SOUTHEASTERN VEGETABLE EXTENSION WORKERS

2009
HANDBOOK
VEGETABLE CROP

SOUTHEASTERN U.S.

VEGETABLE CROP HANDBOOK 2009
sponsored by

vegetable crop handbook 2009
Dear Grower, It is with a great deal of pleasure that the Southeastern Vegetable Extension Workers (SEVEW) Group is able to offer you the 10th edition of the Vegetable Crop Handbook for the Southeastern U.S. This handbook represents a joint effort among Extension Specialist and Researchers from 12 land-grant universities who work in the area of vegetable production. These specialist and researchers represent a wide array of disciplines – agricultural engineering, entomology, olericulture (vegetable production), plant pathology, soil science, and weed science. This handbook is comprised of current, research-based information developed from research and Extension projects conducted throughout the southeastern United States. The key idea behind this handbook is to provide you with a practical, single source handbook that conveniently fits on your dashboard. It contains everything you need, including which variety to plant, planting dates, fertilizer recommendations, cover crops selection and conservation tillage options, pesticide selection, fertigation, plasticulture, post harvest handling, alternative pest management tools and suggestions as well as many other topics. This handbook is updated annually at a meeting each fall. Thanks to our sponsors, it is printed and provided at no charge to growers, crop advisors, county educators and Extension specialists throughout the southeastern United States. In addition to printed copies, this handbook is available on-line on at several locations that can be found through links listed on the following pages. In addition to developing this handbook, the SEVEW Group focuses on strengthening and supporting vegetable production programs around the region, identifying emerging issues facing this region, and providing a forum for multistate programming that will benefit growers in the southeastern United States. Vegetable production in this area faces many challenges which are not limited to any individual state but are relevant to the entire region – developing advances in production methods which reflect current climatic and economic situations, emerging pest problems, developing management strategies for pests, etc. The SEVEW Group addresses these needs on a regional basis. Extension specialists and researchers from the region meet to combine their knowledge and experience in order to develop approaches and answers that will enable growers in the southeastern United States to optimize their production practices and to increase the sustainability of their operations. We hope you enjoy this handbook! Sincerely, SEVEW Group p.s. The SEVEW Group works with Vance Publishing Corp., Lincolnshire, Ill., publishers of Citrus & Vegetable Magazine and The Grower, to edit, design and publish this handbook. Visit www.citrusandvegetable.com and www. growermagazine.com to access the handbook online. In addition, you also will find several commodity fact sheets as well as a survey for you to let us know what you think of the handbook. Your comments will ensure that the handbook only gets better year after year.

SoutheaStern vegetable extenSion WorkerS

Handbook Senior Editors: G.J. Holmes, NC State University, Raleigh, NC and J.M. Kemble, Auburn University, Auburn, AL
Contributors: A.S. Culpepper, University of Georgia, Weed Science
Lower right: Silken cocoons of the Braconid wasp (Cotesia congregatus) on the body of a Tomato Hornworm caterpillar photo by: G. Holmes

COVER PHOtOS:
Upper left: Field of acorn squash in NC photo by: G. Holmes Upper right: Close up of high quality pumpkin handles. photo by: C. Gunter Lower Center: Yellow pear and yellow cherry tomatoes photo by: A. Wszelaki

Lower left: Hungarian wax peppers. photo by: A. Wszelaki

K.M. Jennings, NCSU, Weed Science M. Abney, NCSU, Entomology

North Carolina Vegetable Growers Association

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this handbook was prepared and reviewed by the following authors at respective institutions:

NC STATE UNIVERSITY
North Carolina State University Horticulture — J.M. Davis, W.R. Jester, K.M Jennings, J.R. Schultheis, and A. Thornton Biological and Agricultural Engineering — G.T. Roberson Entomology — J.F. Walgenbach, M.R. Abney, and G.G. Kennedy Plant Pathology — G.J. Holmes*, K.L. Ivors, and F.J. Louws Soil Science — C.R. Crozier, R.J. Gehl, and G.D. Hoyt

Auburn University Horticulture — J.M. Kemble* and E. Vinson, III Plant Pathology — E.J. Sikora

Horticulture—J.M Kemble* Plant Pathology—E.J. Sikora Weed Science—M.G. Patterson

Clemson University Horticulture — R.L. Hassell*, G.A. Miller Plant Pathology — T. Keinath Entomology — P. Smith

University of Georgia Horticulture — G.E. Boyhan and W.T. Kelley* Plant Pathology — D.B. Langston Crop & Soil Science — S.A. Culpepper Entomology — A.N. Sparks and D.G. Riley

Louisiana State University Horticulture — J. E. Boudreaux* Entomology — A. L. Morgan Plant Pathology — D. Ferrin

University of Kentucky Horticulture — T.W. Coolong Plant Pathology — K.W. Seebold Entomology — R.T. Bessin

Mississippi State University Horticulture — D.H. Nagel and R.G. Snyder* Plant Pathology — D. Ingram Entomology — M.B. Layton Weed Science — J.D. Byrd and M.W. Shankle

University of Tennessee Horticulture – A.L. Wszelaki* Plant Pathology – S.C. Bost Entomology – F.A. Hale Weed Science — G. Armel

*State Coordinators

Virgina Tech Horticulture — J.H. Freeman* Plant Pathology — S.L. Rideout

the purpose of this book is to provide the best and most up-to-date information available for commercial vegetable growers in the southeastern US: Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, tennessee, and South Carolina. these recommendations are suggested guidelines for production in the above states. Factors such as markets, weather, and location may warrant modifications and/or different practices or planting dates not specifically mentioned in this book.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

Page i

edu/dept/com_veg AU Plant Diagnostic Lab Information on Herbs.utextension.org KENtUCKy http://www.dasnr.aces.okstate.com/crops/comhort/greenhouse.html National IPM Network NC Component http://ipm.ugaveg.com ALAbAMA SPECIFIC wEb SItES AbOUt tHIS HANDbOOK: http://wiki.html Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .uaex.ces.com MISSISSIPPI http://www.vt.edu/depts/hort/hil/ OKLAHOMA University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service http://www.edu Organic Fruit and Vegetable Production Page ii http://msucares.html North Carolina Pest News Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service http://www.com/crops/comhort Virginia Cooperative Extension http://www.com http://www.html LOUISIANA http://www.edu/Ag/Horticulture/comveggie.com texas Agricultural Extension Service http://texasextension.aces. Organics.ces.edu/oces SOUtH CAROLINA Louisiana Cooperative Extension Service Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service http://www.edu VIRGINIA Mississippi Commercial Horticulture Information http://msucares.edu University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service http://edis.edu/ tENNESSEE Mississippi State University Extension Service tennessee Agricultural Extension Service http://msucares.edu/depts/ent/notes/Vegetables/ vegetable_contents.org/SEVEW Alabama Cooperative Extension System NORtH CAROLINA http://www. & Specialty Crops NCSU Plant Disease Fact Sheets http://www.ncsu.ncsu.ces.bugwood.com/crops/comhort/organic_veg_fruit.edu/dept/plantdiagnosticlab/ ARKANSAS http://www.html Horticulture Information Leaflets University of Georgia Extension Vegetable team http://www.edu North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service http://www.aces.org Commercial Vegetable Information http://www.ncsu.utk.ncsu.ufl.edu/plantpath/extension/fact_sheets/ index.edu FLORIDA http://ipm.agrian.okstate.ncsu.oces.ext.edu/current_ipm/pest_news.uky.edu tExAS MS State-Greenhouse tomato Production MS Greenhouse tomato Short Course http://msucares.lsuagcenter.tamu.ifas.html http://greenhousetomatosc.Vegetable production information Web sites http://www.edu http://ncherb.cals.edu GEORGIA Vegetable Insect Information Notes http://www.ncsu.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Varieties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Basil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Onions and Green Onions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Soil Pests: Their Detection and Control . . . 62 Okra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Endive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Escarole. . . 16 Pollination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Soils and Soil Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Mulches and Row Covers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Cover Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Eggplant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Spinach . . . . . . . . . . 107 Resistance Management and the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Codes for Modes of Action of Insecticides . . . . . . . 57 Leeks . . . . . . . . 59 Melons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Insect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v List of Insect. 47 Cucumbers. . . . . . . . . 79 Radishes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Irrigation . . . . . . Insecticides. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Greens: Mustard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Plant Populations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Beans: Lima and Snap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Kohlrabi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Potatoes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v-ix General Production Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Sweet Corn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Sweetpotato . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Crop Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Disease Control in Plant Beds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disease. . . Turnip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Parsley and Cilantro . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Peas: English/Garden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Protecting Our Groundwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Air Pollution Injury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Broccoli. . . . . 31 Basic Principles of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) 31 Postharvest Handling . . . . . 58 Lettuce. . . . . . 72 Peppers . . . Rutabagas. . . . 30 What are Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs)? . . . . . . . . . 8 Plant Growing . . . . . . 104 be Safe with Pesticides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cauliflower. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116-273 Emergency Numbers by State . . . . 18 Calibrating a Sprayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Parsnip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Specific Commodity Recommendations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Garlic and Elephant Garlic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Calibrating a Granular Applicator. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Seed Storage and Handling . . . . . . . . . . 31 Optimizing Commerical Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and weed Control tables . . . . . . Cabbage. . . . . . . . . . 85 Summer Squash. . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Asparagus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irish . . . . . . . . . . . . Respiratory Protective Devices for Pesticides . and Miticides for Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Beets . . . . . . . . . Kale. . . . . 104 Registered Fungicides. 26 Postharvest Perennial Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Beneficial Insects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Peas: Southern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Cooling Methods . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Calibrating a Broadcast Spreader . . . . . . . 22 Calibration Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . Toxicity of Chemicals Used in Pest Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page iii . . . . . . . 108 111 112 114 Pest Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Pumpkins and Winter Squash . . . 95 Watermelon . and Turnips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and weed Control tables . . .contents List of tables for General Production Recommendations . 93 Tomatoes . 17 Calibrating Chemical Application Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Diagnosing Vegetable Crop Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 General Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Carrots . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vegetable Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .tables 1A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Irrigation Periods for Drip Irrigation Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Nematode Control In Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-70. . . . . . . . . . . . . disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 11. Table 2-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239 Sanitizing Greenhouses And Plant Beds . . . . . . . . . . Soil Infiltration Rates Based on Soil Texture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . Vegetable Seed Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Micronutrient Fertilizer Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Alternative Control Measures . . Secondary. Table 4-3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . Table 2-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 insect. .13 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 12. . . . Lime and Fertilizer Suggestions for Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-3. . .121 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Optimum and Minimum Temperatures for Transplant Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Population of Plants per Acre at Several Between-row and In-row Spacings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-69. . . . . . . . . . .118 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hours Required to Apply 1" Water to Mulched Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 Greenhouse Disease Control For Tomato And Other Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-2. . Table 2-6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . .12 7. . Table 3-2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Soil Test Interpretations and Recommendations Based on Soil Test Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . Predators and Parasites of Vegetable Pests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243 Insect Control . . . . . . . . & Weed control tables ALL VEGEtAbLES Table 3-1.240 Insect Control . . . . Critical Periods of Water Need for Vegetable Crops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5. . . . Table 3-6. . . . . . . . . .117 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nutrient Values for Manure Applications and Crop Residues . . . . . . . . Table 3-5.245 ASPARAGUS bEAN bEEt Page iv Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-8. . . . . . . . .184 Relative Importance of Alternative Management Practices for Disease Control . . . . . Table 2-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . Table 3-68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241 Insect Control . . . . . . .116 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recommended Storage Conditions and Cooling Methods for Maximum Postharvest Life of Commercially Grown Vegetables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Available Water-Holding Capacity Based on Soil Texture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .237 Relative Effectiveness Of Various Products For Greenhouse Tomato Disease Control . . . . . . . . . .3 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percentage Equivalents and Conversion Factors for Major. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-14. . . . .133 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . Table 4-8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-6. . . . . . . . .195 Relative Importance Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organism . . . . . . . . .251 Insect Control . . . . . . . . CAbbAGE AND CAULIFLOwER (continued) Table 2-9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186 Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246 Table 2-12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-12. . . . . . . . bRUSSEL SPROUt. . . . . . . . Table 2-23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SwEEt CUCUMbER Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .188 COLE CROPS Table 2-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-16. . . . . Table 3-17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-13. . . Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-21. . . . . . . .135 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . .127 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 Chemical Weed Control . . . . .130 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .insect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130 Alternative Control Procedures . .135 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & Weed control tables bROCCOLI. . . . . . . . . . .253 Page v COLLARD CORN. . Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250 Table 2-19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-24. . . Table 4-9. . Table 2-13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Table 4-7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249 CANtALOUPE (MUSKMELON) CARROt CELERy Table 2-18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Insect Control For Greenhouse Cucumber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 Alternative Management Tools . . . .133 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Table 4-4. . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Table 2-11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-15. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-18. . . . . . Table 2-14 Table 3-31. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-26. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 Relative Importance Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-11. . . . . . . . . . . . . .189 Relative Importance Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

199 Table 3-25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255 ENDIVE Table 3-22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 GARLIC JERUSALEM ARtICHOKE KOHLRAbI LEttUCE MUStARD GREENS OKRA Table 2-38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-34. . . . . . . . . .197 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . .257 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-15. & Weed control tables EGGPLANt (continued) Table 2-28. . . . Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Insect Control For Greenhouse Lettuce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-41. . . . . . . . Table 3-34. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207 Chemical Weed Control . .148 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . .139 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-10. . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256 Table 3-28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-78. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207 Relative Effectiveness Of Various Chemicals For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .insect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-30. . . . . . . . . Table 2-30. . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-26. . . . . . .198 Table 3-24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-33. . . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 Table 4-11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-38. . . .201 Table 2-31. . . . . . . . . Table 2-43. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Table 2-32. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-12. . . . . . . . . . Table 3-32. . . Insect Control . . . ONION Page vi . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . .200 Chemical Weed Control . . . Insect Control . . .142 Alternative Control Procedures . .146 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-33. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-29. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198 Table 3-23. . . . . . Table 2-42. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-14. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216 Chemical Weed Control . . Table 3-43. . . . .219 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-51. Table 3-42. . . . . .263 Insect Control . . . . . . Table 2-47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-47. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 PEPPER POtAtO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-16. . . . . . . . . disease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 PEA Table 2-44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-50. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-40.164 Disease Control Schedule .210 Relative Effectiveness Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-53. . . Table 2-50. . . . . .159 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IRISH PUMPKIN AND wINtER SqUASH RADISH SPINACH Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page vii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-21. . . . .192 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . .261 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .insect. . . . . . . . . . Table 4-18. . . . . . . . . Table 4-17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-60. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Relative Effectiveness of Various Chemicals for Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 Insect Control . . . . . . . . & Weed control tables PARSLEy OR PARSNIP (continued) Table 3-36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 Alternative Management Tools: Southern Pea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . Table 2-56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 Chemical Weed Control . Table 2-61. . Table 3-38.150 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-54. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-46. . .164 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 Chemical Weed Control . . . .162 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-39. . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-45. . . . . . . . . . . . . .163 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 Alternative Control Procedures . . . .212 Chemical Weed Control . .163 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . Table 3-48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213 Alternative Management Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-20. . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-55. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Alternative Management Tools .152 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-46. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-51. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265 Insect Control . . . . Table 4-19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-37. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209 Alternative Management Tools: English Pea . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-59. Table 2-48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .173 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suggested Weekly Spray Schedule For Foliar Disease Control In Fresh-market Tomato Production. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-61. . . . . . . . . .165 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 Table 2-71. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . their Resistance to Specific Diseases. . . . . . . . .223 Relative Importance Of Chemicals For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-60. . . . . . . Table 2-76. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-73. . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-58. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Table 3-62. . . . . disease. . . . . . . . Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224 Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-12.272 tURNIP wAtERMELON Page viii Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-70. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231 Chemical Weed Control . . .225 Relative Effectiveness Of Alternative Management Practices For Foliar Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-23. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 Storage House Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . .174 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-75. . . . . . . . . . .223 Relative Importance Of Alternative Management Practices For Disease Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Relative Effectiveness Of Various Chemicals For Foliar Disease Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-54. . . 230 Table 3-63. . . . . . . Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . .177 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231 Chemical Weed Control . . . . Rates For Foliar Disease Control In Fresh-Market Tomatoes At Full Plant Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-52. . . . . . . . . Table 4-25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-63. . . . .174 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 4-22. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177 Disease Control Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & Weed control tables SqUASH (continued) Table 2-62. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-79. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-55. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 SwEEtPOtAtO tOMAtILLO tOMAtO Table 3-57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Commercial Tomato Varieties. . . . . . . . . . . Chemical Weed Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-67. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 2-65. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 Table 2-68. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and recommended location for cultivation . . . . Table 2-74. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Alternative Control Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220 Chemical Weed Control .173 Insect Control For Greenhouse Tomato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Table 4-24. . . . . . . . . . . . .insect. . . . . Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175 Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms . . . . . . . . . . Table 3-53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .257 Insect Control . . . . . . . . . . .167 Disease Control Schedule . . Insect Control . . . . . . .174 Disease Control Schedule . . . . .

pak choi. Several years of small trial plantings are suggested for any variety or strain not previously grown. rotations of longer than 5 years may be required (see Table 1A). scallions. the selection of alternate crops suited to grow in the area. carrots (finger and round types).general production recommendations VARIEtIES New varieties and strains of particular varieties of vegetables are constantly being developed throughout the world. romaine lettuce. only some of the better performing commercial types are listed in the specific crop section. Many producers are considering grow- ing specialty or “gourmet” vegetables of which several are highly perishable crops. Disease Resistance or tolerance. wholesale. rhubarb. Japanese melons. and winter squash (Oriental and Little Dumpling). kale. Specialty Vegetables. herbs. However. and the purpose of the rotation (prevention versus reduction). sweet onions. Any particular crop may CROP ROtAtION Crop rotation is an effective and widely used cultural practice to prevent or reduce the buildup of populations of soil-borne plant pathogens. Less perishable types that offer promise are bok choy. This deviation may be due to different strains and races of disease-causing organisms and environmental conditions. Chinese cabbage. growers must determine that specific retail. Miniature or baby vegetables that can be grown are beets (harvested less mature). cucumbers (harvested less mature). pickling corn. and snow peas. the markets. and environmental conditions. In general. restaurant. crop rotation. summer squash (immature with blossom attached). pepper. Irish potato (red. tyfon. endive and escarole (blanched). baby lettuce. Promising perishable crops include asparagus. Since it is impossible to list and describe all of them. The ultimate value of a variety for a particular purpose is determined by the grower. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Goosefoot Family • Beet • Chard • Spinach Solanaceae Family • Irish Potato • Eggplant • Tomato • Pepper Mustard Family • Kale • Collard • Brussels Sprout • Cabbage • Cauliflower • Broccoli • Kohlrabi • Rutabaga • Turnip • Mustard • Upland cress • Radish Malvaceae • Okra Bindweed Family • Sweetpotato Gourd Family • Pumpkin • Squash • Watermelon • Cucumber • Muskmelon • Cantaloupe Composite Family • Chicory • Endive & Escarole • Dandelion • Lettuce • Artichoke • Jerusalem artichoke Page 1 . These varieties are believed to be suitable for commercial production under most conditions. planting site. seed treatment. snap beans (small sieve types harvested less mature). Belgian endive. the pathogen(s). leeks. always include a standard in the same field or planting. yellow. and the use of resistant varieties when available. eggplant (little fingers type). Plant scientists have taken advantage of this natural variation to develop varieties that are resistant or tolerant. or processing markets exist. Superscripts appearing after the variety names refer to the disease resistance or tolerance and are spelled out in the “Abbreviations” section in the front of this book or following the listed recommended varieties. the longer the rotation. A very limited number of pesticides are registered for many specialty vegetables and herbs. snap peas. Jersey Golden acorn squash (immature with blossom attached). For a true comparison. either alphabetically or in order of relative maturity from early to late. Before planting a specialty crop. Strains of a particular variety may perform better than the standard variety under certain conditions. and golden). a 3. dandelion (blanched). When used to reduce pathogen populations. red radicchio. red leaf lettuce. blue. garlic (pink skin). mechanical cultivation. ethnic vegetables. however. snap) • Cowpea or Southern pea • Soybean Parsley Family • Carrot • Parsley • Celery • Cilantro deviate from the predicted response to a disease. and sweetpotatoes (moist and dry types with unusual color). the variety’s performance under his or her management. table 1A. An effective rotation sequence includes crops from different families that are poor or non hosts of the pathogen(s) of concern. from a practical standpoint this will depend upon the availability of land. VEGEtAbLE FAMILIES Grass Family • Sweet corn • Popcorn • Ornamental Corn Allium Family • Onion • Leek • Garlic • Shallot • Chive Pea Family • English Pea • Bean (lima. Successful pest control in these crops is dependent on sanitation.to 5-year rotation is generally recommended. the better the results. Swiss chard.

due to over-fertilization. The pH of the solution is measured by a pH meter (potentiometer). Other issues of potential concern include K fertilizer losses and accumulation of heavy metals such as copper. if a crop that requires well-drained soil is planted on poorly drained soil.SOILS AND SOIL FERtILIty The best soils for growing vegetables are well-drained. Even agronomically small losses of N & P can impact water quality. OH -) into the soil solution. This negative charge is due to the chemical makeup of the soil clay and organic matter. Ongoing research has documented increased costs and reduced profits. or plant residues. Increasing soil pH reduces the concentration of dissolved aluminum. The amount of acidity generated by 640 pounds of elemental S is the same as that neutralized by 1 ton of lime. proper Soil Acidity and Liming. The H+ added to soils reacts with the clay minerals (aluminum silicates) and releases Al3+. Combined. Soils become acidic due to the leaching of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+). or become acidic with cropping. A pH of 7. especially in sandy coastal plain soils. Nitrates and phosphorus remain the two agricultural nutrients of greatest environmental concern. the most deleterious component of soil acidity. it is not possible to make an accurate lime recommendation based solely on a pH measurement. Deep. Winter cover crops and periodically resting the land with summer cover crops between vegetable plantings are essential in preventing deterioration of the soil structure. producers should consult with their local Extension office about laboratory methods and target pH assumptions used in determining lime recommendations. the use of the soil pH and soil textural class determines the lime requirement. etc. especially in eco-sensitive regions.0 is defined as neutral. In a good soil management program. Declines of one pH unit can occur even in properly fertilized beds. Both the soil pH and some measure of residual or exchangeable acidity are needed to calculate lime recommendations. and means that they can attract positively charged ions. crop rotation. Even with loams or clays. always follow the manufacturer's instructions for appropriate rates. Soil Management. especially aluminum. and source. and during the nitrification of ammonium when added to soils as fertilizer (UAN solutions. soil pH can be lowered by applying aluminum sulfate or iron sulfate. zinc. urea. Lime recommendations must take into account differences in acidity among soils as well as differences among various crops’ tolerance to acidity. it’s doomed to failure regardless of a grower’s other efforts. elemental sulfur (S) is the most effective soil acidulant. fairly deep. well-drained organic soils are ideal for leafy vegetables and bulb and root crops that offer a high return per acre. supplied with organic amendments. ammonium nitrate. Loam and silt loam soils are generally better suited for growing crops for later fresh-market use or for processing. It is therefore critical that both nutrients and irrigation are managed to optimize vegetable production while minimizing impact on the environment. A slight pH reduction can be produced by using ammonium sulfate. This rating is also known as the “calcium carbonate equivalent. The grower who matches the crop to the soil has the best chance of producing a successful crop. If soil pH is too high for the desired crop. Soil pH is an indicator of "soil acidity". nutrients retained in surface soil may be carried with sediment or as dissolved run-off to the surface waters. For example. Loamy sand and sandy loam soils are generally better suited for growing early market crops. The same drainage allows water and dissolved nutrients to move through the soil profile. Many soils in the southeast are natu- liming and fertilization. ammonium sulfate. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Soil acidity is the term used to express the quantity of hydrogen (H+) and aluminum (Al3+) cations (positively charged ions) in soils. sand is preferred because it drains quickly so fields can be worked soon after rains or irrigation without damaging the structure of the soil. as well as natural resource degradation and human health risks. this is vital for maintaining highly productive soils. Land-grant university recommendations are based on calibrated crop response studies that can differ substantially across the region. Producers should consult guidelines prepared specifically for their state for the most appropriate nutrient management recommendations. Another issue to consider is that different soil laboratories may use different testing methods developed for their particular soil conditions. Careful nutrient management includes at least the following four issues: rate. At best these soils possess weak granular structures. A large percentage of the vegetables grown in mineral soils of the Coastal Plain are grown in soils with essentially no structure. Although portable soil test kits determine pH rapidly. timing. Due to these differences. good tillage practices. and need liming to attain optimum production levels. calcium hydroxide [CA(OH)2]. planting. Nutrient Management and Environmental quality. Root growth and plant development may be severely restricted if acidic cations. In addition to lime. occupy a large percentage of the negatively charged soil cation exchange capacity (CEC).0 being basic or alkaline. Liming materials containing only calcium carbonate (CaCO3).0 being acidic and above 7. A well-balanced nutrient management plan represents good stewardship and should satisfy any applicable environmental regulations. with values below 7. Pure calcium carbonate is used as the standard for liming materials and is assigned a rating of 100 percent. Page 2 rally acidic. and harvesting. and adequate irrigation are all necessary to maintain high levels of production. Acidification also occurs when H+ is added to soils by decomposition of plant residues and organic matter. anhydrous ammonia). The sandy soils preferred for vegetable production in the southeastern US result in an aerated root zone and enable timely tillage. and relatively high in organic matter. In many areas. Consult your state guidelines for a description of the current soil test method and interpretation guidelines. or calcium oxide (CaO) are called calcitic limes. These soils should have good structure and have been adequately limed and fertilized for the past few years. annual additions of organic matter with cover crops. which reacts with acid (H+). In soil management. as well as influencing the concentrations of other ions. or urea as a fertilizer source of nitrogen. Soil pH is determined by using a 1:1 soil-to-water solution. manures. placement. ammonium nitrate. Whether trying to increase or decrease the pH of your soil. Lime is applied to neutralize soil acidity by releasing a base (HCO3-.

