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UNIVERSITY OF DAR ES SALAAM

COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCE (CASS)
DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS

ST 218: APPLIED STATISTICS 1

RESEARCH
FACTORS AFFECTING ORDINARY LEVEL PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOL IN SHINYANGA REGION;
A CASE STUDY OF KAHAMA DISTRICT

MASSAWE, DEOGRATIUS. B REG NO: 2008-04-02858 B. A. ECONOMICS AND STATISTICS

SUPERVISOR: JOHN NDEGA

Contents
Acknowledgement ..................................................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 Regional profile ................................................................................................................................................................ 6

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.4 Purpose of the study ....................................................................................................................................................... 7 1.5.2 Specific objective .................................................................................................................................................. 7 1.5.1 General objective .................................................................................................................................................. 7 1.3 Problem statement ........................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.2 Background of the study ............................................................................................................................................... 6

CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................................................................. 6

Abstract ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5

CHAPTER TWO ......................................................................................................................................................................... 12 RESEARCH DESIGN ................................................................................................................................................................ 12 2.4 Research design ............................................................................................................................................................. 13 2.4.2 Sampling technique .......................................................................................................................................... 13 2.4.4 Library data collection .................................................................................................................................... 13 2.4.3 Data collection..................................................................................................................................................... 13 2.4.1 Area of Study and Targeted Population ................................................................................................. 13 2.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.2 Participants ...................................................................................................................................................................... 12 2.3 Qualitative and Quantitative methods .................................................................................................................. 12

1.9Literature review ......................................................................................................................................................... 10

1.8SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: ........................................................................................................................ 9

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study ............................................................................................................................ 8

1.6 Research questions .......................................................................................................................................................... 8

1.5 Objectives of the study .................................................................................................................................................. 7

CHAPTER THREE..................................................................................................................................................................... 15

ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION, PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION ............................................................ 15 3.1 Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Research questions ....................................................................................................................................................... 15 2

2.5 Data coding and Analysis ....................................................................................................................................... 14

2.4.5 Fieldwork data collection .............................................................................................................................. 13

........................... 15 CHAPTER FOUR...........................................................1 Conclusion . 19 4...................................................1 Low proportion of teachers to students ........................... 21 Recommendations .................................................................................3 The distance and transport facilities from school to home ........................................................................3....................................................................................... 19 3 .................... 18 3..................................................................................................2.............2.................. 17 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................2..........2.......................................................................................................................... 19 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ............................................................................................2 3...... 19 4..................................................................................................................................................................4 Poor attendance of students to school ....... 16 3.......................................2 Inadequate teaching and studying facilities ......

that public schools are among the schools which do not do better. and others who I have not mention them for their fundamental support. I became interested in the question of why some schools pass more than others most of the times. I’m glad that I have had the opportunity to be one of those privileged to work with him. I love you all. Mr. L. late Edwin Macha (my best brother).Acknowledgement If I think of research as a journey. College of Arts and Social Science (CASS) and Department of Statistics for enabling this research. I would like to express my special thanks and appreciation to my parents. Nyasubi secondary school. They made my research easier than I could think. my friends. before conducting. my family. I wish to conduct another research with them or people like them. during and after conduction the research. Matemba’s family. roommates. He has always listened and given an encouraging response and advice to the particular research idea and problems. I noticed many fellow students saying. Nyihogo secondary school. Finally. conducting this research has been a wonderful and challenging experience. I owe my deepest gratitude to my supervisor. piece of advice and being concerned. I would like also to thank the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). and maybe also thought so myself. His open-minded and extraordinarily positive attitude has been very important in my academic development. Seeke secondary school and Nyashimbi secondary school will be a big faulty. Dr. Not taking this opportunity to appreciate the cooperation shown by teachers and students from Kishimba secondary school. His willingness and strictness made me brave and courageous as a result I complete my research as I dreamt to. the nice supervisor a student can have. During my studies. John Ndega. Without forget the coordinator and the teacher of the course (Applied Research I). Mr Elevatus for showing me the way to achieve a good research when we were in the class and outside as well. you are the sunshine of my life! Deogratius B Massawe 4 .

