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Thought to be extremely long, yet thin, alignments of galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters, assembled by large quantities of dark matter, it is thought that they might represent a geometric structure congruent with the infalling strings from the superverse into the black hole we are within. These also represent topological defects left over from the early universe, early connections still maintained, perhaps reflected in ancient black hole wormhole tunnel entanglements that still link distant parts of the universe which were once adjacent (and still are in other layers.) This reflects the universe's existence as a quantum particle, subject to quantum nonlocality. They expand in length as the universe expands, but remain narrow in width and height. The parallel string-like timelines of the Hopf Fibration universe we are within may also represent different states of the Universal string we reside upon (time proceeds lengthwise down the string and space-time is any given point upon it.) The different timeline fibers of the Hopf Fibration are actually all one universal string that loops around from big bounce to big bounce (see image.) This is also reflected in the one dimensional mobius strip, which is our universe on its very basic level, expanding to torus and later to hypersphere (the 4th dimension being time.) The twist of the mobius and the center of the torus and the hypersphere are where the big bang occurred. Since time is the fourth dimension of the hypersphere or glome, we exist on its three dimensional surface, all equidistant from the center, which is where the big bang and bounces occur. It's quite interesting and no accident that the volume of a torus and the surface area of the hypersphere are the same, just like how the Hopf Fibration looks very much like a torus. This should give you an idea of why our universe can exist in all these shapes all across its timelines (remember that all times exist simultaneously.) As mentioned in Origin 12, this is the region which flips from black hole to white hole as polarity reverses between the different members of the quadverse and we are either expanding or contracting, and either accumulating dark energy or dark matter in a higher ratio to the other. The reason the Great Wall and Great Attractor were assembled so quickly is precisely because the universe is cyclical and information for their assemblage isn't lost, but maintained in the cosmic DNA of the universe, which was imparted upon it by the superverse. This is why it is a fractal representative of the superverse and the omniverse, as this cosmic DNA gets passed down to all baby universes/quadverses. The other reason why this happened with such rapidity is that dark matter, only influenced by gravity, can proceed at faster than c speeds, and therefore experiences negative time (it is actually matter from the antiverse, just like our matter is their dark matter and experiences negative time there). The transfer and conversion of matter to dark matter in both directions is what ultimately causes the balanced cyclical nature of the quadverse, as this transference occurs between the universe and the antiverse, and the mirrorverse and the antimirroverse. This brings to bear the Aharanov Effect, and the future postselects the past on the macro level, just as is the case on the quantum level. Bolstering this idea is the recent possible discovery of the sterile neutrino, which also experiences time in both directions, because the only force which impacts it is gravity, which exists in all dimensions, in a looping form (just like time), unlike the other forces, which are limited strings. If, as mentioned in Origin 13, our universe evolved from 1D to 2D to 3D and will one day reach 4D, the question then becomes what will be the nature of this fourth dimension? Will it be an internally manufactured dimension, like the other three spatial dimensions, or will it be hyperspace, from the omniverse? I believe it will be the latter. Why? Because 3D space is stable, and once our universe expands to the extent needed to create the fourth dimension, it will be so cold that it will reach the below absolute zero temps needed to interface with the omniverse. This, in turn, will cause explosive inflation (inflation phase 2), which will expand the universe within the omniverse, until it reaches the Cauchy Horizon of the black hole we reside within, and then it will bounce back just as explosively, and contraction will begin. In inflation phase 2, no alternate timelines will be manufactured, unlike the first inflation, because when the universe was 2D there was no gravitation. In 3D space, we have gravitation, so that will keep new emergent timelines from forming. The situation will be the reverse for the antiverse; when we go from 3D to 4D space and reach inflation phase 2, hit the Cauchy Horizon and contract towards our next big bounce with converging timelines, it will be big bouncing and reaching inflation phase 1 and creating the parallel timelines in 2+1, just prior to phase transitioning to 3+1