medium. Once the grade of fertilizer is selected. The best incorporation implement is a heavy-duty rotary tiller that mixes the soil throughout the root zone. Lime and Fertilizer. it must be finely ground to effectively neutralize soil acidity. the phosphate (P2O5) and potash (K2O) needs for each cropping situation can be determined by selecting the appropriate values under the relative soil test levels for phosphorus and potassium: very low. rates are adjusted after checking the spreader pattern and making appropriate corrections. but the costs of this source of magnesium are almost always considerably higher. in order to minimize runoff in nutrient-sensitive watersheds Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 3 . Use Table 1 to determine the relative levels of phosphorus table 1. lime moves little in the soil and neutralizes acidity only in the zone where it is applied. Most agricultural lime is sold in bulk as a damp powder because dry lime is very dusty and difficult to handle and spread. If the application is not correct. * Some states recommend that no fertilizer P or K be added when the soil test rating is either “High” or “Very High”. Once the final fertilizer-plant nutrient needs are known. The most commonly used liming materials are finely ground dolomitic or calcitic rock. When phosphorus is extremely high. potassium. possibly reducing crop yields. and fertilizer is not a substitute for lime. 6-12-18. It is possible to use a magnesium fertilizer instead of dolomitic lime. to benefit economically from high levels added in previous years. Lime laws in most states describe standards for composition and particles sizes. Use Table 2 as a guide in conjunction with specific soil test results. Normal annual application to produce maximum yields. as indicated by the soil test report. Dolomitic limes should be used on soils low in magnesium. soils should be resampled in 2 years. This history is very important in planning a nitrogen fertilization program. phosphate (P2O5). high. Because lime dissolves very slowly. To be most effective. and potassium in the soil based on the soil test report from the laboratory. magnesium. This rating permits growers. and potash (K2O). the plant nutrient recommendations listed in Table 2 should be reduced by the amounts of nitrogen (N). determine the grade and rate of fertilizer needed to fulfill these requirements. or K2O contained in the fertilizer into the quantity of the respective plant nutrient needed per acre and multiplying the answer by 100. pelleted lime. None until level drops back into high range. Plant nutrient recommendations listed in Table 2 are expressed in terms of nitrogen (N). if the final plant nutrient requirements that need to be added as a commercial fertilizer are 50 pounds of nitrogen (N). When soil test results are available. the quantity needed to fulfill the plant nutrient requirements can be determined by dividing the percentage of N. wood ash. Where no P or K is applied. and 150 pounds of potash (K2O). thus be aware that you may be purchasing a substantial amount of water and should adjust lime rates accordingly. 100 pounds of phosphate (P2O5). if a 5-10-15 fertilizer grade is chosen to supply How to Use Plant Nutrient Recommendation table #1 and #2. Lime is not a substitute for fertilizer. fineness. but are usually considerably more expensive than ground limestones. liquid lime. The cropping and manuring history of the field must be known before a fertilization program can be planned (see Table 3). without risk of loss in yields. Small applications to maintain soil level. The most commonly used lime incorporation tool is the disk. All other liming materials are rated in relationship to pure calcium carbonate. and micronutrients. P2O5. or very high. Industrial by-product liming materials can be useful soil amendments capable of reducing soil acidity and supply a variety of nutrients including calcium. Each lot of such materials should be analyzed as considerable variation in CCE. For example. Within a one to three year time-period. is needed. phosphorus. See Table 3 for nutrient values for manure applications and legume crop residues.and is referred to as the CCE. Lime is sold by the ton. such as 5-10-15. Plant nutrient recommendations listed in Table 2 were developed for fields where no manure is being applied and where no legume crop is being turned under prior to the planting of a new crop. SOIL tESt INtERPREtAtIONS AND RECOMMENDAtIONS bASED ON SOIL tESt RESULtS Soil Test Rating Low Medium High* Very high* Relative Yield without Nutrient (%) 50–75 75–100 100 100 Recommendations Annual application to produce maximum response and increase soil fertility. rather than in specific grades and amounts of fertilizer. phosphate (P2O5). Additional liming materials include burnt lime or hydrated lime. If manure and/or legume crops are being used. It will not incorporate lime as well as offset disks that throw the soil more vigorously. lime must be uniformly spread and thoroughly incorporated. In practice. and nutrient composition may occur. and potash (K2O) being contributed from these sources. 7-14-21. Lime pellets and lime suspensions (liquid lime) can be convenient and fast-acting. ground seashells. strips of under-limed soil could result. use recommended amounts of P2O5 and K2O listed under medium phosphorus and medium potassium soil test levels for the crop to be grown. Liming materials with significant amounts of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) are called dolomitic limes. low. Amount suggested may be doubled and applied in alternate years. For example. Lime and fertilizer work together synergis- tically to produce high yields and better crops. When soil test results are not available. and industrial slags. lime is occasionally excessively wet. a fertilizer with a 1-2-3 ratio. because a reliable soil test for nitrogen is not available. further additions may limit the availability of Fe and/or Zn. However.

CROP ASPARAGUS . Lima . Sidedress after cutting. Broadcast and disk in. CUCUMBER . Sidedress 2 to 3 weeks after planting. Total recommended. Total recommended.Cutting Bed or Non-hybrids 50 0 50 100 50 50 . Total recommended. Broadcast before cutting season.5 Nitrogen (N) lb/acre 100 50 50 . Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress 4 to 6 weeks after planting. 110 to 155 160 120 80 20 40 to 60 120 100 60 0 20 40 20 20 20 50 to 75 0 0 0 0 CORN. Broadcast before planting..Plasticulture 150 125 25 0 100 75 25 0 50 25 25 0 25 0 25 0 200 175 25 0 150 125 25 0 100 75 25 0 25 0 25 0 25 0 25 Total recommended. Total recommended..5 Low Med High Very High Low Soil Potassium Level Med High Very High Nutrient Timing and Method 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total recommended.. Band-place with planter. Sweet 6 to 6. sidedress 40 lb N per acre when corn is 6 in. Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress when vines begin to run.. Band-place with planter 7 to 14 days after planting. Page 4 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Broadcast and disk-in.5 Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. tall and another 40 lb N per acre when corn is 12 to 18 in. Sidedress after cutting. Sidedress after cutting. tall. 100 to 175 200 100 50 0 50 to 75 200 100 50 0 25 to 50 0 0 0 0 25 to 50 0 0 0 0 200 200 0 0 150 150 0 160 120 40 0 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 120 100 20 0 50 50 0 0 50 50 0 80 60 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 20 0 Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre and molybdenum per acre as 0.. Total recommended. Total recommended. NOTE: On very light sandy soils. and CAULIFLOWER 6 to 6. Broadcast before cutting season.5 80 to160 40 to 100 20 to 30 20 to 30 .5 40 to 80 20 to 40 20 to 40 BEET 6 to 6.Growing crowns P2O5 lb/acre 200 200 0 200 200 0 150 150 0 200 200 0 120 80 40 0 80 40 40 150 150 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 150 150 0 80 40 40 0 60 40 20 100 100 0 50 50 0 50 50 0 50 50 0 100 100 0 40 20 20 0 40 0 40 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 20 0 0 0 200 100 100 200 100 100 200 100 100 300 150 100 160 120 40 0 80 40 40 150 150 0 200 150 50 0 K2O lb/acre 150 75 75 100 75 25 150 75 75 225 100 125 120 80 40 0 60 40 20 100 100 0 100 100 0 0 50 50 0 100 50 50 100 50 50 150 75 75 80 60 20 0 40 0 40 50 50 0 50 50 0 0 Apply 2 lb boron (B) per acre every 3 years on most soils. Total recommended. Broadcast and disk-in. Total recommended.. Apply 2 to 3 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Sidedress if needed.. Total recommended. Snap 6 to 6. Sidedress every 2 to 3 weeks after initial sidedressing. Broadcast and disk-in. Broadcast and disk-in. Band-place with planter..Bareground 6 to 6. Band-place with planter. Sidedress if needed. Fertigate 120 to 150 150 100 50 25 216 183 150 25 125 25 25 0 45 35 25 95 to 125 0 0 0 0 175 150 125 Drip fertilization: See “cucumber” in specific recommendations later in this handbook.5 70 to 110 25 to 50 20 25 to 40 BEAN. 125 to 175 200 100 50 0 50 to 100 50 25 150 50 0 100 0 0 50 0 0 0 0 0 BRUSSEL SPROUTS.5 lb sodium molybdate per acre with broadcast fertilizer. according to weather. CABBAGE. GENERAL LIME AND FERtILIZER SUGGEStIONS FOR VEGEtAbLE CROPS Recommended Nutrients Based on Soil Tests Soil Phosphorus Level Desirable pH 6. Total recommended.Single crop 6 to 6..table 2.5 Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Sidedress 3 to 5 weeks after emergence... or apply in irrigation water.. Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress 2 to 3 weeks after planting.5 75 to 100 50 25 to 50 BROCCOLI 6 to 6.. Broadcast and disk-in. Total recommended.. Broadcast and disk-in.New hybrids 100 50 50 BEAN. Sidedress when corn is 12 to 18 in.New Crown Plantings/ Direct Seeding .5 50 to 80 150 100 50 0 50 150 100 50 0 25 to 30 0 0 0 0 Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilzer. CARROT 6 to 6. Sidedress at first cultivation. tall.

Broadcast and disk-in. Broadcast and disk-in. broadcast 50 to 100 lb nitrogen (N) per acre with recommended P2O5 and K2O and disk incorporate prior to laying mulch. Total recommended. Broadcast and disk-in. Drip fertilization: See “okra” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.. Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.5 85 to 175 60 to 80 25 to 30 LEAFY GREENS. Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting. Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Total recommended..... Sidedress 6 to 8 weeks after planting. Sidedress 6 to 8 weeks after planting. Band-place with planter.5 75 to 150 50 to 100 25 to 50 6 to 6. Broadcast and disk-in. Drip fertilization: See “cantaloupe” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.. COLLARD. Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer..5 200 200 0 200 200 0 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 0 50 50 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 200 0 200 200 0 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 0 50 50 0 50 50 0 0 100 100 0 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total recommended. Broadcast and disk-in.table 2. Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting. Sidedress 3 times beginning 2 weeks after planting.. CROP EGGPLANT .Bareground P2O5 lb/acre K2O lb/acre Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Total recommended. OKRA 6 to 6. Sidedress after first cutting. Sidedress 3 to 5 weeks after planting. Total recommended. and MUSTARD 6 to 6. Sidedress when vines start to run.5 100 to 200 50 to 100 25 to 50 25 to 50 250 250 0 0 150 150 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 250 250 0 0 150 150 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total recommended. Broadcast and disk-in.5 75 to 80 50 25 to 30 6 to 6.5 75 to 125 50 to 75 25 to 50 . KALE. Broadcast and disk-in..5 75 to 115 25 to 50 25 25 to 40 . Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting. Broadcast and disk-in. Recommended Nutrients Based on Soil Tests Soil Phosphorus Level Desirable pH 6 to 6.. Sidedress after each additional cutting. LEAF AND ROMAINE LETTUCE ICEBERG LETTUCE 6 to 6. LEEK Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) and 20 lb sulfur (S) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) and 20 lb sulfur (S) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting. CONtINUED. Total recommended. Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Broadcast and disk-in. Fertigate. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 5 . Total recommended.Plasticulture 75 to 150 25 150 125 25 0 150 125 100 75 25 0 100 75 50 25 25 0 50 25 25 0 25 0 25 0 200 175 25 0 200 175 150 125 25 0 250 50 100 75 25 0 154 50 25 0 25 0 25 25 Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Broadcast and disk-in.Bareground 6 to 6. ONION . NOTE: Where plastic mulches are being used.5 Nitrogen (N) lb/acre 100 to 200 50 to 100 25 to 50 25 to 50 .Green 150 to 175 50 to 75 50 50 PARSLEY 6 to 6. Broadcast and disk-in. if needed. Total recommended. CANTALOUPES & MIxED MELONS . Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting. Total recommended. 100 to 175 200 150 100 0 200 150 50 to75 200 150 100 0 200 150 25 to 50 25 to 50 0 0 150 150 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 150 150 0 0 0 100 100 0 PARSNIP 6 to 6. Total recommended. Sidedress. Total recommended. Drip fertilization: See “eggplant” in specific recommendations later in this handbook. if needed..5 75 to 125 50 to 75 25 to 50 Low 250 250 0 0 250 250 0 200 200 0 200 200 0 150 150 0 200 200 0 Med 150 150 0 0 150 150 0 150 150 0 150 150 0 100 100 0 150 150 0 High 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 50 50 0 100 100 0 Very High 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Low 250 250 0 0 240 100 140 200 200 0 200 200 0 150 150 0 200 200 0 Soil Potassium Level Med 150 150 0 0 170 100 70 150 150 0 150 150 0 100 100 0 150 150 0 High 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 50 50 0 100 100 0 Very High Nutrient Timing and Method 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total recommended. Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks after planting.Plasticulture 145 50 95 ENDIVE.Bulb 6 to 6.. 50 to 100 25 25 25 25 25 200 104 0 Fertigate. ESCAROLE.5 50 to 100 25 to 50 25 to 50 Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress 3 to 4 weeks before harvest. Broadcast and disk-in.

Apply through irrigation system. Total recommended.table 2.2 Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.8 to 6. SPINACH . 50 to 80 50 40 20 0 150 150 120 120 Sidedress 21 to 28 days after planting.Fall . Summer 6 to 6. Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress when first fruits are set as needed.5 80 to 90 40 to 50 40 to 45 80 to 150 25 to 50 55 to 100 RADISH 6 to 6. Bareground for Loam and clay 6 to 6. Total recommended.. Sidedress when vines start to run.. Broadcast and disk-in. TOMATO ... Broadcast and disk-in. Total recommended.. Disk in row.5 75 to 125 50 to 75 25 to 50 80 to 120 50 to 80 30 to 40 SQUASH..5 Nitrogen (N) lb/acre 40 to 60 16 100 to 130 50 25 to 50 25 to 30 . Broadcast and disk-in.. if needed.Sandy loams and loamy sands 5. Sidedress when vines begin to run. Broadcast and disk-in. Broadcast and disk-in before seeding. Broadcast and disk-in. Broadcast and disk-in. Sidedress after first fruit set.5 50 to 75 25 to 50 25 to 50 150 150 0 100 100 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 150 150 0 100 100 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. Broadcast and disk-in. Broadcast and disk-in.Loams and silt loams ..Bareground for Sandy loams and loamy sands .. Apply in late February.Bareground .5 lb of actual boron (B) per acre 40 to 80 days after transplant. Total recommended. English PEA. RUTABAGA and TURNIP 6 to 6.Plasticulture 6 to 6. Band-place with planter at planting. Total recommended... Total recommended for spring application to an overwintered crop.5 5. CROP PEA. Drip fertilization: See “summer squash” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook. Total recommended. 80 to 90 40 to 45 40 to 45 200 200 0 150 150 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 300 300 0 200 200 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 Total recommended.2 100 to 150 85 to 135 15 150 50 100 PUMPKIN and WINTER SQUASH .. Apply in late March.. Fertigation... Sidedress 4 to 5 weeks after planting.8 to 6.8 to 6. Total recommended. Irish . Sidedress later in season. Total recommended. tall. Broadcast and disk-in. 0 150 60 30 0 150 50 30 0 Broadcast and disk-in. Total recommended. Add 0. Total recommended. Broadcast and plow down.5 50 Low 120 96 200 200 0 0 200 200 0 110 60 50 200 200 0 150 150 0 150 150 0 150 Med 80 48 150 150 0 0 150 150 0 90 40 50 150 150 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 100 High 40 0 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 70 20 50 100 100 0 50 50 0 50 50 0 50 Very High 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 0 50 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Low 120 96 200 200 0 0 365 100 265 200 200 0 300 300 0 200 200 0 200 100 100 150 Soil Potassium Level Med 80 48 150 150 0 0 300 100 200 150 150 0 200 200 0 150 150 0 150 75 75 100 High 40 0 100 100 0 0 235 100 135 50 50 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 100 50 50 50 Very High Nutrient Timing and Method 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 50 50 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total recommended.5 100 to 130 25 to 50 50 25 to 30 200 200 0 0 0 0 150 150 0 0 150 150 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 200 0 0 0 0 150 150 0 0 150 150 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 SWEETPOTATO 5. Recommended Nutrients Based on Soil Tests Soil Phosphorus Level Desirable pH 5. Sidedress when plants are 4 to 6 in. Sidedress when first fruits are set as needed.Bareground P2O5 lb/acre K2O lb/acre Drip fertilization: See “pepper” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook.8 to 6. Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.Plasticulture 100 to 185 50 50 to 135 POTATO.. Southern PEPPER . Page 6 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .5 6 to 6. Sidedress or topdress.. 50 to 80 200 100 50 0 300 200 150 120 Total recommended..5 Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer.Overwinter 6 to 6. Total recommended. Fertigate. 75 to 80 50 25 to 30 200 200 0 150 150 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 250 250 0 150 150 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer... CONtINUED. Broadcast and disk-in.

Broadcast and disk-in. Fertigate.table 2.000 pounds. and sulfur (S) are included in the secondary element group. 100 pounds of P2O5.and winter-applied manure and higher values for spring-applied manure.5 75 to 90 50 25 to 40 100 to 150 50 25 to 50 . Topdress at first fruit set.. and 150 pounds of K2O needed. Broadcast and disk-in. magnesium (Mg). cole crops. Fertigation. which equals 1. Total recommended. most bulb and root crops..Irrigated 6 to 6. Topdress when vines start to run.5 Nitrogen (N) lb/acre 130 to 210 50 80 to 160 Low 200 200 0 Med 150 150 0 High 100 100 0 Very High 0 0 0 Low 420 125 295 Soil Potassium Level Med 325 125 220 High 250 125 125 Very High Nutrient Timing and Method 0 0 0 Total recommended. the 50 pounds of N. Deficiencies of this element are most likely to occur in the following crops: asparagus. Magnesium should be applied as a fertilizer source on low-magnesium soils where lime is not needed. Drip fertilization: See “watermelon” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook. CROP TOMATO . table 3. Magnesium is the most likely of these elements to be deficient in vegetable soils. calculate the amount of 5-10-15 fertilizer needed as follows: Divide the amount of nitrogen (N) needed per acre (50 pounds) by the percentage of N in the 5-10-15 fertilizer (5 percent). Dolomitic or high-magnesium limestones should be used when liming soils that are low in Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Boron is the most widely deficient micronutrient in vegetable crop soils.Nonirrigated . Excessive amounts of boron can be toxic to plant growth. magnesium. This same system can be used for converting any plant nutrient recommendations into grades and amounts. Disk in row. NOTE:Excessive rates of N may increase the incidence of hollow heart in seedless watermelon. Calcium (Ca). Broadcast and disk-in. and tomatoes. NUtRIENt VALUES FOR MANURE APPLICAtIONS AND CROP RESIDUES Pounds per Ton 5-101 3 25-501 20 5-101 2 6-121 3 7-151 5-10 N P2O5 K2 O 3 10 2 6 5-10 Alfalfa sod Hairy vetch Ladino clover sod Crimson clover sod Red clover sod Birdsfoot trefoil Lespedeza Soybeans Tops and roots Grain harvest residue Cattle manure Poultry manure Pig manure Horse manure Liquid poultry manure (5-15% solids) Pounds per Ton 50-1002 0 50-100 0 60 0 50 0 40 0 40 0 20 0 40 15 0 0 N P2O5 K2 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Lower values for fall. Magnesium may be applied as a foliar spray to supply magnesium to the crop in emergency situations. WATERMELON . Secondary Nutrients. Recommended Nutrients Based on Soil Tests Soil Phosphorus Level Desirable pH 6 to 6. and 25% stand = 50-0-0. and/or where crops are subjected to drought stress.. Calcium may be deficient in some soils that have not been properly limed..Plasticulture 25 to 50 125 to 150 25 to 50 100 150 150 0 150 150 0 0 150 150 0 100 100 0 100 100 0 0 100 100 0 50 50 0 50 50 0 0 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 200 0 200 150 0 0 200 100 100 150 150 0 150 150 0 0 150 75 75 100 100 0 100 100 0 0 100 50 50 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Total recommended. Micronutrients. and multiply the answer (10) by 100. Use these figures only if manure being used has not been analyzed. Drip fertilization: See “tomato” in specific commodity recommendations later in this handbook. Total recommended. CONtINUED. Sulfur is known to be deficient in vegetable crop soils in coastal plain soils... Sulfur deficiencies may develop as more air pollution controls are installed and with the continued use of high-analysis fertilizers that are low in sulfur content. where excessive potash fertilizer has been used. 2 75% stand = 100-0-0. Topdress when vines start to run. This problem can occur when snap beans (a sensitive crop) follow sweetpotatoes (a crop Page 7 ...Plasticulture P2O5 lb/acre K2O lb/acre Apply 1 to 2 lb boron (B) per acre with broadcast fertilizer. 50% stand = 75 -0-0.

2. barley. Foliar feeding of vegetables is usually not crop and nematode suppression. etc. to soils with high water tables or near surface water. and pearl millet also provide a good green manure Page 8 spring. wHEAt: Using wheat as a cover crop works well and provides the additional option of a grain harvest. iron. It grows shorter than rye. Many soils that are not very productive due to poor physical properties can be restored and made to produce good crops through the use of a good resting-crop program. RyE: Rye is probably used more as a winter cover than any needed. low yields. copper. biosolids Should Not be Applied to Land on which Crops will be Grown that will be Entering the Human Food Chain.5 will usually prevent the development of molybdenum deficiencies in vegetable crops. Late fall planting of barley will often result in winter kill. Seeding spring oats at 60 to 100 pounds per acre during September or October provides a good cover crop that will winter-kill in the colder areas but may overwinter in warmer areas. and ryegrass are good soil-resting crops. Summer cover crops. COVER CROPS other grain. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Barley takes longer to catch up with equivalent rye biomass. and be careful not to overlime again. An application of 0. loss of transplants. It can be grazed. poor crop growth. Check with your local or state department of environmental management for latest regulations. Subsoiling in the row may help improve aeration and drainage of soils damaged by several years of excessive traffic from heavy-tillage equipment. and when present. oats. resulting in poor seed germination. Most ryes will grow well in the fall (even late fall) and in late winter/early spring. and ryegrass can be planted in the fall. If. Consequences: poor plant stands. seeded at 20 to 40 pounds per acre are good green manure crops. working the soil when it was too wet. or chlorine is suspected. Municipal biosolids are the solid material removed from sewage in treatment processes. Rye or wheat can be seeded at 80 to 110 pounds per acre after late September until mid-November. and the possibility of winter kill will be greater with barley. Sunhemp. They can be planted as early as field corn is planted and as late as August 15. timothy. sudangrass. Deficiencies of other micronutrients in vegetable crops in the Southeast are rare. cole crops. Do NOT exceed recommendations listed in Table 2. Small grains. and thus produces as much straw/forage/plow-down as rye. It should not be applied to sloping land. Contact Extension if a deficiency of zinc. OAtS: Oats can be managed to provide many options for the grower. orchardgrass. such as sudangrass or sudex. to poorly drained soils. bARLEy: Barley provides an excellent source of biomass in the Seeding dates suggested are for the central part of the Southeastern United States and will vary with elevation and northern or southern locations. These practices cause the soils to become hard and compact. Spring growth provides excellent biomass to turn under for use in early potatoes. It can be grazed before turning under or harvested for grain and the straw removed. or to soils having a pH of less than 6. mowed. This makes rye a top choice for farmers who have late-season vegetable crops with little time left before winter to sow a cover. and shallow root formation of surviving plants. Choosing a grass cover crop is a little easier than choosing a legume. Summer cover crops can be disked and planted to wheat or rye in September or allowed to winter-kill and tilled in the spring.5 to 1 pound of sodium or ammonium molybdate per acre will usually correct this. Rye. In this case. and excessive traffic from using heavy-tillage equipment can severely damage soils. Consult state field crop or agronomy recommendations for details on seeding rates and management practices. Foliar Fertilization.5. sudex. broadcast 20 to 30 pounds or band 4 to 8 pounds of manganese sulfate to correct this. Also. or disked to prevent seed development that could lead to weed problems. Plant in September or early October for greatest survival. Rye also provides a forage source for grazing animals and a straw source if harvested before mature seeds are formed or after rye seed harvest. Living cover crops should be disked or plowed before they seriously deplete soil moisture. will tiller.5. Planting fall oats in September or October will provide a cover crop and good late spring biomass. Municipal biosoilds. Manganese deficiency often occurs in plants growing on soils that have been overlimed. expect to harvest or plow under anywhere from 1/2 ton to 4 tons of dry matter per acre. Living cover crops reduce nutrient loss during the winter and early spring.where boron is applied late in the season). This practice also helps to reduce the buildup of many diseases and insects that attack vegetable crops. and loss of income. Problems may occur if the Hessian fly is abundant. foliar nutrient applications may then be advantageous. for some reason. The time required to wait prior to planting a food crop varies from state to state. Sources of fertilizers for the essential plant nutrients are found in Table 4. Intensive cropping.0 to 6. to highly leachable soils. are usually caused by overliming or other poor soil management practices. Liming acid soils to a pH of 6. Wheat needs to be planted in September or October and probably produces biomass similar to barley but will be a week or two later. A mixture of annual and perennial ryegrass (domestic) seeded at 15 pounds per acre before November is also a good cover crop. Do not apply lime or poultry manure to such soils until the pH has dropped below 6. wheat. one or more soil-supplied nutrients becomes limiting or unavailable during the development of the crop. such soils easily form crusts and compact making them very difficult to irrigate properly. These crops can also be planted in strips for wind protection during the early part of the next growing season. These crops should be clipped. Molybdenum deficiency of cauliflower (which causes whiptail) may develop when this crop is grown on soils more acid than pH 5. Biosolids treated by one of the digestive or similar processes to reduce pathogens is a low-analysis fertilizer suitable for application to nonfood crops under specific soil conditions.