there are no enough teaching facilities. graphs and few narratives notes. The data coding and analysis was facilitated by Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) and Microsoft excel. the poor performance in ordinary level public secondary schools is caused by number of factors some of which are personal (specific) and others are general. The study findings show that. (i) There is a need to increase the number teachers who are qualified and committed on their work. This can be done by encouraging students to attend at school and reduce the unnecessary burden of work at home. provisions of incentives and improvement of teachers and students accommodation. poor working conditions. Also. there are poor teaching methods. creating good working conditions such as improving the level of wages. Kahama district was used as a case study. The information obtained is presented in tables. (iii) Parents also are required to work hand in hand with teachers and students so as to improve the performance.Abstract The aim of this research was to analyse factors which lead to poor performance in public secondary school especially ordinary level in Shinyanga. Lake Zone and Tanzania at large. (ii) The government has to ensure the availability of enough teaching facilities such as laboratory equipment and books. Five secondary schools were studied with 125 respondents as a sample. So as to improve the quality of education in the Shinyanga. (iv) There is the need to improving transportation to schools as well as improving housing so as to minimize the time lost from transportation. distant schools with poor transport and too many extracurricular activities at home and school. This will help teachers in their teaching activities and students in their studies hence improvement in the school performance in general. Among these factors. The units of inquiry were students and teachers who were selected randomly (random sampling technique). These are. there are number of suggestions came up from the study. Tanzania and to study the difficulties that students and teachers face in educational system. small number of teachers compared to students. The methods of data collection used in this research were interview and questionnaire. 5 .

millet. students and parents can interact to change the situation. 1. all sectors in the country will improve as well. The government of Tanzania is aware of most these problems. the government puts more effort in improving the quality of education in the country. Despite of this effort. In 2001.1 Regional profile Shinyanga region is largely rural lowland with seven districts. In Tanzania the quality of education is not good enough especially among the public ordinary secondary schools though the government of the United Republic of Tanzania puts more effort so as to improve it. There is also diamond and gold mining which contribute largely to National income. If the government succeeds to improve it.3 Problem statement In the 2009/2010 budget Education sector received the largest share of the budget after being allocated Tsh1. It is densely populated and is agriculturally very productive. 1. Some of them are.CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. sorghum. no enough teaching facilities.7Trillion. tobacco. cassava. maize.” This research aims at finding the main causes of such poor performance in the region and how the government. but I wonder…there is no improvement…. Mrs. Education in Tanzania especially Shinyanga region still lags behind compared to neighboring countries such as Kenya which pull back the quality of education in an area. Despite the regional efforts and country’s efforts. Shinyanga is among the regions which lag behind most of the times in education performance in Tanzania. The research concentrates on the performance of Ordinary level public secondary schools only. she said “…there are number of actions which have been taken to improve performance in the region. This shows that. sweet potatoes. there is little improvement. teachers. lack of important studying 6 .2 Background of the study The quality education is among the major issues all over the world. Inhabitants of Shinyanga engage in subsistence and commercial faming. Hawa Mchopa (Kahama District Commissioner at the time) on speech to the public. with rice. cotton and animal husbandry as the main economic activities.

The study took place in Kahama district in Shinyanga region as the case study. and to find out the solutions of the observed problems through researching.1 General objective The general objective of this study is to examine the main factors which negatively affect the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga and the solution to the problems. the government of Tanzania must increase the number of teachers. 1.materials. 1. improve students and teachers transportation facilities. etc.5. improve studying materials and teachers’ salaries as well as working conditions in general without forgetting to control students overcrowding in classes. over-crowding in classes. poor transport facilities. fewer number of teachers compared to students.5.4 Purpose of the study The main Objective of this research is to find out the factors affecting the quality of education in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga region.2 Specific objective The specific objectives of this study are. low teachers’ salaries and poor teaching conditions in general. • • • • • To assess how the proportion of teachers to students affects the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga To assess how the availability teaching and studying facilities the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga To assess how the distance and transport facilities from school to home the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga To assess how the attendance of students to school the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga To obtain suggested solutions to problems schools face from teachers and students 7 . 1.5 Objectives of the study 1. So as to improve the quality education.

