Theories of Management

EDUC 4128

Management Theories
Theorists

Skinner

Rogers Kounin Kohn Gibbs Brophy Wong

Jones Mendler and Curwin Glasser Gordon Hewitt

Canter Dreikurs Bennett

Classroom Management as Reaction to Discipline Problems

y Skinner¶s Behavioural Management Theory

The teacher develops a process of systematically applying rewards (reinforcements) and consequences for behaviour. .Skinner ² Behavioural Management Definition: The practice of providing consequences for both positive and negative behaviour.

Skinner ² Behavioural Management This model of classroom management is also known as: y behaviourism y behavioural techniques y behaviour modification y social-learning theory .

Classroom Management with a Preventative Approach y y y y y y Carl Rogers Jacob Kounin Alfie Kohn Jeanne Gibbs Jere Brophy Harry Wong .

and prize students y All students strive for self-actualization and self-fulfillment . nonthreatening and participatory y Teachers need to be real.Carl Rogers y Experiential Learning and SelfActualization y Experiences need to be relevant. understanding. empathetic.

use the ripple effect. overlapping.Jacob Kounin y Effective Teaching includes group alerting and accountability. and they don¶t µdangle¶. µflip flop or get distracted . high participation and smooth transitions y Effective teachers are µwith it¶.

grading and reliance on marks or test results y µWorking with´ classes include active participation. and love of learning .Alfie Kohn y Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community´ y There is a difference between µworking with¶ and µdoing to¶ classes y µDoing to¶ classes include compliance. discovery. punishment and rewards. high interest.

mutual respect. social learning). setting goals. a helping attitude. a community of learners and student-centredness y Tribes training includes various school groups including parents and administrators . appreciation. a caring culture. monitoring progress and celebrating accomplishments y Tribes¶ focus is on learning (incl. the right to pass.Jeanne Gibbs y ³Tribes´ theory includes an emphasis on active listening.

include discussions and activities and give tasks to practise working with new knowledge y Assessments are used to provide feedback. and teacher as problem-solver y Good teachers present the concepts. instructional goals.Jere Brophy y ³Classroom Strategy Study´ y Good teaching includes enthusiasm. organization. to note the zone of proximal development and to develop/revise the curriculum y Students need to see the purposefulness of the curriculum .

meeting students. µbell work¶ and immediate feedback .Harry Wong y µThe Effective Teacher¶ videos and µThe First Days of School¶ book y The first impressions are lasting y Classes need only 3-5 rules and the size of groups is determined by the roles to be assumed y Important aspects of a class are teacher readiness. a seating plan.

Preventative and Reactive Strategies y y y y y Richard Mendler and Allen Curwin William Glasser Fred Jones Thomas Gordon Jean Hewitt .

give natural and logical consequences. diffuse power struggles and develop a plan . nurture responsibility not obedience.Mendler and Curwin y ³Motivating Students Who Don¶t Care´ y µDiscipline with Dignity¶ y To motivate students: be a role-model. be private. be fair. try for win-win situation. control anger.

William Glasser y Reality Therapy -Control/Choice Theory y All humans have a need for love a feeling of selfworth y Steps: build a relationship. focus on behaviour not person. give student responsibility and evaluation. student commits to plan. build relationships and express enthusiasm . create hope. move beyond class if necessary y Emphasize effort (redo. follow-up and follow-through. respect power. revise). develop a plan. retake.

Fred Jones ³Positive Classroom Discipline´ The teacher systematically strengthens desired behaviour while weakening inappropriate behaviour by using proximity control. body language and peer pressure. incentives. negative reinforcement. .

and low-key responses 3. Responsibility Training: establishment of group rewards or incentives to create group responsibility and accountability for behaviour 4. Limit Setting: rule reinforcement through the use of body language. Classroom Structure: setting up classroom rules. c) Public with Two Professionals . routines and the physical environment 2.Jones· Four Step Model 1. a) Private with Student. b) Public within Classroom. Back-up System: hierarchic organization of negative sanctions.

.Thomas Gordon Teacher Effectiveness Training (T. I.E.e. children are inherently rational and. student ownership. identify who owns the problem. if directed and forced by teachers. should be supported by an accepting relationship and is capable of solving own problems Teachers are taught to observe the behaviour. communication and analysis of learning .T. will be stifled Assumptions: student is intrinsically motivated to be good. demonstrate understanding. confront if necessary and use win-win problem-solving Curriculum design involves structured activities.) Based on philosophy of Carl Rogers.

deal with problems immediately and monitor the class y All consequences should create learning y Have specific rules that consider safety and wellbeing of others y Avoid confrontations.Jean Hewitt y ³Playing Fair´ y Based on the society¶s concept of ³fair ³ behaviour y Steps: create positive environment. support student efforts for self-control. power struggles or rumours .

Skinner .F.Reactive Strategies y y y y Lee and Marlene Canter Rudolf Dreikurs Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich B.

The Canters identified three basic response styles used by teachers when interacting with students .Canters· Assertive Discipline Definition: The teacher¶s response style sets the tone of the classroom as well as impacting on the student¶s self-esteem and success.

They appear indecisive which confuses students. They say what they mean. Assertive Teachers These teachers clearly and firmly express their needs. They have positive expectations of students. They threaten but students know there will be no follow through. and mean what they say.Canters· Assertive Discipline Nonassertive Teachers These teachers fail to make their needs or wants known. They are consistent and fair. .

Dreikurs· Logical Consequences Definition: The teacher considers the motivation and goals of the student behaviour in the development of a management plan. . y The teacher then applies Logical Consequences to assist students in taking responsibility for their actions and behaviours. y A more humanistic approach than just focusing on discipline.

To avoid failure . Dreikurs identified 4 student goals of misbehaviour: 1.Dreikurs· Goals of Misbehaviour Based on Alfred Alder¶s concept that all behaviour had a purpose or goal. To gain power 3. To seek revenge for some perceived injustice 4. To seek attention 2.

Dreikurs· Logical Consequences y y y y y Must be tied directly to the misbehaviour Must not involve moral judgments Must distinguish between the deed and the doer Must be applied in a non-threatening manner Must present choice for the student .

Barrie Bennett and Peter Smilanich y ³The Bumping Model´ of the teacher¶s responses to student misbehaviour y Increasingly severe responses by the teacher based on the degree of the student¶s BUMP. y Implies that teacher must take more drastic measures as behaviour persists .

8. 9.10: Informal contracts with other persons involved y y y y y .The Bumping Model Bump 1: Prevent misbehaviour by low-key response Bump 2: Square off Response Bump 3: Give choice Bump 4: Implied choice Bump 5: Diffuse the Power Struggle ( ignore. use humour«) y Bump 6: Informal Agreement y Bump 7.

Common Elements of ´Theoriesµ y What do the theories have in common as prerequisites to good classroom management? y What are the features that differ among the theories? .

Ultimately« y The teacher is responsible for establishing a community and for maintaining classroom control y The teacher is the difference between a chaotic or caring classroom y Effective classroom management includes: planning and implementing teaching strategies thoroughly . and preventing disruptions through proactive management strategies. y When a teacher needs to react to misbehaviour. keeping students actively engaged in meaningful learning. careful thought should be applied to the situation to ensure that the self-esteem of the student is respected and to ensure that the consequences are realistic and appropriate .

Good luck! .

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