1 (Mg) 90 Kieserite* 18. extensive root system makes it a great source for plowdown. In the mountain region. These crops increase soil tilth and can act as a nutrient sink. Crimson clover’s height matches well with barley.13 (B) 11 43 61 77 70 67 49 47 __________________ Phosphorus Materials __________________ Fertilizer Borate Granular* Fertilizer Borate-48 Solubor Fertilizer Borate-68 Manganese sulfate Manganese sulfate Manganese sulfate Manganese oxide Manganese oxide Zinc sulfate Zinc oxide ____________________ Boron Materials ______________________ __________________ Manganese Materials ___________________ 24.5 (Mo) 46.” Caliente 119 is a mixture of oilseed radish and mustard bIOFUMIGANt CROPS: Page 9 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Planting spring oats in the early fall can provide a good winter-killed mulch that could benefit perennial vegetables or small fruits. made into excellent hay. Grasses provide soil protection during the winter and also produce great forage or plow-down organic matter. SECONDARy. Spring oats have survived through some milder winters. Legumes do not grow well during the winter.0 (Mn) 25. and oats. but ryegrass can potentially become a difficult pest in some farm operations. AND MICRONUtRIENt FERtILIZER SOURCES Lb of Material Required to Supply 10 Lb of the Fertilizer Plant Food Initially Listed Source Material Contents.table 4. wheat.% Plant Nutrient __________________ Magnesium Materials ____________________ Epsom salts* 10 (Mg) and 13 (S) 96 Sulfate of potash21. PERCENtAGE EqUIVALENtS AND CONVERSION FACtORS FOR MAJOR. RyEGRASS: This grass has great potential use as a green MIxING GRASS AND LEGUMES: Planting a single grass or manure and as a forage/hay material.6 (Mo) 56.1 (Mg) 55 Brucite 39 (Mg) 26 Granulated sulfur Ammonium sulfate* Gypsum* Epsom salts* _____________________Sulfur Materials _____________________ 90-92 (S) 23 (S) and 20. herbicides may be necessary to kill spring oats in perennial plantings. or the grain harvested and oat straw produced.8 (K2O) and 11.5 (N) and 23 (S) 30 (N) 32 (N) 33.50 (B) 21.% Plant Nutrient __________________ Nitrogen Materials __________________ Monoammonium phosphate* 11 (N) and 48 (P2O5) 91 Nitrate of potash* Nitrate of soda-potash* Calcium nitrate* Nitrate of soda Diammonium phosphate* Nitrogen solution Ammonium sulfate* Nitrogen solution Nitrogen solution Ammonium nitrate Nitrogen solution Urea Anhydrous ammonia Normal superphosphate* Triple superphosphate* Monoammmonium phosphate* Diammonium phosphate* Nitrate of soda-potash* Sulfate of potashmagnesia* Nitrate of potash* Sulfate of potash* Muriate of potash* 13 (N) and 44 (K2O) 15 (N) and 14 (K2O) 15 (N) and 19 (Ca) 16 (N) 18 (N) and 46 (P2O5) 20 (N) 20. but in late spring it produces an abundant supply of biomass. are groups of plants that produce naturally-occurring fumigants (glucosinolates) that reduce the negative effects of soil borne diseases. but may be shaded and out competed by rye.0 (Mn) 55.91 (B) 20. ryegrass grows rather slowly in the fall and provides only moderate winter erosion protection.5 (Mn) 29. but combining a grass and legume together may prove better than either one alone.5-34.1 (Mg) 13 (N) and 44 (K2O) 50 (K2O) and 17 (S) 60 (K2O) 46 23 20 17 _____________________ Zinc Materials _____________________ __________________Molybdenum Materials __________________ Sodium molybdate Sodium molybdate Ammonium molybdate 39. Crimson clover is a legume to grow in companion with a grass. thus.5 (Mo) 25 21 18 * Supplies more than one essential nutrient.1 (Mn) 48.0 (Mn) 36 (Zn) 73 (Zn) 42 39 34 21 18 28 14 11 (N) and 48 (P2O5) 18 (N) and 46 (P2O5) 13 (N) and 14 (K2O) 21 22 71 __________________ Potassium Materials __________________ 21.5 (N) 15-18 (S) and 19-23 (Ca) 13 (S) and 10 (Mg) 14. One example of a biofumigant is a cover crop called “Caliente 119. using the grass/ vetch combination as a hay or plowdown.30 (B) 14. Hairy vetch has been sown with grass cover crops for many years. nematodes and weeds.0 (N) 40 (N) 45-46 (N) 82 (N) 20 (P2O5) and 11 (S) 44-46 (P2O5) 77 67 67 63 56 50 49 33 31 30 25 22 12 50 22 Lb of Material Required to Supply 10 Lb of the Fertilizer Plant Food Initially Listed Source Material Contents.8 (K2O) and magnesia* 11. and a fine. but late spring growth is abundant and produces high protein forage and nitrogen for the following crop. legume may be necessary. Grazing and spring hay from ryegrass can be excellent.

However. Flats can be of plastic or wooden construction. and nematodes. Brussels sprouts. they should be thoroughly cleaned after use and completely submerged in a household bleach solution for at least 5 minutes. nutrient content. pH. For larger-seeded vegetables. Never treat flats with creosote or pentachlorophenol. soil borne diseases.0 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks to reach an adequate size for transplanting. Allow 3-6 weeks between plowdown and planting. These crops grow rapidly and can be plowed down in 6 weeks.0 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks. these mixes can vary greatly in composition. Sudex (sorghumsudan grass cross) (don’t allow to exceed 3 feet before mowing). Commercial Plant-growing Mixes. 72-cell packs work well. time and spacing (area) requirements. Table 5 presents optimum and minimum temperatures for seed germination and plant growing. If flats are to be reused. Seeding rates range from 15 to 20 lbs/A and will vary with location and seed size. treatment of Flats. Seed Germination. PLANt GROwING able for starting seeds for transplants. If you need to plow early. Only spring planting is recommended for areas where average last spring frost is May 1 or later. Plant Containers: There are a wide variety of containers avail- cover crops as little biomass will have been produced by the cover crop. cantaloupe and watermelons require a 1. PLOwDOwN: Plowing early defeats the purpose of growing other disease problems. pepper requires a 0. eggplant and tomato require a 1. SUMMER COVER CROPS: Summer cover crops can be useful in controlling weeds. Most growers start seeds either in flats or in cell packs. it is recommended that no fertilizer be included in the mix or the vermiculite and avoid fertilizing the seedlings until the seed table 5.seeds when grown can reduce nematode levels and add organic matter to the soil. Have mix formulations tested by your state's soil test laboratory to determine the pH and the level of nutrients the mix contains. Permit flats to dry completely prior to use. Iron Clay Southern pea. cauliflower. A number of commercial at a later date should be germinated in vermiculite (horticultural grade. as these may hold excessive water and have poor aeration. and spacing. coarse sand size) or a plug growing mix. the overall tray size is standardized. if you start seeds in flats.25% sodium hypochlorite (such as Chlorox) for each 100 gallons of solution. millet. Optimum and Minimum temperatures for transplant Production °F Opt. (Field-grown plants are covered under the specific crop. control erosion and enhance the soil’s natural biota. collards require a 0. water. seeded Watermelon. use a grass cover crop (rye) that produces good fall growth and will provide maximum biomass for incorporation. and lab are summer cover crops that provide organic matter. and water-holding capacity. they require sufficient time to develop biomass which an early plowdown would prevent. These crops respond to 50 -100 lb/A N fertilizer at planting to stimulate fall growth and establishment. However. cabbage. The main advantage of using flats is that more plants can fit into the same space if plants are in flats. There are many potential summer cover crops available but you will need to find one that will work well in your area and overall production scheme. However. Throughout much of the region these can be seeded in the fall and over-wintered or seeded in early spring. because transplanting into a larger container later is not necessary. Most of these mixes will produce high-quality transplants when used with good management practices. seedless 1 65-70 65 70-75 65-70 70-75 70-85 70-75 60-65 65-70 70-75 70-75 75-85 65-75 85-90 85-90 60 60 65 60 65 65 70 40 60 60 65 ambient 60 80 85 Cantaloupe and other melons Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . They also provide organic matter and can improve soil tilth while reducing soil erosion. For example: broccoli. Use 5 gallons of 5. and number of plants per square foot for a number of economically important vegetable crops in the southeastern US. squash. and watermelons.5 to 0. Each vegetable crop has specific cell sizes for containerized transplant production and requires a certain number of weeks before they are ready for transplanting (Table 5). In the case of legume cover crops. fertilization. Avoid formulations having fine particles. Seeding directly into cell packs saves time.0 inch cell and 3 to 4 weeks. A good transplant is one that has been grown under the best possible conditions. For tomatoes and peppers. Night Weeks to Grow 5-7 5-7 3-5 5-8 2-3 5-8 5-7 5-6 8-12 5-8 2-3 4-5 5-6 3-5 3-6 media formulations are available for growing transplants. Other options are available depending on the crop and your situation. aeration.8 to 1. Cell packs come in many different cell sizes.) A transplant is affected by factors such as temperature. you will need to transplant to larger cell packs or to individual pots as the seedlings get bigger. 48-cell packs work better. Flats used in the production of transplants should be new or as clean as new to avoid damping-off and Page 10 Broccoli Cabbage Cantaloupe1 Cauliflower Cucumber Eggplants Endive & Escarole Lettuce Onions Peppers Summer squash Sweetpotato Tomatoes Watermelon. such as cucumbers. Seed that is sown in flats to be “pricked out” These recommendations apply to plants grown under controlled conditions IN GREENHOUSES OR HOTBEDS.8 inch cell and 5 to 7 weeks. particle size. Day °F Min.

DIF can be positive or negative. germinate and grow seedlings on benches or in a floor-heated greenhouse. Refer to label clearance before use. Do not grow or hold seedlings in an area where pesticides are stored. With supplemental heating such as this. Most soil fumigants will linger in the soil.2-1. Vapam) metam potassium (K-pam) For larger areas. Germination can be aided by using germination mates which provide heat directly to the trays. but positive DIF is more commonly used for hardening transplants. Fertilizers used for liquid feeding must be 100% water soluble. The only practice that ensures complete sterilization the outside. It is also recommended to have an outside fresh air intake for the heaters. use one of the following procedures: Preplant. See the specific crop sections of this handbook for specific seed treatment recommendations. Use of untreated seed could lead to diseases in the plant bed which could reduce plant stands or result in diseased transplants and potential crop failure. Keep these mixes moist but not continually wet. If this is not possible. telone c-35 and telone ii metam sodium (sectagon. Hardening. and hardens the transplants increasing their survival. Heating and Venting. Soil temperature should be at least 55°F. To get earlier. such as cool season crops. The use of a tarp covering the soil area to be treated is generally required. of soil is the use of steam. When transplanting to the field. There are several methods used to harden transplants and the choice of which to use is often crop-dependent. Nitrate forms of fertilizer are advisable following soil fumigation. Be sure vents and fans are properly designed and positioned to avoid drawing exhaust gases into the greenhouse. seedling emergence and uniformity can be enhanced decreasing the amount of time required to produce a transplant. Seed treatment. The use of sphagnum moss as a top dressing will reduce damping-off because it keeps the surface dry. Soil treated with recommended chemicals will be pasteurized but rarely completely sterilized. This is called DIF. Seed treatment is essential to control seed- Water less in cloudy weather. Vapam) In any case. might induce bolting. the following materials are suitable: chloropicrin telone c-17. and stack them off the floor during germination. Exhaust gases from oil and improperly adjusted gas heating systems can cause yellowing. At this time there are no chemical growth regulators available for use in producing vegetable transplants. There are a few materials which are suitable for small lots of soil such as: chloropicrin metam sodium (sectagon. Postplant. Damping-off and foliar diseases can be a problem in plant beds. Exhaust from heaters must be vented to after transplanting Caution: Lowering air temperature on some crops. stunting. Liquid Feeding. The following materials dissolved in 5 gallons of water and used over an area of 20 square feet are recommended for use on the transplants if needed: 20-20-20 1. watering. DISEASE CONtROL IN PLANt bEDS For the best control of all soil-borne diseases. and death of seedlings. Reducing the amount of water used and lowering temperatures cause a check in growth (hardening) to prepare plants for field setting. To prevent these diseases. If floor heating or benches is not available. Combinations of these two methods are often used. Raising the temperature just before daybreak (2 hours before) or lowering the temperature just after daybreak (2 hours after) by 10°F will cause plants to be shorter and more hardened. seed the trays. stiffens stems. Page 11 . Plant height can be held in check and hardening can be improved by using temperature difference in the early morning. use a “starter fertilizer” being sure to follow the manufacture’s recommendations. Watering in the morning allows plant surfaces to dry before night and reduces the possibility of disease development.” Seedlings can be held for a limited time if fertilization is withheld until 3 to 4 days before “pricking out. water. Avoid overhardening or underhardening. Fertilization should be in the liquid form and at one-half the rate for any of the ratios listed in the following section on “Liquid Feeding. use a good commercial plant-growing mix.6 oz/5 gal water 15-15-15 2 oz/5 gal water 15-30-15 2 oz/5 gal water Rinse leaves after liquid feeding. and soil moisture should be adequate for planting so that environmental condition are favorable to the overall effectiveness of the fumigant. Be sure to unstack trays before seedlings emerge. because of difference in temperature.leaves (cotyledons) are fully expanded and the true leaves are beginning to unfold. be sure to follow the manufacture’s recommendations for use. Never reduce or limit fertilizer as a means to harden transplants because it can delay maturity. such as plantbeds or seedbeds. When steam is used.” Seed that is sown in pots or other containers and will not be “pricked out” later can be germinated in a mix that contains fertilizer. so a 14 to 21day waiting period may be necessary. The two common methods used to harden are reducing water and altering the ambient temperatures. Low temperature causes chilling injury that can damage plants and delay regrowth Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 borne diseases. more uniform emergence. Proper hardening of transplants. it may be necessary to apply fungicide sprays especially as plants become crowded in plant beds. a temperature of 180°F must be maintained throughout the entire mass of soil for 30 minutes. Plants elongate most at daybreak.

120 74.000/lb Beans: small seeded lima large seeded lima snap Beets Broccoli 170.167 10 89.808 4.074 1.000-180.616 9.g.000/lb 180.” This often results in severe stress for the portion of the field that dries out first or receives irrigation last.000-200.445 4.500/oz 8.454 8. and misshapen fruit.000-4.489 2.349 112. Escarole Mustard Onions: bulb bunching Parsnips Parsley Peas 15..957 8.670 21.150-1.600-2.120 58.240 149.000-26. Because they IRRIGAtION For vegetable seed sizes and plant population and see Tables 6 and 7.630 3.000-11.890 9. VEGEtAbLE SEED SIZES Crop Asparagus Seeds/Unit weight 13.178 2.808 4.424 13.500-8.680 8. On the other hand.800-2. Drought stress can begin in as little as 3 days after a 1-inch rain or irrigation in such a crop as tomato in soils throughout the Southeast.000/lb 8.712 7.000-19.000/oz Peppers Pumpkins 4. Growers often wait too long to begin irrigating.669 16.420 1.900/oz 9.297 7.700/oz 1.891 21.520 10.669 32. Up to 1.670 21.000-17. if you do not use all the primed seed ordered in the same season.334 8.260 8.356 4.334 7.337 24. PLANt POPULAtIONS SEED StORAGE AND HANDLING basic Principles.400/oz 160.223 5. use only gentle agitation to avoid seed damage.340 43.560 32.000/lb 40.667 16 18 29.000/lb 1.904 2.970 5.680 7.445 4.668 9.670 52.891 21.560 29.040 21.000/lb 192.556 1.223 7.000/lb 300.336 18.000/oz Crop Radishes Spinach Seeds/Unit weight 150.712 7.485 2.680 87.200/lb 1.000/lb 40. or other chemical.780 18.424 11. Bags of these seed should not be dropped or thrown because the seed coats can crack and seed embryos can be damaged.167 6.500-9.520 12. resulting in a nonviable seed. In addition.000/lb 1.272 34.000/lb 8.000-20.900-3.000-25.000-144. contain so much water.023 149.450/lb 440-550/lb 1. too much irrigation reduces soluble solids in cantaloupes and other small melons and capsaicin in hot peppers if over applied during fruit development.5 inches of water is needed each week during hot periods to table 6.5 ft) 48 (4 ft) 60 (5 ft) 72 (6 ft) 84 (7 ft) 96 (8 ft) Page 12 2 448.223 5.560 74. primed seed does not store well after shipment to the buyer.500-4.808 4.800/lb table 7.000-10. inoculum.722 30 17.337 24.040 24.000/oz 16.500-9.337 65.349 130.) 14 64.440-2. Another common problem is trying to stretch the acreage that can reasonably be covered by available equipment.136 20.815 2.520 11.520 10.891 18.000/oz 15.000-6. Corn.712 6.068 10.361 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .000/lb 3.600-4.000-192.674 43.667 4.780 37.000-200.011 130.890 8.006 37.890 9.Both high temperature and relative humidity will reduce seed germination and vigor.000-5.520 12.335 17. thinking “It will rain tomorrow.560 29.272 34.616 9.120 65.340 87.080 43.360 174. 50°F + 50% relative humidity].424 14.800/lb 1.848 26.000-288. Irrigation is likely to increase size and weight of individual fruit and to prevent defects like toughness. blossom-end rot.260 5.000/oz 25.630 4.000-50.000/oz 7.446 10. Therefore.000-16. and bean seed are especially susceptible to mechanical damage due to rough handling.000-26.978 4.446 10.780 14.674 49.000/lb 8.360 16.609 52.890 8.000/oz 8.783 37.890 8.780 16. poor tipfill and podfill.136 43.445 5.445 In-row spacing (in.500-8.200-4.000-31.534 5.580/lb 150. Frequent irrigation is critical for maximum yield.000/oz Brussels sprouts Cabbage Carrots Cantaloupes Cauliflower Collards Cucumbers Eggplants Endive.260 5.000/lb 22.848 29.594 14.) 7 12 18 21 24 30 36 (3 ft) 42 (3.149 3.680 104.356 3.500/oz 6. POPULAtION OF PLANtS PER ACRE At SEVERAL bEtwEEN-ROw AND IN-ROw SPACINGS Between-row spacing (in.870 26. have the seed tested before planting in subsequent seasons.334 4. When treating seed with a fungicide.544 87.840 3.040 19.068 14.000/lb 10.000/lb 20.674 65.000-50. strong flavor. their yield and quality suffer rapidly from drought.334 10. pea.000-400.340 4 6 8 224.909 17.084 14.200/lb Crop Kale Kohlrabi Leeks Lettuce: head leaf Okra Seeds/Unit weight 7.722 2.934 13.000/lb 105. cracking.000/oz Rutabaga Squash: summer winter Sweet corn: normal and sugary enhanced supersweet (sh2) Tomatoes: fresh processing Turnip Watermelons: small seed large seed 24.178 36 48 32.534 12 74.335 13.669 14.815 1.904 2. Both of these practices result in part or all of the field being in water stress.890 12.068 10.111 3.111 2.900-10.840 4.780 17. It is best that a good job be done on some of the acreage rather than a “half-way job” being done on all the acreage.046 261.446 9.446 10. Vegetables are 80 to 90% water.500-9.630 24 21.467 6.630 2.500/lb 3.356 3.000-190.260 6.424 14. Do not store seed in areas that have a combined temperature and humidity value greater than 100 [e.935 12.000/lb 240.467 6.260 6.712 7.223 5.000/oz 8.400/lb 3.297 6.149 3.

25–0.. high application rates will result in irrigation water running off the field.) 3. is the major factor. Table 10 lists the typical infiltration rates of several soils. Table 8 shows the critial periods of crop growth when an adequate supply of water is essential for the production of high-quality vegetables. Soils vary greatly in water-holding capacity and infiltration rate.18 Available Water Holding Capacity table 10.maintain vegetable crops that have a plant spread of 12 inches or more. ET rates may reach 0. canopy size and shape. Other factors include day length.00 0.13–0. Dry Peas.06–0. Another soil factor influencing irrigation practices is the soil infiltration rate.35–0.04–0. Thus. Numerous factors must be considered when estimating ET. clay. Water loss from plants is much greater on clear. dry weather. Silt and clay soils and those high in organic matter can hold much more water than sandy soils low in organic matter. Shortages later in the season often lower quality and yield.75 inches per week during cooler seasons. irrigation is beneficial in most years.75 0.11–0. Southern and English Peppers Potatoes. Large droplets resulting from low pressure at the sprinkler head can cause damage to young vegetable plants and can contribute to soil crusting when soils dry.15 0. Soils having high levels of silt. overcast days. Water should not be applied to soils at a rate greater than the rate at which soils can absorb water. is equal to the quantity of water lost from the plant (transpiration) plus that evaporated from the soil surface. and organic matter have greater water-holding capacities than sandy soils or compacted soils (Table 9). Irrigation rate is dependent on soil type. just slightly below field capacity (75% to 90% available soil moisture).10–0.02–0.23 0.25 inch per day or higher. During periods of hot.18 0.50 0. The ET rate is important in effectively scheduling irrigations. Droplet size and irrigation rate are also important in vegetable crops. CRItICAL PERIODS OF wAtER NEED FOR VEGEtAbLE CROP Crop Asparagus Beans. and shape. leaf size. and enlargement Root enlargement Plant factors that affect ET are crop species. a greater amount of water must be applied per application. table 8.14–0.14–0.06 0. Water is more readily held in clay soils. Lima Beans. can reduce quality and postharvest life of the crop. and application rates should follow values in Table 10. Summer Sweetpotato Tomatoes Turnips Critical Period Brush Pollination and pod development Pod enlargement Head development Head development Root enlargement Head development Silking and tasseling. The amount of solar radiation. Moisture deficiencies occurring early in the crop cycle may delay maturity and reduce yields. which provides the energy to evaporate moisture from the soil and plant surfaces. Depending on the soil structure.17–0. This need decreases to 0. and humidity level. 2.75–1. There is no simple method to accurately schedule irrigation because all the above factors interact to determine water loss. The following factors should be kept in mind when deciding when and how much to irrigate: 1.09 0. The crop water requirement. This may mean that more frequent irrigations of smaller amounts are better than delaying irrigations until the soil moisture reaches a lower level (40% to 50% available soil moisture) and then applying a heavy irrigation. Soil factors must also be considered. fruit set. clay soils have a lower water infiltration rate as compared to sandy soils. maximizes crop growth. windy days than on cool. over-irrigating.40 0. When such soils are irrigated less frequently.50–0. Recent research indicates that maintaining soil moisture levels in a narrow range. especially late in the season. Snap Broccoli Cabbage Carrots Cauliflower Corn Cucumbers Eggplants Lettuce Melons Onions. air temperature. however. or ET.21 0. ET can be estimated by the use of a standard evaporation pan. However. Soils with high water-holding capacities require less frequent irrigation than soils with low water-holding capacities. AVAILAbLE wAtER-HOLDING CAPACIty bASED ON SOIL tExtURE Soil Texture Coarse sand Fine sand Loamy sand Sandy loam Fine sandy loam Loam and silt loam Clay loam and silty clay loam Silty clay and clay (water/inches of soil) 0.12 0. since rainfall is rarely uniformly distributed even in years with above-average precipitation. wind speed. hot. contributing to erosion and fertilizer runoff particularly on heavy clay soils.30 Page 13 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Even relatively short periods of inadequate soil moisture can adversely affect many crops. (Check with Extension for information on using evaporation pans. Applying the proper amount of water at the correct time is critical for achieving the optimum benefits from irrigation. SOIL INFILtRAtION RAtES bASED ON SOIL tExtURE Soil Texture Coarse sand Fine sand Fine sandy loam Silt loam Clay loam Soil Infiltration Rate (inch/hour) 0. table 9. ear development Flowering and fruit development Flowering and fruit development Head development Flowering and fruit development Bulb enlargement Seed enlargement and flowering Flowering and fruit development Tuber set and tuber enlargement Root enlargement Bud development and flowering Root enlargement Early flowering. termed evapotranspiration. Irish Radishes Squash.