(the "dark energy" era.) As it relates to the individual members of the quadverse, both the universe and the mirrorverse are always in sync, while the antiverse and antimirrorverse are always in sync also. The reason for this 4 way balance is because our universe was generated with a small imbalance favoring matter over antimatter and regular matter over mirror matter, the other components, favor similar imbalances, but going in the other direction. The relationship between gravity and time is quite interesting. Besides both looping around and maintaining the cyclical and balanced nature of the universe and quadverse (and omniverse, for that matter.) Not only is gravity/dark energy responsible for the creation of the third dimension over entropy/time..... the rate of time also responds to the presence of gravitation. During the 1D and 2D phases of the universe, when gravity waves do not exist, time proceeds very slowly (maybe remains static), until the universe cools sufficiently to phase transition to 3D, inflation occurs with the polarity flip at the central black hole / white hole and the dark energy to dark matter ratio increases, parallel time lines are created and gravity emerges. In 3D and 4D time proceeds much more rapidly, since gravity is now present (but separated among the various parallel timelines) and the universe expands ever more quickly in the dark energy era and even faster with explosive expansion (inflation phase 2) during the phase change to 4D space. At this time, to an outside observer, the universe would finally become visible as a 1 dimensional line expanding from the center towards the event horizon of the parent black hole from both ends. Before this happened, it was only a point particle (although, since all times exist together, perhaps it will always appear as a line frozen in the imaginary time dimension of the omniverse-all the parallel timelines will be superimposed upon each other, in the fashion of quantum superposition-- as will the other members of the quadverse be visible as single dimensional lines.) Besides the black hole and superverse properties mentioned in Origin 13 which impact the physical properties of the baby universe/quadverse, the actual size of the parent black hole and thus the width of the Cauchy Horizon, will also impact length of each oscillation. Time proceeds even more quickly when the universe rebounds off the Cauchy Horizon from the parent black hole (the macro version of the strong force), as the gravitational waves become much more concentrated as they bounce off of it and time proceeds rapidly as the universe starts to contract, the polarity at the center black hole / white hole flips, the dark matter to dark energy ratio increases, until finally the phase transition back to 3D occurs as the universe heats up and keeps contracting with more dark matter, the time lines merge and gravity increases even more with deflation until we reach the 1D/2D wall and time slows to a crawl (or stops), gravity disappears and the universe big bounces at 10 planck lengths and the cycle starts all over again. In the mirrorverse, this is synchronized, while it occurs in reverse in the antiverse and the antimirrorverse, where time itself is reversed. Note also, that gravity/time/dark matter/dark energy is conserved in the quadverse (and the omniverse in general) as an increase in rate or quantity in one component results in a decrease in one of the other components of the quadverse (actually it's 2 vs 2) since, after all, the universe and mirrorverse experience time in reverse from the antiverse and the antimirrorverse. The structure of this quadverse in the omniverse isn't actually four lines, it's a double double helix (thus my cosmic DNA reference earlier-- yet another example of fractality!) Gravity and EM create the twists and turns to produce this structure. Consider the four dimensions to each be base pairs of the cosmic DNA (for a total of 8 D, 6+2), connected to each other through the central black hole / white hole which keeps reversing polarity at different phases of the cycle. These wormhole connections are a cosmic fractal representation of the chemical bonds between the base pairs of the DNA double helix..... we actually have two double helixes, with the universe and mirrorverse in sync, as is the antiverse and the antimirrorverse, which all exist within the cosmically fractal 4+1 omniverse (this is exactly why our universe reaches a limit of 4+1 in its own dimensions before starting to contract.) http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=the-amazing-disappearing-neutrino The Amazing Disappearing Antineutrino A revised calculation suggests that around 3% of particles have gone missing from nuclear reactor experiments.