 Shortage of facilities. which are all found in Kahama district in Shinyanga region. there was a high shortage in facilities like: transportation facilities. Tanzania. still it had bureaucratic procedures in making it functional. some respondents in the area of study (especially students) were intentionally giving out wrong information so as to hide the truth of their schools without thinking of the effects of doing so. Other districts were excluded in the sample due to limitation in time and fund.  Wrong information. The secondary schools from which data were collected were Kishimba secondary school.6 Research questions (i) Does the proportion of teachers to students affects the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (ii) Does the availability teaching and studying facilities the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (iii)Does the distance and transport facilities from school to home the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (iv) Does the attendance of students to school the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? 1. There was a problem in getting the permit paper from the university which helps in recognition of the researcher and the research done.  Permission problem. some respondents in the area of study were not cooperative to the Researcher in accepting to fill or answer the questionnaire especially teachers thinking that they are wasting their time.1.7 Scope and Limitation of the study The research covers only one district in which five schools with a total of 125 respondents were used to collect data as the representative (sample) of the region. Though the paper was given out late. Seeke secondary school and Nyashimbi secondary school. Nyasubi secondary school. Nyihogo secondary school. which to the large extent was inadequate.All necessary funds came out from the researcher’s Pocket. 8 . a setup CD for SPSS Program and a computer to facilitate data analysis. Other limitations (drawbacks) faced by the researcher are:  Low cooperation.

1. teachers and students to know their contribution in the schools performance and to know their responsibility on improving the quality of education. The parents. 9 . Enlightening teachers with a sense of concern for increasing student’s interest in studying and by doing so the performance of the student will be higher.8SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: This study on the factors affecting the performance of ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga region will help • • • • • Ministry of education in Policy formulation which will try to solve the problem of poor performance of ordinary level public secondary schools in the country. Investors to invest more in education by building more schools which are relatively cheaper to solve the problem of overcrowding in classes and produce more text books and other learning materials so as to solve the great shortage of teaching and learning materials. To remind the Government on improvement on teachers conditions such as improvement of teachers’ salaries housing and other working conditions.

much of the literature focuses on clarifying the dimensions of the problem. School personnel become accountable to communities when communities manage schools. performance. Yoder (2002) found that “A large range of rationales exist for community schools in Africa.1. Third. there is relatively little literature that explores the recruitment. preparation. and professional preparation of secondary principals. there is a lack of longitudinal research that tracks the longterm effects and consequences of interventions aimed at improving the teaching force. Many models attempt to make programs more attractive to children by supporting interactive and student-centred teaching methods. A. However. They increase access to education where the government does not have the resources to do so and are often seen as more relevant to local development needs than public schools. rather than formulating and testing alternative solutions. First. but often lacks solid evidence of the effectiveness of the approaches being described. developing local democratic organizations such as school management committees.9Literature review Public/Community schools are currently an important part of the educational landscape in sub-Saharan Africa and are frequently held up as successful educational interventions in developing countries trying to reach universal access to basic education and improve education quality. Fourth. much of the literature tends to be descriptive of particular country efforts to attract. deploy. A few evaluations and even fewer syntheses of information on public schools exist. community schools are seen as one way to implement educational decentralization.” Mulkeen. Though public schooling has long been a practice in many countries. Miller-Grandvaux Y and K. Community schools are seen as cost-effective (comparable or even better instructional services for less money) and community participation is expected to improve educational quality and increase student achievement. and retain teachers. particularly in relation to the changing roles of principals in response to decentralized authority and to principals’ expanding role as instructional leaders within their schools. information on public schools in Africa especially Tanzania is lacking. et al (2007) observed that attention in the literature on secondary teachers focuses on problems of teacher supply. some of the stronger research has been conducted within projects and is reported only in project documents that are difficult to retrieve. In addition. Another goal of community schools focuses on improving governance. and retention but offers a relatively weak basis for guiding policy and program development for four reasons. Second. 10 . retention. the idea of alternative education as a development strategy is relatively new and is often seen as a response to failing public education systems. Finally.