These characteristics lead to lower energy costs.5 2.5 10. In many cases.50 36 0.0 4.0 6. fertilizers applied through the drip irrigation system are conserved along with water. on sandy soils.90 60 1. The use of this table requires that the drip system be operating at the pressure listed in the manufacturer’s specifications.0 4.0 4.5 12.0 2.0 4.25 inch of water at a time with drip irrigation systems.0 5. filters.5 Page 14 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . These factors also reduce operating costs.0 15. it is inappropriate to apply more than 0. Most drip systems require a higher level of management than other irrigation systems.5 8. watermelons.5 5. drip systems require little labor to operate.5 23.5 4.0 4.0 15. Moisture distribution in the soil is limited with drip systems.5 13. and laborers.0 4.70 48 0.67 42 0.5 7. Usually. In addition.0 10. Pressure regulation and filtration require equipment not commonly used with sprinkler or surface systems.5 17. The drip system.0 3.5 4. Water is applied frequently.17 12 0.5 5. Calculating the length of time required to apply a specific depth of water with a drip irrigation system is more difficult than with sprinklers.30 20 0.0 There are several potential problems unique to drip irrigation systems.0 4.5 19. including pump.5 4. peppers.5 4.0 7.5 8. Once in place.0 11.0 3.5 5. rodents. and connections. The primary advantage of drip irrigation systems is that less water is used than with sprinkler or surface irrigation systems. 4. In many cases.0 15.5 3.0 3.0 6.5 3. The areas between rows also remain dry reducing weed growth between rows and reducing the amount of water lost to weeds.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 7. eggplants.5 10.0 8.2 18 0.3 24 0.5 11.0 6.0 12.0 6. Low flow rates and operating pressures are typical of drip systems. and tomatoes.0 4. and often has a higher initial investment cost than other irrigation system types. It is especially effective when used with mulches.0 13.0 5.0 16.7 48 0. Thus.00 2. much of the natural precipitation should be ignored when scheduling irrigations for crops grown under plastic mulch. In order to use drip irrigation successfully.0 8.0 2.0 9.0 Mulched Width (ft) 2. Unlike sprinkler systems.0 31.0 1. Doing so can move water below the plant's root zone.0 5.4. headers. must be checked and be ready to operate before planting.5 8.5 2. MAxIMUM IRRIGAtION PERIODS (HOURS) FOR DRIP IRRIGAtION SyStEMS Drip Tape Flow Rate (gph/100 ft) (gpm/100 ft) 12 0.5 2.0 4. Table 11 calculates the length of time required to apply 1-inch of water with a drip irrigation system based on the drip tape flow rate and the mulched width. Drip irrigation tape and tubing can be damaged by insects.0 1.0 .33 24 0. can be automatically controlled. such as cantaloupes. In addition. squash. Drip irrigation is a method of slowly applying small amounts of water directly to the plant's root zone.40 30 0.5 22. table 11.5 18. a smaller soil water reserve is available to plants.0 5.5 2.0 1. Plastic mulches reduce evaporation from the soil but also reduce the amount of rainwater that can reach the root zone.5 11.0 6.0 3. carrying nutrients table 12.5 10. poor plant survival or irregular stands. The equipment used in drip irrigation systems can present potential problems and drawbacks.0 11.5 2.5 5.0 5. field operations can continue during irrigation. Drip irrigation systems also have several other advantages over sprinkler and surface irrigation systems. Drip irrigation reduces the splashing of soil onto plants and does not wet plants reducing the incidence of disease as compared to overhead irrigation. often daily.5 7. the potential to stress plants is greater than with other types of irrigation systems. a fair assumption to make is that the mulched width approximates the extent of the plant root zone and should be used to calculate system run-times.6 42 0.5 6.83 54 0. In most cases.4 30 0.5 14.5 10.0 6. one-half of the water applied with sprinkler or surface systems is required with drip systems. Failure to have the system operational could result in costly delays.0 6.0 21. and reduced yield.0 4.5 3.5 18.0 3. drip systems apply water to only a small portion of the total crop acreage.5 4.0 4.5 3.0 5.0 4.5 2.5 36 0.5 3.8 Soil Texture Silt Sandy Sand Loamy Loam Clay Loam 5.0 3.13 10 0. and can be managed to apply the precise amount of water and nutrients needed by the crop. Under these conditions.80 50 0.60 40 0.27 18 0.5 8.0 8.5 2.5 15.5 27.0 3.0 25. Drip Irrigation. to maintain favorable soil moisture conditions.20 16 0.5 8.5 3. Drip irrigation is used on a wide range of fruit and vegetable crops. and on high value crops. HOURS REqUIRED tO APPLy 1" wAtER tO MULCHED AREA Drip Tape Flow Rate (gph/100 ft) (gpm/100 ft) 8 0.5 2.0 9.0 7.5 5.5 12. the system must be carefully managed and maintained.

5 to 7. some commercial chlorination equipment also injects buffers to maintain optimum pH for effective kill of microorganisms. Table 12 calculates the maximum recommended irrigation period for drip irrigation systems. This type of equipment is more expensive. Periodic treatment before clogs develop can keep the system functioning efficiently. the depth reached by irrigation water. ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate. Generally two or three treatments per season are adequate. allowing particles that could clog an emitter to be discharged. use chlorine only if the product is labeled for use in irrigation systems. one of the following schemes is suggested as a starting point: For iron treatment: • Inject liquid sodium hypochlorite continuously at a rate of 1 ppm for each 1 ppm of iron in irrigation water. The periods listed in Table 12 are based on the flow rate of the drip tape and texture of the soil. An elbow between the injector and the filter will ensure adequate mixing. Algae present in surface waters can also clog emitters. including household bleach (sodium hypochlorite).and pesticides beyond the reach of the plant's roots. a chlorine injection rate that results in the presence of 1 to 2 ppm of “free” chlorine at the end of the furthest lateral will assure that the proper amount of chlorine is being injected. For this reason. Many pool test kits only measure total chlorine. which may combine with other solid particles in the drip tape and plug emitters. ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate. Filtration and occasional water treatment may be necessary to keep drip systems from clogging. If a chlorine test kit is unavailable. the amount of iron in the irrigation water. Although modern emitter design reduces the potential for trapping small particles. Bacteria and algae can be effectively controlled by chlorination of the drip system. 10%. 3 to 5 ppm is sufficient. but only if it measures free chlorine. For iron removal. chlorine can be tested using an inexpensive DPD (diethyl-phenylene-diamine) test kit. Chlorine is available as a gas. or biological contaminants. • Superchlorinate (inject at a rate of 200 to 500 ppm) once per month for the length of time required to fill the entire system with this solution and shut down the system. Soil texture directly influences the water-holding capacity of soils and. After 24 hours. • Inject 10 to 20 ppm during the last 30 minutes of each irrigation cycle where the biological load is medium. forming a slime that can clog emitters. In drip systems. and the method of treatVegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 15 . gph = [(Desired available chlorination level. chemical. Liquid chlorine is available in many forms. water is carried through plastic tape (which expands when water flows through it) and distributed along the tape through devices called emitters. start by injecting 1 ppm of chlorine for each 1 ppm of iron present in the water. Chlorine treatment should take place upstream of filters in order to remove the precipitated iron and microorganisms from the system. For treatment of algae and bacteria. known commonly as rust. therefore. stock solutions can be bought that have concentrations of 5. ment being used. gph = [(Desired available chlorination level. gpm)] divided by 971. or residual. chlorine will oxidize the iron dissolved in water. In most cases. The frequency of treatment depends on the quality of the water source.25% stock solution: Injection rate of chlorine. be certain to mount the chlorine injector a distance upstream from filters. Chlorine gas is extremely dangerous and not recommended for agricultural purposes. and Extension. or 15% available chlorine.25%. • Inject 50 ppm during the last 30 minutes of irrigation cycles two times each month when biological load is low. open the laterals and flush the lines. Chlorination. The precipitated (ferric) form of iron. To remove iron from irrigation water. the bacteria secrete a slime called ochre. liquid. gpm)] divided by 2775. In treating water containing iron. In consuming the dissolved (ferrous) form of iron. Free. Since chlorination is most effective at pH 6. For a 10% stock solution: Injection rate of chlorine. ppm ) x (Irrigation flow rate. For bacteria and algae treatment: • Inject liquid sodium hypochlorite continuously at a rate of 5 to 10 ppm where the biological load is high. For a 15% stock solution: Injection rate of chlorine. dealers.5. Clogging can be attributed to physical. The injection rates for stock solutions that contain 5. Solid chlorine is available as granules or tablets containing 65% to 70% calcium hypochlorite but might react with other elements in irrigation water to form precipitates which could clog emitters. or solid. Adequate mixing of the water with chlorine is essential. gph = [(Desired available chlorination level. Further information on drip irrigation systems can be obtained from manufacturers. can also physically clog emitters. The required rate of chlorine injection is dependent on the amount of microorganisms present in the water source. A swimming pool test kit can be used. 10% and 15% can be calculated from the following equations: For 5. but more effective than simply injecting sodium hypochlorite solution. and is the easiest and often safest form to use for injection. The pressure-reducing flow path also allows the emitter to remain relatively large. chlorine should be injected continuously. gpm)] divided by 1850. Bacteria can grow inside drip irrigation tapes. causing the iron to precipitate so that it can be filtered and removed from the system. emitter clogging rcan be a common problem with drip irrigation systems.25%. Irrigation water containing high concentrations of iron (greater than 1 ppm) can also cause clogging problems due to a type of bacteria that “feeds” on iron.

The new crop should be planted into new holes and fertilizer added based on soil test results and the double crop’s nutrient requirements. Since phosphorous is a stable non-mobile soil nutrient and can cause clogging of the drip tape emitters. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . be mirror-like) to be most effective. and watermelon later in this handbook. . or 10–0–10. the material should be applied and incorporated into the soil as far ahead of mulching as practical. Organic mulches such as straw. Raised beds allow the soil to drain and warm more quickly. pine straw. Bed conformation and moisture are critical to the success of growing vegetables with plastic mulch. smaller amounts of nutrients are needed early in the plant’s growth with peak demand occurring during fruit maturation. normally row lengths should not exceed 300 to 600 feet depending on the specifications of drip tape. Nutsedge will compromise plastic mulch by piercing it. In fields with a history of nutsedge. Fumigants have a waiting period before seeds or transplants can be planted. adjust the soil pH to around 6. The spring crop is killed and removed. apply 20 to 40% of the crops’s nitrogen and potassium needs pre-plant. and coarse hay provide weed control and moisture retention and keep soils cooler than bare ground. Growers using fertigation should follow the recommendations for each specific crop. Metallized mulch. commonly referred to as reflective or silver mulch. Growers often will apply white latex paint to black mulch when double cropping. apply the preplant fertilizer to the soil area that will be covered by the mulch. If equipment is available. Fertilizer. supplemental nitrogen may be needed to compensate for the nitrogen that is lost to soil microbes in the process of breaking down the organic mulch. clear and metalized polyethylene mulches. a second crop is planted through the mulch. cucumber. The most widely used mulches for vegetable produc- tion are black. Fertigation schedules are listed for cantaloupe.5 before injection. Black plastic mulch warms the soil by conduction. Beds should be smooth. apply the recommended amount of preplant fertilizer and incorporate it 5 to 6 inches into the soil before laying the mulch. be sure to have the soil pH checked. summer squash. Fertilization. Double cropping. When using drip irrigation in combination with mulch. so as much contact as possible should be made between the mulch and soil. tomato. compost. Page 16 plastic mulch. When using these mulches. it is not necessary to add micronutrients through the drip system. The frequency of nutrient application is most influenced by the soil's nutrient holding capabilities. Due to the very small holes or orifices in the drip tape. which is installed during the mulching operation. In general. and of uniform height. it must be acidified for chlorine injection to be effective. and interlocks must be used in the injection system to prevent contamination of the water source. Metalized mulch should reflect a recognizable image (that is. low pressure drains. After painting. 7–0–7. If a liming material is needed to increase the soil pH. eggplant. then the plastic is generally painted with white latex paint diluted with water (1 part paint to 5 parts water). This is more efficient than a broadcast application to the entire field. This is critical because chlorine is most effective in acidic water. MULCHES AND ROw COVERS White on black plastic (with white-side of plastic facing up) is used for late spring and summer plantings where the benefits of moisture retention and weed control are valued and heat accumulation may be detrimental.approved backflow control valves. Clay soils with a high nutrient holding capacity could receive weekly nutrient applications through the drip system while a sandy soil with low nutrient holding capacity will respond best with a daily fertigation program. For most vegetables. should have all of their required fertilizer incorporated into the beds prior to applying the mulch.chlorine concentrations above 30 ppm may kill plants. Broadcasting the fertilizer before bedding has been shown to be an effective method of application since the bedding process moves most of the fertilizer into the bed. The soil should be moist when the plastic is applied since it is difficult to add enough water to thoroughly wet the width of the bed when using drip irrigation. a high quality liquid fertilizers or water-soluble fertilizers must be used. white on black. Vegetables produced on plastic mulch. Generally.It is important to note that chlorine will cause water pH to rise. Additionally. Transplanters and seeders are available to plant through plastic mulch. . Clear plastic mulch is used when maximum heat accumulation is desired and weed control is not as critical. The most efficient method of fertilizing an established mulched crop is through a drip irrigation system. One benefit of using organic mulches is that they add organic matter to the soil when incorporated after the growing season. If your water pH is above 7. pepper.5. is used to combat aphids and thrips that vector viral diseases. Before considering a fertilization program for mulched-drip irrigated crops. The amount of nutrients to apply through the drip system depends upon the plant’s growth stage. but without the ability to supply nutrients through the drip system. Fertigation rates are provided under crop specific recommendations later in this handbook. okra. Using hay often introduces weeds into a field. Important Notes. Micronutrients can be best and most economically applied pre-plant or as foliar application if needed. appropriate measures must be taken in order to reduce or eliminate infestations as plastic mulches cannot control nutsedge. The remainder of the crop's nutrient needs can be applied through the drip system with a high quality liquid fertilizer such as 8–0–8. it is best to apply 100% of the crop's phosphorous needs pre-plant. Drip tape is commonly laid under the plastic in the same field operation. Growers frequently grow two crops on black Mulches. Steep slopes may limit row length when using drip tape. free of clods and sticks. Follow label directions for fumigants and herbicides used with plastic mulches. Black mulch is most widely used for spring applications where both elevated soil temperatures and weed control are desired.

Flights seldom intensify until the temperature reaches 70°F. The hives should be off the ground and the front entrances kept free of grass and weeds. Pumpkin.000 . Bees rarely fly when the temperature is below 55°F. Wind speed beyond 15 miles per hour seriously slows bee activity. whereas. Row covers. Each hive or colony should contain at least 40. This has not been observed with the translucent materials. A clean water supply should be available within a quarter mile of the hive. With 5 to 6-foot centers. In particular. In addition. populations of these native pollinators usually are not adequate for large acreages grown for commercial production. each seed requires one or more pollen grains. One to two hives of bees per acre will increase the yield of cucurbits. Floating covers are more applicable to the low-growing vine crops. colony strength. The longterm versus short-term opportunities must be considered. For best results. There are two main types of row covers: vented clear or translucent polyethylene that is supported by wire hoops placed at regular (5 to 6 ft) intervals. Bees are essential for commercial production of all vine crops and may improve the yield and quality of fruit in beans. Erratic spring temperatures require intensive management of row covers to avoid blossom shed and other high temperature injuries. The size and shape of the mature fruit is related to the number of seeds produced by pollination. Some states allow burning of mulch with a permit. drip irrigation. squash. Sanitary landfills may accept plastic mulch in some areas. Cucurbit flowers are usually open and attractive to bees for only a day or less. release of pollen. Honeybee activity is determined. cloudy weather and threatening storms greatly reduce bee flights. and competing blossoms of other plants in the area. and floating row covers that are porous. squash. Plastic can be removed by hand by running a coulter down the center of the row and picking the mulch up from each side. The sticky pollen of the male Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 POLLINAtION flowers must be transferred to the female flowers to achieve fruit set. attractiveness of crop. and commencement of nectar secretion normally precede bee activity. resulting in a danger of heat injury to crop plants. clear plastic has produced heat injury. Growers must determine these costs for their situations and calculate their potential returns. colonies should be protected from wind and be exposed to the sun from early morning until evening. Page 17 . by weather and conditions within the hive. and melons generally remain open the entire day. Colony entrances facing east or southeast encourage bee flight. Pollination must take place on the day the flowers open because pollen viability. Colonies of wild honeybees have been decimated by Tracheal and Varroa mites and cannot be counted on to aid in pollination. peas. There are a few recycling projects which accept plastic mulch. as well as improved fruit shape and fruit weight. there will be an increase in the numbers of fruit set and number of seed per fruit. Multiple bee visits of eight or more visits per flower are required to produce marketable fruit. eggplants. exclude certain insect pests. flowers require 15 to 20 visits for maximum fruit set. hives should be grouped together. Generally. Row covers are used to hasten the maturity of the crop. row covers are combined with plastic mulch. Cucumbers. Therefore.Plastic mulch removal and disposal. polyethylene mulch costs $200 to $250 per acre. drip irrigation must also be used. bees foraging at more distant locations will remain in the hive. Even though bumblebees and other species of wild bees are excellent pollinators. with the higher number for higher density plantings. The number of colonies needed for adequate pollination varies with location. and watermelons have separate male and female flowers. respectively When using plastic mulch. Cool. while cantaloupes and other small melons have male and hermaphroditic (perfect or bisexual) flowers.000 bees. European honeybees and native wild bees visit the flowers of several flowering vegetables. vented materials are recommended. drip irrigation. Even with vents. and only those that have been foraging nearby will be active. pumpkins. density of flowers. and provide a small degree of frost protection. and peppers. drip irrig ation materials will cost $300 to $350 per acre. Upright plants like tomatoes and peppers have been injured by abrasion when the floating row cover rubs against the plant or excess temperatures build-up. The best way to ensure adequate pollination is to own or rent strong colonies of honey bee from a reliable beekeeper. respectively. cucumbers. stigmatic receptivity. and Row Covers. have not proven to be effective in enhancing pollination. and attractiveness to bees lasts only that day. The opening of the flower. length of blooming period. and/or row covers? Does the market usually offer price incentives for early produce? Will harvesting early allow competition against produce from other regions? For planting on 5 to 6-foot centers. cantaloupe. and watermelon flowers normally open around daybreak and close by noon. lightweight spunbonded materials placed loosely over the plants. Usually. Commercial bee attractants. Growers are advised to increase numbers of bee colonies and not to rely on such attractants. Ideally. Does the potential increase in return justify the additional costs? Are the odds in favor of the grower getting the most benefit in terms of earliness and yield from the mulch. clear plastic can greatly increase air temperatures under the cover on warm sunny days. recommendations are one to two colonies per acre. to a great extent. In poor weather. When hybrid cucumbers are grown at high plant populations for machine harvesting. Moving honeybees into the crop at the correct time will greatly enhance pollination. Row covers can cost over $400 per acre.50. Considerations for Using Mulch. Commercial mulch lifters are available. as the number of visits increase. plastic can be placed loosely over the plants with or without wire supports. Each grower considering mulches. especially when the plants have filled a large portion of the air space in the tunnel. and/ or row covers must weigh the economics involved. Lack of adequate pollination usually results in small or misshapen fruit in addition to low yields. Drip Irrigation. In vine crops.

if possible. band. • Nozzle Spray Width (inches): For broadcast applications. be sure to inspect the fan and air tubes or deflectors as well. several items need to be taken care of before going to the field. droplet size and shape of pattern • Nozzle Pressure. but it can also save time and money and benefit the environment. walk a comfortable pace that is easy to maintain. comfortable speed that will enable you to finish the job in a timely manner. Give the beekeeper 48 hours notice. When using a backpack sprayer. select a ground speed appropriate for the crop and type of sprayer used. For airblast or other boomless sprayers. and hoses. pay particular attention to the pump. Ground speed can be determined by one of two methods. once in each direction and average the times for greater accuracy. Spray width would be the row spacing. Getting Started Careful and accurate control of ground speed is important for any type of chemical application procedure. If insecticides must be applied. and hoses. • Spray Swath (feet): The width covered by all the nozzles on the boom of a sprayer. On airblast sprayers. a backpack sprayer uses a single nozzle. broadcast. ensure better pollination service. Some sprayers use mini-booms or multiple nozzles. Dyes are available to blend with the spray to show what has been covered. use the width of the sprayed band if the treated area in the band is specified on the chemical label. strainers. Avoid leaving puddles of water around chemical mixing areas. Whenever possible. CALIbRAtING CHEMICAL APPLICAtION EqUIPMENt Purpose 5 MPH. control valves. On tractor-mounted sprayers. or directed 3. For this procedure. For band applications. it is the effective width covered in one pass through the field. The type of sprayer may suggest the type of calibration procedure to use. 2. being sure to account for overlap. the nozzles on each row are added together and treated as one. Calibration will not be worthwhile if the equipment is not properly prepared. Ground Speed (MPH) = Distance x 60 Seconds x 88 The second method is to use a true ground speed indicator such as a tractor-mounted radar or similar system. On backpack sprayers. For directed spray applications. determine some information about the sprayer and how it is to be operated. Calibration not only ensures accuracy. Be sure there are no obstructions or leaks in the sprayer.Insecticides applied during bloom are a serious threat to bees visiting flowers. A written contract between the grower and beekeeper can prevent misunderstandings and. If you must calibrate using spray mixture. as bees pick up water. Slow speeds will take longer to complete the task. while high speeds may be Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 To determine if the proper amount of chemical is being applied. Follow the steps outlined below to prepare spraying equipment for calibration. Equation 1. Choose a safe. calibration should be performed using water only. In this case. Such a contract should specify the number and strength of colonies. and distribution of bees in the field. Gallons per Acre (GPA) • Nozzle Type. This includes: • Type of Sprayer: backpack. miles per hour (MPH). 1. when you expect to spray so that necessary precautions can be taken. the operator must measure the output of the application equipment. In most cases. Inspect the sprayer. Pounds per Square Inch (PSI) • Type of Application. pay attention to the pump. be sure to use the full width sprayed as you walk forward. select an insecticide that will give effective control of the target pest but pose the least danger to bees. CALIbRAtING A SPRAyER: Preparing to Calibrate For calibration to be successful. thus. use nozzle spacing if the total area is specified. Check the label of the product or products to be applied and record the following: • Application Rate. or airblast. Next. measure a suitable test course in the field and record the time it takes to cover the course with the equipment. time of delivery. This technique is known as calibration. nozzle spacing is the distance between nozzles. Apply these chemicals near evening when the bees are not actively foraging and avoid spraying adjacent crops. which may result in bee kills. They are not accurate enough for calibration. boom. • Ground Speed. nozzle spray width is the same as nozzle spacing—the distance between nozzles. If you are spraying on foliage in a row. On boom sprayers. The course should be between 100 and 300 feet long. Be sure all components are in good working order and undamaged. Drive or walk the course at least twice. The spray width is the effective width of the area sprayed. • Nozzle Spacing (inches): for broadcast applications. use the row spacing divided by the number of nozzles per row. Some directed spray applications use more than one type or size of nozzle per row. a critical factor with regard to many chemicals. control wand. Slow walking speeds will take longer to complete the task while high speeds may be tiresome. use the row spacing. If you are using a sweeping motion from side to side. strainers. the rental fee. calibrate the equipment on a site listed on the chemical label and with wind speeds less than Page 18 . Calculate the speed with Equation 1 below. From large self-propelled sprayers and spreaders to small walk-behind or backpack units. precise ground speed is a key for success. Do not rely on transmission speed charts and engine tachometers. The first method requires a test course and stopwatch.

gallons per minute (GPM). the following equation is helpful to convert ounces collected and collection time. into gallons per minute. and 128th acre methods are “time-based methods” which require using a stopwatch or watch with a second hand to ensure accuracy. For example. spray width. The 128th acre and nozzle methods work well for boom and backpack sprayers. • Ground speed: if the error is greater than 10 percent but less than 25 percent. select a calibration method. use the following equation: Equation 5. or spray swath. and the nozzle spacing. nozzle. Install a new nozzle to replace the rejected one and measure its output. The flow meter should read in gallons per minute (GPM). set the tractor for the desired ground speed and run the course at least twice. Whenever possible. Once the sprayer has been properly prepared for calibration. average the discharge rates of all the nozzles on the sprayer. Calculate the application rate based on the average discharge rate measured for the nozzles. Average the times required for the course distance and determine ground speed from Equation 1. and nozzle spacing. Application Rate = 5.940 For applications using the spray swath (feet): Equation 3. Choose a method you are comfortable with and use it whenever calibration is required. For tractor-mounted sprayers. required for the nozzles must be calculated in order to choose the right nozzle size. 4. If the spray solution has a density different than water. Ground speed can be determined from Equation 1. controllable speed that will enable you to finish the job in a timely manner. in seconds. ground speed. The area method is based on spraying a test course measured in the field. Check each nozzle to be sure it is clean and that the proper strainer is installed with it. 8. When calibrating a sprayer. Each method offers certain advantages. Do not calibrate with spray solution unless required by the chemical label. Calculate a new average and recheck the nozzles compared to the new average. This can be done by using a flow meter or by using a collection cup and stopwatch. Some are easier to use with certain types of sprayers. Fill the tank half full of water and adjust the nozzle pressure to the recommended setting. The adjustments and the recommended approach are: • Pressure: if the error in application rate is less than 10 percent. Follow all recommendations on the label. Install a new nozzle to replace the rejected one and measure its output. Measure the discharge rate for the nozzle. Discharge Rate = Application Rate x Ground Speed x Spray Swath 495 On backpack sprayers or sprayers with a single nozzle. Choose an appropriate nozzle or nozzles from the manufacturer’s charts and install them on the sprayer. 6. Choose a safe. Walk across the course at least twice. The sprayer operator needs to understand the changes that can be made to the adjust rate and the limits of each adjustment. use Equation 2. change the ground speed of the sprayer.difficult to control and unsafe. reject any nozzle that is 10 percent more or less than the average or has a bad pattern. Reject any nozzle that has a bad pattern or that has a discharge rate 10 percent more or less than the overall average. • Nozzle size: if the error is greater than 25 percent. Basic Method 5. the ground speed over the test course. the basic and area methods can be used with any type of sprayer. nozzle spray width. calibrate with water instead of spray solution. For backpack sprayers. Discharge rate depends on the application rate. When finished. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 1. For applications using nozzle spacing or nozzle spray width (inches).940 x Discharge Rate Ground Speed x Nozzle Spray Width Page 19 . Equation 4. The discharge rate. changes are often necessary to achieve the application rates needed. CALIbRAtION MEtHODS There are four methods commonly used to calibrate a sprayer: The basic. Again. The goal is to have application rate errors less than 5 percent. On boom sprayers or sprayers with multiple nozzles. adjust the pressure. When using nozzle spacing or nozzle spray width measured in inches. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the basic method. or spray swath on the sprayer. the rate can be corrected using the procedure shown in Calibration Variables. Discharge Rate = Ounces Collected x 60 Collection Time x 128 7. Discharge Rate = Application Rate x Ground Speed x Nozzle Spray Width 5. Equation 2. compare the discharge rate of the nozzle on the sprayer to the manufacturer’s tables for that nozzle size. 2. select a nozzle that is closest to the average to use later as your “quick check” nozzle. Reject any nozzle that has a bad pattern or that has a discharge rate 10 percent more or less than the advertised rate. change nozzle size. walk the course and measure the time required. If you are using the collection cup and stopwatch method.

