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LOGARITHMS

LOGARITHMS

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LOGARITHMS

Definition The three laws of logarithms Common logarithms

A

LOGARITHM

is an exponent.

Since 23 = 8, then 3 is called the logarithm of 8 with base 2. We write 3 = log 8. 3 is the exponent to which 2 must be raised to produce 8. We write the base 2 as a subscript. Thus a logarithm is the exponent to which the base must be raised to produce a given number. Since 104 = 10,000, then log 10,000 = 4. "The logarithm of 10,000 with base 10 is 4." 4 is the exponent to which the base 10 must be raised to produce 10,000. "10 = 10,000" is called the exponential form. "log 10,000 = 4" is called the logarithmic form.
2 10 4 10

Here is the definition: logbx = n means bn = x.

click "Refresh" ("Reload"). produces Example 1. 25 = 32 Example 2. To cover the answer again. logarithms? To see the answer. Which numbers have negative Problem 1. Write in exponential form: log232 = 5 Answer. Answer. Write in logarithmic form: 4−2 = 1 1 6 1 1 6 . log4 = −2. pass your mouse over the colored area. Do the problem yourself first! P r o p e r f r a c t i o n .That base with that exponent x.

is the exponent to which the base b must be raised.s . Example 6 . log22m = ? Answer. 1 log55 = 1. log22m = m. Example 3. the logarithm of the base itself is 1. In any base. 2 raised to what exponent will produce 2m ? m. 8 0 log81 = 0. the logarithm of 1 is 0. Answer. logb1 = 0 Example 4. Answer. obviously. 5 to what exponent will produce 5? 5 = 5. Evaluate log55. x -. valid for any base b: logbbx = x This rule embodies the very meaning of a logarithm. This is an important formal rule. 8 to what exponent produces 1? 8 = 1. Evaluate 1. 9 . logbb = 1 Example 5. Evaluate log 1. We can observe that in any base b.on the right -.

. d) log61/36 6−2 = = −2 1/36 Evaluate the following. Answe 1 is equal to 3 with 9what exponent? lo 1 g3 9= log33 −2 −2 1 9 = 3 . a) bn = x c) 102 = 100 logbx = n log10100 = 2 b) = 8 d) 1/25. (Definition of a fractional exponent. a) logbx = n bn = x b) 5 log232 = 25 = 32 c) 2 = 82 = log864 64 Problem 4.) Therefore. Therefore. −2 2 3 log28 = 3 = 5 log51/25 = −2. log2 . log2 .log3 r.25 = log22 = −2 −2 −2 Example 8.25 = ¼ = 2 . log3 = ? Answer. Write each of the following in logarithmic form. .25 = ? Answer. −2 = Example 7.. = 3 . log3 = log33 = 1/5 Problem 2. Write each of the following in exponential form. Problem 3.

a) 1 = log99 log9 9 −1 b) log9 d) log2 1 8 1 1 8 Evaluate the following. −1 = c) 1 = log2 4 −2 e) 1 = log2 1 −4 6 = −2 = −3 . a) log10n = 3 c) log2n = 0 e) logn g) log2 1 = 1 −2 6 1 = 3 n 2 What number is n? b) 5 = log2n d) 1 = log10n 4 f) logn 1 100 0 1 32 1 0 = 5−1 1 5 −5 logbbx h) log2 = x = 2n 1 − Problem 6. Problem 7.a) log216 c) log5125 e) log88 = 4 = 3 = 1 b) log416 d) log81 f) log101 = 2 = 0 = 0 Problem 5.

gb lo x y = logbx − logby "The logarithm of a quotient is equal to the logarithm of the numerator minus the logarithm of the denominator.= f) log10 . logbxy = logbx + logby "The logarithm of a product is equal to the sum of the logarithms of each factor.001 3 i) logb = 3/4 The three laws of logarithms 1." 3.01 −2 h) log6 = 1/3 g) = − log10 . Example 1." 2. According to the first two laws. Use the laws of logarithms to rewrite log Answer. see Topic 20 of Precalculus." For a proof of these laws. logb x n logbx n = "The logarithm of a power of x is equal to the exponent of that power times the logarithm of x. 5 . lo = log x + log z.