1987) 11 . in which examinations questions are asked. Borick (1988) pinpointed motivation and classroom management as factors affecting performance. Therefore. Also. Mlama (1979) observed that poor condition of families deprive children of their basic needs and others to the extent of (learners) being necessitated to engage them in money earning activities during free times.The problem of English language as the teaching language has also contributed to poor performance in secondary schools. Kalole S. due to candidates` poor language competence. He said what is known about the learners’ experience needs and aspirations and interest must be blended with facts and knowledge found in books to produce a sufficient level of motivation. tenses and sentence construction. Participation in such activities affects learner’s concentration in school hence poor performance. to justify or to qualify a statement. revealed that while the problem of teachers and students’ incompetence (in English) requires the overhaul of the whole education system. all the English markers admitted that the English syllabus (1997) is not well designed to guide the teacher especially a new teacher in the field. the problem of students’ overconfidence (in Kiswahili) can easily be addressed. spelling. they fail to grasp the content knowledge presented in the English language. classroom climate is very important for students’ performance. In addition. Many markers indicated that they face problems in marking candidates` essays because of frequent mistakes. This might invariably be the cause of the candidates` failure. Classroom climate is the atmosphere or mood in which interactions between teacher and students take place (Borick. some of the sentences are incomprehensible. require the students to predict. Finally. These include organizational. One possible means of doing this is through the use of National Examination Council subject panellist evaluation report. The language.

12 . 15 teachers 3 from each from school.3 Qualitative and Quantitative methods One of the goals of the present study was to examine the factors affecting the performance of public secondary school in Shinyanga region. 25 students from Kishimba secondary school. 20 from Nyasubi secondary school.2 Participants There were 125 participants or respondents in this research who are distributed as follows. the qualitative method was used and when evaluating the ratio of teachers to students. participants and methods involved in the research process. area of the study. quantitative method was used. sampling technique. In this research there was 125 respondents selected randomly in 5 schools in Kahama district. Due to the nature of the problem both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. For example. data collection. in knowing the effect of teaching methods. techniques. SECONDARY SCHOOL Kishimba Nyihogo Nyasubi Nyashimbi Seeke TOTAL STUDENTS 25 21 20 20 24 110 TEACHERS 3 3 3 3 3 15 TOTAL 28 24 23 23 27 125 2. The respondents are clearly shown on the table below. 2. 24 from Seeke secondary school and 20 from Nyashimbi secondary school.1 Introduction This chapter shows the research procedures. The combination of qualitative and quantitative methods made the research process successful because the methods facilitated the exhaustion of required data.CHAPTER TWO RESEARCH DESIGN 2. 21 from Nyihogo secondary school.

13 .3 Data collection The data in this study was collected in two stages. So.4. Tanzania. Kahama district was chosen from this sampling technique. This technique was firstly used to select one district to represent the whole region.2 Sampling technique There are two sampling techniques which were used in the research process. 2. similar method was used in selecting public secondary schools. The information concerning the study to be conducted was extracted from the library and from the internet. 2. The second sampling technique is simple random sampling technique. Then. 2. The main libraries visited were the libraries of the University of Dar es salaam and the Shinyanga regional library.4 Library data collection This stage of data collection was done before going to the field. These methods are interview and questionnaire design. Kishimba secondary school Nyihogo secondary school Nyashimbi secondary school Seeke secondary school and Nyasubi secondary school 2. The first stage was library data collection and the second was the fieldwork data collection. which are.5 Fieldwork data collection In the fieldwork data collection different methods were used.2. five schools were chosen as a sample.4. The targeted population was all Ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga region but due to time and cost Kahama district was chosen as the case study and only five secondary schools represented the region.4.1 Area of Study and Targeted Population The study took place in Kahama district in Shinyanga region. This was used to select targeted population that is ordinary level public secondary schools and excluding other schools.4 Research design 2.4.4. The first is purposive sampling technique.