If the two don’t match. Check the ground speed as you travel across the course. Travel the course Page 20 . 128th Acre Method 4. Use Equation 9. Once you have the accuracy you want. mark the level in the tank. 5. For backpack sprayers. Before calibrating. Compare the application rate measured to the rate required. Be sure there are no leaks or obstructions. follow these steps: 1. spray width. choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the sprayer. Recheck the system if necessary. Discharge Rate = Application Rate x Speed x Spray Width 5. Recheck the system. the orifice.084 Spray Width Granular application calibration is usually done with the chemical to be applied. Once you have the accuracy you want. Area Method 3. Recheck the system if necessary. Walk across the course at least twice. Equation 10. set the tractor for the desired ground speed and run the course at least twice. tank Spray Distance (ft) = Tank Volume (gal) x 43. 5. It is difficult to find a blank material that matches the granular product. Be sure to maintain an accurate and consistent speed. Ounces collected will equal application rate in GPA. Determine the distance that can be sprayed by one tank using the full spray swath measured in feet. Equation 7. If the rates are not the same. Compare the application rate calculated to the rate required. collect the output from the nozzle for the time measured in step 2. carefully measure the volume of water required to refill the tank to the original level. park the sprayer. Check the hopper. 2. Equation 9. Average the times required for the course distance and determine ground speed from Equation 1. Measure the spray distance on a test course in the field. 4. 3. Calculate the nozzle discharge rate based on the application rate required the ground speed over the test course. calibration is complete. 3. and the nozzle spacing. 4. the metering rotor. Compare the rate calculated to the average rate from the nozzles. calibration is complete. Minimize worker exposure and take precautions against spills during calibration. Calculate the application rate as shown: Equation 11.For spray swath applications measured in feet: Equation 6.560 Application Rate (GPA) x Swath (ft) 2. On backpack sprayers. Nozzle Method 1. choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the system. For nozzle spacing or spray width measured in inches. Spray Distance = 4. Be sure to maintain an accurate and consistent speed.940 1. The nozzle spacing or spray width in inches is used to determine the spray distance. and spray the water out on the course. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the nozzle method. and the drop tubes. calibration is complete. Application Rate (GPA) = Volume Sprayed (gal) x 43. If the rates are not the same. walk the course and measure the time required. choose the appropriate adjustment method and reset the sprayer. be sure to measure the full width sprayed as you walk forward. Discharge Rate = Application Rate x Speed x Spray Swath 495 Set the sprayer and determine the average nozzle rate. Fill the sprayer tank with water only. Recheck the system if necessary. For backpack sprayers. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 2. calibration is complete. The distance for one nozzle to cover 128th of an acre must be calculated. 3. To prepare for calibration. For tractor-mounted sprayers. set the sprayer as recommended. or spray swath of the sprayer. Compare the application rate measured for the nozzle to the rate determined in step 3. CALIbRAtING A GRANULAR APPLICAtOR: Preparing to Calibrate 1. Once you have the accuracy you want. 4. Lay out a test course that is at least 10 percent of the tank spray distance from Step 1. If the rates are not the same. and collect the output for the time determined in step 4. After spraying the test course. For tractor-mounted sprayers. carefully inspected the equipment to ensure that all components are in proper working order.560 Test Course Distance (ft) x Swath (ft) For spray swath measured in feet: Equation 8. Extra care should be taken in handling this product. Application Rate = 495 x Discharge Rate Ground Speed x Spray Swath at least twice and average the time to cover the course. select the nozzle closest to the average. choose the appropriate adjustment and reset the system. Spray distance is measured in feet. Once you have the accuracy you want.

or ground speed and repeat. 10. Determine the type of application required for the product: · • Broadcast: treats the entire area (includes band applications based on broadcast rates).560 speed. Choose a calibration distance to work with and measure a test course of this distance in the field you will be working in. 2. set the orifice control as recommended and run the applicator for the time measured to run the calibration distance. Choose an area that is representative of field conditions. Row Rate. Row Rate. Collect and weigh the output of the applicator for this time measurement. Regardless of how the application rate is expressed or type of application. Set your equipment according to recommendations from the equipment or chemical manufacturer. hydraulic. Longer distances are generally more accurate. The calibration distance should be at least 50 feet but not more than 500 feet. 9. record the time required to travel the course. Calculate the weight of material that should be collected for the calibration distance chosen. With the equipment parked. Maintaining an accurate and consistent speed is very important. Accurate ground speed is very important to good calibration with the time method. • Row: treats along the length of the row. Determine the application rate needed: · • Broadcast: pounds per acre. lb/ft = Application Rate 1. Distance Method For banded applications (Application Rate = lb/ac of Band Width): Equation 13. once in each direction. Equation 15. Bear in mind. • Ground Drive: uses ground driven wheel. · • Band: pounds per acre of treated band width. Even grounddriven application equipment can be sensitive to changes in Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 1. Compare the weight of the product actually collected to the weight expected for the calibration distance.560 1. On the test course selected in the field. while high speeds may be inefficient and unsafe. Some samples may be very small.000 feet of row length. On the test course selected in the field. Calibration Methods Two methods for calibrating granular applicators are commonly used. The second method is the time method. once in each direction. What type of drive system does the applicator use? • Independent: uses PTO. 7. 4. Locate a scale capable of weighing the samples collected in calibration. This method is preferred by many operators because it applies to any type of granular machine and is easy to perform.2. Choose a safe. collect the output from the applicator in a container as you travel the course and weigh the material collected. Run the course twice. Most equipment manufacturers and chemical manufacturers provide rate charts to determine the correct orifice setting or rotor speed for each applicator. lb/ft = Application Rate x Row Width (ft) 43. Use one of the following steps to determine the correct row rate in pounds per foot. or electric motor drive.000 6. Row Rate. Record the time required to travel the course also. · • Row: pounds per acre or pounds per 1. and average the results. lb/ft = Application Rate x Band Width (ft) 43. controllable speed that will enable you to complete the job in a timely and efficient manner. Consult your equipment manual for a recommended speed. weight Collected (lb) = Row Rate (lb/ft) x Calibration Distance (ft) For directed (row) applications (Application Rate = lb per 1. This method is similar to sprayer calibration and can be used for applicators driven by PTO. If the rates differ by more than 10 percent. weight Collected = Row Rate x Calibration Distance 3. 4. so a low-capacity scale may be needed. calibration is easier if the rate is expressed in terms of pounds per foot of row length.000 ft): Equation 14. Repeat the procedure until the error is less than 10 percent. Run the course twice. For broadcast and row applications (Application Rate = lb/ac): Equation 12. • Band: treats only the area under the band. Slow speeds take longer to finish the task. Page 21 . Attach a suitable collection container to each outlet on the applicator. rotor speed. adjust the orifice. and average the results for both weight and time. Select a ground speed appropriate for the crop and type of equipment used. Time Method 8. speed adjustments are not effective for ground-driven equipment. You should be able to collect all material discharged from the applicator. 5. hydraulic. Fill the hopper at least half full to represent average capacity for calibration. 3. The first is the distance method. 2. Determine the weight of the product that should be collected for the calibration distance. Equation 16. or electric motors. An accurate scale is very important.

If using an independent drive spreader. The first method is the discharge method. 4. 3. 2. One pan should be at the center of the swath with equal numbers of pans on each side. Compare the application rate measured to the rate required. To use Page 22 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Calculate the application rate. lb/ac = Weight Collected (lb) x 43. Determine the application rate and the bulk density of the product to be applied. rotor speed. Be sure to maintain a constant ground speed at all times. 3. Longer distances may give better accuracy but may be difficult to manage. CALIbRAtING A bROADCASt SPREADER: Preparing to Calibrate 1. Application Rate. 3. If you are measuring the weight in the pans in grams: Equation 19. lane spacing. but may be hard to find. spinner. Divide by the number of pans used to determine the average weight or volume per pan. weight Collected (lb) = Row Rate (lb/ft) x Calibration Distance (ft) this procedure. Adjust and repeat as necessary. record the time required to run the test course. 7. The swath would be set as the width from side to side where a pan holds 50 percent of the maximum amount collected in the center pan. 6. One pass should be directly over the center pan and the other passes at the recommended distance. Repeat the procedure until the error is less than 10 percent. attach a collection bin to the discharge chute or under the outlets and collect all the material discharged from the spreader as it runs across the test distance. This may help determine the method of calibration. Use shorter distances if necessary to avoid collecting more material than you can reasonably handle or weigh. Park the spreader at a convenient location and measure the discharge from the spreader for the time measured on the test distance. Check the pattern to ensure uniformity. Determine the test distance to use.829 x Weight (grams) Pan Area (inches2) There are two common methods used to calibrate broadcast spreaders. They include drop. Equation 17. The course should be run twice and the times averaged for better accuracy. Use enough pans. 2. or ground speed and repeat. The second method. Pans should be uniformly spaced to cover the full swath. 11 or more. 2. Determine the type of drive system that is being used: ground drive or independent PTO. Combine the material collected in the pans and determine the weight or volume collected. Set the spreader according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and begin calibration. Bear in mind. the pan method. be sure to place a pan under each outlet. If the rates differ by more than 10 percent. 5. 4. For centrifugal and pendulum spreaders. Discharge Method 4. Place pans in the field across the swath to be spread. Make three passes with the spreader using the driving pattern to be used in the field. Use extra care and preparation when calibrating with the chemical. space the pans uniformly with one in the center and an equal number on each side. If using a ground drive spreader. To begin. 4. Determine the weight of the product that should be collected for the calibration distance. place collection pans across the path of the spreader. A distance of 300 to 400 feet is usually adequate. collect and measure the total discharge from the spreader as it runs across a test course. and pendulum spreading devices. Calibration of a broadcast spreader is usually done using the product to be applied. to the left and right of the center pass. Compare the weight of the product actually collected during the time it took to cover the calibration distance to the weight expected for the calibration distance. Set the ground speed of the spreader. Calibration Methods 5. Repair or replace any elements that are not in good working order. Application Rate. Fill the hopper half full to simulate average conditions. Carefully inspect all machine components. is used on centrifugal and pendulum spreaders. Determine the spreader pattern and swath of the spreader. to get a good measurement.3. Blank material is available and can be used. 5. speed adjustments are not effective for ground-driven equipment. Set the ground speed. adjust the orifice. lb/ac = 13. To check the pattern. follow these steps: 1. The pattern should be the same on each side of the center and should taper smoothly as you go to the outer edge.560 Distance (ft) x Swath (ft) Broadcast spreaders include machines designed to apply materials broadcast across the surface of the field. Calculate the application rate (pounds per acre): Equation 18. The pattern test pans used to determine pattern shape and swath are used to determine the application rate. For drop spreaders. Pan Method 1.

The more common reasons for failure are the following: 1. Know the pest situation and any buildups in your fields. 5 percent. density and viscosity of the liquid. of Spray Solution band Application Versus broadcast Application Some pesticide application recommendations are based on area of cropland covered. such as: • The economic action threshold level (when the cost of control equals or exceeds potential crop losses attributed to real or potential damage) • Other factors are listed in the Recommended Control Guidelines section following Page 23 For ground-driven equipment. however. Use this updated information to decide whether insecticide applications or other management actions are needed to avoid economic loss from pest damage. you must decide upon the degree of accuracy you wish to achieve. or weed pest is often blamed on the pesticide when the cause frequently lies elsewhere. Poor coverage caused by insufficient volume. New Application Rate = Old Application Rate x (Old Speed/New Speed) HOw tO IMPROVE PESt CONtROL Failure to control an insect. Calibrate with spray solution only if New Pressure Old Discharge Rate x recommended by the supplier. Frequent examinations (at least once or twice per week) help determine the proper timing of the next pesticide application. Do not apply a pesticide simply because a neighbor does. cultural. Band applications in which the area of covered cropland is used for calibraVegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . nozzle size. Select a percent error: 2 percent. Use water for calibration and adjust as shown below. Control decisions also are based on many factors. 10 percent. ground-driven machines are usually only slightly affected by changes in ground speed. Divide the row spacing by the number of nozzles used per row to get a nozzle spacing for calibration. The following adjustments may help in adjusting these variables. Compare the rate measured to the rate required. The ground speed of any type of PTO-powered machine can make a difference. To set these limits for a given sample size. Equation 10 is useful. Use an ongoing program of biological. If using dry or granular material.G.G. Lower Limit = Target Rate x (1 – Percent Error/100%) For PTO-powered equipment or other equipment in which the discharge rate is independent of ground speed. calibration can be affected by pressure.If you are measuring the volume in the pans in cubic centimeters (cc): Equation 20. Broadcast application is based on area of cropland covered. For band applications in which area of treated land—not cropland covered—is specified.G. lb/ac = 13. physical. Determining Upper and Lower Limits Upper and lower limits provide a range of acceptable error. and application type—band or broadcast. or clogged or poorly arranged nozzles. mite. of Spray if the specific gravity (S. Scout fields regularly. CALIbRAtION VARIAbLES Several factors can affect proper calibration. use the equations below. and chemical methods in an integrated approach to manage pests. there should be little or no change in application rate when speed is changed. 3. Delaying applications until pest populations become too large or damaging. or any other level of accuracy. inadequate pressure.829 x Bulk Density (lb/ft3) x Volume (cc) Pan Area (inches2) x 62. Rate x S.4 5. Upper Limit = Target Rate x (1 + Percent Error/100%) Equation 25. water Discharge Rate = Spray Discharge Rate x S. Check the label for the product you are using to see how it is listed. the following steps are suggested for more effective pest control: 1. disease. Other recommendations are based on area of land treated in the band covered. Selecting the wrong pesticide for the target pests. 2.) of the liquid changes. Nozzle spacing is the distance between nozzles. the discharge rate changes in proportion to the square root of the ratio of the pressures. New Discharge Rate = Old Discharge Rate x Density New Pressure Old Pressure For liquids inDischargethe discharge rate changes Solution Spray sprayers. On the other hand. Pressure For liquids in sprayers. product density will affect the discharge rate and may change the pattern for broadcast spreaders. IPM involves scouts visiting fields to collect pest population data. 2. Equation 21. Application Rate. Speed tion and those applications in which multiple nozzles per row are used are both treated like broadcast applications. Equation 24. Old Pressure Equation 23. For liquids. First. use the width of the band at the ground as the spacing for calibration. Equation 22. Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

Rotate pesticides to reduce the development of resistance. and branches. Randomly choose a site without disturbing the plants and carefully unroll the shake cloth between two rows. Bend the plants over the cloth one row at a time and beat the plants vigorously to dislodge insects held on stems. Guidelines for pests are Page 24 . Adopting the following practices will reduce the development of pest resistance: 1. Control measures are needed when the weed population exceeds the maximum tolerable population of that species. 6. For example.To employ an IPM program successfully. adding a crop oil concentrate or a surfactant to certain postemergence herbicides will increase the effectiveness of the herbicides. fruits). Control of the weed using herbicides or mechanical methods is also dependant on weed size. Weed population sampling techniques include: • Weed identification. • Weed population. quick moving insects are counted first. This sampling procedure uses a standard 15-inch diameter sweep net to assess insect populations. followed by those that are less mobile. which will vary with the crop. Diseases often can be first detected in favorable microclimates. time of year. quality. Rotation among different chemical groups is an excellent method of reducing resistance problems. They are intended to reflect the pest population that will cause economic damage and thus would warrant the cost of treatment. The number of sampling sites per field will vary with the crop. Spot treating these areas. For more information concerning control guidelines. refer to the next section. rather than the entire field. stage of crop's development. etc. hiring a private consultant. Weeds compete for light. • Shake cloth (also known as a ground cloth). 7. larvae. A decision to control or not to control a weed must be carried out before the crop is affected and before the weed is too large to be controlled easily. Counts can be taken on single plants or a prescribed length of row. Each pass of the net is counted as one sweep. The number of sweeps per field will vary with the crop. and space. Use control guidelines as an important tactic for reducing the pesticide resistance problem. 4. Perennial weeds and newly introduced or resistant annual weeds often occur first in small numbers in a part of a field. Common annual weeds need only be controlled if they represent a threat to yield. While walking along one row. Count only insects that have landed on the shake cloth. 3. Specific thresholds are given in this handbook for a number of pests of many crops. The ability of weeds to compete with the crop is related to size of the weed and size of the crop. or harvestability. • Sweep net. stems.or growersupported IPM program. and/or predator populations. The way pesticides are used affects generally expressed as a count of a given insect stage or as a crop damage level based on certain sampling techniques. 2. thus reducing the need for pesticide treatment and. employing a cultural practice or a biological control or using a pesticide that is less harmful to natural enemies of the target pest Resistance management. Spot treat when possible. and other factors. Control pests early. This first step is frequently skipped. Control Pests According to Recommended Control Guidelines or Schedule. nutrients. Resistance develops because intensive pesticide use kills the susceptible individuals in a population. It is critical to know the weed history of a field prior to planting as many herbicides need to be applied pre-plant. Use appropriate additives when recommended on the pesticide’s label. adults. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 the development of resistance. swing the net from side to side with a pendulum-like motion to face the direction of movement. such as low or wet areas of the field. 5. weather conditions. life stage of the pest. or doing the work personally. Guidelines are usually based on pest populations. parasite. The extent of this competition is dependant on population and is usually expressed as weeds per foot of row or weeds per square meter. because seedling weeds and immature insects are more susceptible to pesticides and less likely to develop resistance compared to older and more mature crop pests. thereby reducing the ratio of resistant to susceptible individuals in the breeding population. leaves. flowers. Attempts to destroy every pest in the field by multiple applications or by using higher than labeled rates often eliminate the susceptible pests but not the resistant pests. This sampling procedure consists of using a standard 3-foot by 3-foot shake cloth to assess insect populations. Perennial weeds and certain serious annual weeds should be controlled before they can spread. will reduce problems with resistance. Whether participating in a university. Do not overspray. The net should be rotated 180 degrees after each sweep and swung through the foliage. Rotate crops to a nonhost crop. particularly with pesticides that differ in their mechanism of action. Direct counts of any insect stages (eggs. basic practices need to be followed. Early-season insects are often concentrated in areas near their overwintering sites. variety. Control guidelines provide a way to decide whether pesticide applications or other management actions are needed to avoid economic loss from pest damage. the grower still practices: •frequent and regular examination of fields to assess pest populations •applying a control measure only when the economic threshold level has been reached •where possible. leaving only resistant ones to breed. water. resistance to chemicals. Usually. • Growth stage determination.) are accomplished by examining plants or plant parts (leaves. Insect population sampling techniques include: • Visual observation. field history.

The insecticide should be placed according to the label instructions (which. fields should be scouted regularly. Be alert for a possible aphid or mite buildup following the application of certain insecticides such as carbaryl. If the mixture with adjuvant stays mixed and the mixture without adjuvant does not. Add 1 pint of water or fertilizer solution to a clean quart jar. When in doubt. indicate application should be directed away from the seed) or crop injury may occur. Applying insecticide and fungicide sprays with sufficient spray volume and pressure is important. The addition of a spreader-sticker improves coverage and control when wettable powders are applied to smooth-leaved plants. Then add 1/2 teaspoon of an adjuvant to keep the mixture emulsified. Predictive systems are available for a few diseases. on several crops. Disease control is often obtained by applying crop protectants on a regular schedule. make applications when ideal weather conditions prevail. Sprays from highvolume-high-pressure rigs (airblast) should be applied at rates of 40 to 200 gallons per acre at 200 psi or greater. then flowables. Temperature. unless label directions specify otherwise. weather Conditions. Sprays from low-volume-low-pressure rigs (boom type) should be applied at rates of 50 to 100 gallons per acre at 20 psi. The herbicide choice should be based on weed species or cropping systems. Close both jars tightly and mix thoroughly by inverting 10 times. Finally. relative humidity. including the biological insecticides (BT’s) and some herbicides. If possible. add pesticides to the water in the tank in this order: first. are ineffective in cool weather. or clumps of solids form. observing disease symptoms on plants. do not add oil concentrates. Do not spray when sensitive plants are wilted during the heat of the day. Know the pests to be controlled and choose the recommended pesticide and rate of application. For certain diseases that do not spread rapidly. 3. add 1 pint of water or fertilizer solution. Others do not perform well or may cause crop injury when hot or humid conditions are prevalent. use the following “jar test” before you tank-mix pesticides or tank-mix pesticides with liquid fertilizers: 1. If tank-mixed adjuvants are used. such as cole crops and onions.Disease monitoring involves determining the growth stage of the crop. For this reason. the combination can be used. use the adjuvant in the spray tank. Pesticide Compatibility. surfactants. especially with different classes of insecticides. rainfall. nozzles should be arranged so that the application is directed beneath the leaves. then add the pesticides to the water or fertilizer solution in the same proportion as used in the field. The choice of a sprayer tip for Page 25 use with many pesticides is important. spreader-stickers. as does the need for increased spray gallonage to ensure adequate coverage. and companion surfactants. which follows). in general. Spray volumes should increase as the crop's surface area increases. In some cases. delaying a spray program will result in a lack of control if the disease has progressed too far. When environmental conditions are favorable for disease development. Inspect the mixtures immediately and after standing for 30 minutes. or crop injury is likely. water solubles. or any other additive unless specified on the label. compatible. Thoroughly mix each product before adding the next product. wettable granules or powders. Certain pesticides. As the season progresses. sludge. 2. Spray only when wind velocity is less than 10 miles per hour. Many fungicides control specific diseases and provide no control of others. emulsifiable concentrates. add the pesticides to the wateradjuvant or fertilizer adjuvant in the same proportion as used in the field. do not use the mixture. these should be added first to the fluid carrier in the tank. the pesticide can be added Improved control of aphids can be achieved by adding and arranging nozzles so that the application is directed toward the plants from the sides as well as from the tops (also see Alkaline Water and Pesticides. the mixture should not be used. If nondispersible oil. Note: For compatibility testing. and duration of leaf wetness period are monitored. consult your local Extension office. Use one sprayer for herbicides and a different sprayer for fungicides and insecticides. Optimum results can frequently be achieved when the air temperature is in the 70°F range during application. Flat fan-spray tips are . constant agitation is required. and the timing of fungicide application is determined by predicting when disease development is most likely to occur. To a second clean quart jar. Be sure to properly identify the disease(s). In actual tank-mixing for field application. If a uniform mix cannot be made. fungicide combinations are recommended. To determine if two pesticides are applying a pesticide. Herbicide sprays should be applied at between 15 and 50 gallons of spray solution per acre using low pressure (20 to 40 psi). Never apply herbicides with a high-pressure sprayer that was designed for insecticide or fungicide application because excessive drift can result in damage to nontarget plants in adjacent fields and areas. Select Correct Sprayer tips. If the mix in either jar remains uniform for 30 minutes. and/or the daily weather conditions in the field. Strive for Adequate Coverage of Plants. These are important to consider before Select the Proper Pesticide. Caution: Proper application of soil systemic insecticides is extremely important. application must begin at a certain growth stage and repeated every 7 to 10 days. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 directly or premixed in water first. plant size increases. For many diseases. If either mixture separates but readily remixes. For insects that are extremely difficult to control or are resistant. it is essential to alternate labeled insecticides.

Brass nozzles are inexpensive and are satisfactory for spraying liquid pesticide formulations. namely. basic copper sulfate. these results can be attributed to poor application. plastic. Spray at the maximum pressure recommended for the nozzle. cannot be altered to enhance control of pests. Importation of natural enemies. "hydrolysis"). These techniques will improve target coverage with flood-type nozzles and result in more satisfactory weed control. intentionally. etc. copper hydroxide. They must first be placed in quarantine for one or more generations to be sure that no undesirable species are accidentally imported (diseases. These nozzles produce a tapered-edge spray pattern that overlaps for uniform coverage when properly mounted on a boom. Flat fan-nozzle tips are available in brass. water with a pH greater than 7. sometimes referred to as classical biological control. Space flood-type nozzles a maximum of 20 inches apart. To check the pH of your water. Coverage of the target is often less uniform and complete when flood-type nozzles are used. Standard flat fan-spray tips are designed to operate at low pressures (20-40 psi) to produce small-to medium-sized droplets that do not have excessive drift. Brass nozzles are least durable. Flood-type nozzle tips are generally used for complete fertilizers. If you have a problem with alkaline pH. Importation: Augmentation: Augmentation is the direct manipulation of natu- commented that a particular pesticide has given unsatisfactory results. compared with the coverage obtained with other types of nozzles. bENEFICIAL INSECtS A number of environmental factors. rather than the suggested 40-inch spacing. While some environmental factors. Results with postemergence herbicides applied with flood-type nozzles may be satisfactory if certain steps are taken to improve target coverage. the disk size and the number of holes in the whirl plate affect the output rate. When using any wettable powder. There are some instances when materials should not be acidified. This will result in an overlapping spray pattern. exploration in the native region can be conducted to search for promising natural enemies.. a bad batch of chemical. is used when a pest of exotic origin is the target of the biocontrol program. only under permit by the U. or in some cases. sprays containing fixed copper fungicides. In addition to lime sulfur. can be effected. Department of Agriculture. They are less suitable for spraying postemergence herbicides or for applying fungicides or insecticides to plant foliage. Approaches to biological Control. Various combinations of disks and whirl plates can be used to achieve the desired spray coverage. ceramic. they may be evaluated for potential impact on the pest organism in the native country or alternatively imported into the new country for further study. the organism may not become a pest. soda ash. Natural enemies are imported into the U. as a nozzle wears. such as in agricultural crop fields. However. pest resistance.). Some materials carry a label cautioning the user against mixing the pesticide with alkaline materials. Each of these techniques can be used either alone or in combination in a biological control program. it is possible for some of these introduced organisms to become pests. This can be accomplished by one of two general methods or a combination of Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . others such as populations of natural enemies. and liquid ammonia. there are several products available that are called nutrient buffers that will lower the pH of your water. which are more abrasive than liquid formulations. copper oxide. hyperparasitoids. importation of natural enemies can be highly effective. The more alkaline the water. and manipulating natural enemies in order to suppress pest populations is called biological control. such as weather. Additional permits are required for interstate shipment and field release. etc. weather conditions. it is essential to calibrate the sprayer frequently because.designed for preemergence and postemergence application of herbicides. Water Page 26 ral enemies to increase their effectiveness. caustic potash. food availability. another possible reason for unsatisfactory results from a pesticide may be the pH of the mixing water. purchase a pH meter or in most states you can submit a water sample to your state’s soil or water testing lab.e. They are used when higher water volumes and spray pressures are recommended. and conservation of natural enemies. such as weather. either accidentally.S. the greater the breakdown (i. and hardened stainless steel nozzles are most durable and are recommended for wettable powder formulations. At times applicators have sources in agricultural areas can vary in pH from less than 3 to greater than 10. and natural enemies combine to keep insect populations under control naturally. several other materials provide alkaline conditions: caustic soda. the volume of spray material delivered through the nozzle increases. etc. and hardened stainless steel. and sometimes for spraying herbicides onto the soil surface prior to incorporation. including: Bordeaux mixture. Alkaline water and Pesticides. In these cases. Once the country of origin of the pest is determined. Many of these introductions do not result in establishment or if they do. The reason for this caution is that some materials (in particular the organophosphate insecticides) undergo a chemical reaction know as “alkaline hydrolysis. However. that is. the levels of natural control are often not acceptable to us. and we have to intervene in order to lower pest populations.” This reaction occurs when the pesticide is mixed with alkaline water. magnesia or dolomitic limestone.. If such enemies are identified. There are three general approaches to biological control: importation. Usually. In some human-altered landscapes. liquid N. Pests are constantly being imported into countries where they are not native. augmentation. stainless steel. With cone nozzles.S. etc. due to a lack of natural enemies to suppress their populations. The practice of taking advantage of. Full and hollow-cone nozzles deliver circular spray patterns and are used for application of insecticides and fungicides to crops where thorough coverage of the leaf surfaces is extremely important and where spray drift will not cause a problem.

free control can be provided by natural enemies already present in the field. an inoculative release each spring may allow the population to establish and adequately control a pest. make sure you have your pest(s) accurately identified. by simply being selective in the type of pesticide used. However. Conservation: The most common form of biological control is or burning of crop debris can also kill natural enemies or make the crop habitat unsuitable. pesticide residues) can kill them or reduce their effectiveness. following all instructions provided by your supplier. Consulting Extension is a good practice regardless of which pest control method you use. etc. environmen- conservation of natural enemies which already exist in a cropping situation. A summary of these products and their target pests is presented in Table 13. it is critical to identify which whitefly is present before releasing Encarsia.management of the target pest is more likely than 100% control. By conserving these natural enemies.). Therefore. Two parasitoids. weeds. released natural enemies work best as a preventative pest management method. when trying to make the best use of natural enemies in your crop. Effective trapping. especially with reductions in the use of pyrethroids. For example.25 to 2 per plant. even with pesticides. and by spraying only when threshold levels are reached. Inundative releases involve the release of large numbers of a natural enemy such that their population completely overwhelms that of the pest. this type of biological control has lent itself to commercial development. An example of the inoculative release method is the use of the parasitoid wasp. Another parasitoid. and to determine the timing of natural enemy releases. If you wait until pests have become a problem before releasing natural enemies. The most commonly used of these approaches is the first. Because the actions of natural enemies are not as obvious as those of pesticides. in areas where a particular natural enemy cannot overwinter. This insect has developed into the most important pest of crucifers in recent years due to the pest's development of resistance to most pesticides. Selection of products and suppliers should be done with care. the Ichneumonid wasp Diadegma insulare (Cresson) and the braconid wasp Cotesia plutellae (Kurdjunov). adverse conditions (e. Releases of relatively low densities (typically 0. the use of natural enemies usually will not work. you should choose your product and supplier carefully. and plant pathogens. Conservation involves identifying the factor(s) which may limit the effectiveness of a particular natural enemy and modifying the factor(s) to increase the effectiveness of natural enemies. rodents. However. Therefore pest problems must be anticipated and planned for by carefully monitoring pest population development.these methods: mass production and/or periodic colonization of natural enemies. Usually. monitoring. it may be important to work with your supplier to develop a procedure to evaluate the effectiveness of your releases.g. Augmentation is used where populations of a natural enemy are not present or cannot respond quickly enough to the pest population. in which natural enemies are produced in insectaries. and field scouting should be used to determine when pests appear. if they are introduced into your crop at the beginning of a pest infestation. If you decide to use commercially available biological control agents. the chemical and physical defenses that plants use to protect themselves from pests may reduce the effectiveness of biological control. they can prevent that population from developing to damaging levels. Sometimes knowledge of crop and cultural practices that encourage naturally-occurring biological control agents can allow you to maximize the control they provide. as can the timing of application. depending on the crop) of Encarsia immediately after the first whiteflies have been detected on yellow sticky cards can effectively prevent populations from developing to damaging levels. Because natural enemies are living organisms. The number or rate of natural enemies to release can be determined through consultation with a reliable supplier. It is important to bear in mind that Encarsia can provide effective control of greenhouse whitefly. spidermites. Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood). etc. There are hundreds of biological control products available commercially for dozens of pest invertebrates (insects. to suppress populations of the greenhouse whitefly. Because most augmentation involves mass-production and periodic colonization of natural enemies. as may occur with importation or conservation methods. pesticide use (and therefore expense) can be minimized. Therefore. It is critical to familiarize yourself with proper usage of these predators and parasites otherwise you may not achieve satisfactory results and obtain inconsistent results. An example of how conservation can work involves the diamondback moth. as with purchasing any product. but not sweetpotato whitefly. Review publications for guidelines on how to purchase and utilize natural enemies. Encarsia formosa Gahan. The efficacy of these predators and parasites is dependent on many factors . handle them with care. In some cases. it may be helpful to consider the following suggestions. Eretmocerus californicus has shown promise against sweetpotato whitefly. augmentation usually does not provide permanent suppression of pests. Extension can help with this. In some crops. Plutella xylostella (L. First. The most common factor that interferes with natural enemy effectiveness is the application of pesticides. In general. determine if natural enemy releases are appropriate for your specific situation. can help reduce diamondback moth populations if excessive pesticide applications are avoided. Some cultural practices such as tillage Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 tally sound method of managing pests. stormy weather. then released either inoculatively or inundatively. Incorporating biological Control Into A Pest Management Program: Biological control can be an effective. Once you have received your natural enemies. releases should be made within the context of an integrated crop management program that takes into account the low tolerance of the parasitoids to pesticides. Page 27 . Second. The greenhouse whitefly is a ubiquitous pest of vegetable and floriculture crops that is notoriously difficult to manage. this involves either reducing factors which interfere with natural enemies or providing resources that natural enemies need in their environment. That is. vertebrates (deer. accumulation of dust deposits on leaves from repeated tillage or a location near roadways may kill small predators and parasites and cause increases in certain insect and mite pests.).). Therefore. BT products can work well to suit this purpose.

spider mites. European Corn borer. sweet corn. Asparagus beetle. and cole crops) Lygus bug eggs caterpillars on sweet corn fungus gnats on greenhouse crops mites greenhouse and some field crops thrips on greenhouse crops and on some field crops aphids on some greenhouse crops Stink Bug eggs generalist predator on many vegetables (including Irish potato. Flower bug • Lady Beetle. There are a number of products and approaches that can provide very satisfactory results. and on some greenhouse crops caterpillars and beetle larvae on cole crops and asparagus aphids and thrips on some field crops aphids. tomatoes. Asparagus beetle leafminers in some field crops whiteflies on greenhouse and on some field crops aphids on some greenhouse crops thrips. cucurbits. beans. cucurbits. whiteflies. consult with Extension: table 13. Imported Cabbageworm and Mexican Bean beetle moth eggs on cole crops. asparagus and onions generalist predator of many insect species small caterpillars. sweet corn. For example. pest mites. small caterpillars small insects in sweet corn. and tomatoes various insect species that attack Irish potato. cole crops. sweet corn. midges in cole crops beetle moth larvae and other small insects in several vegetable crops pest mites and thrips on some greenhouse crops and on some field crops generalist predator of many insect species beetle larvae on cole crops and sweet corn moth eggs in sweet corn whiteflies on cole crops and tomato Cabbage Looper Root maggot Colorado Potato beetle. This does not mean that biological control will not work for your situation. Potato Leafhopper in sweet corn and Irish potatoes on greenhouse crops thrips. mites. and how to effectively use them. mites. Corn Earworm. asparagus. root maggots Predatory midge Scelionid egg wasps Spined Soldier bug Trichogramma wasps Stink Bugs • • Spine Soldier bug. leafminer Carrot weevil Cabbage worm and Diamondback moth Japanese beetles cutworms. Diamondback moth. cole crops. eggplant. Asparagus beetle. leafminers. Beet Armyworm. They do not specifically attack pests that growers are usually interested in removing. Corn earworm. beetle larvae. Corn Earworm. peppers. just because an organism is sold as a “natural” or “biological” control does not mean it will work as you expect. Mexican Bean beetle. aphids. Colorado Potato beetle. beans. leafhopper. Cabbage Looper. tomato. praying mantids are general “ambush” predators that will eat anything small enough (usually mobile insects) that pass in front of them. Irish potato. Colorado Potato beetles. eggplant. small insects. Fall Armyworm. Diamondback moth. Remember. Another example is ladybeetle adults that have been “pre-conditioned. onions) of several insect species including larvae of European Corn borer. Mexican Bean beetle. For the most current information about suppliers of organisms and related products. PREDAtORS AND PARASItES OF VEGEtAbLE PEStS PREDATORS AND PARASITES Aphelinid wasps Braconid wasps Eulophid wasps Encarsia wasps Encyrtid wasps Flower bug Icheneumonid wasps Lacewings Lady beetles Mymarid egg wasps Parasitic flies Predatory mites PEST CONTROLLED • aphids on some greenhouse crops • caterpillars on cole crops and Irish potatoes • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • leafminers in some greenhouse crops Colorado Potato Beetle. sweet corn. Cabbage Looper.” These lady- beetles will just as readily leave the area that you have treated as ladybeetles that have been collected and not pre-conditioned.Further details of the above suggestions are provided in Table 13. and insect eggs in most vegetable crops (especially Irish potatoes. the purchase of natural enemies. Lacewings and Predator • Stink bugs • • • • • • Encyrtidae Encyritidae Eulophidae Mymaridae Pteromalidae caterpillars Tiphidae Parasitic nematodes • • • • • • • • Predatory mites Stink Bug Parasitoid wasps Ichneumonid wasps Page 28 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . tomato.

leaf blemishes. Apply in late summer or early fall to healthy weed foliage for maximum effectiveness (note: Delay seeding of winter cover crop 3 weeks for each pint per acre of Banvel used).POStHARVESt PERENNIAL wEED CONtROL Effective weed control requires a program that emphasizes prevention by combining crop rotation with mechanical and chemical control methods. and roots.4-D or other hormones and nutritional problems. spray with Roundup when nutsedge is in the less than 5. 1. Apply in late summer or early fall to healthy weed foliage for maximum effectiveness. method of fertilization. DIAGNOSING VEGEtAbLE CROP PRObLEMS When visiting a vegetable field.4-D amine or the combination product Banvel+2. were applied. and other problems should be promptly diagnosed. Try to trace the history of the problem. To suppress or control bitter nightshade. (2) Look for discoloration of the vascular tissue (plant veins). or sowthistle. or sheltered area? b. undesirable insects. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 29 . Which pest-management practices were used to manage diseases. horse-nettle. time of planting. such as certain rows. and frass on foliage. Examine affected plants to determine whether the problem is related to insects. Destroy all weeds immediately after a crop is harvested. (1) Look for necrotic (dead) areas on the roots. they are specific for certain crops. See herbicide labels for optimum treatment time for each weed. 2.) (1) Look for the presence of insects.5 quarts in 10 to 20 gallons of water per acre. use a tank-mix of 1 quart Banvel plus 1 quart 2. field bindweed. Weed seed populations in the soil should be kept to a minimum by preventing weeds from producing seed in and around vegetable fields. horse-nettle. leaves. and level of sunlight? e. What were the temperatures. Consider control measures after harvest. To control bermudagrass. Use 1 to 1. Canada thistle.5 quarts Roundup in 5 to 10 gallons of water per acre. and what was the previous use of equipment that was used for application? d. such as a low spot. Effective yellow nutsedge control can be achieved by repeating the application for several consecutive years. johnsongrass. or rate of fertilization? 3. Apply in late summer or early fall to healthy weed foliage for maximum effectiveness. This is necessary for the grower to implement prompt and effective corrective measures or to help reduce the probability of its reoccurrence in following crops or its spread to susceptible neighboring crops. Does the pattern correlate with concurrent field operations. a. or boring injuries. or pokeweed. Describe the problem. (2) Look for feeding signs such as chewing. 2. a. or cultural practices. stems. Halosulfuron (Sandea) controls nutsedge and is cleared on many vegetable crops. a. and weeds — which chemicals (if any). Plant a crop the following spring with registered herbicides recommended for yellow nutsedge control. such as poor growth. at what application rates. but before the first frost. hemp dogbane. soil moisture conditions. often these are similar to injury from 2. apply 1 to 1.to 7-leaf stage. Plowing and/or disking two or three times after winter cold snaps (<25°F) will reduce nut (tuber) populations. 4. (4) Look for virus patterns. but before seed hardens. poison ivy. webbing. To suppress brambles. and fruit. Which crops were grown in the same area during the past 3 or 4 years? 4. b. follow the steps outlined below to help solve any potential problems.4-D in 10 to 20 gallons of water per acre. diseases. All vegetable problems. Delay tillage until 7 to 10 days after application. rots. Do the symptoms point to insect problems? Insect problems are usually restricted to the crop. (3) Look for fungal growth. To control yellow nutsedge. Use 1 to 2 quarts surfactant (80 to 100 percent active) per 100 gallons of spray mixture. Expect only partial control of yellow nutsedge the first year after initiating the program. On what date were the symptoms first noticed? b. rather. milkweed. or quackgrass. (5) Examine roots for twisting or galling. flowers. stems. Which fertilizer and liming practices were used? c. tank-mix 2 quarts Roundup plus 1 pint Banvel (see note above) in 10 to 20 gallons of water per acre. Do the symptoms suggest disease problems? These symptoms are usually not uniform. What was the source of seed or planting stock? f. sucking. for the following weeds (all rates given per acre): 1. Determine whether there is a pattern of symptomatic plants in the field. wilts. poor-drainage area. (A hand lens is usually essential to determine this. 3. Does the pattern correlate with a certain area in the field. See herbicide labels for optimum treatment time for each weed.

•Soluble salt injury—wilting of the plant when wet. the presence of a pollution source. AIR POLLUtION INJURy The extent of plant damage by particular pollutants in any given year depends on meteorological factors leading to air stagnation. symptoms may extend to the lower leaf surface. Ozone. •Lack of water. Publications and bulletins designed to help the grower identify specific vegetable problems are available from Extension. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 30 . or brown. (3) Soil problems. carrot. Chronic injury is marked by brownish red. are usually spread uniformly over the leaf. whereas fully expanded leaves are very sensitive. Peroxyacetyl nitrate. and cantaloupe. •Toxicity of minor elements—boron. brownish stems. zinc. pumpkin. Acute injury is characterized by clearly marked dead tissue between the veins or on leaf margins. Leaves become more susceptible as they mature. In summary. such as weeds. mustard. tomato. Injury may consist of bronzing or glazing with little or no tissue collapse on the upper leaf surface.) •Insecticide burning or stunting. when trying to solve a vegetable crop problem. (A soil test from good areas and poor areas should be done as well as a analysis of nutrient content of leaf tissue from the same areas.) •Nitrogen—light green or yellow foliage. Swiss chard. (6) Physiological damage. however. cracked petioles. •Iron—light green or yellow foliage occurs first and is more acute on young leaves. etc. Some pollutants that affect vegetable crops are sulfur dioxide (SO2). Injury is usually more pronounced at the leaf tip and along the margins. bean. death. Glazing of lower leaf surfaces may be produced by the feeding of thrips or other insects or by insecticides and herbicides. and examine the plants and soil closely. The dead tissue may be bleached. glazing. Complete tissue collapse in a diffuse band across the leaf is helpful in identifying PAN injury. (5)Climatic damage. (Usually uniform in the area or shows definite patterns. but differences should be detectable by careful examination. (2) Chemical toxicities. and tomato. A common symptom of O3 injury is small stipplelike or flecklike lesions visible only on the upper leaf surface. are often symptomatic. Do the symptoms point to cultural problems? Look for the following: (1) Nutrient deficiencies.c. manganese. reddish brown. endive. potato. spinach. take notes of problem areas. mustard. Recently matured leaves are most susceptible. hollow. or bleached white areas on the leaf blade. Sensitive crops are: Swiss chard. •Genetic mutations. peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Pale green to white stipplelike areas may appear on upper and lower leaf surfaces. and it causes bronzing. Insect feeding (red spider mite and certain leafhoppers) produces flecks on the upper surface of leaves much like ozone injury. Young leaves rarely display damage. time of year. whereas ozone flecks are concentrated in specific areas. (Take soil tests of good and poor areas. Very young leaves are normally resistant to ozone. spinach. •High-temperature injury. Sulfur dioxide. •Poor soil structure. •Magnesium—interveinal chlorosis (yellowing between veins) of lower leaves. •Boron—development of lateral growth. irregularly shaped spots may be dark brown to black (stipplelike) or light tan to white (flecklike). beet. Flecks from insect feeding. (4) Pesticide injury. and ammonia (NH3).) •Poor drainage. tan. SO2 causes acute and chronic plant injury. With PAN only successive exposures will cause the entire leaf to develop injury. and the lesions spread over a greater portion of the leaf with successive ozone exposures. PAN affects the underleaf surface of newly matured leaves. or silvering on the lower surface of sensitive leaf areas. trace the history of the problem. These notes can be used to avoid the problem in the future or to assist others in helping solve their problem. and more than one plant species. Some older watermelon varieties and red varieties of Irish potatoes and beans are particularly sensitive to ozone. The leaf apex of broadleaved plants becomes sensitive to PAN about 5 days after leaf emergence. PAN toxicity is specific for tissue in a particular stage of development. escarole. look for a pattern to the symptoms. and the susceptibility of the plants. •Excessive moisture (lack of soil oxygen). broccoli. chlorine (Cl). usually from excessive fertilizer application or accumulation of salts from irrigation water. ozone (O3). lettuce. •Hard pans or plow pans. depending on plant species. •Frost or freeze damage. •Low-temperature (chilling) injury. and weather conditions. •Air-pollution injury. These very small. •Molybdenum—”whiptail” leaf symptoms on cauliflower and other crops in the cabbage family. turgid. Nitrogen deficiencies are more acute on lower leaves. lettuce. ivory. plants are stunted. pepper. •Phosphorus—purple coloration of leaves. red. orange. •Weed-killer (herbicide) burning or abnormal growth. With severe damage. Some crops sensitive to sulfur dioxide are: squash. compaction. •Potassium— yellow or brown leaf margins and leaf curling. About four leaves on a shoot are sensitive at any one time. dill.

The dry outer scales of red onions may become greenish or black. cohesive response to emerging concerns about the microbial safety of fresh fruits and vegetables. lettuce. must utilize its own stored energy reserves. 3. those commodities with high respiration rates utilize the reserves faster and are more perishable than those with lower respiration rates. Swiss chard. many vegetables. manure use and water quality throughout the production and harvesting process.. recent media attention the past few years on food borne illness outbreaks underscores the importance of good agricultural practices. tomato. whereas scales of yellow or brown onions may turn dark brown. importers. beet. potato. such as broccoli and sweet corn. mustard. 9. packing facility. for agricultural practices. food service operators and consumers. chemical energy. which often extends into solid areas toward the center and base of the leaf. 7. the common risk factors outlined in GAPs will result in a more effective.org or by contacting your local Extension office. must be rapidly cooled to the optimal Page 31 .ncfreshproducesafety. a vegetable continues life processes independent of the plant. retailers. Being aware of. crops held at ambient temperatures can suffer irreversible losses in quality. Additionally. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Once harvested. 8. harvesting.Chlorine. and this wound further increases stress on the tissue. To minimize microbial food safety hazards in fresh produce. sorting. water. 2. where respiration is the process of life by which O2 is combined with stored carbohydrates and other components to produce heat. This includes distributors. 6. or corresponding or similar laws. packers and shippers are urged to take a proactive role in minimizing food safety hazards potentially associated with fresh produce. exporters. but scattered in others either between or along veins. Follow all applicable local.S. 5. Necrosis is marginal in some species. are cut at harvest. POStHARVESt HANDLING Importance of Temperature Management accidental spillage or use of ammoniated fertilizers under plastic mulch on light sandy soils. Crops sensitive to chlorine are: Chinese cabbage. packing and transporting fresh produce. Field injury from NH3 has been primarily due to growers. and it is similar in pattern to sulfur dioxide injury. Minimize the potential of microbial contamination from water used with fresh fruits and vegetables. More information and resources on Good Agricultural Practices can be found at: http://www. packers or shippers should use good agricultural and management practices in those areas over which they have control. bASIC PRINCIPLES OF GOOD AGRICULtURAL PRACtICES (GAPs) By identifying basic principles of microbial food safety within the realm of growing. reducing postharvest life. wholesome fruits and vegetables. Fresh produce can become microbiologically contaminated at any point along the farm-to-table food chain. dill. Inner leaves remain unmarked. While the United States has one of the safest food supplies in the world. Worker hygiene and sanitation practices during production. operators should encourage the adoption of safe practices by their partners along the farm-to-table food chain. Foliar necrosis and bleaching are common. 4. onion. Practices using animal manure or municipal biosolid wastes should be managed closely to minimize the potential for microbial contamination of fresh produce. The major source of microbial contamination with fresh produce is associated with human or animal feces. such as greens and lettuce. pepper. and radish. and addressing. Growers. The purpose of GAPs is to give logical guidance in implementing best management practices that will help to reduce the risks of microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables. Prevention of microbial contamination of fresh produce is favored over reliance on corrective actions once contamination has occurred. Therefore. Ammonia. wHAt ARE GOOD AGRICULtURAL PRACtICES (GAPs)? Good agricultural practices (GAPs) are the basic environmental and operational conditions necessary for the production of safe. regulations or standards for operators outside the U. its source and quality dictates the potential for contamination. harvesting. spinach. Examples of GAPs include worker hygiene and health. corn. Lettuce plants exhibit necrotic injury on the margins of outer leaves. Injury from chlorine is usually of an acute type. cantaloupe. CO2 and other products. vegetables with higher respiration rates. 1. There must be qualified personnel and effective monitoring to ensure that all elements of the program function correctly and to help track produce back through the distribution channels to the producer. Furthermore. packing and transport play a critical role in minimizing the potential for microbial contamination of fresh produce. Whenever water comes in contact with produce. escarole. Accountability at all levels of the agricultural environment (farm. Slight amounts of the gas produce color changes in the pigments of vegetable skin. and as a result. The respiration rate varies by commodity. growers will be better prepared to recognize and address the principal elements known to give rise to microbial food safety concerns. distribution center and transport operation) is important to a successful food safety program. state and federal laws and regulations. Within hours of harvest. producer transporters. The relative perishability of a crop is reflected in its respiration rate.

Everyone involved at each of the many steps during product handling (e. ROOM Potato.HY Mixed melons 45-50 6-10 90-95 2-3 weeks FA.ICE. lima. mature. shelled 32 0 95-100 2-3 days ROOM. rapid packing and cooling. sweet (bell) 45-55 7-13 90-95 2-3 weeks FA. in conjunction with refrigeration during subsequent handling operations.VAC Cucumber 50-55 10-13 95 10-14 days HY Eggplant 46-54 8-12 90-95 1 week FA Endive and escarole 32 0 95-100 2-3 weeks HY.ROOM Tomato.ICE. table 14. reducing the fresh weight by 5-6%.storage temperature to slow metabolism and extend postharvest life during subsequent shipping and handling operations. winter 50 10 50-70 Depending on type ROOM Sweetpotato2 55-60 13-16 85-90 4-7 months ROOM Tomato. lima 37-41 3-5 95 5-7 days HY Bean. shippers. RECOMMENDED StORAGE CONDItIONS AND COOLING MEtHODS FOR MAxIMUM POStHARVESt LIFE OF COMMERCIALLy GROwN VEGEtAbLES Commodity Temperature % Relative Approximate Cooling °F °C Humidity Storage Life Method1 Asparagus 32-35 0-2 95-100 2-3 weeks HY Bean. sweet 32 0 95-98 5-8 days HY. Since the introduction of hydrocooling for celery in the 1920s. ‘Curing’ of dry onions actually involves drying the outer bulb scales.ICE Cabbage. summer 41-50 5-10 95 1-2 weeks FA. spring 32 0 95-100 3-4 weeks HY. mature-green 55-70 13-21 90-95 1-3 weeks FA.ROOM 1 FA = Forced-air cooling. (The term “postharvest life” is purposely used in this text.VA Collard 32 0 95-100 10-14 days HY.ICE Onion. Chinese 32 0 95-100 2-3 months HY.ICE.ICE.VAC Corn. oriental 32 0 95-100 2-4 months ROOM Rutabaga 32 0 98-100 4-6 months ROOM Spinach 32 0 95-100 10-14 days ICE.ICE. Cooling. topped 32 0 98-100 7-9 months HY Cauliflower 32 0 95-98 3-4 weeks HY. green or snap 40-45 4-7 95 7-10 days HY. provides a “cold chain” from packinghouse to supermarket to maximize postharvest life and control diseases and pests.HY Watermelon 50-60 10-15 90 2-3 weeks ROOM. Irish2 40 4 90-95 4-5 months HY. green 32 0 95-100 3-4 weeks HY. firm-red 46-50 8-10 90-95 4-7 days FA.) Timeliness during handling is also essential in maintaining produce quality: timely and careful harvest and transport to the packinghouse. 3/4-slip 36-41 2-5 95 15 days FA. dry2 32 0 65-70 1-8 months ROOM Parsley 32 0 95-100 2-2. receivers) must take care to ensure that the refrigerated cold chain is not broken. topped 32 0 98-100 4-6 months ROOM Broccoli 32 0 95-100 10-14 days HY.FA Pumpkin 50-55 10-13 50-70 2-3 months ROOM Radish..VAC Garlic 32 0 65-70 6-7 months ROOM Greens.VAC Squash. ROOM = Room cooling. Commercial cooling is defined as the rapid removal of field heat to temperatures approaching optimal storage temperature and it is the first line of defense in retarding the biological processes that reduce vegetable quality.g. FA Radish.VAC Carrot. green or English 32 0 95-98 1-2 weeks HY.HY Squash. truckers.HY.VAC Lettuce 32 0 98-100 2-3 weeks VAC Melon Cantaloupe.ICE.VAC Kohlrabi 32 0 98-100 2-3 months ROOM Leek 32 0 95-100 2-3 months HY. ICE = Package ice. implying that the product requires no subsequent refrigeration.ROOM Turnip 32 0 95 4-5 months FA. FA Beet.VAC Kale 32 0 95-100 2-3 weeks HY. HY = Hydrocooling.5 months HY.ICE Parsnip 32 0 98-100 4-6 months ROOM Pea.HY Pepper. Page 32 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . early 32 0 98-100 3-6 weeks ROOM Cabbage. VAC = Vacuum cooling 2 Curing required prior to long term storage. FA Okra 45-50 7-10 90-95 7-10 days FA Onion. rapid cooling (precooling) has allowed produce to be shipped to distant markets while maintaining high quality. FA Bean. leafy 32 0 95-100 10-14 days HY. and rapid transport to the market or buyer. bunched 32 0 95-100 2 weeks HY Carrot.ROOM. slush ice.ICE Southern pea 40-41 4-5 95 6-8 days FA. since “shelf life” has the connotation that the commodity “sits on the shelf”.

such as mature potatoes. This method can cool as much as four times faster than room cooling. heat always seeks equilibrium. also. it is also dependent upon the cooling method being employed. is critical for efficient removal of field heat in order to achieve cooling. precautions must be taken to minimize water loss from the product. 7/8 of the heat can be removed in a fairly short amount of time. cooling method is room cooling. increased shriveling. In both of these situations the product cools very slowly. and color). OPtIMIZING COMMERCIAL COOLING The cooling rate is not only dependent upon time. However. the product must remain in the precooler for sufficient time to remove heat. increased susceptibility to decay. Air is circulated by the existing fans past the evaporator coil to the room. The cooling medium (air. and incomplete ripening (poor flavor. temperature. Optimal storage recommendations and precooling methods are included for a wide range of vegetable commodities in Table 14. In many cases. With either room cooling or forced-air cooling. Storage Requirements ice) must be maintained at constant temperature throughout the cooling period. Those crops not as sensitive to chilling injury may be stored at temperatures as low as 32°F (O°C). intimate contact with the surfaces of the individual vegetables. temperature. In the case of cooling. Storage below this threshold will give rise to a physiological disorder known as chilling injury. crushed Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 The cooling efficiency of refrigerated rooms can be greatly improved by increasing the airflow through the product. the cooling medium temperature should be at least at the recommended storage temperature for the commodity found in Table 14. increasing cooling time. COOLING MEtHODS Horticultural crops may be grouped and stored into two broad categories based on sensitivity to storage temperatures. As a form of energy. The rate of heat transfer. The extent of chilling symptoms is also dependent on the length of exposure to low temperatures. Short exposure times will result in less injury than longer exposure to chilling temperatures. and therefore the lowest safe storage temperature. As a result. In order to be effective and significantly benefit the shipping life of the product. water. is crop-specific. simple placement of packed vegetables in a refrigerated cooler is not sufficient to maintain quality for product destined for distant markets. In order to achieve maximum cooling. Therefore. Forced-Air Cooling Cooling Concepts Cooling is a term that is often used quite loosely. and a growing number are incorporating cooling or improving their existing facilities. For reasonable cooling efficiency. The efficiency of cooling is dependent on time. This condensation lowers the relative humidity in the room. Those crops that are chilling sensitive should be held at temperatures generally above 50°F (10°C). only produce that has been properly cooled should be loaded. dried onions. Inappropriately designed containers with insufficient vent or drain openings or incorrectly stacked pallets can markedly restrict the flow of the cooling medium. the ambient relative humidity should be maintained at the recommended level for the particular crop (commercial humidification systems are available) and the product should be promptly removed from the forced-air precooler upon achieving 7/8 Cooling. cold storage rooms can be retrofitted for forced-air cooling. texture. and contact. the sensible heat (or field heat) from the product is transferred to the cooling medium. The refrigeration system actually dehumidifies the cold-room air as water vapor in the air condenses on the evaporator coil. an appropriate definition of commercial cooling for perishable crops is: the rapid removal of at least 7/8 of the field heat from the crop by a compatible cooling method. The time required to remove 7/8 of the field heat is known as the 7/8 Cooling Time. Removal of the remaining 1/8 of the field heat will occur during subsequent refrigerated storage and handling with little detriment to the product. and contact with the commodity. Page 33 . the product loses moisture to the air. Forced-air cooling is recommended for most of the fruit-type vegetables and is especially appropriate for vegetables such as peppers and tomatoes. Room cooling is not considered precooling and is satisfactory only for commodities with low respiration rates. The cooling medium also must have continuous. or the cooling rate. Portable systems can be taken to the field. Removal of 7/8 of the field heat during cooling is strongly recommended to provide adequate shipping life for shipment to distant markets. at best. Neither should non-cooled vegetables be loaded directly into refrigerated trailers. Even these crops may require precooling. and only into trailers that have been cooled prior to loading. when harvested under high ambient temperatures. which requires less capital investment than other precooling methods. and cured sweetpotatoes. aroma. Room Cooling The simplest. Refrigerated trailers are designed to maintain product temperature during transport. the relative humidity should also be controlled to reduce water loss from the crop. but slowest.Many shippers are well equipped to rapidly cool their crops. The degree of chilling sensitivity. in which refrigerated room air is drawn at a high flow rate through specially stacked containers or bins by means of a high capacity fan. In addition to maintaining storage rooms at proper storage temperatures. in order to achieve such rapid heat removal. and they do not have the refrigeration capacity to quickly remove field heat. in which the bulk or containerized commodity is placed in a refrigerated room for several days. To minimize water loss during cooling and storage. This principle led to the development of forced-air. Vented containers and proper stacking are critical to minimize obstructions to air flow and ensure maximum heat removal. Chilling injury symptoms are characterized by development of sunken lesions on the skin. or pressure cooling. The various cooling media used to cool produce have different capacities to remove heat. the refrigeration capacity of the room may need to be increased to be able to maintain the desired air temperature during cooling.

it is recommended that top icing be applied after precooling to crops with lower respiration rates such as leafy vegetables and celery but not for fruit of warm-season crops. As water on the product surface evaporates. Therefore. Top icing involves placement of crushed ice over the top layer of product in a container prior to closure. therefore. Cooling becomes less efficient when the commodity is hydrocooled in closed containers. Vacuum coolers are costly to purchase and operate and are normally used only in high volume operations or are shared among several growers. inoculating subsequent product being hydrocooled. For this reason. The pressure in the chamber is reduced until the water on the product surface evaporates at the desired precooling temperature. cucumbers and summer squash. Prior to shipping. As long as the contact between the ice and produce is maintained. This method is based on the principle that. A modified version of package icing utilizes a slurry of refrigerated water and finely chopped ice drenched over either bulk or containerized produce or injected into side hand holds. Commodities that can be cooled readily by vacuum cooling include leafy crops. can be pumped into a packed container. This “slush ice” method has been widely adopted for comPage 34 Vacuum cooling is a very rapid method of cooling. Sanitation of the hydrocooling water is critical. Heat from the product is absorbed by the ice. including: the maximum volume of product requiring precooling on a given day. it does not tend to result in visible wilting in most cases. It is important to continuously monitor the hydrocooler water and product temperatures and adjust the amount of time the product is in the hydrocooler accordingly in order to achieve thorough cooling. Crushed ice distributed within the container is known as package icing. and collards. Although relatively inexpensive. The rapidly flowing slush causes the product in the container to float momentarily until the water drains out the bottom. Vacuum Cooling Contact icing has been used for both cooling and temperature maintenance during shipping. Containerized or bulk product is thoroughly wetted. Cooling is faster and more uniform than for top icing. The container must be oversized to accommodate sufficient ice to provide cooling. Commodities that are hydrocooled must be sufficiently resistant to withstand the force of the water drench. The water acts as a carrier for the ice so that the resulting slush. Hydrocooling is beneficial in that it does not remove water from the commodity. Summary When selecting an appropriate cooling method. Cooling water should be changed frequently. ice is blown on top of containers loaded in truck trailers to aid in cooling and maintenance of higher relative humidity. Slush icing is somewhat slower than forced-air cooling. such as spinach. and fixed/variable costs of the system. which keeps the produce fresh and crisp. care should be taken to avoid blockage of vent spaces in the load. subsequent storage and shipping conditions. Container selection is critical. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . and even less efficient when containers are palletized and hydrocooled. The container must also have sufficient strength so as to resist the application of water. The heat capacity of refrigerated water is greater than that for air. which results in warming of product in the center of the load during shipment. green onions. It is most efficient (and. the cooling rate can be fairly slow since the ice only directly contacts the product on the top layer. Contact Icing modities tolerant to direct contact with water and requiring storage at 32°F (O°C). it removes field heat. lettuce. and is most efficient for commodities with a high surface-to-volume ratio such as leafy crops. Crops recommended for hydrocooling include sweet corn. As the product settles in the container. but it does reduce pulp temperatures to 32°F (O°C) within a reasonable amount of time and maintains an environment of high relative humidity. cooling is fairly rapid and the melted ice serves to maintain a very high humidity level in the package. this restricts airflow. which means that a given volume of water can remove more heat than the same volume of air at the same temperature. the boiling point of water decreases. Any water that evaporates from the vegetable tissue is removed uniformly throughout the product. Precautions must be taken so as not to cool the products below their chilling temperature threshold. most rapid) when individual vegetables are cooled by immersion in flumes or by overhead drench. Package Icing. snap beans. the ice encases the individual vegetables by filling air voids. since the water completely covers the product surfaces. Package icing is successfully used for leafy crops. since it is recirculated. but it can be more labor intensive to apply. Ice should also be “tempered” with water to bring the temperature to 32°F (O°C) to avoid freezing of the product. Decay organisms present on the vegetables can accumulate in the water. thus providing good contact for heat removal. several factors must be considered. or slurry. sweet corn. causing it to melt. However.Hydrocooling Hydrocooling removes heat at a faster rate than forced-air cooling. Non-uniform distribution of ice reduces the cooling efficiency. the resultant vapor is condensed on evaporator coils within the vacuum tube to increase cooling efficiency. There are two types of contact icing: top icing and package icing. and cantaloupes. Shipping operations must also tolerate water dripping from the melting ice during handling and storage. placed in a vacuum chamber (tube) and sealed. the compatibility of the method with the commodities to be cooled. as the atmospheric pressure is reduced. Corrugated fiberboard cartons must be resistant to contact with water (usually impregnated with paraffin wax) and must be of sufficient strength so as not to deform.

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Planting and Spacing. Prolonged cutting increases risk of crown rot. when soil conditions are favorable. Make furrows 6 to 9 inches deep. Crowns must be grown in an area where asparagus crowns have not been grown for 3 years. Remove spears from field promptly after harvest to maintain freshness and a low fiber content. Air dry on a screen before planting. Protection may be important in newly seeded plantings and young cutting beds. see the appropriate control section of this publication.5 in deep at brush Removal. stop harvest 10 days sooner.specific commodity recommendations asparagus Varieties1 ASPARAGUS For further information about Insect. In following years. Gradually fill trenches with soil during the growing season until trench is filled. Prevent large numbers of beetles from overwintering and laying eggs on spears in spring by spraying brush in early fall. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. thrips. Avoid damage to spear buds by shallow disking. Daily harvest will minimize exposure to these pests and reduce damage. Dust or dip in a slurry prepared with 2 ounces of Thiram per 100 pounds of seed. Because beetles are attracted to brush more than spears. which reduces the incidence of Fusarium root and crown rot as well as control nematodes. Use at the rate of 1 gal of household bleach solution per 2 pounds of seed. sow seed 1 to 1. Check the tag or contact the seed supplier to determine if seed has been treated. plant crowns at the bottom of the furrow so that buds are 6 in from the undisturbed surface. While nematodes are generally not a major problem on asparagus. Asparagus AL North AL South GA North GA South MS KY East KY Central KY West NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Crowns 2/15–4/15 1/15–3/15 2/15–4/15 NR 3/15–4/15 3/20–4/1 3/15–3/25 3/10–3/20 2/15–3/31 4/1–5/31 2/1–3/15 3/1–4/15 3/1–3/31 2/25–3/15 Planting Dates Direct Seeded Nursery 4/15–5/31 3/15–4/30 4/15–5/31 NR 3/15–4/15 5/1–6/1 4/25–5/25 4/10–5/1 4/10–5/15 5/1–6/15 4/1–5/15 4/20–5/31 NR NR aphids building up on brush. leave a row or two along the woods side of a field and spray this area weekly to control adults. Disease and weed Control. Jersey Gem Jersey Giant Jersey Knight Jersey Supreme Purple Passion UC157 F1 G T T T T Seed treatment. Growing Crowns. then mow and drag off stubble. and cover with 1 to 2 in of soil. dig up to 1/2 inch deep around crowns and use bait if one cutworm larva or one severely damaged spear per 20 plants is found. To detect cutworms. Sow seed in the field as indicated in the following table. stop harvesting after 6 to 8 weeks. AL A A A A A GA G G KY K K K K K LA L L L L L L MS M M M M NC N N N N SC S S S TN 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. Watch for tiny (1/16 inch long). Burn brush during the winter to destroy fungi that cause diseases. the use of Nemacur increases the vigor of the planting. If Cercospora leaf spot was bad the previous year. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Early spears are the most heavily damaged because they are the first ones up and the slowest growing. Apply insecticide when needed during cutting season and late summer. If seed has not been treated.) If burning is not done. bluish green lowing. Nematode Management. Early plantings produce more vegetative growth and more vigorous crowns than late plantings. Prepare a fresh bleach solution for each batch of seed. Asparagus beetles. such as Cercospora and purple spot. Space 1-year-old crowns 12 in apart in rows 5 ft apart. Plant crowns as indicated in the fol- INSECt MANAGEMENt Cutworms. Page 36 HARVEStING AND StORAGE The first year after planting only harvest an average of 8 spears per plant. (Be sure to obtain a permit in areas where required. To grow crowns. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt a rate of 6 to 8 pounds per acre (10 to 12 seeds per ft) in double rows (12 inches apart) on 36 inch centers. Stop harvest when 40% of spears are smaller than a pencil. Wash seed for 5 minutes in running water and dry thoroughly. dip seed in a solution containing 1 pint of household bleach per gal of water for 1 to 2 minutes. Provide constant agitation. Rinse with acidified water (1 cup vinegar/gal). Asparagus Aphid.

For fresh-cut basil production. BT products can be used to control various worms and caterpillars. Plant basil in late spring after all danger of frost is past.to 3. Trim transplants to encourage branching and plant in the field when about six inches tall (4 to 6 weeks old). Basil may be grown in the field from seed or transplants. and lettuce leaf varieties are susceptible to Japanese beetles. preferably in raised beds. P2O5.4 is best. or by using drip irrigation to reduce fungal disease. A light sand to silt loam with a pH of 6. This provides a high-quality product with little stem tissue present. Planting dates may be staggered to provide a continuous supply of fresh leaves throughout the growing season.basil Varieties1 bASIL Sweet AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN Genovese Italian Large Leaf Nufar Aroma Purple Ruffles Lemon. G G G G G G G G K K L L L L L L M M M M M M M M N N N N N N N N S S S S S S S S T T T Specialty T K L L 1 Abbreviations Note: ‘Aroma’ and ‘Nufar’ are Fusarium wilt resistant. for use on basil. Basil will not tolerate moisture stress. the use of black plastic mulch is highly recommended. Basil is an easy to grow tender annual. shallow cultivation. Pest Control. To keep weed pressure down. well-drained soil. Fusarium wilt – Plants infected with this disease usually grow normally until they are 6 to 12 inches tall. The optimum storage temperature for fresh basil is 40° to 45° F with a high relative humidity. Japanese beetle traps set about 20 feet away from the basil will help prevent damage. Rotate herbs to different parts of the field each year and remove and destroy all plant debris to reduce soil borne disease. If more than one harvest is made. Growers should use Fusarium wilt tested seed or resistant or tolerant varieties. and/or mulch. and K2O per acre be broadcast and incorporated at time of planting or follow guidelines for fertilization of salad greens. Keep foliage as dry as possible by watering early in the day. Sow seed 1/8 inch deep. Basil can also be cut and bunched like fresh parsley. beneficial insects. Reflective mulches. It is generally sug- for 8 to 12 years. A sickle bar type mower with adjustable cutting height is commonly used for harvesting large plantings for fresh and dried production. insecticidal soaps. always cut prior to bloom. Fusarium wilt may persist in the soil Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 37 . Foliage may be harvested whenever four sets of true leaves can be left after cutting to initiate growth. Harvesting and Storage – Leaf yields range from 1 to 3 tons gested that 100 pounds each of N. Do not over fertilize basil. and handpicking may give some level of control of other insect pests. provide a regular supply of water through drip or overhead irrigation. Cultivation. traps. Italian Large Leaf. Double-row plantings on 2 to 4 foot wide beds increase yields per acre and helps to shade out weeds. use high plant populations. then they become stunted and suddenly wilt. Fertilization. Genovese. but when harvesting for fresh or dried leaves. Grow in full sun in warm. Frequent trimming helps keep plants bushy. sidedress with 15 to 30 pounds N per acre shortly after the first or second cutting. Presence of blossoms in the harvested foliage reduces quality. Burns Sweet Thai Cinnamon A A A A A A A A for state where recommended. For small-scale production of fresh-market basil.inch long whorls of leaves may be cut or pinched off once or twice a week. the terminal 2. There are few agricultural chemicals registered per acre dried or 6 to 10 tons per acre fresh. Mrs.

Snap Bush (Fresh Market) Ambra Atlantic Bronco Bush Blue Lake 274 Caprice Carlo 3 Charon Crockett Dusky Eagle Festina Grenable Hialeah Hickok Lynx Magnum Nash Pike Pod Squad Renegade Roma II (flat pod) Shade Storm Strike Tapia (flat pod) Valentino A A A A A A G L G G G G G L M K K K L L M N N N N N N S S S T T T T T T T N N S S T S T T T A A G G K G L L N N M N A G G K A A A A A G G G G G K L M M N N N N N S S S T L L L Page 38 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .Lima Bush (small seeded) Baby Lima 184-85 Bridgeton Cypress Dixie Butter Pea Early Thorogreen Henderson Bush Jackson Wonder Bush (large seeded) Fordhook 242 Dixie Speckled Butter Pea Christmas Pole Carolina Sieva Florida Butter Florida Speckled King of the Garden Willow Leaf A A G G Nemagreen A A A A A A A G G G K G G G A G L L M M L L L L M M M M N N M L A G L L L L L M N S S T M N S N N N N N S S S S S S S S S T T T T Pole (large seeded) bEANS .beans: lima and snap Varieties1 AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN bEANS .

1 to 1. G G G K L L 3 Spring production only in Georgia. plant 5 to 7 seeds per foot. use treated seed or treat with various protectants at manufacturer’s recommendation.Varieties1 bEANS . To protect against root rots and damping off. Large Seeded: Plant in rows 30 to 36 inches apart.Snap (con't) Pole Dade Kentucky Blue Louisiana Purple Pole McCaslan Rattle Snake State (half runner) Stringless Blue Lake Volunteer (half runner) 2 White Seeded Kentucky Wonder 191 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.5 inches deep. Planting Dates Processing Snaps SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates (con't) Fall 8/1–9/1 7/20–8/1 4/1–6/1 4/15–7/1 4/20–8/20 4/1–7/15 7/15–8/20 NR Market Snaps AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Fall NR 8/15–9/20 NR 7/15–9/15 NR NR NR 8/15–9/15 8/15–9/15 8/15–9/1 8/15–9/20 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/1 7/20–8/1 7/15–8/20 NR Large & Small Limas AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Planting Dates 4/1–7/15 2/10–4/30 5/1–7/15 2/15–4/30 5/1–7/15 4/25–7/25 4/10–8/1 4/1–5/15 3/1–5/31 3/30–5/10 2/10–5/1 3/20–6/15 5/1–8/15 4/1–6/1 4/15–7/1 4/20–6/20 4/1–6/1 Planting Dates Spring Fall NR 8/15–9/20 NR 7/15–9/1 NR NR NR 7/1–8/15 7/15–8/15 NR NR 7/15–8/1 NR 7/15–8/1 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/20 NR 4/1–7/1 2/10–5/1 5/1–7/1 3/1–5/1 5/10–7/10 5/1–7/20 4/15–7/1 4/15–5/15 3/15–5/15 4/1–7/25 3/1–8/15 4/10–6/15 6/1–7/15 4/15–6/1 5/1–6/15 5/1–6/30 4/15–7/15 Processing Snaps AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West MS North MS South NC East NC West Spring Fall NR 8/15–9/20 NR 7/15–9/15 NR NR NR 9/5–9/20 8/15–9/20 NR NR 4/1–7/15 2/10–4/30 5/1–7/15 2/15–4/30 5/1–7/15 4/25–7/25 4/10–8/1 4/1–5/15 2/10–4/30 4/1–6/15 5/15–7/31 SPACING Snap beans: With rows 30 to 36 inches apart. AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A G K L L L L G M M N N S A G T M N N M N S T S T T A A 2 Not for Coastal Plain areas. Where bacterial blight is a concern. Lima beans. Rough handling of seed greatly reduces germination. Seed treatment. Sow 1 to 1.5 inches deep in light sandy soil. Calibrate planter according to seed size. request that seed be treated with streptomycin. To increase yield plant in rows 18 to 24 inches apart with 4 to 6 seeds per foot. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 39 . 2 seeds per foot. shallower in heavier soil.