| April 1, 2011 | 10 * By Eugenie Samuel Reich of Nature magazine Neutrinos have long perplexed physicists with their uncanny ability to evade detection, with as many as two-thirds of the ghostly particles apparently going missing en route from the Sun to Earth. Now a refined version of an old calculation is causing a stir by suggesting that researchers have also systematically underestimated the number of the particles' antimatter partners-antineutrinos--produced by nuclear reactor experiments. The deficit could be caused by the antineutrinos turning into so-called 'sterile antineutrinos', which can't be directly detected, and which would be clear evidence for effects beyond the standard model of particle physics. In the 1960s, physicist Ray Davis, working deep underground in the Homestake gold mine in South Dakota, found that the flux of solar neutrinos hitting Earth was a third of that predicted by calculations of the nuclear reactions in the Sun by theorist John Bahcall. Davis later received a Nobel prize for his contributions to neutrino astrophysics. That puzzle was considered solved in 2001, when the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) in Canada found the missing two-thirds through an alternative means of detection. The SNO's results were taken as evidence that neutrinos have a mass, which allows them to oscillate between three flavors: electron, muon and tau. Davis had only detected the electron neutrinos. Experiments that measure the rate of antineutrino production from the decay of uranium and plutonium isotopes have so far produced results roughly consistent with this theory. But the revised calculation accepted this week by Physical Review D suggests that it's not the whole story. While waiting for the Double Chooz neutrino experiment in France to become fully operational, Thierry Lasserre and his colleagues at the French atomic energy commission(CEA) in Saclay set out to check predictions of the rate of antineutrino production by nuclear reactors. They repeated a calculation first done in the 1980s by Klaus Schreckenbach at the Technical University of Munich, using more modern techniques that allowed them to be much more precise. Their new estimate of the rate of production is around 3% more than previously predicted. This means that several generations of neutrino and antineutrino experiments have unknowingly missed a small fraction of the particles. "It was completely a surprise for us," says Lasserre. Double Chooz consists of two detectors measuring the flux of antineutrinos produced by the Chooz nuclear power plant in the French Ardennes, one detector about 400 meters away from the plant and the other 1 kilometer away. The far detector became operational this year. Stefan Schönert, a neutrino physicist at the Technical University of Munich, says the calculation is solid, and has been checked with Schreckenbach. "They can reproduce each other's results. There's no way around this result. It's very solid." Art McDonald of Queen's University in Kingston, Canada and the SNO says that people have to look carefully at the calculation, which may itself have a systematic error. But, he adds, "there's no doubt it would have significance as a physics result if it can be shown with more accuracy." The result may be pointing to evidence of neutrinos and antineutrinos oscillating into a fourth kind of neutrino or antineutrino, a so-called 'sterile' version that doesn't interact with ordinary matter, says Carlo Giunti, a physicist at the University of Turin in Italy. Other experiments have previously seen evidence for sterile particles, including the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and the Mini Booster Neutrino Experiment, or
MiniBooNE, at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, and the search to confirm their existence is a hot area of physics. Giunti says that the magnitude of the anomaly uncovered by Lasserre is not statistically significant on its own, but that it points promisingly in the same direction as another anomaly found by the SAGE collaboration, which studied neutrinos from a radioactive source at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in the Caucasus in 2005. "Before this, there used to be a contradiction between [reactor and radioactive source] experiments but now they are in agreement," says Giunti. Schönert says that one key experiment everyone is waiting for is a measurement showing that the rate of disappearance of antineutrinos from a source increases with the distance from it. "This would be the smoking gun," he says. This article is reproduced with permission from the magazine Nature. The article was first published on April 1, 2011. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0310571 A Map of the Universe J. Richard Gott III, Mario Jurić, David Schlegel, Fiona Hoyle, Michael Vogeley, Max Tegmark, Neta Bahcall, Jon Brinkmann (Submitted on 20 Oct 2003 (v1), last revised 17 Oct 2005 (this version, v2)) We have produced a new conformal map of the universe illustrating recent discoveries, ranging from Kuiper belt objects in the Solar system, to the galaxies and quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map projection, based on the logarithm map of the complex plane, preserves shapes locally, and yet is able to display the entire range of astronomical scales from the Earth's neighborhood to the cosmic microwave background. The conformal nature of the projection, preserving shapes locally, may be of particular use for analyzing large scale structure. Prominent in the map is a Sloan Great Wall of galaxies 1.37 billion light years long, 80% longer than the Great Wall discovered by Geller and Huchra and therefore the largest observed structure in the universe. Comments: Figure 8, and additional material accessible on the web at: this http URL Subjects: Astrophysics (astro-ph) Journal reference: Astrophys.J.624:463,2005 DOI: 10.1086/428890 Cite as: arXiv:astro-ph/0310571v2 http://www.astro.pri...n.edu/universe/ Logarithmic Maps of the Universe This website contains figures from "Map of the Universe" e-print, by Gott, Juric et al. The paper has been published in the Astrophysical Journal (Gott et al., 2005, ApJ, 624, 463), and you can also find the manuscript here (note: Figure 8. of the manuscript has been published as an inset poster, and has to be downloaded separately (see below)).
The Great Walls -- Largest Structures in the Universe
“Just as a fish may be barely aware of the medium in which it lives and swims, so the microstructure of empty space could be far too complex for unaided human brains." Sir Martin Rees, Astronomer Royal, physicist, Cambridge University Our known Hubble length universe contains hundreds of millions of galaxies that have clumped together, forming super clusters and a series of massive walls of galaxies separated by vast voids of empty space. Great Wall: The most vast structure ever is a collection of superclusters a billion light years away extending for 5% the length of the entire observable universe. It is theorized that such structures as the Great Wall form along and follow web-like strings of dark matter that dictates the structure of the Universe on the grandest of scales. Dark matter gravitationally attracts baryonic matter, and it is this normal matter that astronomers see forming long, thin walls of super-galactic clusters. If it took God one week to make the Earth, going by mass it would take him two quintillion years to build this thing -- far longer than science says the universe has existed, and it's kind of fun to have those two the other way around for a change. Though He could always omnipotently cheat and say "Let there be a Sloan Great Wall." The Great Wall is a massive array of astronomical objects named after the observations which revealed them, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. An eight year project scanned over a quarter of the sky to generate full 3-D maps of almost a million galaxies. Analysis of these images revealed a huge panel of galaxies 1.37 billion light years long, and even the pedantic-sounding .07 is six hundred and sixty billion trillion kilometers. This is science precisely measuring made-up sounding numbers. Sloane_9: This isn't the only wall out there -- others exist, all with far greater lengths than width or depth, actual sheets of galaxies forming some of the most impressive anythings there are. And these walls are only a special class of galactic filaments, long strings of matter stretched between mind-breaking expanses of emptiness. Some of these elongated super clusters have formed a series of walls, one after another, spaced from 500 million to 800 million light years apart, such that in one direction alone, 13 Great Walls have formed with the inner and outer walls separated by less than seven billion light years. Recently, cosmologists have estimated that some of these galactic walls may have taken from 80 billion to 100 billion, to 150 billion years to form in a direct challenge to current age estimates of the age of the Universe following the Big Bang. The huge Sloan Great Wall spans over one billion light years. The Coma cluster (image above) is one of the largest observed structures in the Universe, containing over 10,000 galaxies and extending more than 1.37 billion light years in length. Current theories of "dark energy" and "great attractors" have been developed to explain why a created universe did not spread out uniformly at the same speed and in the same spoke-like directions as predicted by theory. But as Sean Carroll of the
Moore Center for Theoretical Cosmology and Physics at Cal Tech is fond of saying, "We don't have a clue." Britain’s Astronomer Royal, Lord Rees, says some of the cosmos’s biggest mysteries, like the Big Bang and even the nature of our own self awareness, might never be resolved. Rees, who is also President of the Royal Society, says that a correct basic theory of the universe might be present, but may be just too tough for human beings’ brains to comprehend.
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