log (sin x log x) = log sin x+ log log x Example 3. Use the laws of logarithms to rewrite log (sin x log x) Solution. = Problem 8. = ½ log (x cos x). This has the form log ab. b = log x. a = sin x. = y . a) log ab c ab² = log a log c = log a + log b − + 2 log b − . Therefore. according to the third law. Therefore. Use the laws of logarithms to rewrite log Solution. log= log (x cos x) . 3rd Law ½ (log x + log cos x). lo = log x + ½ log z g y − 5 log z 5 Example 2. Use the laws of logarithms to rewrite the following. 1st Law.g z 5 − ½ log z 5 Now.

0 10: 1 1 1 0 0 0 00 1 . When the base is not indicated: log 100 = 2 then the system of common logarithms -base 10 -. Here are the powers of 10 and their logarithms: Powers of 1 1 10 100 10.b) log c) log c 4 4 log c = 1/3 log x + − log z + 1/2 z log y d) log sin²x log (sin²x log= x</I< TD> x) = 2 log sin x x e) log= log log + log log log (sin x cos x)1/2 = ½ log (sin x cos x) ½ (log sin x log cos x). + = Common logarithms The system of common logarithms has 10 as its base.is implied.

7634 is the common logarithm of 58. Given: Evaluate a) log 3000 log 3 = .00 0. log (log x) = 1 implies log x = 10.100 0 Logarithms −3 : 10 0 −2 0 − 1 0 4 1 2 3 Logarithms replace a geometric series with an arithmetic series. 10 is the base. What number is x? log a = 1. When 10 is raised to that exponent. 101. b) log 10n = n c) log 58 = 1.) Therefore. Since 10 is the base. Problem 9. a) log 105 = 5. (See above.7634 = 58 1.7634.4771 . implies a = 10. 58 is produced. log (log x) = 1. Therefore.0 00 10 Example 4. Problem 8. 000 . x = 10 = 10.

7781 + 2 = 2.5229 Problem 10 Given: log 6 = .003 −3 Solutio log . log (3 × = n. Write 3000 in scientific notation: log log (3 × = 3000 10 ) log 3 + = log 10 3 3 = .4771 log . log (6 × a) = 10 ) log 600 2 = log 6 + log 10 2 = . 003 10 ) = log 3 + log 10 −3 = .7781 log (6 × b) = 10) log 60 .4771 − 3 = −2.Solution.4771 + 3 b) = 3.7781 Use the laws of logarithms to evaluate the following.

06 −2 = log 6 + log 10 −2 = .3010 + = 2(. 18 = 2· 3². 9542 Therefore. log = log (2· 3²) 18 log 2 + log = 3² log 2 + 2 = log 3 .7781 − 2 = −1.3010. = 1.3010 + . Given: log 2 = . 3010 log 3 = .7781 + 1 = 1.4771 log 5 = . 6990 .= log 6 + log 10 = .4771 Evaluate log 18.2219 Example 5.2552 Problem 11. Given: log 2 = . log 3 = .7781 log (6 × c) = 10 ) log .4771) = . Solution.

0791 i) log j) k) l) log m) log 3 5 = log 3 − log 5 = −.Use the laws of logarithms to find the following.4771 g) log 3000 = log 3 + log 1000 = 3.2386 = ½ log 5 = .1761 c) log 4 = log 2² = 2 log 2 = .1003 n) log = ½(log 2 − log 3) = −. 6020 d) log 8 = log 2³ = 3 log 2 = .7781 b) log 15 = log 3 + log 5 = 1.0881 o) log 1500 = log 3 + log 5 + log 100 = 3. 9030 e) log 30 = log 3 + log 10 = 1.2219 = ½ log 3 = .7157 1 = log 2 3= .4771 f) log 300 = log 3 + log 100 = 2. a) log 6 = log 2 + log 3 = .4771 h) log 12 = log 3 + log 4 = 1.3495 3 log log log 3 = 2= .1761 .

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