tg< 'D;tuwX>wcgvXw>rRuG>(Practical Skills)oXuvkmM.vDRIScramble,w>jyX wDRcX.o;wDRxD< Map Reading wDRxD 'D; Word search wDRcX.o;wDRxDt*D> w>rRuG>oh.wz.M.vDRI vXw>&J.w>usJRwbsDtHRcX. p;vXt[JxD.y.CkmrRoud;w>oh. wz.rh>0J( ZOA, KRCEE, OCEE, CCEE,
Heald Teachers,CampCommittees,Parents

)cJvXmySReD>*H>td.0J200 bs.C.C.M.vDRIvXtw>&J.w>usR J J wbstRtw>ynd.td.0JoXxH.vXt D H rh> ='fod;udFzdwz.utgxD.vXw> tJ.w>ul.b.ul.oh';usJ;pX;tgxD. D vXw>rRvdylRt*D>I ='fod;udFzdrd>y>wz.utgxD. vXw>e>yX>tzdtvHRw>ul.b.ul.oh
and Students

'D;uohqD.xG0JtgxD.t*D>I J ='fod;udFwzsX.'D;wzsX.udFzd< udzr>y><udo&.o&.rk.<'D;ul.ohyR F d d F S rRoud;w>zdcJvXmutgxD.vXw>&h vdmrkmvdmo;t*D>M.vDRI

uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)AAA=AAA2011AAeH.

23

ubsH ; yR(18)w>yd m xG J

zS.tHRcX.p;oh.wz.wX.yD.oud;w>'D; d 'k;td.xD.0Ju.pH.tHR'D;vXudRvR0gusm D d ud;0JvXUnited Nationalities Federal Council(Union of Burma)M.vDRIuD.u; teJ>&GJ>oCJRok;cd.cdRtd.uRvX(PNLO) pH;0JvXok;y'd.oh.wz.'k;td.xD.bs.'d. D oh.wz.'D;&J.usR0JvXu'k;uGmuvkm'l. J H oh.wz.vXok;*h>0Dr>h *hR<vXxH&>l uD>oJ;*h> 0DRrh>*hRvDRIok;y'd.rh>'k;td.xD.w>qD.o eH;uvkm'l.ok;oh.wz.'fo;d urRvDRpSRuGm H y*H>ybgt*D><yrh>td.xJwzk';yuxD'gt D *D>wnDb.I tCd'D;y'k;td.xD.uD.u; t0JtR'fo;d vXw>uxD'goud;'k.'gtw> H qD.oeH;oh.wz.t*D>vDRI uD>u;tHRw>'k;td.xD.tDRvX y.Ckm'D;w>u&Xu&dvXtzD.w>pku0JRoh. wz.'ftrh><yvD.uD>pJ.w>xl.zsJ;ok; (PSLF)<vg[l'HRrdRu&h.pH.o.r*.LDU< &cX.'Duvkmy.wH. NUPA<ucFh.w>o bshw>u&Xu&d(K I O)<wvXRuD>pJ.

y.wH. NMSP <ucFh.'Duvkmw>u&X u&dKNO<,dR'd.w>vJRxD.vJRxDy. wH.SSPP,0;'Duvkmw>u&Xu&dWNO unD'DuvkmpSXzSd.u&X KNU<ytdw> u&Xu&dPNLO'D;&cX.'HRrdRu&h.pH. w>u&Xu&dALDoh.wz.'D;uvkm'l. w>u&Xu&dvXttd.qDvDRo;vX uD>csX'ftrh>uD>pSXzS.uvkm'l.'HRrd.u d &h.pHRw>u&Xu&d UNLD(L/A)oh.w z.M.vDRI w>u&Xu&doh.wz.tHR weDRrRw>c;ywkmw>'D;ezt'D;weDRw rR0Jw>c;ywkmb.vDRIuD.pH.tySRb.rl

b.'gvXw>CkxXxD.tDRwz.rh>0J unD'Duvkmw>xk;zsJok;rk>'d.(KNLA) ok;cd.usX>rlRwlpz=ySRyXRvD>qh.eDR< h d ( KIO)ok;cd.usX>cH(*DR&DZDRqJ=ySRyXR vD>qh.eDR(1)<(KNPP)xH&l>uD>oJ;b. rlb.'g(cltRbh>wG.=ySRyXRvD>qh.eDR h H (2)<( NMSP)eJR[Ro.=eJ>&GJ>cd.usX> 'D;(PNLO)ok;cd.cdRtd.uReJ>&GJ>oCJR vDRI

KNLA

zJt*JRvdto;tqXuwD>

Photo:

SFM

ubsH;yR(13)w>ydmxGJ

b.w>zD.tDRvXwtd.'D;w>*h>w>usR< d ursX>2<336A*Rb.w>rXql.tDR'fu>k <A [H.CD<uF';D c&Hmzdw>bg,GRo&dmA198A d zsX.b.w>rR[;*DRtDR<pHmySR<Ack;'D;us;D A J 146vD>b.w>rR[;*DRtDR<A'D;ursX>tg M>A3<000*Rb.Ch>td.urSvXyS>v> H usgM.vDRI

qJ;usd;unDuFdzdySmbs;pJu&l>ohvX
w>*D R =(unD ' D u vk m pXzS d . u&X)yS R b.rl b .'gvJ R [h . vD R w>qJ ; pk r k > usX>tvH m ql ( bD r k > pXzS d . u&X)ttd . tqXuwD >

Email Phone Blog

: ksngktl@yahoo.com : ksnghq@gmail.com : +66 (0) 899063417 :www.ksngktl.blogspot.com

'D;unD[.u0DRt*RM.vDRItylRuGm15A D H eH.cDzsdy,DRok;tw>xD.'k;tCdunD'l o0DtgM>A3<600AzsX.b.[;*DRuGm0JM. H vDRIAzJ2010AeH.twD>ylRch.tJ.,l.rReD.
24 uFdzdtod.AeD.*H>A(33)A AA2011AeH.A

rRCg0J'.y,DRok;tw>rRxD'gySRcG;J ,m vXunDursX>tzDc.vXtM>w>vD>weDR d ymzsg0JvXy,DRok;rRoHursX>A18A*R<AursX> 38A*Rb.w>wD>rRqgy,GtR<ursX>A52*R J D

Facebook: Ksng Karen

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful