GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 GSM Principles and Call Flow....................................................................................3 1.1 GSM Frequency Band Allocation .....................................................................................3 1.2 Multiple Access Technology and Logical Channel.............................................................4 1.2.1 GSM Multiple Access Technology...........................................................................4 1.2.2 TDMA Frame..........................................................................................................5 1.2.3 Burst.......................................................................................................................7 1.2.4 Logical Channel......................................................................................................9 1.3 Data Transmission..........................................................................................................12 1.3.1 Voice Coding........................................................................................................13 1.3.2 Channel Coding....................................................................................................14 1.3.3 Interleaving ..........................................................................................................15 1.3.4 Encryption ............................................................................................................17 1.3.5 Modulation and Demodulation..............................................................................17 1.4 Timing advance...............................................................................................................18 1.5 System Information.........................................................................................................19 1.6 Cell Selection and Re-Selection......................................................................................21 1.6.1 Cell Selection........................................................................................................21 1.6.2 Cell Selection Process .........................................................................................22 1.6.3 Down Link Failure ...........................................................................................23 1.6.4 Cell Re-Selection Process....................................................................................23 1.7 Frequency Hopping ........................................................................................................24 1.7.1 Types of Frequency Hopping................................................................................25 1.7.2 Frequency Hopping Algorithm..............................................................................27 1.7.3 Benefits of Frequency Hopping.............................................................................30 1.8 Discontinuous Reception and Discontinuous Transmission............................................32 1.8.1 Discontinuous Reception and Paging Channel.....................................................32 1.8.2 DTX......................................................................................................................34 1.9 Power Control.................................................................................................................36 1.9.1 Power Control Overview ......................................................................................36 1.9.2 MS Power Control.................................................................................................36 1.9.3 BTS Power Control...............................................................................................38 1.9.4 Power Control Processing....................................................................................39 1.10 Immediate Assignment Procedure................................................................................41 1.10.1 Network Access License and Random Access Request.....................................41 1.10.2 Initial Immediate Assignment..............................................................................42 1.10.3 Initial Message....................................................................................................43


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

1.10.4 Immediate Assignment Failure............................................................................44 1.11 Authentication and Encryption ......................................................................................45 1.11.1 Authentication ....................................................................................................45 1.11.2 Encryption ..........................................................................................................48 1.11.3 TMSI Reallocation ..............................................................................................49 1.11.4 Exceptional Situations.........................................................................................50 1.12 Location Update............................................................................................................51 1.12.1 Generic Location Update (Inter-LA Location Update).........................................51 1.12.2 Periodic Location updating.................................................................................53 1.12.3 IMSI Attach and Detach......................................................................................54 1.12.4 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................55 1.13 MS Originating Call Flow...............................................................................................57 1.13.1 Called Number Analysis .....................................................................................58 1.13.2 Voice Channel Assignment (Follow-up Assignment)...........................................58 1.13.3 Call Connection .................................................................................................62 1.13.4 Call Release.......................................................................................................62 1.13.5 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................64 1.14 MS Originated Call Flow...............................................................................................66 1.14.1 Enquiry...............................................................................................................66 1.14.2 Paging ...............................................................................................................67 1.14.3 Call Establishment for the Called Party..............................................................68 1.14.4 The Influence of Call Transfer to Routing............................................................69 1.14.5 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................70 1.15 HO.................................................................................................................................72 1.15.1 HO Preparation...................................................................................................73 1.15.2 HO Types............................................................................................................76 1.15.3 HO Process Analysis..........................................................................................78 1.15.4 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................87 1.16 Call Re-Establishment .................................................................................................88 1.16.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................88 1.16.2 Call Re-Establishment Procedure.......................................................................89 1.16.3 Exceptional Situations........................................................................................90 1.16.4 SM Procedure.....................................................................................................91 1.16.5 Short Message Procedure on SDCCH When MS is calling ...............................91 1.16.6 Short Message Procedure on SDCCH When MS is called ................................92 1.16.7 Short Message Procedure on SACCH When MS is calling................................93 1.16.8 Short Message Procedure on SACCH when MS is called..................................94 1.17 CBS...............................................................................................................................94 1.17.1 CBS Mechanism ................................................................................................95 1.17.2 BSC-BTS Message Transmission Mode.............................................................96


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

Chapter 1 GSM Principles and Call Flow
1.1 GSM Frequency Band Allocation
GSM cellular system can be divided into GSM900M and DCS1800M according to frequency band, with carrier frequency interval of 200 KHz and up and down frequencies as follows: Table 1.1 GSM frequency allocation Frequency band(MHz) Bandwidth( MHz) Frequency number Carrier frequency number (pair)
124 374

GSM900 DCS1800

Up 890–915 Down 935–960 Up 1710–1785 Down 1805–1880

25 75

1–124 512–885

“Up” and “down” are classified according to base station. Base station transmitting mobile station receiving is “down”; mobile station transmitting - base station receiving is up. With the expanding services, GSM protocol adds EGSM(expanded GSM frequency band) and RGSM (expanded GSM frequency band including railway service) to the original GSM900 frequency band. The frequency band allocation is as follows: Table 1.2 EGSM/RGSM frequency allocation Frequency band(MHz) Bandwidth (MHz) Frequency number Carrier frequency number (pair)


Up 880–915


0–124 975–1023

Down 925–960 RGSM Up 876–915
Down 921–960 40

0–124 955–1023



TDMA is applied in digital cellular system and GSM.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1. namely: Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA).2 Multiple Access Technology and Logical Channel 1. Digital cellular system also uses FDMA. Each channel transmits one path of speech or control information. GSM adopts a technology combined with FDMA and TDMA. Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA).1 GSM Multiple Access Technology In cellular mobile communications system. FDMA FDMA divides the whole frequency band into many single radio channels (transmitting and receiving carrier frequency pairs). Any subscriber has access to one of these channels under the control of the system. 4 . TDMA TDMA divides a broadband radio carrier into several time division channels according to time (or timeslot). and takes FDMA as complement. but not the pure frequency allocation. Analog cellular system is a typical example of FDMA application. There are now five kinds of Multiple access technology. The following only introduces FDMA and TDMA technologies. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). it is necessary to distinguish the signals from different mobile stations and base stations for them to identify their own signals. For example. II. since many mobiles stations communicate with other mobiles stations through one base station. The way to this problem is called multiple access technology. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). GSM takes FDMA technology. Each subscriber takes one timeslot and sends or receives signals only in the specified timeslot. and polar division multiple access (PDMA). I. GSM multiple access technology focuses on TDMA.2.

Slot occurs periodically in each 15/26 ms. the slot of a channel is not Frequency 200kHz BP 15/26ms Slot Tim e Figure 1. Time/frequency map illustrates the concept of slot. continuous in time. To be specific. Using a given channel means transmitting burst with a particular frequency at particular time.2 Timeslot 5 . the 200 KHz bandwidth in GSM is called frequency slot. a particular slot. that is. and sometimes means using one of every eight slots periodically. Each slot is expressed as one little rectangle with 15/26ms length and 200 KHz width. Burst represents different meaning in different situation. They are exported in time and frequency window which is called slot. Burst is a transmission unit consists of over one hundred of modulation bits. Sometimes it concerns time – frequency “rectangle” unit.577 ms (in TDMA).2. and sometimes not. Similarly. equal to radio frequency channel in GSM protocol. central frequency of slot is set in every 200 KHz (in FDMA).2. timeslot sometimes concerns time value.2.2 TDMA Frame The basic conception of GSM in terms of radio path is burst. Similarly. Its duration is used as time unit. Generally. in system frequency band. called burst period (BP).GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1. See 1. which is about 0.The interval between two slots is called timeslot. It has a duration limit and takes a limited radio frequency.

715. 24 are used in traffic and 2 are used in signaling.25 58 information bits26 training sequency58 information bits TB TB information bits 36 Access burst£ ¨ B£ ©3synchronization sequence 41 A 3 GP 68.2.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Physical channel combines frequency division multiple access and time division multiple access together. is used in traffic channel and associated control channel.25 elements. It is used in encrypted voice and data.7s.2. Each period of hyper frame consists of 2. The period of super frame is 1. Super frame is a continuous 51×26TDMA frame. including timeslot and burst. that is to say.533. with a period of 3060/13≈235.12 s. 1. coving 15/26≈0.615ms in total.048 super frames with a period of 12. Many multiframes together form a super frame.648 TDMA frames numbered from 0 to 2.557ms£ © 1 £ ¨ bit duration£ º 8/13=3. Each timeslot is a basic physical channel with 156. 1 Hyper frame shown in frames Ê 2 5 7 Ã ) The structure of GSM frame is=2018 Super1.715.25 TB£ ºail bits t 6 TB TB GP constant bits 142 Frequency correction burst£ ¨ B£ © F 3 3 8. The frame number is transmitted in sync channel. A hyper frame consists of 2.385 ms.12 s£ © 6 0 0 1 2 1 3 47 2044 2045 2046 2047 BCCH CCCH SDCCH 48 24 49 25 50 1 Multiframe =26TDMA frames£ ¨ 20 ms£ © 1 0 1 24 25 1 Multiframe =51 TDMA frames£ ¨ 060/13ms£ © 3 0 1 49 50 1 TDMA frame =8 time slots£ ¨ 20/26=4.25 GP£ º uard period g TB TB GP extended training sequency64 information bits 39 synchronized burst£ ¨ B£ ©3 information bits 39 S 3 8. There are two kinds of multiframes.25 bits duration£ ¨ 5/26=0.2 shows the complete structure of TDMA frame.68us£ © 1 4 TB GP 3 8.326 TDMA frames. or 6. The 26 multiframe. =2715648 TDMA frames (3Ð ¡ ±8· Ö3Ã ë60º Á ë 0 1 2 3 TCH SACCH/T FACCH 1 Super frame =1326 TDMA frames £ ¨ .25 TB Normal burst£ ¨ B£ ©3 N . One TDMA frame consists of eight basic timeslots. or 3 hours and 28’ 53’’ 760’’’.2.648.557ms. about 60/13≈4.615ms£ © 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 time slot =156. Among the 26 bursts. TDMA frame is a repetitive “physical” frame in radio link. Multiframes are applied when different logical channels are multiple used in one physical channel. Many super frames together form a hyper frame. is specially used in control channel. a super frame consists of fifty-one 26 TDMA multiframes or twenty-six 51 TOMA multiframes. The 51 multiframe.The position of these timeslots in TDMA frame is fixed. consisting of 26 and 51 continuous TDMA frames respectively. with a period of 120 ms. It consists of timeslot flow that connects base station (BS) and mobile station (MS).

used for equalizer to generate channel model (a way to eliminate dispersion). BSIC settings of the same BCCH should be different. SDCCH. it is necessary to guarantee the non-overlapping 7 . which means each burst is sent to a timeslot of TDMA frame. training sequence is fixed and does not change with cells. BCCH. Information bits: It is used to describe traffic and signaling information.2. Training sequence: It is a known sequence. There are five kinds of bursts:  Normal burst: used to carry messages in TCH. The 36-bit message digit of the random access burst includes BSIC information of the cell. but when accessed to burst and synchronization bust.3 Structure of TDMA frame 1. in access burst. in order to avoid mis-decoding of random access burst from neighboring cells into local access. Since each carrier frequency can carry a maximum of eight subscribers.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. Training sequence is known by both transmitter and receiver. training sequence is fixed (occupying 41 bits). SACCH. It usually has the same BCC setting with cells. except idle burst and frequency correction burst.    Guard period: It is a blank space. Different message in the burst determines its layout. PCH and AGCH channels Access burst: used to carry message in RACH channel Frequency correction burst: used to carry message in FCCH channel Synchronization burst: used to carry message in SCH channel Dummy burst: transmitted when no specific message transmission request from system (In cells. It can be used to identify the location of other bits from the same burst and roughly estimate the interference situation of transmission channel when the receiver gets this sequence. standard frequency sends message continuously)     Each kind of burst includes the following elements:  Tail bits: Its value is always 0 to help equalizer judge start bit and stop bit to avoid lost synchronization. FACCH. Training sequence can be divided into eight categories in normal burst. For example.3 Burst Burst is the message layout of a timeslot in TDMA channel.

Although timing advance technology (introduced later) is used. On the other hand. it becomes a pure sine wave. 8 . 36-information bit.  Synchronization burst With a 64-bit training sequence and two 39-bit information fields. its training sequence is relatively long and easy to be detected. Its structure is pretty simple with all constant bits being 0. synchronization burst is used for time synchronization of mobile station in SCH channel. Both training sequence and protection interval are longer than normal bursts in order to offset the bug of timing advance ignorance in the first access of mobile station (or switch over to another BTS) and improve demodulation ability of the system. It belongs to downlink. Access burst includes a 41-bit training sequence. bursts from different mobile stations still show little slips. The following is a detailed introduction to the structure and content of burst:  Access burst It is used for random access (channel request from network and switchover access). Since it is the first burst required to be modulated by mobile station. This sequence has 142 constant bits for frequency synchronization. it is unnecessary to add extra kinds of training sequences. Protection interval and tail bit are the same with that of normal burst. There is only one kind of training sequence in access burst.  Frequency correction burst It is used for frequency synchronization in mobile station. Since the possibility of interference is rather little. and its protection interval is 68. The amplitude attenuation of two sequential bursts as well as proper modulation bit stream can reduce the interference to other RF channels.25 bits. It is used in FCCH channel for mobile station to find and modulate synchronization burst of the same cell. protection interval is adopted to allow transmitter to fluctuate in a proper range in GSM. equal to an unmodulated carrier. therefore. It is the first burst that the base station needs in uplink modulation. GSM requires protection bits to keep constant transmission amplitude of the effective burst (except protection bits) and properly attenuate the transmission amplitude of mobile station.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 of each timeslot in transmission. When mobile station gets the frequency through this burst. it can read the information of following bursts (such as SCH and BCCH) in the same physical channel. After modulated.

There are eight kinds of such training sequence (these eight sequences have the least relevancy with each other). For example. 1. It has no other use in channels except in TCH channel. They correspond to different base station color code (BCC.4 Logical Channel In real networking.2. 3 bits) respectively to distinguish the two cells using the same frequency.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程  Normal burst It has two 58-bit groups used in message field. to distinguish TCH and FACCH (when TCH channel is used as FACCH channel to transmit signaling. proving eight basic physical channels. To be more specific. such as signaling and data service.  Dummy burst This kind of bust is sometimes sent by BTS without carrying any information. the stealing flag of the 8 half bursts should be set to 1. but can be regarded as the extension of training sequence and always set to 1. Different logical channel transmits different type of information between BS and MS. Logical channel carries out time multiplexing in one physical channel. The only bug is that the receiver has to store the preceding part of burst before modulation. GSM defines 9 . 16 of which are information bits.25 bits. Normal burst is used to describe whether the transmitted is traffic information or signaling information. It is classified according to the type of information in physical channel. it copies the first five bits to the end of the training sequence and the last five bits to the head of the training sequence. The encrypted bits are changed into mixed bits with certain bit model. Normal burst has a total of 26 bits. each cell has several carrier frequencies and each frequency has eight timeslots. two 58-bit groups are used to transmit subscriber data or voice together with two stealing flags. In order to get 26 bits.Normal burst also includes two 3-bit tails and a protection interval of 8. Its format is the same with normal burst.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 different burst type for different logical channel.8) Full rate ≤2. It mainly consists of broadcast channel (BCCH). common control channel (CCCH). Reduced TDMA frame (RFN) occupies 22 bits. mobile station can locate a cell and demodulate other information in the same cell. CCH CCH is used to transmit signaling or synchronous data. BCCH  Frequency Correction Channel (FCCH) It carries the information for frequency correction in mobile station. or traffic channel (TCH) and control channel (CCH) sometimes. It is divided into full rate TCH (TCH/F) and half rate TCH (TCH/H) with 22.6) Full rate 4. and recognize whether this carrier frequency is BCCH or not.4 Kbit/s information respectively. III. 10 . This information contains mobile station frame synchronization and base station identification.4 Kbit/s TCH (TCH/F2. I. each BTS has a transceiver containing BCCH in order to broadcast system information to mobile station. Voice channel types are as follows:      Enhanced full rate speech TCH (TCH/EFS) Full rate speech TCH (TCH/EFS) Full rate 9. and dedicated control channel (DCCH). A carrier frequency can provide eight kinds of TCH/F or sixteen kinds of TCH/H. Base station identification code (BSIC) occupies six bits. and the other three are base station color codes (BCCs) ranging from zero to seven. Through FCCH. In GSM.4) II. mobile station has to decode SCH information.8 Kbit/s TCH (TCH/F4.6 Kbit/s TCH (TCH/F9. TCH TCH carries coded voice or subscriber data. three of which are PLMN color codes ranging from zero to seven.  BCCH Generally. System information enables mobile station to work efficiently in null state.  Sync Channel (SCH) After FCCH decoding.8 bit/s information and 11. Using half of the timeslots in TCH/F can get TCH/H. logical channel is divided into dedicated channel (DCH) and common channel (CCH).

location update. short message. authentication.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 IV. CELL ID. to allocate a SDCCH or TCH directly. CBCH uses a physical channel same as SDCCH. encrypted command. TA. that is.  Access Grant Channel (AGCH) AGCH is a downlink channel used for base station to respond the network access request of mobile station. Keep a fixed number of blocks for AGCH or just borrow PCH when AGCH requires without keeping special AGCH block (AGB). It can be divided into SD/8 and SD/4. Uplink mainly transmits radio measurement report and the first layer head information. cell options. The request includes the reason to build 3-bit (call request. location update request and short message request) and 5-bit reference random number for mobile station to identify its own access grant message.  Random Access Channel (RACH) RACH is an uplink channel used for mobile station to request SDCCH allocation in random network access application. and power control level. 11 .  Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) SACCH works with traffic channel or SDCCH to transmit subscriber information and some specific information at the same time. CCCH  Paging Channel (PCH) PCH is a downlink channel used to page mobile station. channel allocation.  Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) FACCH works with TCH to provide signaling information with a rate and timeliness much higher than that provided by SACCH. There is another control channel called cell broadcast channel (CBCH) besides the three control channels mentioned above. paging response. LAI. BCCH signal strength in neighboring cells. downlink mainly transmits part system information and the first layer head information. V. and complementary services. It is used in downlink and carries short message service cell broadcast (SMSCB) information. When the network wants to communicate with a certain mobile station. it sends paging information marked as TMSI or IMSI through PCH to all the cells in LAC area according to the current LAC registered in mobile station. The information includes quality of communications. AGCH and PCH share the same radio resource. NCC limit. DCCH  Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) SDCCH is a bi-directional dedicated channel used to transmit information of signaling.

Each multiframe is 235.. Each multiframe has only three paging blocks instead of nine in uncombined BCCH/SDCCH. Different configuration has different paging capacity.1) + FACCH/H(0.7) + SACCH/C8(0. .0) + FACCH/H(0. The channe l combinations specified in GSM protocol are as follows:      TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/TF TCH/H(0. Multiframe has different channel configurations. Timeslot 0 has the following s ub channels:    Broadcast channel (BCH): FCCH. SCH.  Combined BCCH/SDCCH Each multiframe of combined BCCH/SDCCH can have three paging blocks. AGCH DCCH (combined BCCH/SDCCH): SDCCH. SACCH.1) + TCH/H(1.1) TCH/H(0.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 VI. BCCH CCCH: PCH. The configuration of combined BCCH/SDCCH has a great influence on paging capacity.  Uncombined BCCH/SDCCH Each frame of Uncombined BCCH/SDCCH can have nine paging blocks. CBCH ( if using cell broadcast) Physical channel timeslot 0 is made of multiframes logically. which means the paging capacity of cells with combined BCCH/SDCCH is only one third of that of cells with uncombined BCCH/SDCCH. 1. .7)   VII.3) + SACCH/C4(0.3)(BCCH combination) BCCH + CCCH(BCCH extension) SDCCH/8(0. Uncombined BCCH/SDCCH and Combined BCCH/SDCCH Paging information transmits in the timeslot 0 of BCCH.1) + SACCH/TH(0.3 Data Transmission Radio channel has totally different characteristics from wired channel.1) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH (main BCCH) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4(0. The timeslot 0 of BCCH carrier frequency contains four SDCCH subchannels (no CBCH) or three SDCCH and one CBCH subchannel.. Radio channel 12 .1) + SACCH/TH(0.4 ms in length. The timeslot 0 of BCCH carrier frequency does not have SDCCH channel or CBCH channel. such as combined BCCH/SDCCH and uncombined BCCH/SDCCH. Channel Combination Logical channel is mapped to physical channel according to certain rules.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 has a strong time-varying characteristic. interleaving and de-interleaving. it is necessary to protect the signals through a series of transformation and inverse transformation from original subscriber data or signaling data to the information carried by radio wave and then to subscriber data or signaling data.3. In order to solve these problems. Voice encoder divides voice into several 20 ms voice blocks and samples each block 13 . Voice encoder is based on residual excited linear prediction encoder (REIP) and its compression effect is strengthened through long term predictor (LTP). modulation and demodulation. See 1. These transformations include channel coding and decoding. encryption and decryption. multipath fading. The model parameters transmit through TCH channel.4 Forward and reverse data transmission process 1. It has a high error rate when the signal is influenced by interferences.1 Voice Coding Modern digital communication system usually uses voice compression technology. burst formatting.3 Figure 1. or shadow fading. GSM takes tone and noise from human throat as well as the mouth and tongue filter effect of acoustics as voice encoder to establish a model. LTP improves residual data encoding by removing the vowel part of voice.

260 bits are output after compression encoding. and then each sample gets 16 bits quantification value. Compared with the direct coding transmission of voice in traditional PCM channel. If the redundant bit of received data calculated with the same way is different from the received redundant bit. With full speed encoder. Next is channel coding. that is.3. errors must have occurred in transmission. so each block has 160 samples. The added data is calculated on the basis of original data with certain rules. With 20 ms as a unit.5kbps (half rate encoding). all channels (except RACH and SCH) are made of 464-bit block. Since the compression rates of frequency A and frequency μ are different. After channel coding. Different code is used in different transmission mode. Common coding schemes include block convolutional code. Reassemble and interleave coding bits and add a stealing flag to form interleaving bits. The block size depends on channel type. In control 14 . so the encoding rate is 13Kbit /s. This data flow is too fast to transmit in radio path and has to be compressed in encoder. 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 with 8 kHz. Each sample is quantified through frequency A 13 bits (frequency μ 14 bits). but the principle is trying to form a unified coding structure. 456 coded information bits plus 8-bit header (header is used to distinguish TCH and FACCH). The decoding process of receiving end is judging and correcting errors with this redundant bit. each logical channel has its own coding and interleaving mode. Then these blocks are reinterleaved (concerning channel). Therefore. 128 Kbit/s data flow is obtained after digitizing but before encoding. In practice. each voice block is encoded into 260 bits to form a 13 Kbit/s source coding rate. the 13kbps voice rate of GSM is much lower.  Encode information bit into a unified block code consisting of information bits and parity check bits. error correcting cyclic code and parity code. More advance voice encoder can reduce the rate to 6. In TCH/F voice service. The basic way of coding is adding some redundant information to the original data. several coding schemes are always combined together.2 Channel Coding Channel coding is used to improve transmission quality and remove the influence of interferential factors on signals at the price of increasing bits and information.   All these operations are based on block. this block carries one speech frame of information. Encode block code into convolutional code and form coding bits (usually 456 bits). In GSM. add three and two “0” bits to the quantification values respectively.

data is transmitted by Link Access Procedure on the Dm channel (LAPDm). In TCH/H voice service. SDCCH. The 260 bits of the 13 Kbit/s 20ms speech frame can be divided into three categories: 50 most import bits. error bits usually occur suddenly. Through 1/2 rate convolutional coding. . after coding. including 3-bit setup cause message and 5-bit discrimination symbol.3. 。 1. Channel 15 . In the case of SACCH. RACH message only has 8 bits. 36 bits are obtained. and the 456 bits code sequence is obtained. Each SCH contains 25-bit message field. speech signal turns into sequential frames. 132 important bits and 78 unimportant bits. These 25 bits plus 10 parity check bits and 4 tail bits are 39 bits. the long trough of deep feeding will affect the succeeding bits. a 20ms speech frame is encoded into 456-bit code sequence. each block of 456 coded information bits is divided into eight sub blocks. Each LAPDm frame has 184 bits. and these 53 bits together with 132 important bits and 4 tail bits are convolutionally encoded ( with 1/2 convolutional coding rate ) into 378 bits. The first four sub blocks are transmitted by even bits of the four timeslots borrowed from the continuous frames of TCH. leading to error bit strings. FACCH and SACCH. plus 4 tail bits to get 18 bits. speech information is transmitted by a block of 228 coded bits block. indicating whether the block belongs to TCH or to FACCH. while in transmission. PCH. 78 bits are obtained. BCCH or CCCH. 19 bits are frame number and 6 bits are BSC number. and the 456 bits code sequence is obtained. On the basis of these 8 bits. add 6 bits of color code (obtained through the MOD 2 of the 6-bit BSIC and 6-bit parity check code). together with 40 bits error correcting cyclic code and 4 tail bits. Through 1/2 rate convolutional coding. through 1/2 convolutional coding rate. this stealing flag is dummy. due to parametric variation of mobile communication channel. For FACCH. and the rest four sub blocks borrows odd bits of the four timeslots from the four continuous frames delayed for two or four frames after the first frame. Each 456 coded bit block has a stealing flag (8 bits). That is to say.3 Interleaving If speech signal is modulated and transmitted directly after channel coding. this block usually carries one piece of information. which will affect the accuracy of continuous frames. The synchronous information in Downlink SCH and the random access information in uplink use short coded bit blocks transmitted in the same timeslot. In TCH/F. Add 3 parity check bits to the 50 most important bits. In BCCH. AGCH. Among them. which occupy an entire SCH burst. plus the 78 unimportant bits. which occupy an entire RACH burst.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 channel.

5 Interleaving process 16 . GSM adopts secondary interleaving method. each group contains 57 bits. it is only about a single or very short bit stream and will not interrupt the decoding of the entire burst or even the entire information block. also called inter-block interleaving. Therefore. to transmit the continuous bits in a discontinuous mode so as to change the error channel into discrete channel. the continuity of information in a group is broken. that is.3. This is the first interleaving. the loss of this burst will lead to 25% loss of bits for this 20 ms voice block. is required between two voice blocks. Interleaving technology is the most effective code grouping method to separate error codes. even if an error occurs. a secondary interleaving. it is hoped to find a way to separate the continuous bits in a message. The entire interleaving process is shown in 1.3. these two factors must be considered in interleaving. Greater n value leads to better transmission performance but longer transmission delay. Interleaving is always related to the use of channel. Figure 1. As one burst contains two groups of 57-bit voice information. Therefore. After channel coding. After first interleaving. The 456 bits are divided into eight groups. Channel coding cannot restore so much loss. The essence of interleaving is to disperse the b bits into n bursts in order to change the adjacent relationship between bits. if the two-group 57 bits of a 20 ms voice block after first interleaving are inserted to the same burst. Therefore. Therefore. This method is called interleaving technology.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 coding only works for detection and correction of signal error or short error string. also called internal interleaving. Channel coding will correct the error bit under such circumstances.

or AGCH) is different from voice interleaving which requires three voice blocks. put block A at even position and block B at odd position of bursts. Encryption is achieved by XOR operation of poison random sequence (generated through A5 algorithm of encryption key Kc and frame number) and the 114 information bits of normal burst. (B1. A6. a 20 ms speech frame is inserted into eight normal bursts after secondary interleaving.833 Kbit/s and Viterbi algorithm. A6). It is used for normal burst only and has nothing to do with data type. A7) form four bursts.3 at the speed of 270. A5). GSM modulation adopts GMSK technology with BT being 0. The function of modulation is to add a certain feature to electromagnetic 17 . Similarly. the 456 bits of a voice block B are divided into eight groups. (B2.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 After internal interleaving.4 Encryption Security is a very important feature in digital transmission system. In order to break the consistency of bits. they can be corrected by channel coding. Theses eight bursts are transmitted one by one. A5. so the loss of one burst only affects 12. and A6). The same poison random sequence generated at receiving end and the received encryption sequence together produce the required data after XOR operation 1. and (B3. The secondary interleaving of control channel (SACCH. which is 37. to put B0 at odd position and A4 at even position. Interleaving is an effective way to avoid interference. GSM provides high security through transmission encryption. and B3) with the last four groups of voice block A (A4. interleave the last four groups of block B with the first four groups of block C. Interleave the first four groups of voice block B (B0. This kind of encryption can be used in voice. FACCH. MS and trunk circuit have echo cancellers added to remove the echo due to delay. A4). BCCH. Therefore.5 Modulation and Demodulation Modulation and demodulation is the last step of signal processing. B1.5% voice bits. and signaling. as these bursts have no relations with each other. that is. the delay period is (9*8)-7=65 bursts (SACCH occupying one burst). B2. In addition.5 ms. but it has a long delay. In the transmission of a 20 ms voice block. user data. The 456-bit voice block is divided into eight groups after internal interleaving (the same as that of voice block).3. PCH.3. Therefore. and then (BO. SDCCH. 1. and then the first four groups are interleaved with the last four groups (the same interleaving method as that of voice block) to get four bursts.

TA error may be about 3 bits (1. the signal in one timeslot from MS cannot be correctly decoded. Sometimes a greater coverage area is required. so the maximum radius of coverage area is: 1/2×3. and 6 to MS. The range of this value is 0–63(0–233 us). Therefore. and the maximum coverage area is 35km. Demodulation is the reverse process of modulation. such as in coastal areas. so will the signal from MS to BTS.25=219. According to the preceding description. 4/5. TA value stays at 63. If the delay is too long. 2/3. leading to inter-timeslot interference.7us/bit is the duration per bit (156/577). the report header carries the delay value measured by MS. Therefore. The maximum value of TA in BTS measurement report is 63+156. In GSM. the TA value of MS is in the normal range 0-63. The calculation is as follows: 1/2×3. for the area beyond 35 KM. 1/2 is related to the round-trip of signal. 2. prompting MS the timing advance (TA) value.6km). c is light velocity (transmission rate of signal). This feature is the data to transmit. and 6/7) for each TDMA frame in extended cell.25 bit.7us× (63+156. 63bit is the maximum bit for time coordination. 1bit to 554 m. so there are only four channels (0/1. The function of demodulation is to receive signals and restore the data in a modulated electromagnetic wave. Within 35 KM around BTS. and then into an electromagnetic wave. 4.25) ×3×108m/s=120km 18 . Allocate channels 0. the phase of electromagnetic field bears the information.7us/bit×63bit*c=35km 3. the number of channels that each TRX contains must be reduced. the signal from BTS to MS will be delayed. 1. A binary numeral has to be changed into a low-frequency modulated signal first. BTS monitors the arrive time of call and send command to MS with the frequency of 480 ms. The method is to bind odd and even timeslots. This technology is called extended cell technology. and this timeslot may even overlap with the timeslot of the next signal from other MS. If the MS moves away from BTS during calling.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 wave according to the rules.4 Timing advance Signal transmission has a delay. due to the influence of multipath transmission and the accuracy of MS synchronization.

MS can quickly and accurately locate network resources and make full use of all kinds of services that network provides. 6. 19 . 2. 2bis.4. 5bis. both common TRXs and dual timeslot TRXs can be included. 5. The calls within 35 km are allocated to common TRX. 3. 1. In real scheme. 7. Therefore. There are 16 types of system information: type1. BCCH must be in dual timeslot TRX to receive random access from any area. It informs all the MSs within the coverage area of location area. 4. 8. 5ter. System information is transmitted on BCCH or SACCH. MS receives system information in different mode from different logic channel. channel allocation and random access control. If the system detects the switched in call is within 35km.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. it will switch over this call to common TRX. and 13. If the MS in conversation goes beyond 35 km. in order to improve the utilization of TRX.5 System Information System information is sent to MS from network in broadcast form. cell selection and re-selection. the calls within 35 km– 120 km and the switched in calls are allocated to dual timeslot TRX. By receiving system information. neighbor cell information.6 Principle of dual timeslot extended cell The principle of dual timeslot extended cell is shown in 1. both the capacity requirement for remote areas and the coverage requirement for local areas can be satisfied. an intra-cell switchover will be carried out. 2ter.

transmitted on SACCH channel. used for cell re-selection   System information 2bis : Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description + RACH control information. System information 7: cell re-selection parameter System information 8: cell re-selection parameter      BCCH is a low-capacity channel. 7. TX_integer. System information 6 : Cell Global Identification (CGI) + cell option + NCC Permitted. CCCH-CONF. RE. transmitted on BCCH System information 2 : frequency description of neighbor cell + RACH control information + network color code (NCC) permitted. Neighbor cell BCCH frequency description contains the BCCH frequency that the neighbor cell uses. System information 2ter : Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description. 20 . System information 5bis : Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description. every 51 multiframes ((235 ms) have only four frames (one information block) to transmit a 23 byte LAPDm message. and AC CN. System information 5ter : Extended neighbor cell BCCH frequency description. System information 3 : Cell identity + location area identity (LAI) + control channel description + cell selection + cell selection parameter + RACH control parameter. used for cell re-selection. used for cell handover. Allowed PLMN is used to provide NCC Permitted that MS monitors on BCCH TRX. Each information unit contains:   Cell channel description contains all the frequencies used in this cell.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程   In idle mode. transmitted on BCCH.  System information 5 : Neighbor cell BCCH frequency description. LAI + cell selection parameter + RACH control parameter + CBCH channel description + CBCH mobile configuration. In communication mode. transmitted on BCCH. used for cell handover. EC.    System information 4 : transmitted on BCCH. transmitted on BCCH. system information 1– 4. system information 5 and 6 are transmitted on SACCH. transmitted on SACCH channel. BS-AG-BLKS-RES. Control channel description contains parameters such as MS    ATTACH/DEATTACH allowed Indicator ATT. used for cell handover. The content of system information is as follows:  System information 1 : cell channel description + RACH control parameter. transmitted on SACCH channel. and 8 are transmitted on BCCH . CBA. RACH control information contains parameters such as Max Retrans. transmitted on SACCH. used for cell re-selection. transmitted on BCCH.

discontinuous Transmission (DTX) indication.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 BA-PA-MFRMS. Cell selection parameter contains parameters such as cell re-selection hysteresis. This process is called cell selection. The cell is not in the national prohibited roaming location area. low. and penalty time (PT). The priority level of a cell is determined by CELL_BAR_QUALIFY (CBQ) and CELL_BAR_ACCESS (CBA). training sequence code (TSC). A proper cell means:     The cell belongs to the selected network. The path loss between MS and BTS is under the limit set by network. and RADIO-LINK-TIMEOUT. timeslot number (TN).1 Cell priority level CBQ 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 CBA Cell priority level Cell re-selection status Normal Barred Low Low Normal Barred Normal Normal 21 . The cell is not barred. MS-TXPWR-MAX-CCH. Cell re-selection parameter contains CELLRESELIND.    CBCH mobile configuration contains the relationship between hopping channel sequence and cell channel description. Low priority level cell is selected when there is no proper normal cell. and T3212. cell bar qualify (CBQ). and RXLEV-ACCESS-MIN.1 Cell Selection When a MS is switched on. it tries to contact GSM PLMN that the SIM permits and select a proper cell to extract control channel parameters and other system information. cell reselection offset (CRO). hopping frequency channel indication H. Table 6. mobile allocation index offset (MAIO).  Cell selection contains parameters such as power control (PWRC) indication.6 Cell Selection and Re-Selection 1. temporary offset (TO). The priority levels of cells include normal.6. hopping frequency sequence number (HSN) and absolute radio frequency channel number ( ARFCN). and barred. CBCH channel description contains channel type and TDMA deviation (the combination mode of dedicated channel).  1.

40 for 1800 M.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN.P). MS will keep on searching. Cell Selection Criteria Parameter C1 is the path loss criteria for cell selection. and calculate the RLA_C based on at least five samples in three to five seconds. II. C1 of the service cell must exceed 0. MS requires all the frequencies monitored to stay at the unweighted average value of Relev RLA_C. common cell selection will be performed.9s(n>1)to obtain the system information.9 s to read the synchronized BCCH TRX data. 0) In the formula: RLA_C: Average value of Relev 22 . Cell Selection When MS Storing No BCCH Information MS searches all RF channels (at least 30 channels for 900 M. MS will select the cell with the highest Relev.P). It takes a maximum of 0.MAX ((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH + POWER OFFSET. and then arrange these levels in descending order to select the proper BCCH. MS will probably choose 900 M network and ignore the priority level.5 s to synchronize a BCCH TRX and 1. If the cell selection within this list fails. MS will perform measurement sampling procedure (only for the stored BCCH TRX) according to this list. MS selects the cells with normal priority first. I.2 Cell Selection Process To perform cell selection and re-selection. If all the cells have low priority level.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1.RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN.MAX ((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH. the formula is as follows: C1= RLA_C . When a 900 M MS enters the 900/1800 network.6. MS has already decoded and identified all these frequencies by now. III. If the proper cells have low priority. 0) (2-1) For DCS 1800 cells: C1 = RLA_C . MS has already decoded and identified all these frequencies by now. except that it takes n*1. Cell Selection When MS Storing BCCH Information If MS stores the BCCH frequency list of the former selected networks. because the MS stores all the 900 M frequency information in BCCH frequency list. MS will select the cell with the highest Relev. If there is no proper cell. and 40 for PSC1900) in the system to obtain the Relev of each RF channel.

For multifrequency mobile phones. the TRXs with strongest signals may be in different frequency bands. In idle mode. This condition 23 . five consecutive paging blocks of that MS}. RLA_C is calculated by averaging the level samples received from 5s to Max {5s. If the BSIC of a TRX is changed. And the latter update may be even faster. Mobile phone checks the BSICs of the six BCCH TRXs with strongest signals to make sure they are in the same cell. N is the number of BCCH TRXs outside service area in BA list. mobile phone monitors all the BCCH TRXs in BA list and averages each Relev from BCCH TRX within 5 s to Max {5. ((5 * N + 6) DIV 7) * BS_PA_MFRMS / 4} s. Each time when mobile phone successfully decodes a message on its paging subchannel. DSC increases by 1.3 Down Link Failure Downlink failure criteria are based on DSC. when decoding fails. 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: Minimum Relev that MS allows MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH: Maximum transmit power on control channel P: Maximum transmit power of MS POWER OFFSET : Power offset related to MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH used by DCS1800 cells. Service area samples the Relev at least once for each paging block to mobile.4 Cell Re-Selection Process In cell re-selection. but DSC cannot exceed the initial value.6. this BCCH TRX data should be decoded within 30 s. When the mobile phone detects that a new BCCH TRX becomes one of the six TRXs with strongest signals. range value: 2–9). When a mobile phone stays in a cell.6. DSC is initialized to an integer most close to 90/N ( N is BS_PA_MFRMS. Down signaling link failure will lead to cell re-selection. 1. When DSC<=0. mobile phone will synchronize and read the information from six BCCH TRXs (in BA list) with strongest signals outside the service area. downlink failure occurs. DSC decreases by 4. Each RLA_C requires at least five level measurement samples and has to be updated from time to time. Each RLA_C update is followed by the update of the six BCCH TRXs outside the service area in BA list. MS will re-select a neighbor cell as service cell under certain condition. the MS will regard the TRX as new TRX and reread the BCCH data. Mobile phone decodes all the BCCH data in a service cell every other 30 s and the BCCH data blocks related to cell re-selection parameters of the six BCCH TRXs with strongest signals every other five minutes.

the temporary offset will be ignored. Otherwise. TEMPORARY_OFFSET will modify the C2 algorithm according to the defined value before the penalty time in order to avoid a micro cell or a cell with small coverage area is selected by a fast moving MS. PENALTY_TIME.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 includes several factors. When X>0. frequency reuse is more and more aggressive. under such circumstances. Cell re-selection adopts C2 algorithm. The C2 value of a certain cell (belonging to different location area from the current cell) exceeds the sum of the C2 value of the current service cell and cell selection hysteresis value by 5 seconds successively. If the defined penalty time is out. the problem of how to reduce frequency interference becomes more and more remarkable. cell restriction (decided by cell_bar and cell_bar_qualify). 1.7 Frequency Hopping With the ever growing traffic volume and the limited frequency resource. T is a timer. When a cell is included in the six neighbor cells with strongest signals by MS. function H(x) =0. These setting parameters of in C2 algorithm works only when and CELL_RESELECTION_INDICATION is activated. Penalty time can avoid the frequent cell re-selection in those coverage areas like express highway. and access state of the neighbor cell. After T starts. function H(x) =1. The calculation formula is as follows:  When PENALTY TIME is not 11111 C2=C1+CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET–TEMPORARY_OFFSET*H (PENALTY_TIME– T). TEMPORARY_OFFSET. The essence of anti- 24 . its initial value is 0. Therefore. such as RLA_C. the timer T of this cell begins to time. when X≤O. Cell re-selection will be triggered under the following conditions:  The C2 value of a certain cell (belonging to the same location area with the current cell) exceeds that of the current cell by 5 seconds successively. C2=C1. The C1 value of the service cell is less than 0 for 5 seconds successively. when a cell is excluded from the six neighbor cells with strongest signals by MS. CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET adjusts the value of C2. MS will ignore the CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET. MS detects downlink failure.     The current service cell is barred.  When PENALTY_TIME is 11111 C2=C1-CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET. T will be reset.

Therefore.  Timeslot hopping: the timeslot frequency of each TDMA frame changes once. the frequency remains the same during burst transmission. The hopping TRX should have a different MAIO. 25 . time domain. GSM frequency hopping belongs to slow frequency hopping. RF hopping is the only mode.  Baseband hopping: each transceiver works at a fixed frequency. discontinuous transmission (DTX). TX does not join in frequency hopping. Frequency hopping also can effectively reduce the influence of fast fading. and power control. which happens in baseband hopping. Frequency hopping sequence is a sequence of frequencies decided by hopping sequence number (HSN). Therefore. since each MS has only one TRX unit.  Frame hopping: the hopping frequency changes once in each TDMA frame period.1 Types of Frequency Hopping GSM radio interface uses slow frequency hopping (SFH) technology. The different channels of the same timeslot in the same cell adopt different MAIO. This sequence is frequency hopping sequence. The TCH of BCCH TRX cannot join in the frequency hopping in a cell. The difference between slow frequency hopping and fast frequency hopping is that the frequency of latter changes faster than frequency modulation.  RF hopping: both transmission and reception of TRX join in the frequency hopping. mobile allocation index offset (MAIO) and frame number (FN) through a certain algorithm in the mobile allocation containing N frequencies. Frequency hopping can be divided into frame hopping and timeslot hopping according to time domain and RF hoping and baseband hopping according to implementation mode. In GSM.7. The number hopping frequencies can exceed the number of TRXs in the cell. The TCH of BCCH TRX can join in the frequency hopping. the number of hopping frequencies cannot exceed the number of TRXs in the cell.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 interference is to fully utilize the current spectrum. The N channels of different timeslots can use the same hopping sequence. The two frequency hopping modes above are based on BTS. The key measures include frequency hopping. 1. and space resources. As for MS. Frame hopping is an exception of timeslot hopping. In frequency hopping. Frequency hopping is performed through the handover of banseband signal. the carrier frequency is controlled by a sequence and hops with time. Each TRX can be regarded as a channel.

which means the frequency of the input port to combiner changes. Since the transceiver of each BTS has a fixed working frequency. frequency can be changed according to certain rules. The working frequency of frequency band unit is provided by frequency combiner. each transceiver works with a fixed frequency. Baseband Hopping The system has multiple baseband and TRX processing unit. In RF hopping. Baseband hopping is based on the handover of baseband signals. This kind of broadband combiner leads to about 3dB insertion loss in two-in-one 26 . Each TRX processing unit has a fixed working frequency. Under the control of control unit. both broadband combiner and cavity combiner can be adopted. As the working frequency of TRX changes. RF Hopping Under this mode. This kind of frequency hopping is called “baseband hopping”. The number of TRXs is not limited by carrier frequency.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 I. each baseband processing unit processes one line of service information and sends the processed information to the TRX unit with bus topology in time sequence according to frequency hopping rule. only broadband combiner can be adopted. The problem for baseband hopping is that if one TRX board fails. The bursts on the same speech path are sent to each transceiver. Figure 1. In baseband hopping. the corresponding code word will be lost.7 Baseband hopping II. instead of the handover of baseband signals. each line of service information is processed by fixed baseband unit and frequency band unit. The number of TRXs decides the maximum number of frequency hopping. thus affecting all the calls under hopping mode in the cell. the frequencies used by a TRX to handle all the bursts of a call come from the frequency change of combiner.

MAIO: mobile allocation index offset. GSM protocol does not specify which kind of frequency hopping is used in GSM BTS. The proper setting ensures the healthy working state of the system. FN (0–2715647) synchronizes BTS with MS MA: mobile allocation.2 Frequency Hopping Algorithm The parameters related to frequency hopping algorithm are as follows:   CA: cell allocation. (0–N-1). 0– N-1) is used to determine the element of MA. During communication.    HSN: hopping sequence number (0–63). MA contains N frequencies. It is a subset of CA. That is to say.7. the actual frequency used is decided by MAI. The mode of frequency hopping can be decided by operators according to the equipments. broadcasted on sync channel. 1. 27 . MAIO is the initial offset of MAI and it is used to avoid the contention of frequency by several channels at the same time. Mobile allocation index (MAI. When HSN=0. 1≤N≤64.8 RF hopping 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 combination and the loss is greater in the link insertion of multi-combiner. Figure 1. the radio frequency at air interface is an element of MA. the hopping is random hopping.7. the collection of frequencies used by a cell FN: TDMA frame number. the collection of radio frequencies used for MS frequency hopping.2 is the flow chart of frequency hopping algorithm. The proper setting of parameters is based on the understanding of the use of each parameter in hopping algorithm and the hopping theory. when HSN≠0. It determines that the hopping sequence with concentrated frequencies is adopted in frequency hopping. the hopping is cyclic hopping.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 M AI (m0¡«mN-1) MAIO (0¡«N-1) FN T3(0¡«50) HSN (0¡«63) FN T1(0¡« 2047) FN T2(0¡« 25) NBIN bits 6bits 6bits 11bits T 1R= T1 MOD 64 5bits Represent in 7 bits 6bits Exclusive OR 6bits Addition 7bits Look-up table 7bits Addition T=T3 mod 2^NBIN NBIN bits N 8bits M'=M mod 2^NBIN 7bits M'<N NBIN bits Y S=(M'+T) mod N NBIN bits MAI=(S+MAIO) RFCN=MA£¨MAI£© Figure 1.9 Frequency hopping algorithm In 1.2: Mod: modular arithmetic ^: power arithmetic NBIN: number of bits required to represent N = INTEGER (log2 (N) +1) According to GSM protocol 0502: For cyclic hopping (HSN = 0): S=M' mod N NBIN bits 28 .7.

integer (0 .7. see 1.7.. integer (0 ..8 RNTABLE is a function with the parameters from integer 0 to 113. the probability of transmission and measurement of SACCH frame at the same frequency is rather high. 152) S. N 1) : : MAI = (FN + MAIO) modulo N (2-2) M = T2 + RNTABLE((HSN xor T1R) + T3) M' = M modulo (2 ^ NBIN) T' = T3 modulo (2 ^ NBIN) If M' < N: S = M' Otherwise: S = (M'+T') modulo N MAI. N 1) : Otherwise. because under such condition... the number of hopping frequencies should avoid N mod 13 = 0.. integer (0 . and the harms are obvious..2: Table 9.1 RNTABLE(X) The following conclusion can be used in the rough estimate of whether interfrequency or intra-frequency collision exists: MAI=(S+MAIO) MOD N 29 . See the description of DTX in section 1.. integer (0 . GSM protocol defines its values as shown in 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 MAI. N 1) : MAI = (S + MAIO) modulo N (2-3) Remarks: For the cyclic hopping in discontinuous transmission (DTX)..2: M.

S must be the same. in other cases. This kind of change is related to frequency: a more independent fading accompanies a greater frequency difference. A proper configuration of MAIO can avoid the inter-cell or intra-cell frequency collision within the same BTS. as the TRXs of each sync cell have the same frame number. Figure 1. When HSN=0. Rayleigh fading leads to the great change of radio signal in a short time.3 Benefits of Frequency Hopping In GSM. Therefore.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 RFCHN=MA (MAI). different hopping groups in sync cells can adopt the same HSN. I. S is only related to frame number and frequency hopping number. 1.10 Fading 30 . See I. frequency hopping has two benefits: frequency diversity and interference averaging. Frequency Diversity Frequency hopping can reduce the influence of signal strength change due to multipath transmission.7. all the bursts containing the code word of the same speech frame are protected from the damage of Rayleigh fading in the same way. The 200 KHz interval generally ensures the independence of inter-frequency fading. S equals the frame number. Through frequency hopping. The aggressive frequency reuse adopts this theory. while the 1 MHz interval can fully guarantee this kind of independence. In mobile communications. This effect equals that of frequency diversity. When HSN is fixed and frame number is the same.

When the MS moves at a high speed. Interference Averaging Frequency hopping provides the diversity of interference on transmission channel. When the number of frequencies decreases. the hopping gain falls. These C/I differences are the frequency hopping gain. The higher the speed is. Through error correction coding and interleaving of the system. The relationship between the number of frequencies and frequency hopping gain is shown in I. the location difference between two bursts on the same channel is also affected by other kinds of fading.5 6 6.5 6.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Statistics shows that frequency hopping gain is related to environmental factors. The basic way to test frequency hopping gain is to calculate the differences between different C/I at different hopping frequencies under the same FER. especially to the moving speed of MS. and the hopping gain is the processing gain after transmission frequency band spread. the lower the gain will be.1 The relationship between the number of frequencies and frequency hopping gain Number of TRXs in frequency hopping 〈=1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 >=11 0 3 4 5 5. Frequency diversity benefits a lot to a large number of MSs moving at low speed. The relationship between the number of frequencies and hopping gain can be explained in this way: frequency hopping is pseudo spectrum spread. Frequency hopping gain is also related to the number of frequencies.9 7 Gain of frequency diversity(dB) II. so that all the bursts containing the code word of the same speech frame are protected from the damage of interference in the same way.8 6. the original data can be restored from the rest part of 31 .3 6. (The actual gain may be affected by environment) Table 10.

But MS must complete the required task of network information measurement within a specified time. Therefore. The number of paging subchannels of each cell can be calculated based on the configuration type of CCCH. BSC has to send scheduling messages to support DRX at MS. The hopping gain is obtained only when the interference is in narrowband distribution. Some of the hardware equipments are even switched off to save the power of MS. Scheduling information contains the description of all short messages to be broadcast in order and also indicates the position of the messages in scheduling cycle. MS can calculate which group it belongs to based on the last three digits of its IMSI and the configuration of paging channel in this location area. In GPRS data services. Through scheduling messages.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 the received flow. frequency hopping can be harmful when the data rate is rather high (CS4). One scheduling message contains lots of broadcast short messages to be sent soon. Through DRX. In frequency hopping. MS just listens to the paging information from the system on its subchannel (MS also monitors the Relev of BCCH carrier frequency in non-service area during this period of time) and ignores the information on other paging subchannels. Each user (IMSI) belongs to a paging group and each paging group corresponds to a paging subchannel. error rate tends to increase in the test. in idle mode. but we feel the conversation quality improves. But in order to reduce power consumption. In fact. all the bursts will be destroyed and the original data cannot be restored.1 Discontinuous Reception and Paging Channel In idle mode. if MS selects a cell as its service cell. thus extending the service time. discontinuous reception (DRX) is introduced in GSM.8 Discontinuous Reception and Discontinuous Transmission 1. the speech restoring ability improves because of the interleaving and de-interleaving before. no hopping gain is obtained. MS can find the broadcast short messages it wants quickly so as to reduce its power consumption. and then locate the paging subchannel of this paging group. The common interference after frequency hopping can be regarded in narrowband distribution. It is because although the error rate increases. If the interference is in broadband distribution. it begins to receive the paging information from this cell. 1. MS can receive the broadcast short messages that the users want to know with less power consumption.8. The time that all broadcast short messages of a scheduling information takes is a scheduling cycle. the influence of interference is homogenized in frequency hopping. BS_AG_BLKS_RES (the number of blocks belonging to 32 .

in case one physical timeslot is not enough. MS will listen to system information again to judge the cell re-selection process.  When CCCH_CONF is confirmed. Its primary function is to transmit immediate assignment messages and paging messages. After measuring the system information. The combination mode of CCCH depends on the parameter CCCH_CONF.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 AGCH in 51 multiframe).  When the traffic volume is extremely large. the less power the MS in this service area takes.  The longer the cycle of paging channel. the more the paging subchannels. but the total capacity of the system remains the same. because the average delay of the paging information on radio channel increases. BS_PA_MFRMS should be reduced to shorten the paging delay. the number of paging subchannels is (9. when the ratio of retransmission waiting is relatively low. CCCH mainly includes AGCH and PCH. It is recommended that when there is only one TRX in a cell. but these channels must be used in timeslot 0. this cycle can be defined as 2. When the ratio of retransmission waiting is relatively high.BS_AG_BLKS_RES)×BS_PA_MFRMS In addition. It is recommended that this 33 . When there are three CCCHs in a 51 multiframe. the configuration of CCCH parameters has the following principles:  The greater the parameter BS_PA_MFRMS. The MS with the paging channel cycle of 6 consumes 18% less power than the MS with the paging channel cycle of 2. and the less the users of each paging subchannel. which means MS listens to paging messages once for every 102 frames. After 30 s. parameter BS_AG_BLKS_RES actually decides the ratio of AGCH and PCH on CCCH. this cycle can be defined as 4 or 6. In rural areas. MS enters the rest state and listens to the paging information in the specified paging blocks only and measures the Relev of BCCH of neighbor cells at the same time. For example. and 6. the configuration of CCCH can be a physical channel shared with SDCCH (3 CCCH information blocks).  The capacities of paging subchannels of all cells in a location area should be the same. BS_PA_MFRMS should be improved to increase the paging subchannels.  In GSM. the number of paging subchannels is (3. and BS_PA_MFRMS (the number of 51 multiframes used as one paging subchannel cycle). The configuration of CCCH_CONF must be consistent with the actual configuration. GSM specification allows the configuration of multiple CCCH channels on the TRX besides BCCH. because the paging message of a location area must be sent in all the cells of this location area at the same time. 4.BS_AG_BLKS_RES) ×BS_PA_MFRMS When there are nine CCCHs in a 51 multiframe. CCCH can be one or several physical channels and it can also share a physical channel with SDCCH. in cities. 2.

260-bit code is transmitted in every 480 ms. Whether the downlink DTX is adopted or not is controlled by network operators of the exchange part. In normal mode. In DTX mode. This kind of control is based on BSC. If all the information is transmitted to network. 1. Its coding scheme is shown in I: Table 10. and then arrives at TC through the inband signaling of TRAU frame to indicate whether downlink DTX is adopted. This kind of noise is called comfort noise. the transmission of unuseful messages is prohibited. There are two kinds of transmission modes in GSM: normal mode and discontinuous transmission (DTX) mode. MS only sends man-made noise signals that are tolerable. in addition. many of the system resources will be wasted. no useful information is transmitted during the rest 60% time.8. which means this noise will not annoy the listeners nor affect the conversation. In order to solve this problem. Uplink DTX is configured by network operators of the radio part. noise and voice have the same transmission quality.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 parameter be configured as little as possible in order to reduce the response time of MS to paging. 260-bit code is transmitted in every 20 ms. the interference level is reduced and the system efficiency is improved. DTX Overview During communication. Therefore.2 Value range of DTX DTX 00 01 10 11 Meaning MS can use DTX MS must use DTX MS is not allowed to use DTX Reserve Parameter DTX is contained in “cell option” of information unit and transmitted periodically in the system information of each cell broadcast. GSM adopts DTX technology to stop signal transmission when there is no voice signal. the interference will aggravate. In DTX mode. The control information is transmitted to baseband processing part through dedicated signaling channel. The parameter DTX in system information consists of 2 bits. For some vendors.2 DTX I. in normal mode. MS decides whether to 34 . only 40% time is used for conversation. the downlink DTX can be configured on the basis of cell.

The SID frame will go through channel coding. There are two kinds of measurement in GSM: full 35 . no information is transmitted except SACCH timeslot. When the background noise is too loud. Measurement Uplink DTX and downlink DTX are two irrelevant procedures that are activated by system parameters respectively. Therefore. BCCH TRX does not use this technology. Downlink DTX can save BTS power consumption and reduce interference and intra-BTS intermodulation. a complete SACCH information block has four 26 muliframe cycles (480 ms). VAD can differentiate voice from noise through calculating some signal parameters and threshold values. the encoder must detect the signal is voice or noise. After sampling and quantification. can greatly expand the system capacity. Voice Activity Detection For voice activity detection (VAD). encryption and modulation and finally be sent by eight continuous bursts. the VAD is required. Silence Indicator The coding procedure of noise is the same as that of voice. the first SID frame is interleaved with the preceding voice frame and the following SID frame.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 start DTX function based on this information. which forms a SID frame. The benefits of DTX are listed below:   Uplink DTX can save MS batteries and reduce interference. Like voice block. DTX can be used for voice signal transmission and nontransparent data transmission. In order to differentiate voice frame and SID frame. This kind of differentiation is based on an energy rule: the energy of noise is always lower than that of voice. During other time of the 480 ms.  II. Uplink DTX and downlink DTX used together can improve the intra-frequency ratio of the system. IV. VAD generates a group of threshold value in every 20 ms to judge whether the next 20ms block is voice or noise. This kind of improvement. the coded noise block also contains 260 bits. On TCH. When DTX mode is activated. the noise signal will be regarded as voice signal to transmit. the source must indicate when the transmission is required. The SID frame made from the 20 ms noise block is interleaved with the preceding frame and the following frame. when used in aggressivefrequency-reuse cell planning. these eight continuous bursts are arranged at the beginning of the third multiframe. a noise block will be produce by encoder in every 20ms. interleaving. III. especially when used with frequency hopping.

Although whether to adopt uplink or downlink power control function is decided by network operators. The downlink power control range is decided by equipment manufacturer. which means the maximum transmission power is 33 dbm).2 MS Power Control The power control of MS includes two adjustment stages: stable adjustment stage 36 . the transmission power of the peer end can be reduced to lower the interference to other calls.1 Power Control Overview Power control is to change the transmission power of MS or BTS (or both) in radio mode within certain area.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 measurement and sub measurement. 54. Based on the power class of MS (most MSs belongs to class 4. 57. GSM protocol specifies that no power control is allowed for the timeslots in the downlink of BCCH TRX. Global measurement is the average of the level and quality of the 104 timeslots in a measurement cycle (four 26 multiframes). the frame numbers of these four bursts are 12. To facilitate BCCH frequency pull-in and the measurement of Relev (including the Relev of neighbor cell BCCH frequency). the frame numbers that the eight timeslots correspond to can be obtained in this way). Power control can reduce the system interference and improve the spectrum utilization and prolong the service time of MS battery. no matter the uplink DTX or downlink DTX is activated or not. In GSM. when no voice or signaling is transmitted.9. similarly. 38. each step can change 2 dB. 0-103 TDMA frames as a cycle. 53. and 59. The power control range for uplink MS is 20 dB–30dB. and 90. When the Relev and quality is good. 64. The frame numbers of these eight bursts are 52.9 Power Control 1. 58. the descriptor of comfort noise they contain is called SID) and four SACCH bursts (0-103 TDMA frames as a cycle. all MSs and BTS equipments must support this function. including eight continuous TCH bursts (for TCH/F. 56.9. 1. the frame number is that of timeslot 0 plus 13. 1. local measurement is the average of level and quality of 12 timeslots. for timeslot 0. power control can be used in uplink and downlink respectively. BTS and MS must complete these two kinds of measurement. Each SACCH measurement report of BTS and MS indicates whether DTX is used in last measurement report time. 55. BSS manages the power control in the two directions. In order to achieve uniformity. for timeslot 1. BSC choose one of the two kinds of measurement based on this indication.

Initial adjustment is used at the beginning of call connection. Stable adjustment is the common way to implement power control algorithm. Since BTS can support multi-call at the same time. 37 . MS accesses to network through RACH with the maximum power broadcast on BCCH. The system specifies that the power level of the first message that MS sends on DCH is also this value. the system will send power adjustment command. The required parameters in uplink power control. before MS receives the next power control message.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 and initial adjustment stage. Therefore. After receiving a certain number of uplink MRs. MS sends signals with nominal power (before receiving power adjustment commend. In addition. the nominal transmission power of MS is the maximum transmission power on BCCH of the cell. The system control begins after MS receives the power control command in SACCH information block from SDCCH or TCH. it will transmit with its maximum transmission power. the Rxlev should be quickly reduced in the new connection. If the calculated power level differs from the output power level of MS and meets certain limit conditions (such as step limit of power adjustment and range limit of MS output power). Otherwise. it will adopt other power level most close to this level. This level is the power level of the last burst in the previous SACCH measurement cycle. The maximum change rate of MS power is 2 dB for every 60 ms. it takes three measurement cycles to send power control message and execute the command. For 12 dB. and the uplink received quality can be adjusted according to the situation of the cell. If MS does not support this power level. When MS power is lower than this value. MS will configure the power level it uses now in its uplink SACCH information block and send it to BTS in measurement report. other calls supported by this BTS will deteriorate and the calls in other cells will also be affected.2. it will not end as one SACCH measurement cycle takes 480 ms. One power control message does not make the MS switch to the required level immediately. Therefore. the power control cycle should not be too short in order to ensure its accuracy. the system compares the actual uplink Rxlev and received quality obtained by interpolation. so MS can be adjusted according to stable power control algorithm. and other methods with the expected values and calculate the power level that the MS should be adjusted to through power control algorithm. such as the maximum power level supported by the classmark of MS in indication message establishment). The purpose of initial adjustment stage is to quickly reduce the transmission power of MS to get the stable MR. When a connection occurs. When MS receives the power control information in SACCH information block from DCH. See 1. filtering. the expected uplink Rxlev. The command of changing MS power and the required time advance will be sent to MS in the layer 1 header of each downlink SACCH information block.9. it will transmit with this power level.

level 63 is the highest Rxlev. The required parameters are Rxlev threshold (lower limit).11 Execution of power control command The purpose of uplink power control adjustment is to minimize the difference between the actual uplink Rxlev and received quality and the expected uplink Rxlev and received quality. Level 0 is the lowest Rxlev. The Relev is divided into 64 levels ranging from 0 to 63. Static power control step is defined in the cell distributes list of data management 38 . Dynamic power control is the fine tuning based on static power control.3 BTS Power Control BTS power control is an optional function.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. There are six steps (2 dB/step) of static power control according to Protocol 0505. The difference between initial adjustment and stable adjustment is that the expected uplink Relev and received quality and the length of filter in initial adjustment are different from that of stable adjustment. BTS power control is divided into static power control and dynamic power control. and the maximum transmission level can be received (upper limit). 1. The purpose of interpolation and filtering is to process the lost measurement reports and remove temporary nature to ensure the stability of power control algorithm. and the initial adjustment only has downlink adjustment. It is similar to MS power control.9. but it only uses stable power control algorithm. If the maximum output power is 46 dBm (40W). the step 6 is 34 dBm.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

system, which specifies the maximum output power (suppose this value is Pn) of static power control. For step 15 of dynamic power control, the corresponding value range is Pn dB–Pn-30dB. When the maximum power control still cannot satisfy the requirement, adjust static power control step to improve the maximum output power of dynamic power control Pn.

1.9.4 Power Control Processing
I. Measurement Report Interpolation
Each measurement report has a sequence number. If network detects incontinuous sequence numbers, it means some of the measurement reports are missing. The network will complete the reports based on interpolation algorithm. As shown in I, the network receives measurement reports n and n+4. It detects the sequence numbers are not continuous, so it uses an algorithm to add n+1, n+2, and n+3 (yellow) to complete the reports. The purpose of measurement report interpolation is to avoid call loss when the power is too low.

Figure 1.12 Measurement report interpolation

II. Measurement Report Filtering
Network will not judge the state of MS based on only one measurement result, because that is too incomprehensive, in addition, the MS may be fluctuating. Therefore, filtering is required. Filtering combines several continuous measurement results together to determine the state of MS during this period of time. In II, the network uses four measurement reports (yellow). TA has filters for Rxlev and received quality of uplink and downlink The purpose of measurement report filtering is to remove temporary nature and


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

ensure the algorithm stability.

Figure 1.13 Measurement report filtering

III. Power Control Adjustment
Calculate the power adjustment value based on the difference between the Rxlev and the expected value.

Power control adjustment based on Rxlev

Power control module compares the estimate value of Rxlev obtained through preprocessing of measurement report with the expected value, and calculates the step length of adjustment. In power control algorithm, variable step is often used for quick power control.

Power control adjustment based on received quality

Power control module compares the estimate value of received quality obtained through pre-processing of measurement report with the expected value, and calculates the step length of adjustment. When the received quality is bad, improve the transmit power; when the received quality is good, reduce the transmit power. This kind of power control adopts fixed step.

Comprehensive decision for power control

Consider both Rxlev and received quality and adopt different power control strategies in different conditions to keep the stability and efficiency of power control algorithm. Table 13.1 Comprehensive decision for power control Relev power control adjustment Reduce TP Reduce TP Reduce TP Improve TP Received quality power control adjustment Reduce TP Improve TP No action Reduce TP Comprehensive power control adjustment Reduce transmit power No action Reduce TP Improve TP


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

Improve TP Improve TP No action No action No action Note: TP = transmit power

Improve TP No action Reduce TP Improve TP No action

Improve TP Improve TP Reduce TP Improve TP No action

III shows how comprehensive decision for power control works. When the received quality requires the improving of transmit power while the Rxlev requires the reducing of it, the system will make a comprehensive decision to perform no power control adjustment, because bad received quality and good Rxlev represent strong network interference. Under such circumstances, improving transmit power will further increase the interference.

1.10 Immediate Assignment Procedure
The purpose of immediate assignment is to establish a radio connection (RR connection) between MS and system at Um interface.

1.10.1 Network Access License and Random Access Request
The request of MS for channel assignment is controlled by its own access level and the access grant level broadcast in cell. Each MS has one access level of the ten levels from 0 to 9. In addition, it may also have one or several levels of the five special access levels from l1 to 15. Access level is stored in SIM card. BCCH system information broadcasts access levels and special access levels that the network grants and the information that whether all MSs allow emergency call or allow special access levels only. If the mobile originated call is not emergency call, the MS can access to network only when it belongs to the granted access level or granted special access level. If the mobile originated call is emergency call, the MS can access to network only when all the MSs in the cell allow emergency call or it belongs to the granted special access level. When an MS wants to establish connection with the network, it sends a channel request to network through RACH channel. Channel request information contains 8bit useful signaling information, among which 3 bits–6 bits are used as the minimal indicator of access cause. The system processes different channel requests based on this rough indication. It differentiates the granted calls from the denied calls and


this indicator cannot transfer all the information from MS. These kinds of information are sent in the following SABM messages. Immediate assignment command carries the discriminator sent by the previous MS. MS will retransmit access request for the messages that are not received or rejected when T3120 times out under the premise that RET is not exceeded and restart the T3120. This kind of algorithm defines three parameters: Tx_interger T. MS compares this discriminator with its own discriminator and judges whether it is the message for itself from network. 1. Since there are at most 5 bits in the 8 bits information carrying discriminator. This kind of process is especially useful when the network is overload and the flow control is required. This message contains important additional information and the estimation of TA by BTS. Further discrimination of the MSs requires the response information at Um interface. RACH is a kind of ALOH. In order to improve channel efficiency.10. In GSM. See the description of this parameter in Chapter 7. Each time after MS sends access request. After receiving this message. the maximum retransmission times RET. BTS sends a channel required message to BSC. When the retransmission times reaches RET and T3120 times out. In order to reduce the collision on RACH during MS access to network and improve the efficiency of RACH channel and MS access. T represents the number of timeslots between two transmissions when continuous channel requests are sent. When T3126 times out. user identity and the features of mobile equipment. S is an intermediate variable depends on T and the configuration of CCCH. Channel request information belongs to internal information of BSS. BTS will send an immediate assignment command or immediate assignment extended message on CCCH. GSM introduces the message layout of immediate assignment extended that contains the assignment information of two MSs. The immediate assignment 42 . BTS returns a channel active acknowledge message to BSC. such as the detailed cause of channel request. T3120 is to receive (or reject) immediate assignment message.2 Initial Immediate Assignment After decoding the channel request information. Since the channel capacity is limited. and parameter S related to T and channel combination. The 8-bit information also contains the random discriminator sent by the MS and the immediate assignment command (it contains information about the assigned channel). cell re-selection will be initiated.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 assigns proper channels for the granted calls. T3126 will be started to receive (or reject) immediate assignment message. RET is the MS maximum retransmission times allowed in order to avoid access collision. If BSC receives this message. GSM specifies the required access algorithm for MS. BSC selects a proper channel for this request and activates the land resources by sending a channel active message to BTS. only 32 MSs can be differentiated at the same time.

When two MSs send the same channel requests (which is possible in high traffic volume area). MS must identity the immediate assignment (extended) information for the last three channel requests. Then it starts to establish the signaling link by using Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode (SABM) command. MS will abandon this channel and start reaccess process. Before T3122 times out. MS stops T3120 based on one of the last three channel requests and starts T3122. and supplementary service). All these messages contain the identity of MS. after receiving SABM frame. If the information of UA frame is different from that of SABM frame. SABM frame carries four kinds of initial messages: CM service request (such as call setup. Only the right MS can stay on this channel. BTS makes no modification but sends a UA frame (no frame number acknowledgement) containing the same information as that of initial message. short message. After receiving immediate assignment message. and paging response. During the specified time of T3122. and MS classmark (indicating some key features such as transmission power 43 . According to GSM protocol. MS adjusts its configuration of transmission and reception to the assigned channel and transmits signaling according to the TA value specified by BSS and the initial maximum transmission power broadcast in BCCH system information (see the description of msTxPwrMaxCCH). location updating request (generic location updating.10. 1. in order to save this problem. MS will stop T3120 or T3126 and switch to the assigned channel. and IMSI attach). If there is no channel to activate. BSC will send an immediate assignment reject or immediate assignment extended reject message to MS. the two MSs may respond to the same dedicated channel. According to GSM specifications. periodic location updating. IMSI detach. detailed access cause.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 message contains the assignment information of one MS. MS cannot initiate connection attempt except emergency call within the same cell. MS compares the received assignment command with the information stored in its channel request and judges whether this message is for itself. SABM carries an initial message that contains layer 3 service request information. If this message matches one of its last three channel requests. MS has no access to network and turns into idle mode. MS sends an SABM frame on assigned SDCCH/TCH to establish the asynchronous balanced mode (SAPI=0) that is used to establish signaling message link layer connection under acknowledgement mode. After receiving the reject message.3 Initial Message After receiving immediate assignment message and decoding it.

Authentication or encryption is triggered when required in the following processing. After receiving the initial message. Then the MM connection begins. MS identification number. If the failure is caused by the mismatch of message field in decision contention 44 . MSC sends connection confirmed message to BSC (if the connection cannot be established. and some physical information of the MS such as transmit power level. and short message.4 Immediate Assignment Failure  If a failure occurs to the underlaying MS on the new channel before the establishment of signaling link. pseudo-synchronization. BSS monitors the transmission quality and prepares for handover. emergency call. Layer 3 information carries the causes for CM service request. the network releases the assigned channel of MS.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 level. MSC can control the transmission properties of RR management. short message capacity. The process of immediate assignment is shown in 1. The following processing depends on the failure type and previous actions. Figure 1. MSC will send SCCP refused message) to indicate that the signaling link between MS and MSC has been established. which includes mobile originated call. and frequency capacity). By this time. After receiving this information.10. This information also carries cipher key sequence number. T3101 starts when BSC sends channel active message to BTS and ends when the establish indication is received. the activated channel will be released.14 Immediate assignment In the immediate assignment process. and short message service. 1. If T3101 times out before signaling channel is established. location updating. BSC receives this message and sends complete layer 3 information to MSC to request SCCP connection to MSC. ciphering algorithm. encryption algorithm.10.3. BTS sends an establish indication message to BSC.

This group is stored in the data base of this client in HLR. When there are two groups left. Each client is assigned a Mobile Station International ISDN Number (MSISDN) and IMSI when registers in GSM network. Generally. RAND. RAND and Ki together produce a response number SRES through A3 authentication algorithm and a Kc through A8 encryption algorithm. network releases the assigned channel. encryption. HLR can save ten groups of such parameters. HLR sends five groups at the same time for MSC/VLR to use one by one. authentication through authentication center (AUC) for network access. and equipment identity register.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 and no re-assignment is initiated. RR connection fails. MS accesses the channel with the frequency used in channel request. RR connection fails.1 Authentication Authentication is the process that GSM network checks whether the IMSI or TMSI from MS at radio interface is valid or not. MSC/VLR will request for transfer again. Authentication and encryption require a group of three parameters that generated in AUC.11 Authentication and Encryption GSM takes lots of measures to protect the safety of system. If MS does not support the assigned frequency. In AUC. Kc. IMSI is preserved onto SIM card through SIM printer and SIM printer will generate a corresponding client authentication value Ki that is stored in SIM card and AUC as permanent information. the immediate assignment is restarted. and A5 that are used for authentication and encryption. using Personal Identification Number (PIN) to protect SIM card. MS turns into idle mode and triggers cell re-selection. GSM defines algorithm A3. RR connection fails.   If T3101 times out before the signaling channel is established. such as using Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) to protect IMSI. The purpose of authentication is to avoid unauthorized access to GSM network and the theft of private information by illegal 45 . AUC has a pseudo number generator used to generate a random number RAND. AUC transfers five groups of parameters to HLR for automatic storage. If the failure is caused by other reasons or if the re-assignment triggered by the mismatch of message field in decision contention is carried out and the assignment still fails. and SRES form a three-parameter group of client.11. 1. When MSC/VLR requests for three-parameter group transfer.  If the available information is not sufficient to define a channel after the MS receives immediate assignment message. If the assigned frequencies of MS belong to two or more than two frequency bands. 1. A8. If the assigned frequency of MS is not consistent with the requested frequency but supported by MS. Network cannot tell whether MS resends the access attempt or not.

I. Service access. If they are not consistent. Authentication procedure is initiates and controls by network. It is stored in both SIM card and MSC/VLR. MSC/VLR sends an authentication request message to MS to initiate authentication procedure and T3260. During the initial access of MS. CKSN is sent to MSC/VLR through the initial request message of SABM frame. If CKSN=0. MS does not send Kc value to network through radio path for the sake of privacy. Authentication also provides parameters for MS to calculate new encryption key. Therefore. Authentication Success The procedure for authentication success is shown in I: Figure 1. Kc value needs to be recalculated. MS terminated call. Cipher Key Sequence Number (CKSN) is introduced. if not.15 Procedure for successful authentication 1) AUTHENTICATION REQUEST contains a RAND (128 bits) and a CKSN. Mismatching Cipher key Sequence. CKSN is sent to MS by MSC/VLR through authentication request message during the last network access. The Ki 46 . authentication is required before encryption. MS activation and deactivation.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 users. The network initiates authentication procedure in the following situations:   MS requesting for the change of information in VLR or HLR. including MS originated call.   Whether to initiate authentication procedure depends on if the Kc value of the last service processing stored in network consistent with that of the present access stored in MS. If consistent. authentication procedure can be escaped and this Kc value is used directly for encryption. MSC/VLR compares it with the last CKSN. The first network access after MSC/VLR reboot. and supplementary services. it means no Kc is assigned.

If MS receives AUTHENTICATION REJECT message in other state. the network will send AUTHENTICATION REJECT to the MS. such as encryption. it means AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE is invalid. the network will restart the authentication procedure. Authentication Reject If authentication fails.  If the MS uses IMSI. it stops T3220 after RR connection is released. it exits all MM connections and call re-establishment procedures. and then enters the subsequent procedures.16 Procedure for authentication reject After sending AUTHENTICATION REJECT message. the network will initiate identity procedure. The procedure for authentication reject is shown in II: MS BTS BSC MSC AUT_REQ(1) AUT_RES(2) AUT_REJ(3) Figure 1. MSRR exits abnormally. stops T3210 and T3230. MS sets the roaming disabled flag and deletes information such as TMSI. the network releases all the MM connections under establishment and restarts the procedure for RR connection release. if the IMSI is correct. and cipher key. 2) MS sends AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE to network.  If the MS uses TMSI. If the IMSI provided by the MS is different from that in network. The new Kc replaces the former key and is stored in SIM card together with CKSN. LAI. MS initiates local release procedure after the normal release procedure or T3220 timeout. if not (such as the IMSI detach after switch off).GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 and RAND together generate a SERS (32 bits) through algorithm A3 and a Kc (64 bits) through algorithm A8. If possible. the network stops T3260 and checks its validity (network compares it with the SERS generated by Ki and RAND through algorithm A3 and check whether they are consistent or not). If MS receives AUTHENTICATION REJECT message in IMSI DETACH INITIATED state. the network will send AUTHENTICATION REJECT directly to MS. sets and 47 . II. After receiving AUTHENTICATION REJECT message. After receiving this message.

BSC transfer it to MSC. Signaling Procedure MS BTS BSC Encryption Mode CMD (2) Ciphering Mode CMD (3) Ciphering Mode CMP (4) Cipher Mode CMP (5) MSC Cipher Mode CMD (1) Figure 1. MS starts the transmission of ciphering mode and sends Ciphering Mode CMP to the system. Under the two conditions above. and then inform BTS. and the encryption algorithm that MS supports. the encryption algorithm that BSC allows. Procedure Description  A5 algorithm GSM protocol specifies eight kinds of encryption algorithm from A5/0 to A5/7. MS will exit RR connection abnormally. After receiving Ciphering Mode CMD. as well as the encryption ability of MS.17 Encryption procedure 1) 2) MSC sends BSC a Ciphering Mode CMD that contains encryption algorithm.2 Encryption Encryption occurs in service requests such as location updating. It requires the support of GSM network equipment (especially BTS). The encryption information of Cipher Mode CMD specifies the required encryption 48 . 3) 4) 5) BSC sends MS Ciphering Mode CMD to inform MS of the selected encryption algorithm. II. BSC decides the final algorithm based on the encryption algorithm in Ciphering Mode CMD.11. The encryption procedure is initiated by the network. Kc. A5/0 stands for no encryption.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 starts T3240 to enter WAIT FOR NETWORK COMMAND state and wait for the release of RR connection. The encryption procedure is shown in I: I. and inter-office handover. After receiving the Ciphering Mode CMP from MS. MS enters MM IDLE and NO IMSI state. service access. and whether the MS is required to add IMEI in Ciphering Mode CMP. 1. If RR connection is not released after T3240 timeout.

the network allocates a TMSI to it. due to the limitation of ETSI GSM PHASE I protocol (no ciphering mode setting information unit in handover command). For the interconnection of A-interfaces when the encryption is used. one sequence is used for MS encryption and BTS decryption. A5/2.  Encryption in handover The HANDOVER REQUEST contains the encryption information unit that indicates the required encryption algorithm and key.3 TMSI Reallocation After authentication and encryption.  Encryption algorithm selection When MS initiates call request.11. the Classmark 3 is reported after CLASSMARK ENQUIRY is initiated by the network. BSC chooses the intersection of the encryption algorithm allowed in the command sent by MSC. MS reports Classmark 3 immediately. Therefore. or A5/3. 1. or A5/7(In system information. After receiving this message. if ECSC=1. if ECSC = 0. BSC selects a proper algorithm based on the priority level of A5/7 > A5/6 > A5/5 > A5/4 > A5/4 > A5/3 > A5/2 > A5/1 > A5/0. If one of the two A interfaces of BSS is in PHASE I. The algorithm that generates encrypted code is called A5 algorithm. special treatment has to be made to the target MSC or target BSC (or the source MSC or source BSC) to change the handover command for inter-BSC handover. it saves the TMSI and LAI and sends TMSI reallocation complete message. the configuration of ECSC = 1 is recommended when the encryption is used). the system sends CM SERVICE ACCEPT or TMSI reallocation command to MS and initiates T3250. In the intersection.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 algorithm. the encryption algorithm allowed in BSC data configuration. and reports Classmark 3 in CLASS MARK CHANGE to further indicate whether the MS supports Algorithm A5/4. it releases the TMSI. For each burst. When the MS receives the TMSI reallocation command. Two encryption sequences are used for uplink and downlink. A5/5. MSC sends encryption command based on the configuration of secret data. When MS registers in the location area for the first time. When the MS leaves this location area. the SABM frame carries Classmark 1 or 2 to indicate whether the MS supports algorithm A5/1. and the encryption algorithm supported in the MS report. Otherwise. It calculates by using the Kc (64 bits) and the current frame number (22 bits) to generate a 114-bit encryption sequence and then implements XOR operation with the 114-bit burst. the network stops 49 . whether special data configuration is required for BSC and MSC must be considered. the two A interfaces match only when they share the same encryption algorithm (such as A5/2) to ensure the normal interBSC handover. A5/6. the other sequence is used for BTS encryption and MS decryption.

The identification program is initiated before the TMSI reallocation to request for the IMSI. it sends CIPHER MODE REJECT message to MSC. If the system cannot identify TMSI of the MS. for example. and IMSI reallocation are implemented if required. Encryption  Encryption reject If BSS does not support the encryption algorithm specified in CIPHERING MODE CMD.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 T3250. it releases all the MM connections and terminates all the active MM procedures.11. Authentication  RR connection failure If the network detects RR connection failure before receiving AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE. the MS must provide its IMSI. authentication. If the T3260 times out before the AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE is received. BSS also sends CIPHER MODE REJECT message to MSC.  T3260 timeout T3260 is started when MSC sends authentication request to BSC and stops when MSC receives AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE. the network releases RR connection.4 Exceptional Situations I. when the data base error occurs. If the encryption is initiated in BSS before MSC requests for the change of encryption algorithm. II. terminates the authentication procedure and all the active MM procedures. When this procedure is over. and then releases all the MM connections and initiates RR connection release procedure. the MS provides its IMSI by sending identity response message to the network. after receiving this message. encryption. 50 .  Unregistered SIM card If the SIM card of the MS is not registered. 1.  Un-encrypted MS The CIPHERING MODE COMMAND message is valid when: –The un-encrypted MS receives CIPHERING MODE COMMMAND message that requires encryption. the network sends AUTHENTICATION REJECT message directly to the MS. The identification program sends identity request message to the MS.

registration is required. all the MM connections are released and both the old and new TMSIs are saved during a certain recovery time. the paging information cannot be sent in the whole network due to the capacity limit of the paging channel. 1. if cell re-selection occurs when the MS moves within the LA.1 Generic Location Update (Inter-LA Location Update) When the MS moves from one LA to another LA. LAC contains many cells.12 Location Update In GSM. In other cases. 1. the MS will not inform the network immediately but implement cell re-selection without location 51 .12. periodic location update. and IMSI attach. Therefore. MSC sends CLEAR COM message to release RR connection and terminate TMSI reallocation. This procedure is called generic location update. The size of the LA is of vital importance to the system performance in network design.  T3250 timeout T3250 is started when MSC sends TMSI_ REALL_ CMD message or LOC UPD ACC message with the new TMSI and stops when MSC receives TMSI _REALL_COM.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 –The un-encrypted MS receives CIPHERING MODE COMMMAND message that requires non-encryption. Location update is divided into generic location update. The MS sends RR STATUS message with the cause of protocol error and performs no action. III. CIPHERING MODE COMMAND is considered wrong. TMSI Reallocation  RR connection failure If RR connection fails before TMSI reallocation complete message is received. the MS informs the network to change the location information it stores. The registration management for the LA is required since the paging for the MS is carried out through the paging in all the cells within the LA. The paging for the MS is carried out through the paging in all the cells within the LA of the MS. –The encrypted MS receives CIPHERING MODE COMMMAND message that requires non-encryption. If T3250 times out before the TMSI _REALL_COM is received. If the LAI stored in the MS is different from the LAI of the current cell. which brings about the definition of location update. the definition of location area (LA) is introduced. In idle mode.

Intra VlR Location Update It is the simplest location update that requires no IMSI. It happens in the current VLR without informing the HLR. generic location update is divided into the following types: I.18 Location updating procedure 52 . After receiving the TMSI re-allocation complete message. MSC receives this message and forwards it to VLR. Figure 1. Location updating completes. In the initial message carried by SABM frame. The generic location updating is indicated. MSC sends location updating accept message and releases the channel.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 update or network involvement. and then sends a new TMSI to MS if required (MS uses the former TMSI if no TMSI is carried in the TMSI re-allocation command). According to whether the VLR changes or IMSI involves. the access cause is MM LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST that carries the MS TMSI and LAI. the MS informs the network of this LA change. If the MS moves to another LA after re-selection. VLR updates the MS location information and stores the new LAI. which is called forced registration.

if the current LAI is different from the LAI it stores. III. 1. Sending TMSI After the MS enters a cell. measures are taken in BSS to force the MS to report its location periodically. it sends MS an identity request message to request for the IMSI. After receiving the IMSI.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 II.2 Periodic Location updating The network and the MS lose contact when:  The MS is switched on but moves out of the network coverage area (dead zone). encryption. The network cannot receive the response from the MS. Therefore. To solve this problem. After receiving this message. the network is informed of the status of MS. If the current VLR cannot obtain the IMSI. it sends its LAI and TMSI to VLR through MSC in location updating request. Inter-VLR Location Updating. The network lost contact with the MS and regards it still in attach status. Inter-VLR Location Updating.12. the implicit detach timer is introduced in the VLR for the IMSI status management. The former VLR sends the IMSI and authentication parameters to the current VLR. and TMSI reallocation is over. It cannot inform the network of its status and the contact is lost. In addition. the former VLR deletes all the information about this MS and sends the HLR a MAP/D_CANCEL_LOCATION_RESULT message to confirm the deletion. This kind of mechanism is called periodic location updating. and confirm the location updating after receiving the response from the VLR. VLR deduces the former VLR based on the LAI and TMSI it received and sends a MAP_SEND_IDENTIFICATION to the former VLR to request for IMSI and authentication parameter. VLR sends HLR the location updating message that contains the MS identity information for the data query and path establishment of HLR. After receiving this message. If the paging for MS happens when the contact is lost. The MS is still regarded in attach status. The HLR will send MAP_INSERT_SUBSCRIBER_DATA message to provide the current VLR with the information it requires (including authentication parameters) after the procedure for authentication. The system resource is wasted.   The MS is power off. Sending IMSI The procedure is similar with the procedure above but easier because it requests for authentication parameter from the HLR through IMSI directly. The MS sends IMSI detach message and the uplink quality is bad due to interference. the system sends paging information in the LA that the MS registered before. the network may not be able to decode this message correctly. The network sends a periodic location updating time 53 . HLR stores the number of the current VLR and sends MAP/D_CANCEL_LOCATION to the former VLR if the current MSC/VLR has the normal service rights.

HLR requests for the MSRN from the VLR and is informed of the no-radio of this user by this time. The procedure is similar to the intra VLR location updating only that the location updating request message is marked as IMSI attach and the initial message contains IMSI of the MS. no paging program is implemented. and the latter one is marked as access denied. the network marks the current user status in the system database for the paging program. This is an unacknowledged message.3 IMSI Attach and Detach IMSI attach and detach means to attach a binary mark to the subscriber record in MSC/VLR. it will greatly increase the power consumption of MS and reduce its standby time. On the other hand. generic location updating is initiated. PLMN SEARCH. If the current LAI is different from the LAI stored. Only one command is sent to MSC/VLR from the MS.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 T3212 to all the users in the cell through BCCH to force the MS to send location updating request with the cause of periodic location updating after T3212 times out. The procedure for periodic location updating is the same as that for generic location updating. if the timeout value is changed (for example. or PLMN SEARCH-NORMAL SERVICE status. After receiving this message. But the frequent location updating will increase the signaling flow and reduce the utilization of the radio resources. LIMITED SERVICE. or even affect the processing ability of MSC. and BTS. the service cell changes and the T3212 timeout value is broadcast). it informs the network of its status change by sending an IMSI ATTACH message to the network to inform. Periodic location updating ensures the close contact between network and mobile users. Before the T3212 times out. the MS uses the time when the change happens as the initial value and keep on timing. If the T3212 times out when the MS is in NO CELL AVAILABLE. IMSI attach is initiated. After receiving this message. The former one is marked as access granted. When the MS is switched on. When the MS is switched off. If the current LAI and the LAI the MS stores are the same. BSC. The shorter updating period leads to better network performance. When the paging for this user occurs.12. The paging message is handled directly. the IMSI detach is triggered by a key-press. The T3212 setting should be based on comprehensive consideration. such as playing the record: "The subscriber is powered 54 . the location updating is initiated after the MS is out of these service status. 1. Therefore. MSC informs VLR to do detach mark to this IMSI while the HLR is not informed of the no-radio of this user.

The implicit detach happens before the implicit detach timer times out. For the subsequent processing.  RR connection failure: Location updating procedure is terminated. #11. #3. see the following description. The MS initiates location updating immediately. The completion of RR connection is abnormal: Location updating fails. If the cell that the MS stays changes or T3122 times out. the location updating is terminated. For the subsequent processing. see the following description. For the subsequent processing. Implicit detach timer is also called IMSI delete time. the VLR sets the IMSI status as detach. the MS initiates location updating. Location updating reject due to reasons other than #2. 1. #6. If two successive random accesses fail. T3210 timeout: Location updating fails." The procedure above is explicit IMSI detach. For the subsequent processing. If the contact between MS and network is not established. or #13: MS waits for the release of RR connection. see the following description. The implicit detach is denied during the establishment of radio connection. the random access procedure is initiated.  IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT message is received during random access MS stays in the service cell and starts T3122 based on the value in the immediate assignment reject message.    #2 (IMSI unknown in HLR) 55 .4 Exceptional Situations I. see the following description.  Random access failure If the random access fails. The normal cell selection and re-selection procedure is performed.12. MS  Access denied because of access level limit MS stays in the service cell and performs the normal cell re-selection procedure without triggering location updating. T3213 is started. The implicit detach timer is reset after the release of radio connection. When the current cell allows access or other cell is selected. There is also implicit detach. #12. After the T3213 times out.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 off. The implicit detach timer is set longer than the periodic location updating timer T3212 to avoid "abnormal" implicit detach. see the following description. VLR deletes the IMSI marked as detach periodically (The period is adjustable) and reports the user status to the HLR. For the subsequent processing.

After the release of RR connection. T3213. T3212 is started. if the location updating attempt is less than 4. or T3212 times out. The T3211 is started after RR connection release. LAI. T3211 is started. Add 1 to the location updating attempt timer. MS keeps the UPDATED status. After the RR connection release. Support emergency call request Respond the paging with IMSI Perform generic location updating triggered by the request from CM layer (if the 56 . If LA changes. perform location updating. location updating is not performed when entering the new cell. After the release of RR connection. (6) (the cause is abnormal release with unknown reason). the location updating procedure is started again. After the T3211 or T3212 times out. the stored LAI and the received LAI are the same. the MS deletes the ciphering key sequence. or the stored LAI is different from the received LAI. or (7) (the cause is not “retry in the new cell”). After the sub status of MM IDLE becomes ATTEMPTING TO UPDATE. perform location updating when entering the new cell. If the location updating status is not UPDATED. or the location updating attempt timer is equal to or less than 4. The MS also stores the information about the former location updating type. stop it.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 #3 #6 (Illegal MS) (Illegal ME) # 11 (PLMN not allowed) # 12 (Location Area not allowed) # 13 (Roaming not allowed in this location area) Subsequent processing: If the T3210 is still timing. the sub status of MM IDLE becomes NORMAL SERVICE.  If the cause for the status change is (5). TMSI stored in SIM card and sets the location updating status as NOT UPDATED. RR connection fails. perform generic location updating If the cause for the status change is (3). the location updating procedure is started again. the MS will do the following:    If T3211. After it times out. Otherwise. or (7) (cause “retry in the new cell”). The following processing depends on the LAI (stored and received from the service cell) and the value of the location updating attempt timer. If T3210 times out. (6) (the cause is not the abnormal release with unknown reason). (4).     No IMSI detach. the sub status of MM IDLE becomes ATTEMPTING TO UPDATE. and the location updating attempt timer is less than 4. If the location updating status is UPDATED.

Network  RR connection failure Among all the sub procedures attached to the location updating procedure. it sends LOCATION UPDATING REJECT message to the MS with the following cause if possible: #96 required IE error #99 IE error or no IE exists #100 Conditional IE error #111 Protocol error. it is handled according to the exception handling of other common procedures. the MS location updating is terminated. undefined After sending LOCATION UPDATING REJECT to the MS. III. the network initiates channel release procedure.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 location updating succeeds. encryption. In the bad coverage area. if the RR connection fails. In addition. Therefore. 1. Another location updating is initiated after T3212 times out. especially in the area where the uplink and downlink do not match (downlink is better than uplink). the T3212 is set to be shorter in the bad coverage area. T3212 will be started for the next update. II. Matching Between IMSI Delete Time and T3212 If the periodic location updating fails for four times.1 of the Protocol 0408). and TMSI reassignment flow. after the periodic location update fails.5. if the IMSI delete time is less than twice of the T3212.13 MS Originating Call Flow The MS needs to set up a main signaling link to connect to MSC first. For details. So the IMSI delete time should be more than twice of the T3212 and based on LAC. and then initiates the authentication. the users stay in the service area but cannot be called. 57 .  Protocol error If the network detects protocol error after receiving LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST. see section 4. the MML connection request will be accepted. If no other common procedure is attached to the location updating procedure.

assign the TCH voice channel to the user. the MS starts the call setup flow.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1.1 Called Number Analysis After the authentication. The MS then proceeds to release the bottom layer connection and switches to the idle state. After receive the outgoing call message. the MSC sends the outgoing call message SEND_INFO_FOR_O/C_CALL to the VLR. The call fails. encryption. If a certain item cannot be passed.2 Voice Channel Assignment (Follow-up Assignment) After send the CALL PROCEEDING message to the MS. The MSC implements the call proceeding according to the message. When receive the SETUP message. the VLR analyzes the items such as called number. If the above items can be passed. At this time. the MSC activates the follow-up assignment according to the service request. the MS sends a SETUP message to the network side. the VLR sends the RELEASE COMPLETE message to the MS. and network resources capability according to the user information obtained from the HLR during the location updating process.13. Figure 1.13. First. It means that the call request is accepted and the call is set up. to check whether to accept this call request. the VLR sends the COMPLETE_CALL message to the MSC. the MSC sends the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST 58 . the MSC sends the CALL PROCEEDING message to the MS. After receive this message. This message contains called number and the required services. That is. and TMSI reassignment flow are over. the calling party capability.19 MS originating call flow 1.

the BSC sends the CLEAR REQUEST message to the MSC. the BSC puts the physical information of the channel provided by the BTS in the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message (this message contains the information such as channel type. the request is rejected.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 message to the BSC. But if the system allows queuing. and inter-BSC handover do not support queuing. the MS adjusts the transceiver configuration to the TCH channel and then sends the SABM message to the BTS through the FACCH channel in the way of stolen frame. the BSC sends the Channel Activation for TCH message to the BTS to activate corresponding terrestrial resources and start a timer at the same time if the TCH channel resources are available. If the T11 times out. the BTS sends the CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK message to the BSC. After receive the channel request from the MSC. When the BSC receives the CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK message from the BTS. voice decoding algorithm and transparent transmission indicator. The ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message is sent to the MS through the SDCCH channel. assignment priority and CIC). If the BTS has prepared the resources such as circuit. it sends the RESOURCE FAILURE message to the MSC. The TCH resource requests in the queue are assigned with relevant channels in the sequence of their priorities. After the BTS 59 . the assignment request and intra-cell handover) allows queuing. channel rate. intra-BSC handover. Figure 1. Only the TCH resource request (that is. the BSC sends the QUEUING INDICATION message to the MSC and places the assignment request in the queue and starts the timer T11. In the length of the queue reaches its threshold or the timer times out. The immediate assignment request. voice/data indication. This message contains the information such as the requested channel type to request the BSC to assign the TCH voice channel for the call. If the BSC has no available resources to assign.20 TCH channel assignment procedure After receive the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message from the BTS.

the BSC reports the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message to the MSC. If the SDCCH channel is assigned first. and then ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message from MSC is sent before the Alerting message. this assignment is called very early assignment (VEA). the BSC does not apply for new channel but initiate the Mode_Modify flow. follow-up channel assignment. just as the initial signaling channel assignment does. or hardware problems. the BSC sends the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message to the MSC. it adopts the EA mode. For example. it sends the RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK message to the BSC. At the same time. it considers that the signaling channel is in idle state and can be assigned Initial channel assignment: is mandatory to establish the link transmission between the MS and the network.  After the BSC receive the message. If the SDCCH channel is assigned first and the TCH is assigned after the called party sends the CONNECT message. When receive the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message. They are initial channel assignment. to other channel requests. this assignment is called early assignment (EA). When the BTS releases the signaling channel. and the TCH channel is assigned when it is needed. the MS sends the ASSIGNMENT COMMPLETE message to the BTS through the FACCH channel. the channel is released. For different purposes. the BTS sends the ESTABLISH INDICATION message to the BSC and then sends an Unnumbered Acknowledge (UA) to the MS. After the Mode_Modify is complete. If the MS does not receive the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND sent from BTS or the BTS does not receive the response message sent from MS due to interference or other causes. the system starts the corresponding timers (such as T3103 or T3107) and when the timer times out. If the MS fails to identify the assignment information and fails to occupy the specified channel due to the radio interface failure. After receive the UA. 60 .GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 receives the SABM message. if the TCH channel is assigned preferably. it also sends the RF CHANNEL RELEASE message to the BTS to release the occupied SDCCH signaling channel. Generally. After the MSC sends the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message. the MS returns to the original channel and sends the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE to the BTS. During the establishment of the signaling transmission. and handover channel assignment. process the location updating request. radio interface message failure or interference. the GSM has three different channel assignment flows.

The system judges whether the handover occurs in the SDCCH or in the TCH to assign corresponding channels. when no SDCCH is available. Generally. assign the TCH channel for the channel request directly. set the timer as 2 seconds to 5 61 . When the timer times out. the network quality is bad. The only difference is that the message names are different. Similar to the immediate assignment flow. But sometime.  Handover channel assignment This assignment is used to apply for channels due to handover during the call process. the channel assignment is generally complete within two seconds. Please note that using the TCH channel to transmit the signaling wastes the resources a lot because one TCH channel equals eight SDCCH channels. The handover flow and the assignment flow in the cell are the same. some messages needs to be sent several times. the assignment fails. After the BSC receives the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message from the BTS. in the MS assignment flow. the timeout of the timer is caused by the bad radio coverage. the assignment can be extended to five seconds. The TCH channel replaces the SDCCH channel to send the signaling message. if the traffic load of the cell is heavy. the timer T3107 starts when the BSC sends the ASSIGNMENT COMMAND message to the BTS. the timer T3107 resets.21 Mode modify in the early assignment flow If the EA mode is used in the initial assignment. Generally. in this case. the MS is considered disconnected with the network and the resources are released for other MSs.  Follow-up channel assignment After the signaling channel finishes the authentication and encryption process. Based on the statistics.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. If the BSC does not receive the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message within two seconds. When this situation is quite serious. if there is still voice or data request. the follow-up channel assignment is triggered to assign a TCH channel. add more SDCCH to meet the requirement in time.

MSC sends a CONNECT message in the CC protocol to the MS. If not heavy. 1. This message contains the cause for the call clearance. But the call is not complete.13. After receiving this message. the MSC receives an ADDDRESS COMPLETE message (ACM). MSC receives an ANSWER message. the MSC receives a RELESASE message from the called end. set the timer as 10 seconds. The system starts charging after receiving this message. if the called party hangs up first. The MSC will receive the call setup report soon.13. such as handover complete or 62 . After receiving this message. because certain tasks such as sending charge indication are performed.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 seconds. If the called end is data device. If the called party picks up the phone. the MS sends disconnect message to MSC through FACCH. If the call is terminated in an abnormal way. If no answer is received from the called party and the calling party does not terminate the connection. it enters CONNECT status directly after receiving the SETUP indication. 1. After receiving this message. The MS stops the T308 after receiving the RELEASE COMPLETE message. the system sends a RELEASE message to the MS and starts T308. the MSC sends release message to inform the called party to terminate the communication. If MSC receives the ACM. the MS sends a RELEASE COMPLETE message to the system and the call is over. the network will terminate the call or perform no answer call transfer after a while. The link between the calling party and the called party is connected. the MS sends a CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE message in the CC protocol to the system.3 Call Connection After receiving the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message from the BSC. When the MSC receives the RELEASE COMPLETE message from the MS. When the connection to the MS is no longer necessary. The end-to-end connection is over. Similarly. the MSC sends the Initial Address Message (IAM) that includes the information used to establish the route to the called network. The call connection procedure is over and the two parties start the conversation or data transmission service. If succeeds. The MSC sends the calling party a DISCONNECT message after receiving the RELEASE message. this message further indicates the cause for that. it sends a CLEAR COMMAND message to BSC to release all the signaling links. MSC sends the ALERTING message to the MS (MS translates it into ring back tone).4 Call Release If the calling party hangs up first. This message is a DTAP message. it sends a RELEASE message to the calling party. if fails because of certain reason (such as busy line or congestion).

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 location updating complete. Meanwhile. the BTS stops the transmission of the downlink SACCH frame and sends the deactivate SACCH acknowledgement to the MSC. If the abnormal release occurs because of radio link failure or device failure. The MS sends DISC message to BTS and starts T3110. When the MS receives the CHANNEL RELEASE message. requiring for the release of TCH resources. The call connection release is over. BSC sends a CHANNEL RELEASE message to the MS and starts T3109 to show that all the lower layer links are released. The BTS sends UA to MS and the RELEASE INDICATION to the BSC. After receiving this message. and sends RF CHANNLE RELEASE to the BTS (the T3111 is reset at the same time). the BSC sends a CLEAR REQUEST message to the MSC. Figure 1. it 63 . BSC resets the T3109 and starts the T3111. it also sends a deactivate SACCH (SACCH) to the BTS requiring for the release of the downlink signaling (to stop the signaling connection between the two parties). After receiving the RELEASE INDICATION message. when the BSC sends the CHANNEL RELEASE message to the MS for the uplink removal. After receiving this message. When the T3110 times out or the MS receives the UA frame. it enters the idle mode. it removes the uplink signaling link (to stop sending the measurement report of uplink channel associated signaling on SACCH). After receiving the CLEAR REQUEST message.22 Call release In order to ensure the timely removal of the uplink and downlink. it requires the MS to enter the idle mode. When the BSC receives the RF CHANNLE RELEASE acknowledgement message from the BTS.

1. the usual causes are:  No proper signaling channel is available for the MS because of all channels are busy or the channels are blocked. which activates many signaling channels. After receiving the CLEAR COMPLETE message. the MSC releases the SCCP connection by sending RLSD and receiving RLC. the received level and the received quality of uplink and downlink should be checked. or because errors occur in certain board of BTS. II.5 Exceptional Situations I. Other channels are released by the BSC after the T3101 times out as they cannot receive the establish indication from the MS. Improper Tx-integer only leads to the activation of many channels by BSS.13. No Establish Indication Message Is Received After Channel Activation The main causes are:  The MS may send many channel requests even if the BSS works well. MSC Sending Disconnect Message Instead of Assignment Request to Terminate the Call In the call connection process. III. the cause for this problem is that the uplink reception is normal but the downlink signal cannot be received by the MS. If the MS is not far away from the BTS but the received level and the received quality are bad. The whole MS originating call flow is over.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 sends a CLEAR COMPLETE message to the MSC.  If the BTS sends lots of channel activation negative acknowledge messages to the BSC. But the MS only occupies one of them. BSC Sending Immediate Assignment Reject If the BSC sends immediate assignment reject to the MS after receiving the channel required message. check the antenna feeder and the TRX in BTS. it is usually because the transmission at Abis interface is not stable. which leads to the inconsistent channel status of the BSC and BTS.  Improper configuration of Tx-integer in BSC The Tx-integer affects the interval of channel request re-sending. but no call will be affected. Under such circumstances. BTS sends channel activation negative acknowledge after receiving the channel activation message. If the Tx_interger is proper. indicating that the radio link clearance is over and the channel is available for reallocation. the immediate assignment is followed by the 64 .

if no TCH is available and the BSC allows directed retry. the MSC sends a disconnect message instead of the assignment request message to the MS and then terminates the call. many complaint phones from users cannot get through. the call drop occurs when the BSC receives the assignment request message from the MSC.  The MS voice channel access fails. check the antenna feeder. Check the following:   The A interface circuit of MSC The data consistencies of the A interface between the MSC and BSC. Due to the special features of the radio transmission. V. and the parameters related to channel access in BSC data configuration. the assignment failure is reported from the MS. Under this condition. For example. The cause value carried by the assignment failure message is no radio resource.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 assignment procedure. this kind of assignment failure occurs most frequently and is unsolvable. The usual causes are:  No proper voice channel is available for the MS. The assignment procedure may be not complete (the channel may be just assigned and no assignment command message 65 . for example. the BTS board. Assignment Failure After receiving the assignment request. VI.  The cause value in the assignment failure message sent by BSC is equipment failure. If the occurrence rate is too high. The hardware of BSC fails. Exceptional Procedure Due to Call Drop Call drop may occur any time during the call flow. Under such circumstances. the BSC sends assignment failure message instead of assignment complete. which affects the following procedures.  The transmission at A interface fails.  The A interface circuit of BSC fails. the CIC in the assignment request is not available. BSC has no proper voice channel for the MS because all the voice channels are busy or the channels are blocked. IV. especially the circuit pool data. But due to certain reasons. the BSC implements the handover with the cause value of directed retry to change the service cell of the MS. Directed Retry After receiving the assignment request message from the MSC.

1.  The interval between the clear command or disconnect message and the last message The interval between the clear command or disconnect message and the last message indicates whether the exceptional procedure is triggered by timeout. After receiving this message. This assignment procedure neither succeeds (BSC sends assignment complete) nor fails (BSC sends assignment failure). GMSC analyzes the identification number of the CCS7 of the HLR and sends this HLR the SEND_ROUTING_INFORMATION message. which affects the following procedures. or others. the HLR checks the user record. the call flow may be terminated before the BSC sends assignment complete or assignment failure to the MSC. Otherwise. Exceptional Procedure Due to Hangup Hang up of the calling party or the called party may occur any time during the call flow. MSC may send clear command or disconnect message to the BSC during the call flow. BSC may send clear request message instead of assignment complete message or assignment failure message to the MSC. the hangup occurs when the BSC receives the assignment request from the MSC.14 MS Originated Call Flow 1. VII. Exceptional procedure because MSC sends clear command After the A interface connect is established. analysis the following two factors:  The cause value carried in the clear command The cause value is usually the call control if the call is terminated in a normal way. This assignment procedure neither succeeds (BSC sends assignment complete) nor fails (BSC sends assignment failure) If it happens many times. the call flow may be terminated before the BSC sends assignment complete or assignment failure to the MSC. equipment failure.14. For example. which affects the following procedures. For example. Under this condition. VIII. the Initial Address Message with Information (IAI) is send from the calling end to the GMSC. Under this condition. The IAI contains the MSISDN of the called party. Under this condition. the cause value may be protocol error.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 is sent). the hang up occurs when the BSC receives the assignment request from the MSC.1 Enquiry After the signaling link for the calling end is established. and then performs different procedures and responds the GMSC as follows: 66 .

the total number of 67 . informing the MSC to perform the paging procedure. To get the routing information for the call. it informs the calling end that the call establishment fails. such as the CCS7 address or the universal mark. Error message will be sent to the GMSC. the HLR sends the MSRN to the original GMSC to analyze this number and redefine the routing.14. This command message contains the paging channel group number and the timeslot number (obtained by the calculation of the last three numbers of the IMSI. In addition. it transfers the information by sending a SEND_ROUTING_INFORMATION_RESULT message to the call originating GMSC. When the MSC/VLR receives this message. the MSC restores the IMSI of this user in its memory record with the MSRN and starts the paging for the MS.  If the record of the called party is set as Barring of All Incoming Calls (BAIC) or Barring of Incoming Calls when roaming is outside the home PLMN country (BIC_roam) according to the message sent by the VLR and the user is in roaming now. this roaming number is released for another user. BSC sends the PAGING COMMAND to all the cells in the LA. the called MSC sends a SEND_INFO_I/C_CALL message to the VLR and the VLR will analyze the called number and the network resource capacity to check whether this requirement is acceptable. After receiving this message.2 Paging After receiving the IAI from the GMSC. it selects a roaming number from the idle numbers to temporarily connect it to the IMSI. it sends all the BSCs in this LA the paging message that contains the cell list and the TMSI and IMSI information required for paging. the VLR sends the MSC a PAGING MAP message that contains the location area identification (LAI) and the IMSI or TMSI of the called party. the HLR rejects this call.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程  Under normal circumstances. If no VLR number of the user is found and no call forwarding is set. the HLR sends the VLR a PROVIDE ROAMING_ NUMBER message that contains the user IMSI information. Under normal circumstances. When the MSC obtains the LA information of the MS from the VLR. When the HLR receives the MSRN. If certain item is not accepted. and sends the PROVIDE_ROAMING_NUMBER_RESULT message with the MSRN assigned to this call in it to the HLR. the HLR only has the partial information about the identification of the current VLR. requiring the VLR to provide a MSRN for this call. it is also used to confirm the paging subchannel in the discontinuous reception processing. The IMSI can be used in the paging for the MS through the cell paging channel. Then the GMSC can find the VLR with the obtained MSRN and sends the IAI to it. After the call is established.  If the user record is set as Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU).  1.

and the total number of the paging timeslots). the called MS confirms the information and sends a CALL CONFIRMED message back if the service is available. such as the channel type (full rate TCH or half rate TCH) and the service type.3 Call Establishment for the Called Party After the TMSI reallocation is over. encryption. After receiving the call confirmed message. TMSI reallocation. Figure 1. After receiving this message. The message contains the IMSI or TMSI of the user paged. the MSC sends the MS a SETUP message that includes all the details required such as the service type and the calling number. it sends a channel request to initiate the channel allocation process.14. it sends the PAGING REQUEST message on the paging channel. After receiving the immediate assignment command from the network. and finally begins the call establishment process.23 Paging flow 1. and then implements the authentication. If the called MS detects the paging by decoding the paging information. the MS sends the initial message of PAGING RESPOSE on the channel assigned through the SABM frame.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 the paging channels. When the cell receives this paging command. The call confirmed message carries the parameters that the MS selects. the MSC sends the assignment command 68 .

14. The routing selection for each function is as follows: I. After the assignment procedure is over. and then sends a CONNECT message to the MSC. Call Forwarding Busy (CFB). and the HLR keeps the record of this situation and knows the MS is unreachable. II. III. the VMSC/VLR implements the call transfer of the transfer number and sends it to the third party. If the CFB function is not available. CFNRc The routing selection for this function is based on how the network decides the called party is not reachable. The called user hears the ringing and responds. when the MSC receives this message. If the HLR does not keep the record of this situation. After receiving this message. the MSC connects all the transmission links. The processing is different for different criteria. the calling end makes a ring back tone as the originating user prompter. If the last location registration of the called user fails. such as playing the user bush record.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 to the BSC for the voice channel allocation. call transfer has the greatest influence on call routing. the GNSC handles the call directly. CFU When the GMSC sends the SEND_ROUTING_INFORMATION message to the HLR. After receiving this message. it sends an Address Complete Message (ACM) to the calling end. it makes the CFNRc decision by itself.4 The Influence of Call Transfer to Routing In the supplementary services. and Call Forwarding on No Reply (CFNRy). The call transfer is mainly caused by Call Forwarding Unconditional (CFU). Call Forwarding on mobile subscriber Not Reachable (CFNRc). 1. The end-to-end transmission is established. the HLR sends the SEND_ROUTING_INFORMATION_RESULT message with the transfer number in it back to the GMSC for it to redefine the routing. if the CFU function is available. the call flow continues until the MSC performs the paging for the user and gets no response from the user in due 69 . but the called end is busy and the CFB function is available. the called MS sends an ALERTING message to the network and a ringing prompt occurs to the called MS. CFB When the GMSC finds the VMSC/VLR with the MSRN obtained from the HLR.

The CFB will be initiated when a third call is coming. If the MS is in IMSI detach (the MS is switched off or out of the service area for a long time). the MSC skips the paging procedure and directly sends a SETUP message to the MS by using the current signaling mode. the MSC prompts voice information to the calling party. see "Mobile Originating Call Establishment Procedure. if the called user is in another conversation and the CW function is enabled. the call forwarding procedure is initiated. For other abnormal procedures. When the MSC receives the IAI from the calling end.5 Exceptional Situations This section only analyzes the common abnormal procedures. When the VLR periodically deletes the longterm detached IMSI and informs the HLR. One of them is that the user enters the dead zone or the MS is power-off. When the CFB and the CW are enabled at the same time. the call forwarding can only be initiated by the VMSC/VLR." Upon paging failure. The user is decided not reachable. Another cause is that the MS is in frequent location updating on the edge of the LA and cannot respond the paging or the channel request fails. The MSC forwards this call. V. CFNRy If the paging of the VMSC for the user succeeds and the called end sends the ALERTING message to the system. 1. the handover of the two calls can be performed. the CW is initiated first if another call is coming. so it cannot judge the MS status and the paging fails.14. trace the signaling on interfaces A and Abis to check whether the paging failure is caused by:     No PAGING COMMAND at A interface No PAGING COMMAND at Abis interface No PAGING RESPONSE at Abis interface No PAGING RESPONSE at A interface 70 . CW and HOLD Call Waiting (CW) is a supplementary service. but the called user makes no response in due time and the CFNRy function is activated. IV. In this case. indicating the called MS is outside the serving area or cannot be connected. This kind of situation has many causes. the HLR need not contact the VLR.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 time. but the VMSC has not made the periodic check on the IMSI attached user yet. which leads to paging timeout. When the CW function is enabled. because the detach tag is in the VLR instead of the HLR.

The two parameters of BSC and MSC must satisfy a certain relationship.or Cell-Related parameter settings in MSC If a routing area or cell related parameter is incorrectly set in the MSC. a wrong target BSC is selected. Additionally. the PAGING message that should have been sent to the local BSC will be sent to another BSC. In this case. the PAGING COMMAND message cannot be successfully sent over Abis interface. which requires that MS must initiate a location updating procedure within the period specified in MSC. No Paging Command at A Interface Through signaling tracing over interface A. check the data configuration and MS information in the MSC/VLR and HLR on the NSS side. for example. No Paging Command at Abis Interface Upon receiving the PAGING message from the MSC.  Checking RA. registered LA. and decides whether or how to send the PAGING message.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 I. the MS only need to initiate a location updating procedure to ensure that the user data in VLR is correct. In this case. the transmission of the PAGING message may fail. the MS may probably be unable to be paged. there is also a location updating period (See "Location updating Procedure"). or has entered a different LA) and has not registered in the network normally or updated user data in VLR. if a wrong target BSC is selected. if RA. For example. the MSC is detected that it has not sent a PAGING message to the BSC. power it on and make a test call to check whether the MS is normal. On MSC side.or cellrelated parameter is not correctly set in the MSC. Additionally. check the operations and data configuration in the BSC。  Checking if flow control is enabled Check if the system load suddenly increases due to centralized transmission of short messages or mass access bursts.  Checking relevant data configuration Check if the CGI information in BSC data configuration is consistent with the LAC information in the PAGING message over A interface. the BSC detects that the MSC has not sent PAGING COMMAND to the BTS over interface Abis. the MSC judges the current state of the MS by the user data (including MS active state. II. power off the called MS. 71 . In that case. the MS is switched off. If the MS state has changed (for example. The period of periodic location updating is indicated in system information. cell information).  Checking user data in VLR When an MS is paged.

72 . the BSC is detected that it has not received the Establishment Indication (PAGING RESPONSE) after sending PAGING COMMAND to the BTS. Synchronous HO means the two cells are synchronized with each other and the MS can calculate the new TA (the HO command indicates whether the HO is synchronous or not). Check the called MS or SIM in it. IV. "CCCH-CONF". 1. handover preparation and decision. In that case. Asynchronous HO requires the BTS to calculate the new TA. Such cases.  Check if there is PCH or AGCH overload due to centralized short message transmission or mass access bursts. No Paging Response at Abis Interface Through signaling tracing over Abis interface. The handover procedure consists of handover trigger. When the MS receives the HO command and requests for the new BTS access. Check BTS by making test calls in a different cell. if any. III. HO can be divided into synchronous HO and asynchronous HO based on Timing Advance (TA). In this case. and handover execution. "Tx-integer.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Check whether the following parameters in the [System information table] are correctly set: "BS_AG_BLKS_RES". "CCCH-CONF" and "BS_PA_MFRMS". The MS that has entered a blind coverage area cannot receive the PAGING REQUEST message. the BSC is detected that it has received an Establishment Indication (PAGING RESPONSE) message from the BTS but this message is not reported over interface A. No Paging Response at A Interface Through signaling tracing at Abis interface. Check the setting for "location updating period" in BSC and that in MSC     Check radio signal coverage Due to the problem of radio signal coverage. the MS cannot be paged. only exist in partial areas. there might be some blind coverage areas." and "MS MAX retrans".15 HO As a key technology in the cellular mobile telecommunication system. Check data configuration in BSC Check whether the following parameters in the [System information table] are correctly configured: "BS_AG_BLKS_RES". "BS_PA_MFRMS". check the relevant data configuration and radio signal coverage. handover (HO) can reduce the call drop rate and the network cross interference.

power control. BSC handles the measurement report and makes the HO decision. Measurement Report The HO decision depends on the measurement report (MR) sent by MS through uplink SACCH to the network and the MR of the uplink sent by BTS. The MS measures all the frames except the idle frames that are used to synchronize the neighbor cell and decode SCH. and pseudo-synchronous. The HO process involves MS. The function of each unit is: MS measures the downlink performance and the signal strength. The MS reports the RXLEV and quality. intra-MSC HO. 73 . the HO can be divided into intra-cell HO and inter-cell HO.1 HO Preparation I. intra-BTS HO. BTS. The MSC calculates the TA required for the access to the new BTS based on the RTD value. TA value. The MS reports the condition of the cell and the six neighbor cells with the strongest RXLEV it measures during the measurement period to the system for the HO decision. The first three types are required in MS and the last one is optional.  Measurement period The SACCH measurement period is different if the MS occupies different channel under the dedicated mode. In the pseudo-synchronous HO. The pseudo-synchronous HO can be performed only when the MS supports this function. BSC. The MS access to the new channel can also be divided into four types: synchronous. and interMSC HO. intro-BSC HO. According to the location where the HO happens. intra-cell HO. and DTX usage to the network according to the system information. In addition. 1. pre-synchronous. BTS monitors the received signal level and quality of the uplink and the interference level of the idle traffic channel. because a complete SACCH message block occupies four 26 multiframes of TCH.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 the new BTS informs the MS of the calculated TA. –If the SACCH is associated with TCH. the measurement period is 470ms.15. MSC decides the target cell of the inter-BSC HO. and MSC. –If the SACCH is associated with SDCCH. These two reports are sent to BSC at the same time for decision. asynchronous. the handover command from the BTS of the original service cell contains the RTD value (the TA difference between the source BTS and the target BTS). the MS also performs the pseudo-synchronization with the neighbor cell defined by the system for HO and measures the RXLEV from the BCCH. The system information that includes the parameters of the current cell and the neighbor cell are sent to the MS under the dedicated mode through the downlink SACCH. the measurement period is 480 ms. To be more specific. because a complete SACCH message block occupies two 51 multiframes of SDCCH.

 MR processing BTS handles the uplink MR it makes and the downlink MR it collects from the MS. see the DTX description in Chapter 2. and then calculates the arithmetical mean value and the weighted mean value based on the related parameters. In the 26 muliframe of TCH.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 A complete MR consists of four continuous SACCH bursts. The MS can only analyze the BCCH standard frequency of the neighbor cell in the idle timeslot of the TCH multiframe. and TA. It obtains the sample values of the RXLEV. there is always an idle frame (about 6 ms) available for MS to decode the FCCH and SCH. On the TCH. the MR has two values: full measurement value and sub measurement value. but not sufficient to find the FCCH. the interval between the end of the reception and the beginning of the transmission (about 1 ms) can be used to measure the RXLEV and the RXQUAL. II. The interval between the end of the transmission and the beginning of the reception (about 2 ms) is sufficient to measure the level of the neighbor cell. RXQUAL. each 26 multiframe has only one SACCH burst. Therefore. the four bursts are transmitted continuously. the system decides whether to perform the level handover. during the data exchange. the use of the arithmetic feature 74 . In fact. But the FCCH of the neighbor cell may not be found during this timeslot. One way to decide the received channel is the standard frequency channel is to confirm that the frequency carries a FCCH. Figure 1. The standard frequency carries the synchronous channel and frequency correction channel. but it is not sufficient to measure the level of the neighbor cell. quality handover. or distance handover. When the time is up. The MS also decodes the SCH that carries the TDMA frame number and BSIC. For details. the MS must listen to the standard frequency of the neighbor cells defined in the system message. so a complete MR requires four 26 multiframes. Neighbor Cell Monitoring To establish the HO relation with the neighbor cells.24 Measurement period Whether to use DTX or not. On the SDCCH.

Therefore. BSIC also enables the MS to differentiate the cells using the same BCCH frequency. The two cells with the same BCCH frequency and BSIC must be far from each other. if a cell shares the same frequency and BSIC with the neighbor cell and its signal is strong enough. the SDCCH channel assigned to the MS only occupies 1/8 of the 51 multiframe. Because these two numbers have no common factor. the system informs the MS by sending the system message through SACCH. The unit is dBm. the MS must know the training sequence of the CSCH. MAX_POWER_OF_MS is the maximal transmit power the MS can achieve. The neighbor cell can be listed in the HO candidate cells only when its RXLEV is qualified according to the formula above. III. The BSIC carried by the SCH can inform the MS of the training sequence number of its service cell. Since there are lots of idle timeslots. the threshold for the candidate cells is reduced. The training sequence is of eight types. RxLevMinCell(n) and MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) are defined by the HO cell parameters. it checks whether this neighbor cell is qualified to join in the HO decision queue. Under the dedicated mode. To translate the message on the downlink CSCH. RxLevMinCell(N) is the minimal access level of the neighbor cell. the MS can synchronize the neighbor cell. The purpose to define the Pa is to ensure the low power MS can access the neighbor 75 . although its period is also 51 multiframe. The MS reports the six neighbor cells with the strongest signals. When the MS receives the SCH.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 of the two numbers 26 and 51 is required. which may lead to HO failure. matching the BCC 0 to BCC 7 of BSIC respectively. but differentiates them according to the BSIC and frequency it obtains to achieve the presynchronization. When SACCH is associated with SDCCH. If it is too low. leading to HO failure and call drop. the FCCH can be found during the 11 periods. OFFSET is the offset of the minimal access level. MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) is the maximal transmit power of MS defined by the system. The following conditions must be met: RXLEV(n) > RxLevMinCell(n)+ MAX(0. error report and decision of MS may occur. The defined RxLevMinCell (n) must be higher than the RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. the synchronization is established. The MR only contains the sequence number of the frequencies in the BA list. Conditions Required for Neighbor Cells to Join in HO Decision Queue When the BTS receives the report on the neighbor cell from the MS.Pa(n)) + OFFSET (2-4) Pa(n)=MS_TXPWR_MAX(n) -MAX_POWER_OF_MS RXLEV(n) is the RXLEV of the neighbor cell.

direct retry. the traffic load can be adjusted accordingly.max ( BSTX_MAX(n).0 ) BSTX_MAX: The maximum transmit power of BS in service cell BSTX_MAX (n): The maximum transmit power of BS in neighbor cell RXLEV_DL: The downlink received signal level in service cell RXLEV_UL: The uplink received signal level in service cell SENSI_CORRECT: The correct factor of MS/BS receiver sensitivity RXLEV_NCELL (n): the received signal level of MS from neighbor cell n PWR_C_D: the decrease of the transmission power in BTS power control P: Max MS Transmission power MSTX_MAX (n): Max MS transmit power allowed of the neighboring cell n MSTX_MAX: Max MS transmit power allowed of the service cell The neighbor cell with the biggest PBGT (n) is selected as the target cell for HO. HO hysteresis may occur and the HO efficiency is reduced. Since the PGBT_Ho_Margin is defined for the specific neighbor cell. when cell A and cell B are 76 . if it is too high. it can be divided into Power Budget (PBGT) HO.min(MSTX_MAX(n). The PGBT_Ho_Margin is the defined RXLEV difference value between the service cell and the neighbor cell when the HO is initiated. The biggest difference between the PBGT HO and others is that the triggering condition is path loss but not receiving power. For example.15. If this value is too low.( RXLEV_DL .PWR_C_D ) .BSTX_MAX + min (MSTX_MAX. I. PBGT HO PBGT HO is based on path loss.( BSTX_MAX(n)- RXLEV_NCELL(n) ). PBGT HO algorithm looks for a cell with less path loss to decide whether HO is necessary. 1. edge HO.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 cell only when the RXLEV is high enough.SENSI_CORRECT). The formula of PBGT HO is as follows: PBGT (n) > PGBT_Ho_Margin (n) PBGT(n) = (2-5) ( BSTX_MAX . thus improving the quality of conversation. According to the cause of the HO.2 HO Types HO must be performed on time under different conditions to ensure the quality of communication.RXLEV_UL . it may lead to ping-pong handover.P) .RXLEV_DL .P) . and timing advance (TA) HO. bad quality (BQ) HO.

The intra-cell HO is not effective when the frequency hopping is used. it selects a proper neighbor cell from the MRs as the target cell to initiate HO. IV. After the direct retry function is enabled. the BQ HO is initiated. To fully utilize the radio resources and reduce the congestion. thus avoiding the call drop. but no TCH is available. A is the high-traffic cell and B is the low-traffic cell. the interference HO is introduced. If the RXLEV is higher than the defined RXLEV margin of the interference HO and the RXQUAL is higher than the quality HO margin. . the call attempt usually fails because of TCH congestion. BQ HO The decision mechanism of BQ HO is similar to that of the edge HO. the direct retry function is introduced. the RXLEV of the neighbor cell should be higher than that of the service cell by a certain value. 77 . Edge HO The uplink/downlink edge HO margin is defined in the HO parameters. II. If the service cell has no idle TCH. This value is called the edge HO margin. Direct Retry During the call establishment. the SDCCH is assigned first and then is the TCH. The interference HO will trigger the intracell HO (when the intra-cell HO is available) first to improve the bad conversation quality due to interference. the queuing function can be activated to provide enough time for the system to select the neighbor cell available for direct retry. the frequency interference exists. When BSC finds in the MRs from the MS and BTS that the uplink or downlink RXLEV is lower than the edge HO margin defined. the assignment request is sent in the form of MR and the call is accessed to the idle speech channel. The edge HO margin should be higher than the minimal access level of the MS. PBGT HO only happens between the peer cells. the BQ HO will be mainly performed between cells. III. In the edge HO. this way to balance the call distribution equals the decrease of the coverage area for cell A and the increase of the coverage area for cell B. In fact. and then trigger the inter-cell HO.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 adjacent. When the SDCCH is assigned. the call distribution can be balanced by reducing the PGBT_Ho_Margin from A to B and increasing that from B to A. By improving the interference HO margin. When BSC finds in the MRs from the MS and BTS that the bit error rate of the uplink or downlink is higher than the BQ HO margin defined. To further differentiate the BQ HO. This algorithm is also used to avoid ping-pong handover.

BSC analyzes the MR from the MS and BTS. 1) 2) The MS sends MR to BTS1 on SACCH at Um interface. it sends MSC the HO PERFOMED message that contains the HO type. When the BSC receives the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE/HANDOVER COMPLETE message from the BTS. the intra-cell HO is used. if the traffic load is already heavy. If the requirement for intra-cell HO margin is satisfied.3 HO Process Analysis I. Intra-BSC HO Intra-BSC HO is performed by BSC and no MSC has to be involved. If it decides that the MS should be handed over to another cell. Intra-Cell HO In the real network. intra-cell HO increases a lot. During the conversation. the frequent ping-pong handover may be triggered. and the system load also increases. Therefore. BSC will send a HO PERFOMED message to MSC. the BTS releases the TCH resource and sends a RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK message back. The intra-cell HO is initiated by the RXLEV margin or RXQUAL quality. Then the BSC sends a RF CHANNEL RELEASE message to BTS. The whole procedure is shown in 2. When the intra-cell HO is enabled. To inform MSC that the HO is complete. Therefore. II. Because the TCH is also assigned within the cell. After receiving the message. special attention should be paid to the matching of different kinds of HO. The connection process is similar to the TCH assignment during the call establishment. 78 . it sends a CHANNEL ACTIVE message to BTS to initiate the intra-cell HO. To improve the conversation quality and avoid the call drop. the intra-cell HO function is not recommended. If the TA margin is relatively low. BSC receives the MR. 1. and BTS1 forwards the message to the BSC. When the BSC finds the TA value reported by the MS is higher than the defined margin. the TA HO is initiated.15. sometimes the interference may occur to certain frequency or a certain TRX fails.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 V. TA HO TA HO can be used to control the coverage area of the BTS. leading to the high RXLEV but low RXQUAL or the remarkably low signal level of TRX. it sends Channel Activation to BTS2 of the target cell to activate the channel. the BTS can indicate the MS to perform the intra-cell HO through HO command or assignment command.

It only contains the 8-bit HO reference number obtained from the handover command. 5) After receiving the HANDOVER COMMAND. If it is synchronous HO. the access burst may offset to the BCCH RACH timeslot. Please note that the HANDOVER ACCESS is send by the access burst. and then starts the transmission based on the calculated. During the HO access. and send CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK to the BSC. It also indicates whether this HO is synchronous or asynchronous. the MS sends the target cell four continuous HANDOVER ACCESS messages on the assigned TCH. It is the only time when the access burst is used on the DCH. The handover command contains all the feature information of the transmission on the new channel and the data required for MS access. If the 8-bit reference number is the same as a service application number. the 79 . If the channel type is correct. the TA is calculated based on the difference value provided in the handover command. the BSC sends HANDOVER COMMAND to the MS through BTS1 and starts T3103. if the assigned TCH is on the BCCH. the MS decides the type of it. the former TA can be used. Since this reference number is known to the target cell. it turns on the power amplifier on the specified channel to receive information in the uplink direction. the TA in the handover command is used (If the TA is not provided in the handover command. the target cell can check whether the access request is from the expected MS with this number. 4) After receiving the CHANNEL ACTIVATE ACK from BTS2. due to synchronization error and delay or other reasons. The HO reference number is not fully defined in the protocol. for pseudosynchronous HO (MS reported whether this HO is supported or not before). For the synchronous HO.25 Intra BSC HO 3) BTS2 receives the CHANNEL ACTIVATE.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. the default value is used). for pre-synchronous HO.

the network initiates T3105. after receiving the PHYSICAL INFO. it sends a HANDOVER FAILURE message on the source channel. after the BTS2 channel of the target cell is activated. Then it sends the target cell a HANDOVER COMPLETE message that only contains the handover complete indication but no other information. it sends an ESTABLISHE INDICATION message to the BSC to show that the data link layer is established. and BTS2 forwards it to the BSC. after receiving the UA response. But as the access burst contains the BSIC information. it also sends the UA response frame to the MS. the MS sends the SABM to the BTS2. even if no reference number is used. 9) After receiving the first SABM.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 system will regard it as a random access by mistake and assign the SDCCH through AGCH. Meanwhile. the MS regards that the signaling answer mode is established with this cell. the MS starts the T3124 when sending the HANDOVER ACCESS message for the first time and stops the T3124 after receiving the PHYSICAL INFO. only the HO access cell will be affected. During the PHYSICAL INFO transmission. for synchronous HO. it will no re-assign this channel to other MS. leading to a waste of AGCH and SDCCH. BTS2 sends BSC the EST IND to inform it of the radio link establishment. see the parameter description section. When the network receives this message. it waits for the MS access on the assigned DCH (until the T3103 times out). When it detects the handover access from the MS. For asynchronous HO. 8) For asynchronous HO. and send HANDOVER DETECT to the BSC notifying that the HANDOVER ACCESS message is received. the reference number is assigned a fixed value that is different from the application number for service type in random access. For details. the BTS2 sends the HO DETECT message to the BSC and the PHYSICAL INFO that contains the calculated TA to the MS. the BSC stops the T3103 80 . To further avoid the waste of radio resources. 6) BTS2 receives the HANDOVER ACCESS from the MS. 7) For asynchronous HO. the network can find the MS to access and the HO will not be affected. If the MS does not receive the PHYSICAL INFO from the target cell or the UA response frame. the BTS2 re-enables the T3105 after timeout and resends the PHYSICAL INFO NY1. and after the new BSS assigns a channel to the MS. 10) The MS sends HANDOVER COMPLETE to the BTS2. 11) After receiving the HANDOVER COMPLETE message. the MS sends the SABM to the BTS2 immediately after sending the HANDOVER ACCESS. Since there are more than four HO access bursts. Before receiving the SABM frame response from the MS. The MS stops considering the possibility to return to the former channel only when this message is sent.

Intra MSC HO Compared with the intra-BSC HO procedure. the BSC1 sends a HO REQUIRED message that contains cell ID of the target cell group and the source cell and the HO cause to the MSC and starts T7 at the same time. When the BSC2 receives this message. the BSC initiates the local release for the former channel of BTS1. it sends a RF CHANNEL RELEASE ACK to indicate the radio channel is released and available for another assignment. This message carries the HO command with the information about the resource allocation in it to show that the local end is ready for HO. and releases the former channel. the BSC2 sends the MSC a HO REQUEST ACK to indicate that the channel is available. the procedure for the inter-BSC HO only has several A interface signaling added. if it shares the same LAC with the target cell. it sends MSC a CC message to indicate that the connection between the MSC and its SCCP is established for transmission of the information from the A interface. When the target cell receives the handover complete message from the MS. BSC1 stops the T7 and starts the T8. 3) After the new channel is activated. Meanwhile. transmission mode. encryption mode. the BSC sends the RF CHANNEL RELEASE message to inform the source cell to release the former TCH. 5) After receiving the HO COMPLETE from the BSC2. it sends a CLEAR COMPLETE message to the MSC. classmark. it forwards it to the BSC. This command contains the clear cause (such as HO clear). and the channel type required. and HO reference. 1) When the MS has to be handed over to the cell where the BSC2 belongs to. Meanwhile. III. BSC1 stops T8 and T3103. This command contains the cell ID. and forwards the HO COMMAND to the MS and starts T3103. 81 . 2) After the MSC receives this message. When the source cell receives this report. channel type. After receiving this message. 4) After receiving the HO REQUEST ACK.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 and sends MSC the HANDOVER PERFORMED that contains the handover type. it searches the BSC of the target cell (BSC2) and sends the BSC2 a HANDOVER REQUEST message that contains the information of the target cell and the source cell. informing the MS to access the new channel. the MSC sends a HO COMMAND to the BSC1. MSC sends a CLEAR COMMAND to the BSC1.

During the HO.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. The longest HO (INTER MSC) may take about five seconds. When the T3103 is timing. the BSC provides the time for TCH both in the source cell and the target cell according to the T3103. If the target cell and the source cell are not in the same LA. Inter-MSC HO The procedure for inter-MSC HO is shown in 7. the MSCa sends a PREPARE HANDOVER message that contains the HANDOVER REQUEST to it. the system resources will be wasted. the MSCb sends the VLRb an ALLOCATE_HO_NUMBER message to request for HO number (HON) assignment. The T3103 should be set less than T8. two channels are reserved. IV. If it is set too long. so the T3103 can be set to five seconds. 4) VLRb selects an idle HON and sends it to MSCb through the SEND HO 82 .26 Inter-BSC HO within MSC T3103 is started when BSC sends the HO command and cleared when the BSC receives the HO COMPLETE (INTRA BSC) or CLEAR COMMAND (INTER BSC). 2) 3) When the target MSCb is found. it queries the remote LAC list that contains the routing address of the neighbor MSC/VLR. a location updating will be performed at the end of each call. The HON indicates the routing between MSCa and MSCb. if it finds that the LAC of the preferred target cell is not in the local LAC list. After receiving the PREPARE HANDOVER message. 1) When MSCa receives the HANDOVER REQUIRED message from the BSC.

After receiving the channel activation response from the target cell. 10) When the target cell receives the HANDOVER COMPLETE message from the MS. it informs the MSCb. After the HO-DETECT or HO- 83 . MSCb sends a SEND HO REPORT RESP message to the VLRb anytime after it receives the IAM. Then the BSC activates the channel of the target cell. the BSC sends MSCb a HANDOVER REQUEST ACK message that contains the HO command. The IAM contains the HON assigned by VLRb for MSCb to identify which speech channel is reserved for the MS.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 REPORT message. 6) After receiving this message. 7) MSCa receives this message and sends an IAM to MSCb. 5) MSCb establishes a SCCP link to the target BSC and sends a HANDOVER REQUEST message to BSCB. Figure 1. Then the MS will perform the HO access to the target cell. it sends the HO command to the MS. MSCb sends MSCa a PROCESS ACCESS SIGNALLING message to indicate that the HO is detected.27 Inter-MSC HO 8) 9) After MSCa receives the ACM from the MSCb. After receiving the HO access message from the MS. Then the MSCb sends a SEND END SIGNAL REQ message to MSCa to inform it the HO is complete. MSCb sends a PREPARE HANDOVER ACK message that contains the HANDOVER REQUEST ACK and the HON to the MSCa.

To avoid the PSTN/ISDN contradiction of the MSCa and MSCb. the connection between MSCa and MSCb is established. the connection between MSCa and MSCb is released. it sends a clear command to the former BSC to release the channel resource. The MSCa will perform the HO to the secondary cell or terminate the HO.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 COMPLETE is received. the HO to the target cell is not allowed. MSCb will release the HON. it informs the MSC. or the data error occurs. The target MSC can be the former MSCa or the new MSCb’. the target cell has no radio channel available. MSCb must send an answer signaling when receiving the HO-DETECT/COMPLETE. MSCb sends a HO failure indication to the MSCa if the MSCb cannot identify the target cell.28 MSCb is handed over back to MSCa 84 . The inter-MSC HO is complete. After the HO is complete. The circuit switch happens in the MSCa for both situations. V. 12) MSCa controls the call until it is cleared. The procedure for the subsequent HO with circuit switch is as follows:  MSCb is handed over back to MSCa Figure 1. Subsequent Inter-MSC HO After the MSCb receives the HO request. The subsequent HO is the handover of MSCb to other MSC after an inter-MSC HO is complete. 11) When MSCa receives the HO complete message. it checks this target cell belongs to MSCb and performs the inter-MSC HO. When MSCa clears the MS call. it also clears the call control function of MSCa and sends a MAP-SEND-END-SIGNAL message to release the MSCb MAP resource. After the subsequent HO is complete.

If the TCH is busy.  MSCb is handed over to MSCb' 85 . a MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER response that contains the HO FAILURE information in it is sent to the MSCb. MSCb keeps the connection to the MS. MSCa releases the circuit connection to MSCb. target cell ID. MSCa sends a MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER response back. It can search the idle channel immediately without target HO number routing. 5) If the MSCa is successfully assigned. MSCa must send a proper MAP message to terminate the MAP procedure for MSCa and MSCb during the basic HO. The MSCb requests the handover of the MS to the new cell of the MSCa by sending a HO command. 2) 3) 4) MSCa is the call control MSC. or the target cell ID does not match the target MSC number according to the HO REQUEST. This message contains MSCa number. If the radio channel cannot be assigned or the error occurs to the target cell ID. After the radio channel is assigned. and the MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER response is sent to MSCb. 6) 7) After receiving the HO complete message. BSSa sends a QUEUING INDICATION to MSCb (optional). MSC sends MSCb the MAP FORWARD ACCESS SIGNALLING request that contains the subsequent TCH assignment result (HO REQUEST ACK or HO FAILURE). it releases the BSSb resources.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1) MSCb sends MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER request to MSCa. When MSCb receives the MAP SEND END SIGNAL response message. and all the information in HO REQUEST.

Figure 1. This message contains the MSCb’ ID. after the HON is provided by the VLRb’ and the MSCb’ channel is activated. MSCb sends the HO command to the MS.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Note 1: This message can be sent anytime after the IAM is received. This message contains the HO REQUEST ACK from the BSSb’ and the BSSMAP information that may be special. After the access succeeds. 4) After receiving this message. MSCa will initiate a basic HO to MSCb’. if the MSCa receives the MAP SEND END SIGNAL REQUEST (it contains the HO COMPLETE information of the BSSb’) from the 86 . It sends a PREPARE SUBS HANDOVER to the MSCa. 3) MSCa sends a MAP PREPARE SUBSEQUENT HANDOVER response message to the MSCb.29 MSCb is handed over to MSCb' 1) MSCb receives the HO request and finds that the target cell does not belong to the MSCb. 2) If the MSC can be found in the MSCa LAC list and remote LAC list (it contains information about other MSC). and all the information in HO REQUEST. target cell ID.

if the BSC has not received the Handover CMP message on the new channel. the MSCb’ replaces the MSCb. the BSC releases the old channel and notifies the target cell to release the new channel. MSCa also sends the MAP SEND END SIGNAL response to MSCb to end their MAP conversation. and responds with a Hanover Failure message. it will consider the call as dropped and send a Clear REQ message to the MSC on the old channel. if BSC1 has not received the Handover CMP message at expiry of timer T3103B2. For the inter-BSC handover. Any subsequent inter-MSC HO is the same as described above. Otherwise. If BSC2 has not received the Handover DET or Handover CMP message. it will send a Clear REQ message to the MSC for the same purpose. The remote LAC list of MSCa must be complete and contain as many MSCs as possible besides the neighbor MSC. if a user in place A calls another user in place B. it will send a Clear REQ message to the MSC to release the call. If timer T3103B1 or T3103B2 times out. For the intra-BSC handover. or Handover Failure message on the old channel at expiry of timer T3103A.4 Exceptional Situations The following are some extra exceptional situations on the basis of what has described before. For example. HO Failure Due to MS Access Failure If the BTS cannot decode Handover Access or Handover Completed correctly when a MS accesses the new channel. the HO is complete and the connection between MSCa and MSCb is released. the HO cannot be performed and the call drops. II. the MSC in place A must contains all the data of the MSCs and cells within the area between A and B. the HO will fail. HO Failure Due to CIC Exception If the CIC allocated in the Handover REQ received by BSC is marked as BLOCK.15. The MS returns to the old channel. MSCb receives this message and releases the radio resources. the target cell will release the new channel.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 MSCb’. I. 5) After the subsequent HO is complete. Upon receiving the Clear CMD message from the MSC. 1. 87 . BSC will respond to MSC with Handover Failure due to "requested terrestrial resource unavailable".

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 1. the BTS sends a radio link failure message to the BSC and BSC activates the SACCH. Call re-establishment is of two types according to the entity that has the radio link failure first. After detecting the radio link failure.16 Call Re-Establishment 1. or tunnels. I. When the call re-establishment is used. Radio Link Timeout Occurs to BSS First After the radio link timer in BTS times out. Call reestablishment can be regarded as the HO initiated by MS to save the interrupted call in the current cell. buildings. According to the protocol. and activated MM connection (MM is in status 6 "MM connection activated" or status 20 " Waiting for additional MM connection" Call re-establishment can only be initiated by MS. In the other end. this cell must permit the call re-establishment. In addition. Whether call re-establishment is allowed depends on the calling status. This cell should not be barred and the C1 is over 0. the MS can maintain the conversation by using another cell in a short time. II. 88 . thus improving the network quality. Radio Link Failure Occurs to MS First The MS sends a call re-establishment request in the selected cell (source cell or target cell). the cell's allowance of call re-establishment. If all the neighbor cells are not qualified. During the radio transmission. no voice is heard during the call reestablishment. The former channel resource is released after the BTS timer times out. possibly in a new cell or in a new location area (re-establishment in a new location area initiates no location updating). the MS selects a neighbor cell with the highest RXLEV within five seconds and sends the channel request in the selected cell. the network must handle the context for a while after detecting the lower layer faults for the successful call re-establishment. GSM protocol does not specify the implementation mode for the short message service and the independent call supplementary service.16.1 Introduction The re-establishment procedure allows MS to resume a connection in progress after a radio link failure. a connection may be broken suddenly because of the great transmission loss due to obstructions such as bridges. The implementation mode and duration are decided by the equipment provider. the call re-establishment is abandoned.

Under normal circumstances. 2) After the CM sends the request for the re-establishment of MM connection. Most users have hung up the phone before the procedure is over. if the MS receives at least one request for MM connection re-establishment from CM.2 Call Re-Establishment Procedure 1.2 shows the procedure for call re-establishment. MM sublayer sends a request for the establishment of RR connection and enters the WAIT FOR REESTABLISH state. For the areas with limited channel resources.30 Call re-establishment 1) After the MM connection failure indication is reported to the CM entity. When the RR sublayer indicates a RR connection is established (the CM re-establishment request message has been sent through the Um interface). the activation of this function is not recommended. This request includes an establishment cause and a CM re-establishment request.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 During the call re-establishment. Figure 1. only one re-establishment procedure will be initiated. the call re-establishment cannot achieve its goal but wastes a lot of radio resources. If several CM entities request for reestablishment. the MS cannot return into the idle mode. it will initiate the call re-establishment procedure. Therefore. the call re-establishment procedure lasts about 4 to 20 seconds. 1. the MM sublayer starts T3230 and indicates to all 89 .16. If the MS selects a cell in different LA as the target cell for call re-establishment.16. it cannot perform location updating until the call ends.

The reject cause (value) includes unidentifiable call (#38). and changes the status from "updating" into “roaming inhibit”. Re-Establishment Prohibition or Failure When MM connection is established. the MM connection is reestablished. and encrypted sequence number. and the call is initiated within the establishment or clearing period. the MM layer may send an indication to the CC layer. and CKSN in SIM card. unauthorized ME (# 6). The T3230 stops and informs all the CM entities related to the reestablishment to enter the MM CONNECTION ACTIVE state.3 Exceptional Situations I. and CKSN in SIM card. unsupported service (#32). the network analyzes the request type and starts the MM program or RR program. network failure (#17). LAI. If the reject cause if #4. The MM sublayer stays in WAIT FOR REESTABLISH state. Whether the CM entity can request for re-establishment depends on protocol discriminator (PD). it sends the CM SERVICE REJECT with the reject cause to the MS. If the reject cause is #6.16. and a release 90 . The network can start the classmark enquiry program to obtain more information about the MS encryption ability. 4) When the RR sublayer indicates the ciphering mode setting procedure is over or the CM SERVICE ACCEPT message is received. and then enters the “WAIT FOR NETWORK COMMAND” state. the CC layer shall release MM connections. unidentifiable IMSI (# 4). The CM Re-establishment Request message contains the MS identity (IMSI or TMSI). The network can also decide to perform the authentication procedure or ciphering mode setting procedure. and changes the status from “updating” into “no updating”. and temporary service failure (#34)。 6) After receiving the CM SERVICE REJECT. If the re-establishment is not allowed. MM connections shall be released. the MS deletes the TMSI. 5) If the network cannot connect the re-establishment request to the current MS call.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 the CM entities that the MM connection is under construction. LAI. Classmark 2. 1. The location updating will be initiated after the RR release. the connection may be re-established through CC request. 3) After receiving the CM re-establishment request. congestion (#22). The SIM is regarded invalid until the MS is switched off or the SIM card is pulled out. If re-establishment is unsuccessful. the MS stops T3230 and releases all MM connections and RR connections. the MS deletes the TMSI. If the MM layer is disconnected.

16. the MSC will abort the call reestablishment procedure and release all MM connections. abort the call re-establishment procedure. and release all MM connections. For details. 1. the MS will stop call re-establishment and release MM and RR connections.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 indication shall be sent to the CC layer. A short message procedure can be classified into short message calling procedure and called procedure. III. the MS will stop timer T3230. RR Connection Failure If random access failure or RR CONNECTION FAILURE is detected by the MS. see GSM03.4 SM Procedure Short messages can be transmitted either on SDCCH or SACCH. If RR CONNECTION FAILURE is detected by the MSC. II.40 protocol. Signaling Procedure Figure 1.31 Short message procedure on SDCCH when MS is calling 91 . 1.16.5 Short Message Procedure on SDCCH When MS is calling I. T3230 Time-out If the T3230 times out.

Procedure Description The random access.16. The time for sending ASS REQ is the same as that for a common call.6 Short Message Procedure on SDCCH When MS is called I. and encryption procedures of short message procedure on SDCCH when MS is calling are the same as general procedures. Signaling Procedure Figure 1. the MSCs of some manufacturers are capable to send ASS REQ to BSC. the MS sends SABM again. CP_DATA and CP_ACK are the messages on CM layer. relay layer (RL). CP_DATA is used to transmit the content of RL and AL message. 1. After encryption. BSC can provide SMS either by allocating other channels or by using the original SDCCH.32 Short message procedure on SDCCH when MS is called 92 . BSC provides a transparent-transmission channel for MS to exchange short message information with MSC. Then. authentication. and CP_ACK is the acknowledgement message of CP_DATA. In this procedure. requesting it to assign channel for short message transmission. notifying the network side that this user needs short message service (SMS). The release procedure after message is sent is the same as general ones.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 II. transport layer (TL) and application layer (AL). immediate assignment. Point to Point short messages protocol is divided into connection management layer (CM).

Procedure Description The MS sends CM SERV REQ through FACCH. Then. the connection is successfully established. 93 . and sends the short message. For the short message procedure when MS is called.16.33 Short message procedure on SACCH when MS is calling II. Signaling Procedure Figure 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 II. The MSC responds with the CM SERV ACC message and establishes CC layer connection. Procedure Description The paging response and immediate assignment procedures of short message procedure on SDCCH when MS is called are the same as general procedures. it establishes RR layer connection on SACCH. The release procedure after message is sent is the same as general ones. BSC transparently transmits the short message till the end of the transmission.7 Short Message Procedure on SACCH When MS is calling I. after encryption. the BSC sends EST REQ to MS to establish short message connection. 1. When EST CNF is received from MS.

GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

1.16.8 Short Message Procedure on SACCH when MS is called
I. Signaling Procedure

Figure 1.34 Short Message Procedure on SACCH when MS is Called

II. Procedure Description
The BSC receives the CP DATA message from MSC, and establishes an RR layer connection for SMS. Upon reception of CP ACK from MS, MSC sends the short message.

1.17 CBS
Cell Broadcast Service (CBS) is similar to paging station broadcast information. It means the mobile network operator broadcasts the public information to the mobile users within a certain area. The information that the users can read is called CBS message. It is generated by the Cell Broadcast Entity (CBE) and sent to the Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) for processing. After the processing, it is forwarded to the BSC and broadcast to the users through CBCH. The MS can only receive the CBS message in idle mode. Unlike the Point to Point Short Message service, the CBS message is broadcast without the acknowledgement of the user terminal. CBS includes:

Common public information service, such as weather, news, stock market, exchange rate, and lottery. Special public information service, such as people search, traffic navigation, and call charge prompt. Advertising service, such as information about stores, restaurants, and theaters.


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

1.17.1 CBS Mechanism
Operators or information providers can define the cell broadcast area through CBE. The minimal area is a cell and the maximal area can be all the cells of the BSCs that the CBC connects with. Features such as intervals, duration, and priority levels can also be specified to meet different requirements. The field length of the CBS message sent to BSC from CBC must be 82 bytes. If the length is shorter than 82 bytes, fill codes are added to it. If the length exceeds 82 bytes, the message is broken to a maximum of 15 pages. If the sending fails, the message may be sent again and the message with high priority level is sent first. The CBS information is sent to the proper cells through four continuous SMS BROADCAST REQUEST messages or one SMS BROADCAST COMMAND message. Each CBS message contains 82-byte user information and 6-byte header. The CBS message can be sent to BTS in the form of SMS BROADCAST REQUEST or SMS BROADCAST COMMAND. For details, see 1.17.2 BTS can send the CBCH Load Indication message to BSC and the system will speed up or delay the message sending according to this message. Although the BSC considers the CBCH capacity when sending the message and the BTS can indicate the status of the current CBCH, when the CBCH LOAD INDICATION mode is enabled, the BTS can send CBCH LOAD INDICATION to request for immediate broadcast of the m(1 - 15) SMSCB timeslot message when the CHCB is idle. After the BSC sends the m timeslot message, it sends messages according to its own schedule. If the message volume that the BTS requests exceeds the volume that the BSC can provide, the BSC only sends the messages within its volume limit. When the CBCH LOAD INDICATION mode is enabled, the BTS can send CBCH LOAD INDICATION to stop the sending of the m(1 - 15) timeslot message if overload occurs. Then the BSC will continue the sending according to its own schedule. CBCH LOAD INDICATION is only used in DRX mode. The CBCH is of two types: basic CBCH and extended CBCH. They are four continuous multiframes. The TB of basic CBCH is 0, 1, 2, or 3; The TB of extended CBCH is 4, 5, 6, or 7. TB = (FN DIV 51) mod (8). For the basic CBCH, the CBS message head is sent on the multiframe with TB being 0; for the extended CBCH, it is sent on the multiframe with TB being 4. The system message on BCCH indicates whether the CBS is available or not. When SMSCB is used, the BS_AG_BLKS_RES is set as 1 or above. When the CBCH is mapped to the CCCH+SDCCH/4, the number of BS_AG_BLKS_RES will not be limited by SMSCB. MS recomposes the CBS message and displays it for the user.


GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程

MS obtains the CBS message from the CBCH. BTS informs MS of the short message information during the schedule in the form of bitmap by sending schedule message. There are three reception modes for MS on CBCH:

Non-DRX mode. MS reads the first block of all message timeslots. The rest blocks will be read if the message head indicates that the following timeslots are used. If the MS does not support other reception mode, or it does not receive the scheduling for the next message timeslot, Non-DRX mode is used.

First DRX mode. If MS receives the scheduling for the next message timeslot, but the first scheduling message of the last scheduling period, or all the information of the last period or even earlier period is not received, first DRX mode is used.

Second DRX mode. If MS receives the important information of the last scheduling period and reads the first scheduling message of the current period, second DRX mode is used.

Whether the network uses DRX to receive the broadcast short message can be set through the maintenance console in BSC.

1.17.2 BSC-BTS Message Transmission Mode
A CBS message consists of eighty eight 8-bit bytes. These bytes are divided into four message blocks with each block containing twenty two 8-bit bytes. Each block is added by an 8-bit block type, and the length of the block is twenty three 8-bit bytes. A CBS message contains four continuous blocks: first block, second block, third block, and fourth block. As 1.17.2 shows, when the SMS BROADCAST REQUEST mode is used, the message is sent to BTS from BSC. The BSC handles the queuing, repetition, and short message sending. It also considers the CBCH capacity and takes charge of the SMS segmentation at radio interface. In the SMS BROADCAST REQUEST message, each SMSCB Information cell carries a complete frame that can be transmitted on CBCH and the layer 2 information that indicates the radio path. SMSCB Channel Indicator cell indicates the CHCH used for broadcast. If this cell does not provide the information, the basic CBCH will be used.


97 .36 SMS BROADCAST REQUEST In the SMS BROADCAST COMMAND message. the basic CBCH will be used. The default broadcast mode for BTS can also be set through this message.35 SMS BROADCAST REQUEST As 1.GSM Radio Network Planning and Optimization 第 2 章 GSM 系统原理及呼叫流程 Figure 1. the SMSCB message cell contains the information to be broadcast on CBCH. SMSCB Channel Indicator cell indicates the CHCH used for broadcast.17.2 shows. BTS segments the message and establishes the block format. If this cell does not provide the information. Figure 1. when the SMS BROADCAST COMMAND mode is used. It has four continuous blocks with a maximum of 88 bytes. In the default broadcast mode. SMS BROADCAST COMMAND message is sent to BTS from BSC. BTS will send the default message. if there is no other message to broadcast. BSC requires the immediate message sending during the next CBCH time. It also adds bytes to the block if required.

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