2. number of teachers and students.5. In this study both methods were used so as to collect the addition information which did not questionnaire was not able to capture.5 Data coding and Analysis At the end of data collection. Editing being a process of examining data and enabled the researcher to detect errors and omission of and to correct those where it was possible. transport problem.The data collected were coded and analyzed by using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft excel. social services and extracurricular activities. During data collection 16 questions were addressed to 125 respondents including 15 teachers. An open-ended question asks the respondent to formulate his own answer. availability of teaching and studying facilities. A distinction is made between open-ended and closed-ended questions.1 Questionnaire A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. The questionnaire consisted of both open and closed ended questions. inspection and coding were undertaken. An interview can be structured or unstructured.2. 2.2 Interview This is the method of data collection where by an interviewer asks questions to the respondent and record the answers given out by the respondent. The final phase in the data collection process is to convert the observations and measurements you have made about for a computer to understand.4. manual editing.5. whereas a closed-ended question has the respondent pick an answer from a given number of options. The questions covered some important issues like.4. 14 . The response options for a closed-ended question should be exhaustive and mutually exclusive. 110 students to answer them.

The teachers are over burdened and as the result. 3. figures and graphical form.1 Introduction In this chapter. one teacher in public schools studied teaches 317 students per day. In the average. For example.1 Low proportion of teachers to students The overall results show that public secondary schools in Shinyanga face the problem of low proportion of teachers to students. INTERPRETATION. interpreted and presented. all schools have one teacher in every science subject who teaches from form one to form 4. PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION 3. the students do not perform well. Kishimba secondary school has one teacher mathematics teacher.2 Research questions (i) Does the proportion of teachers to students affects the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (ii) Does the availability teaching and studying facilities the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (iii)Does the distance and transport facilities from school to home the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? (iv) Does the attendance of students to school the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga? 3. one physics teacher.CHAPTER THREE ANALYSIS. The study shows that. The findings are presented in tabular form. 15 . one chemistry teacher and one biology teacher while there are more than one hundred students in each class. This is very small proportion of teachers to students. The analysis showed that there are some common factors affecting the performance of ordinary level public secondary schools but also there are specific factors to each school. the data collected and coded by SPSS and Microsoft excel are analyzed.2. which in result leads to poor performance of public schools.

3. The month in which this study were conducted. Is there enough studying material in your school? 100.Teachers Teachers freshers form6 leavers non form6 leavers moved teachers non moved teachers Figure 1: Teachers (a) (b) This proportion can be surprising but number of teachers considered in this study is those full time teachers and those who are employed.2 Inadequate teaching and studying facilities Through interviewing the Researcher found that.00% 0.2. This can be well seen from figure 1 above.00% 20. 41% of the total part time teachers. unavailability of enough teaching and studying facilities affect the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga. laboratory and other teaching and studying materials such as books have caused the performance to be very poor. The results show unavailability of library.00% 60.00% 80.00% Yes No I don’t know Figure 2: Studying materials 16 .00% 40. moved from one school to the other and 93% of them were form six leavers.

Also. said that. car and those who walk on foot to school. This lost time could be used for studying purposes if the students could be residing near to school. The students have to walk more than 9 kilometres in average daily.6% of the students respondent negatively to the question “is there enough studying material in your school?” This shows that. Hence. Means of transportation from home to school 80. 78. 3.00% 40.00% 0. the study shows that. In the study. the good performance is hindered due to these also.00% car motor cycle bicycle foot Figure 3: Means of transportation The student loose more than four hours just going and returning from school daily.2.00% 60. it has been discovered that. the study shows that. most of the public secondary schools in Kahama district are day schools and they are cited very far from homes. motor cycle. the school suffers from the problem inadequate studying materials without forgetting the absence of laboratory and library. 17 .8%) walk on foot. the students get tired when they return home and fail to have private studies at home.00% 20.3 The distance and transport facilities from school to home The study also reveals that. the long distance from school to home and poor transport facilities have negative impact on the performance of ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga. Also. there is no enough teaching material in their schools.From figure 2. all the teachers who responded to the questions asked. There are some students who use bicycle to go to school but majority (69. This discourages them from producing good notes for their students. The figure 3 below shows the percentage of those who use bicycle.

