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Tutorial_Vapor_and_combined_power_cycles

Tutorial_Vapor_and_combined_power_cycles

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KMEM 2116 Applied Thermodynamic Tutorial vapor and combined power cycles (All the below questions can

also be found in Thermodynamic An Engineering Approach 6th Edition)

1. Why is excessive moisture in steam undesirable in steam turbines? What is the highest moisture content allowed?

2. Consider a steady flow Carnot cycle with water as the working fluid. The maximum and

minimum temperatures in the cycle are 350 and 60 degC. The quality of water is 0.891 at the beginning of the heat-rejection process and 0.1 at the end. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram relative to the saturation lines, and determine (a) the thermal efficiency, (b) the pressure at the turbine inlet, and (c) the net work output.

3. The entropy of steam increases in actual steam turbine as a result of irreversibilities. In an

effort to control entropy increase, it is proposed to cool the steam in the turbine by running cooling water around the turbine casing. It is argued that this will reduce the entropy and the enthalpy of the steam at the turbine exit and thus increase the work output. How would you evaluate this proposal?

4. Consider a coal-fired steam power plant that produces 300 MW of electric power. The power plant operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle with turbine inlet conditions of 5 MPa and 450 degC and a condenser pressure of 25 kPa. The coal has a heating value (energy released when the fuel in burned) of 23, 300 kJ/kg. Assuming that 75 percent of this energy is transferred to the steam in the boiler and that the electric generator has an efficiency of 96 percent, determine (a) the overall plant efficiency (the ratio of net electric power output to the energy input as fuel) and (b) the required rate of coal supply.

5. Consider a steam power plant that operates on a simple ideal Rankine cycle and has a net

power output of 45 MW. Steam enters the turbine at 7MPa and 500degC and is cooled in the condenser at a pressure of 10 kPa by running cooling water from a lake through the tubes of the condenser at a rate of 2000 kg/s. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines, and determine (a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, (b) the mass flow rate of the steam, and (c) the temperature rise of the cooling water. Assume an isentropic efficiency of 87% for both the turbine and the pump.

6. Is there an optimal pressure for reheating the steam of a Rankine cycle? Explain.

7. Steam enters the turbine at 10MPa and 600 degC and exhausts to the condenser at 5 kPa. Steam enters both stages of the turbine at 500 degC. Consider a steam power plant that operates on the ideal reheat Rankine cycles. At what rate must bleed steam be supplied to the open feedwater heater so the feedwater leaves this unit as a saturated liquid? 11. Also show the cycle on T-s diagram with respect to saturation lines. The mass flow rate of steam through the boiler is 22 kg/s. Ten kilograms per second of cold feedwater enter a 200 kPa open feedwater heater of a regenerative Rankine cycle at 70 degC. Steam is extracted from the turbine at 0. Determine the rate of heat addition and rejection and the thermal efficiency of the cycle. A steam power plant operates on an ideal regenerative Rankine cycle with two open feedwater heaters.2 MPa. Water leaves both feedwater heaters as a saturated liquid. and determine (a) the net power output of the power plant and (b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The mass flow rate of steam through the cycle is 12 kg/s. determine (a) the pressure at which reheating takes place. and (c) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. the inlet of the lowpressure turbine at 4 MPa and 300 degC. How do open feedwater heaters differ from closed feedwater heater? 10. The net power produced by this plant is 5000kW. 12. The plant maintains the inlet of high-pressure turbine at 4 MPa and 300 degC.6 and 0. 8. How can the second-law efficiency of a simple ideal Rankine cycle be improved? 13. Show the cycle on a T-s diagram. and the condenser at 75 kPa. Bleed steam is available from the turbine at 200 kPa and 160 degC. If the moisture content of the steam at the exit of the low-pressure turbine is not to exceed 10%. (b) the total rate of heat input in the boiler. 9. A steam power plant operates on an ideal reheat Rankine cycle between the pressure limits of 15 MPa and 10 kPa. How is the utilization factor ε for cogeneration plants defined? Could ε be unity for a cogeneration plant that does not produce any power? .

determine the net power produced and the utilization factor of the plant. and the maximum gas cycle temperature is 1100 degC. and assume the turbine and the pump to be isentropic. In combined gas-steam cycles. 15. The gas stream leave the heat exchanger at the saturation temperature of the steam flowing through the heat exchanger. The steam-cycle condenser operates at 20 kPa. Use constant specific heats for air at room temperature. and leaves at 320 degC. A combined gas-steam power cycle uses a simple gas turbine for the topping cycle and simple Rankine cycle for the bottoming cycle. The mass flow rate of steam through the boiler is 30 kg/s. Steam flows through the heat exchanger with a pressure of 6000 kPa. Disregarding any pressure drops and heat losses in the piping. what is the energy source for the steam? 16. The extracted steam is then condensed and mixed with feedwater at constant pressure and the mixture is pumped to the boiler pressure of 7MPa. The compressor pressure ratio is 8. Steam enters the turbine of a cogeneration plant at 7 MPa and 500 degC. Determine the mass flow rate of air through the air compressor required for this system to produce 100 MW of power. and the isentropic efficiency of the steam turbine is 90 %. The remaining steam continues to expand to 10 kPa. and the turbine isentropic efficiency is 90 %. Atmospheric air enters the gas turbine at 101 kPa and 20 degC. the compressor isentropic efficiency is 85 %.14. . One-fourth of the steam is extracted from the turbine at 600 kPa for process heating.

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