the higher classes believe more in tuition teachers than school teachers. poor attendance in classes may be one of the reasons to poor performance of the public schools in Shinyanga. it is shown that. this poor attendance goes with poor performance. As table 1 show. This means that. it has been discovered that. and some of those who do not attend classes. about 82% of the students attend classes in public schools. the poor attendance to school has the negative impact on schools’ performance in general. But after taking a simple investigation within schools (as Table 1 shows). So. Among the reasons for this is.3. in average.2. 18 .4 Poor attendance of students to school The researcher found that most of the classes. the classes with poor attendance are associate poor performance. Moreover. Table 1: Overall average performance and attendance 2008 Attendance 90% 93% 76% 69% 2009 Performance Attendance 72% 96% 73% 91% 64% 79% 60% 65% 2010 Performance Attendance 80% 91% 76% 94% 67% 72% 56% 66% Form 1 Form 2 Form 3 Form 4 Performance 75% 81% 60% 59% In this study. which have poor students’ attendance. face the problem of poor performance as well. the higher classes have poor attendance. attend tuitions.

they are very few and second. Also. have been found in the study. This means that. Also. long distance from home to school. provisions of incentives and improvement of teachers and students accommodation. the long distance from school to home and poor transport facilities have negative impact on the performance of ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga. as the results. which have poor students’ attendance. they quit due to poor working conditions. 4. face the problem of poor performance as well. This is because. which in result leads to poor performance of public schools. The trained teachers who are sent in the region are not enough due to some reasons. Through interviewing the Researcher found that. This might be cause by family problems. (ii) The government has to ensure the availability of enough teaching facilities such as laboratory equipment and books. All this causes. the performance goes down. first. the students and some teachers take much time in travelling from home to school. creating good working conditions such as improving the level of wages. 19 . laboratory and other teaching and studying materials such as books have caused the performance to be very poor. the schools are located very far from homes as a result.1 Conclusion The overall results show that public secondary schools in Shinyanga face the problem of low proportion of teachers to students.CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 4.2 Recommendations (i) There is a need to increase the number teachers who are qualified and committed to their work. unavailability of enough teaching and studying facilities affect the performance in ordinary level public secondary schools in Shinyanga. This will help teachers in their teaching activities and students in their studies hence improvement in the school performance in general. the poor attendance to school has the negative impact on schools’ performance in general. The study also reveals that. The results show unavailability of library. the poor transportation (no school buses and other school vehicles) has caused the students to walk on foot for about 9 kilometres daily. lack of teachers and students going to tuition centers instead of school. The researcher found that most of the classes.

This can be done by encouraging students to attend at school and reduce the unnecessary burden of work at home. (iv) There is the need to improving transportation to schools as well as improving housing so as to minimize the time lost from transportation. 20 .(iii) Parents also are required to work hand in hand with teachers and students so as to improve the performance.

A. Yoder (2002): A Literature Review of Community Schools in Africa. et al (2007): Recruiting. D. Ndabi and Albert N. NECTA (National Examinations Council of Tanzania) 1993a: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Examinations Results and Candidates` Responses to CSEE (1992) Questions. D.S. Idama. Mulkeen A. Washington.DaresSalaam: Ministry of Education. and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. 99.REFERENCES Kalole S:“Language Problems in Tanzania Secondary Schools. Retaining. Report: Daniel M. World Bank Working Paper No.C. Dar es Salaam: NECTA.C. 21 . U. USA MoEC (Ministry of Education and Culture) 1997a: English Language Syllabus for Secondary Schools Form 1-6. Experience in Answering Essay and Summary Questions in the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination” Unpublished paper Miller-Grandvaux Y and K. Washington. M.

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