Consult a pest management specialist for local black. Treat when moth catches in local blacklight traps average five or more per night.25 inches deep (deeper if soil is dry). SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Seed Maggot: See the preceding “Seed Treatment” section. are present in soybeans in some areas. Soybean cyst nematode. Treat if the number of worms (BAW and CL) averages 15 per 3 feet of row. Fall Armyworm (FAw). For mechanically harvested irrigated fields: Rows 18 to 30 inches apart. when weather favors population increase. Mexican bean beetle: Treat if defoliation exceeds 20% dur- ing prebloom or 10% during podding and there is a population potential for further defoliation. Frequent field inspections are necessary after this period to determine pest incidence and the need for additional spray controls. or use approved soil systemic insecticides at planting time if probability of pest outbreak is high. 0. NO-tILL When planning to use no-till practices. Growers who rotate snap beans with soybeans should be alert to the possibility of problems in infested fields. exceeds 1 to 2 adults per sweep. Use nematicides listed in the Leafhoppers: Treat only if the number of adults plus nymphs tarnished Plant bug (Lygus): Treat only if the number of adults and/or nymphs exceeds 15 per 50 sweeps from the pin pod stage until harvest. cover crop. Treating too early for young CEW/ FAW populations will eliminate natural control and may result in the need for additional sprays for reinfestations. Mites: Spot treat areas along edges of fields when white stip- pling along veins on undersides of leaves is first noticed and 10 mites per trifoliate are present. Contact the local county Extension office for information. Corn Earworm (CEw). The use of pheromone (insect sex attractants) and blacklight traps is very helpful in detecting population buildup of various insects. These levels of defoliation may result in earlier maturity of the crop. thrips: Treatments should be applied if thrips are present from cotyledon stage to when the first true leaves are established and/ or when first blossoms form. HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. Consult a pest management specialist for more refined decision-making.75 to 1. expanded leaflet. soil fertility practices. insect control. give consideration to bean variety. For limas. treat when CEW populations exceed one per 6 feet of row from the late flat pod stage to harvest. 2 seeds per foot. 4 to 5 inches between plants. Nematode Management. Aphids: Treat only if aphids are well-distributed throughout treat every 5 to 7 days if CEW catches in local blacklight traps average 20 or more per night and most corn in the area is mature. whiteflies: Treat when whiteflies exceed five adults per fully the field (50% or more of terminals with five or more aphids). date of planting. European Corn borer (ECb)–Snap beans Only. The first application should be applied during the bud–early bloom stage and the second application during the late bloom–early pin stage. In snap beans. planting equipment. beet Armyworm (bAw). races I and III. Additional sprays may be needed between the pin spray and harvest. Small Seeded: Space rows 30 to 36 inches apart. On farms with a succession of bean plantings. but small seeded lima beans are resistant to this nematode. “Nematodes” section of Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control. treatment should be timed when 50% or more of the CEW and/or FAW populations reach a length of 1/2 inch or longer. Snap beans are susceptible. releases of the larval parasitoid Pediobius foveolatus may provide effective biological control. Cabbage Looper (CL). Also see the “Maggots” section in Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control and following “Early Season Control” section.Lima beans. See “How to Improve Pest Control” for insect sampling techniques. Page 40 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . and if beneficial species are lacking. For both lima bean types. Experience has shown that effective insect control with systemics usually lasts from 4 to 6 weeks after application.light trap information and recommended spray intervals. and weed species in the field. Wait until hatch or adult emergence when eggs and pupae are present.

3°C)]. range between 50° to 85°F.beets Varieties1 bEEtS Chariot Centurion Detroit Dark Red Kestrel Red Ace Red Pack Ruby Queen Solo Scarlet Supreme Warrior 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. Seedstalks will form if exposed to 2 or 3 weeks of temperatures below 50°F after several true leaves have formed. Market beets are hand-harvested when 1. Optimum germination temperatures Harvesting and Storage. Lighter color and wider zoning within the root occur during rapid growth in warm temperatures. Space rows 15 to 20 inches apart.3/4 to 2 inches in diameter. Planting Dates beet AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 3/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 3/20–4/15 3/15–4/10 3/10–4/1 2/1–3/31 2/1–3/31 NR 3/1–4/15 4/1–5/31 2/15–3/31 3/15–5/31 3/15–4/15 3/1–4/1 Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 7/15–8/15 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–11/15 9/15–11/15 NR 8/1–9/15 7/15–8/15 8/15–9/30 7/15–8/31 9/1–9/30 9/15–10/1 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 41 . See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Seeding and Spacing. AL GA KY LA L L MS NC SC TN A A A G G G K K L L L L L L K L N N N N S S S S T T T S Beets are frost tolerant and produce the best commercial quality when grown during cool temperatures [50° to 65°F (10° to 18. thin plants to 3 inches apart. Sow seed 1/2 to 3/4 in deep at the rate of 15 to 18 seeds per foot of row.

caulifloWer. cabbage. and KoHlrabi Varieties1 bROCCOLI Early Baccus Belstar Decathlon 4 Gypsy Olympus Packman Windsor AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN L A A A G G G L L L M N S T T T T T K K K K K K M M N N S Mid-season Emperor Green Magic Marathon Patron Premium Crop TLALOC Late-season Arcadia Diplomat Emerald City Greenbelt Patriot Pinnacle Triathlon A A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G L M M N N N N S T L M T K L L T K K S M S L L N CAbbAGE (green) A&C No.broccoli. Kale. collards.5+ Almanac Bayou Dynasty Bejo 2635 Blue Dynasty Blue Thunder Blue Vantage Bravo Bronco Cheers Conquest Early Thunder Emblem Gideon Golden Dynasty Gourmet Hercules Lynx Market Prize Platinum Dynasty Quisto Ramada Rio Verde Royal Vantage Savoy Ace Silver Cup Silver Dynasty Solid Blue 780 Thunderhead Vantage Point A A A A A A G G G G G G K M K K K K L L L L M M M M N N N N N N N S T T T T T T T S S T T S S S S N L G G A A N M N L L L G K M M L M N N N N N N N S T T A G G G G S S S S S K L L L M M T T A G Page 42 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .

Varieties1 CAbbAGE (red) Azurro Cardinal Red Dynasty Red Rookie Ruby AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN T A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G K K L N N N N S S S CAULIFLOwER Candid Charm Cumberland Early Snowball Freedom Fremont Graffiti Incline Majestic Minuteman Serrano Symphony Snow Crown Super Snowball Wentworth White Magic White Passion COLLARDS Blue Max 2 Champion Flash Georgia Southern 3 Heavi-Crop Morris Heading Top Bunch 3 Top Pick Vates KALE Blue Armor Blue Knight Premier Siberian Squire Vates Winterbor KOHLRAbI Early Purple Vienna Grand Duke 1 K L L N T T K L L L L L L A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A K M N N S S T N L L L L L L L L L L K K K K 4 S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S K K K M M M M N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N T T T K K K K M M M M M T T T T T L A A 2 G M M Abbreviations for state where recommended. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 43 . 3 Bolting susceptible. Bolting tolerant. Downy Mildew tolerance.

If not. Following either treatment above. Check with seed supplier to determine if seed is hot-water treated for black rot control. dry the seed. note. Soak Brussels sprouts and cabbage for 25 minutes. and Chinese cabbage. kale. soak seed at 122°F . Use a 20-minute soak for broccoli. Hot water seed treatment may reduce seed germination. Planting Dates Cauliflower AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 Planting Dates Fall NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/1 8/1–8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/15 8/5–9/15 8/1–9/30 NR 8/15–8/30 7/15–8/30 7/15–8/15 8/1–8/20 4/10–4/30 4/5–4/20 3/30–4/10 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 2/15–3/15 1/15–3/10 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 3/1–4/10 3/20–4/30 3/25–4/25 3/15–4/15 Planting Dates broccoli AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 3/1–7/1 2/1–3/31 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 Fall NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/1 8/1–8/15 8/1–10/31 8/1–10/31 7/25–8/15 8/5–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 9/1–9/30 8/15–9/15 8/1–8/31 8/10–8/31 4/10–4/30 4/5–4/20 3/30–4/10 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 2/15–3/15 1/15–3/10 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 3/1–4/10 3/20–4/30 3/25–4/25 3/15–4/5 Collards AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South Spring Fall 7/15–10/15 7/15–10/31 NR 8/1–10/31 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/1 8/1–8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/20 8/10–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–10/30 8/1–9/30 7/15–8/15 8/1–8/20 2/15–6/30 1/15–5/31 3/15–7/31 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 3/10–4/25 3/1–4/15 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 1/20–4/1 1/15–3/1 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 3/15–5/1 2/15–4/15 Cabbage AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 Planting Dates Fall NR 8/1–10/31 NR 8/1–10/31 6/20–7/1 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/01 8/1–11/30 8/1–11/30 7/25–8/15 8/5–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/15–9/30 7/15–8/30 7/25–8/15 8/25–9/15 MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West 4/1–4/15 3/15–3/25 3/01–3/15 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 2/5–4/1 1/15–3/15 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 3/25–4/25 3/15–4/15 Page 44 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .Seed treatment. cauliflower. then dust with Captan or Thiram at 1 level teaspoon per pound of seed (3 ounces per 100 pounds). collards.

field-grown cabbage transplants should not exceed 9 days at 32°F or 5 days at 66°F prior to planting in the field. Start seed in greenhouse or protected frames 4 to 6 weeks before planting. However. Transplants are ready for field planting 4 to 6 weeks after seeding. sensitivity to bolting depends upon the variety. Use 1 ounce of seed for 3. seed 1/2 to 1 pound per acre. and broccoli are frequently grown using plastic mulch.520 plants per acre). Space rows 18 to 24 inches apart and 6 to 8 between plants. For precision. The early cabbage crop is grown from transplants 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 4/1–4/30 3/20–4/15 3/10–4/10 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 1/20–4/1 1/15–3/1 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 3/15–5/1 2/15–4/15 seeded at the rate of 1 ounce for 3. Use precision seeder for hybrid varieties. fertility. Cauliflower. INSECt MANAGEMENt Aphids: The cabbage aphid can be a serious problem on these crops and should be treated immediately if noticed. air-assist planters use 1/3 to 1⁄2 pound per acre for twin rows on 3 foot centers.000 plants. Bolting in cabbage. Early varieties require 85 to 90 days from seeding to harvest. Seed at the rate of 2 pounds per acre and Kohlrabi AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 3/15–7/1 2/1–3/31 Planting Dates Fall NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/15 8/1–8/15 8/15–8/30 thin to desired spacing. collards and kale. Field seeding: Space rows 36 inches apart. Precision seeders can be used for direct seeding. Collards and Kale.000 plants per acre). Make successive plantings in the field at dates indicated in preceding table. Multiple nozzles per row or bed will provide the under leaf coverage and high coverage rates necessary to manage caterpillar pests of cole crops. and main-season crops require 110 to 115 days. the heavy wax coating on the leaves reduces deposition of spray materials. can occur if the early-planted crop is subjected to 10 or more continuous days of temperatures between 35° to 50°F. rows 18 to 20 inches apart. Set transplants in rows 2 to 3 feet apart and 9 to 15 inches apart in the row for early plantings and 9 to 18 inches apart for late plantings. These adjuvants allow the spray to spread out and stick to the leaves. with black mulch used in the spring and white or painted mulch used in the fall. Page 45 . or use half of this rate for single rows on 3 foot centers. set plants in rows 16 to 24 inches apart and 6 to 18 inches apart within the row.000 plants. Set transplants 12 to 18 inches apart in rows 36 inches apart (14. depending on variety. and market use. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 such as the seed corn maggot can be a problem in heavier soils in the Southeast especially during cool. When using transplants. seed should be sown 15 to 20 days in advance of the normal transplant date for the same maturity date. Storage of pulled. bolting. However. broccoli. Cabbage Root Maggot: Root maggots and other similar insects to 18 inches apart in row. Often parasitic wasps take out these species if broad-spectrum insecticides use is avoided. and plants are set 18 to 24 inches apart in the row. Seed 6 4/10–4/30 4/5–4/20 3/30–4/10 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/31 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 3/25–4/25 3/15–4/15 weeks before expected transplant date. Transplants: Sow 10 seeds per foot of row in rows 12 to 18 inches apart. Other aphid species are found on these crops and should be treated if the crop is near harvest or their level of infestation is increasing. cauliflower. Kohlrabi. High population for bunched broccoli: 2 to 4 rows per bed. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGMENt Note: The use of a spreader-sticker is recommended for cole PLAStIC MULCH Early spring cabbage. plants 9 to 10 inches in row (27.Kale AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/31 NR 8/1–10/31 7/1–7/15 7/15–8/1 8/1–8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/20 8/10–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–10/30 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/1 8/15–9/15 Cabbage. damp times of the year. Set transplants in rows 3 to 4 feet apart.000 to 32. plants 12 crops in any case. and buttoning in cauliflower. Transplants may be used for a spring crop. This requires a more intensive disease managment system.

the imported cabbageworm (ICW). See Table 14 for further postharvest information on these crops. If the cabbageworm complex is the major group of pests. Scouting and using a threshold for spray applications is a cost effective method of managing these pests. Thorough coverage of the plant particularly the undersurface of the leaf is essential. Broad-spectrum insecticides that reduce the natural enemies in the field should be avoided if at all possible. Broccoli should be harvested when the beads (flower buds) are still tight. Kohlrabi should be harvested when the bulbs are 2 to 3 inches in diameter and before internal fibers begin to harden.5 pound bunches with 2 to 3 heads per bunch. Page 46 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . against most of these pests but must be eaten by the larvae. HARVEStING AND StORAGE Fresh market cabbage should be harvested when heads are firm and weigh 2.0 pounds. and the diamondback moth (DBM) referred to as the cabbageworm complex. Blanching takes about 1 week in hot weather and 2 weeks in cooler weather. very young larvae are much more easily managed than older ones. Webworms often damage the bud of the young plants and should be treated immediately.Avoid planting into soils with freshly plowed down crop residue or high levels of organic matter. Growers must rotate among classes of insecticides for each pest generation. Heads are blanched by tying outer leaves over the heads when heads are 3 to 4 inches in diameter. The use of a threshold to determine the need for treatment usually reduces the number of sprays per crop without loss of crop quality and improves the profit margin. Most markets require one to three wrapper leaves to remain.5 to 3. Collards may be harvested at any stage of growth. Nematode Management. or lower leaves may be stripped from plant. Use nematicides listed in the “Nematodes” section of Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control. this level would require treatment. The major ones are the cabbage looper (CL). (example: 10 DBM larvae per 10 plants would be like 2 CLEs per 10 plants. and the use of a spreader-sticker is strongly recommended. See the section on resistance management. and webworms. Cabbage for slaw or kraut usually has much larger heads and weighs 3 to 12 pounds. corn earworm. Cauliflower is harvested while the heads are pure white and before the curds become loose and ricey. armyworms. but a few outer beads have begun to loosen. The stalks should be 7 inches long from top of the crown to the butt.5 imported cabbageworms or 5 diamondback moth larvae. a threshold of 1 caterpillar (regardless of the kind) per 3 plants has been effectively used as a threshold. The heads should be dense and free of insect damage. One cabbage looper is equivalent to 1. Kale is harvested by cutting off the entire plant near ground level. A cabbage looper equivalent relates the feeding amounts of the three caterpillars. Broccoli is usually bunched in 1. Secure bunches with a rubber band or twist tie. Caterpillars: A number of moth and butterfly larvae feed on Note: Several of these insects are prone to develop resistance to cole crops.) In other areas of the South where armyworms are common pests of cole crops. a threshold of 1 cabbage looper equivalent (CLE) per 10 plants can be used. Other caterpillars found on cole crops are the cross-striped cabbageworm. Note: Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) preparations are effective insecticides.

Windbreaks are almost essential in areas with primarily sandy soils. with daytime highs of 75°F and nighttime lows of 55°F ideal. more slender and lighter in color. reducing stands. Three or four of these twin rows are situated on one bed.carrots Varieties1 CARROtS Apache Big Sur Cheyenne Choctaw Danvers 126 Enterprise Maverick Narbonne Navajo Purple Haze Sugar Snax 54 Tastypeel Top Notch 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. One arrangement is to plant three twin rows on beds that are on 72-inch centers. Ideal patterns are twin rows that are 2½ -3½ inches apart. Sand particles moved by wind can severely damage young carrot plants. Beds should be firmed and not freshly tilled before planting and soil should be firmed over the seed at planting.000 for processing carrots. Often a special attachment called a scatter plate or spreader shoe is added to the plate planters to scatter the seed in a narrow band. Soil temperatures should be above 40°F and below 85°F for best stand establishment. Carrots should be spaced 1½ to 2 inches apart within the row. Although the crop can be grown outside this range with little or no effect on tops. Carrots with a root less than one inch in diameter are more susceptible to cold injury than larger roots. Begin by deep turning soils to bury any litter and debris and Page 47 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Optimum temperatures are in the range of 60-70°F. or plate seeders. temperatures differing drastically from the above can adversely affect root color. A basket or roller attachment is often used to firm the soil over the seed as they are planted. Another arrangement is to plant four twin rows on a 92-inch bed (center to center). A final stand of 14 to 18 plants per foot of twin row is ideal. Beds on 72-inch centers will have approximately 48 inches of formed bed. Carrots can be planted with vacuum. dry periods for adequate germination. Ideal plant populations should be in the range of 400. texture. flavor. The sets of twin rows are 14 to 18 inches apart. Lower temperatures in this range may induce slow growth and make roots longer. depending on the width of the bed. PLANtING AND LAND PREPARAtION Beds that are slightly raised are advantageous because they allow for good drainage. and shape.000 for fresh market carrots and 250. Light irrigation will be required frequently during warm. Carrot AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall NR 8/1–11/30 NR 8/1–11/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/15 9/15–10/15 NR NR 6/15–8/15 NR 9/1–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR NR 5/15–7/15 NR 5/15–7/15 NR 4/1-4/30 3/20-4/15 3/10-4/10 1/15–2/28 1/15–2/28 2/15–4/1 1/15–3/15 2/15–3/31 4/1–8/15 2/1–3/15 2/15–3/31 3/15-5/1 3/1-4/30 SPACING Spatial arrangements for planting can differ markedly. Carrot seed should be planted no deeper than ¼-½ inch. Row spacing wider than 18 inches will reduce total plant stand per acre and thus. Small carrot seedlings up to six leaves can- not withstand hard freezes but are somewhat frost tolerant. AL GA KY LA MS NC N SC S S S S S TN A&C Nantes G A A A G A A G G G A K G K L L L L L M M N N N N T N L L L L N S M N N N S S T Seeding Dates. belt. Small grain strips planted between beds or at least planted between every few beds can help reduce this sandblasting injury. will reduce total yield.

Prepare a good seedbed using bed-shaping equipment. Page 48 form on the leaves. The bacterium affects the leaflets. Under wet conditions. Crop rotation is a major factor in controlling Bacterial Blight. After beds are tilled and prepared for seeding.breaking soils to a depth of 12-14 inches. Deep turning is also necessary to help prevent root diseases. Bacterial Blight causes irregular brown spots on the leaves and dark brown streaks on the petioles and stems. Cercosproa blight progresses in warm. Sclerotinia blight causes serious damage to the roots of carrots. The earlier the infection occurs the greater the damage to the root. Cercospora Leaf blight. and the granulate cutworm may be partially controlled with good cultural practices. Rotation and deep turning of the soil are recommended to reduce losses to this disease. Pythium blight is usually characterized by flagging of the foli- Sclerotinia blight. Southern Blight is best controlled by using rotation and deep turning. following in the same tracks for all field operations will help reduce compaction in planting areas. Rotation is considered a major factor in reducing Pythium along with the use of fungicides. The optimum temperature for Alternaria blight is 82˚ F. with an irregular halo. The bacterium is spread by splashing water and takes about 10-12 days before symptoms appear after inoculation. This disease causes a yellow top to develop with a cottony white fungal growth associated with the upper part of the carrot root. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt DISEASE MANAGEMENt Root-Knot Nematode. SOIL-bORNE ROOt DISEASES Depending on the cropping history of the field. wet weather and spots appear in about 10 days after infection. and Erwinia. Rhizoctonia rot causes brown to black lesions to develop on the sides of the carrot root. See fumigation recommendations. It is advisable to avoid fields where these diseases have been identified in the previous crop. Alternaria blight. Avoid other tillage practices that can increase soil compaction. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Some of these lesions may crack open and ooze the bacteria. The spores and mycelium are spread by splashing rains. Disease development progresses rapidly between 77˚ and 86˚ F. Southern Blight. and Sclerotinia may cause problems. Root-knot causes poor growth and distorted or deformed root systems which results in a non marketable root. This disease is usually worse under wet soil conditions. Forking of the root system is also a common symptom associated with Pythium infection. This disease causes a progressive watery soft rot of the carrot root tissue and is considered a potential problem in the production of carrots. The spot increases as the disease progresses and in some cases entire leaflets may be killed. The disease is much worse under cool. Rhizoctonia damage can be minimized by using rotation and good cultural practices. the disease can move so rapidly it resembles frost injury. no root-knot damage can be allowed. If any root-knot nematodes are found in a soil assay. The top of the root and the surrounding soil may be covered with a white mycelium with tan sclerotia developing as the disease progresses. Pythium. Pythium may cause serious problems to the root causing a white mycelium mat to grow on the infected area which rapidly turns to a watery soft rot. White mycelium forms around the infected area and later. Such conditions can reduce the efficiency of mechanical harvesters which require strong healthy tops to remove the carrot from the soil. Root-knot nematodes are small eel-like worms that live in the soil and feed on plant roots. FOLIAR DISEASES bacterial blight. wet conditions. These bacteria may be washed down to the crown of the plant causing brown lesions on the top of the root. stems and petioles as the disease progresses. Carrots should be planted on a slightly raised bed (2-3 inches) to improve drainage. the most destructive problem in carrots is root-knot nematodes. petioles and stems of the carrot plant. If uncorrected. Alternaria blight causes small dark brown age indicating some root damage is occurring. Good success has been obtained using field soil fumigation to eradicate root-knot nematodes in the root zone of carrots. INSECt MANAGEMENt Soil Insects. it is best to allow the beds to settle slightly before planting. The lesions on the foliage begin as small yellow areas with the centers becoming dry and brittle. The symptoms appear to mimic that of Alternaria blight but can be separated using a compound microscope. or on cultivation tools. Since the root of the carrot is the harvested portion of the plant. Do not use disks or rototiller to avoid soil compaction. In moist weather. treatment is recommended. compact soil or tillage pans can result in restriction of root expansion. dark sclerotia develop on the white mycelium which is a good indicator of Sclerotinia rot. It is best to apply lime after deep turning to prevent turning up acid soil after lime application. white grubs. The youngest leaves are usually more susceptible to Cercosproa infection. Southern blight. Southern blight causes serious damage to car- to black spots with yellow edges forming mostly on the leaf margins. Alternaria may also cause damping off of seedlings and a black decay of roots. contaminated soil. Pythium. The disease can manifest itself in about 10 days after infection. Rhizoctonia. Wireworms. Soil fumigation will prevent damage with any of the soil inhabiting fungi. This disease is usually associated with carrots remaining in the field after the soil begins to warm in the spring. Compacted soils or those with tillage pans should be subsoiled to break the compacted areas. Root-knot damage also allows entry for other diseases such as Fusarium. Saturated soil conditions often enhance all soil-borne diseases which are potential problems in carrot production. Cercospora blight causes lesions to rots. By far.

Armyworms may move from grain crops or weeds into carrots or adults may lay eggs directly on carrot plants. if whiteflies develop generally heavy populations. If plants become stressed during the period of high root maggot potential. The beet armyworm infests carrots in the late spring. Carrots should be scouted at least once per week for developing populations of foliage pests. treatments may not be justified. Vegetable weevil larvae often will feed near the crown of plants and. The armyworm can cause damage in carrots. e. Silverleaf whitefly migrates from agronomic crops and other vegetables during the late summer.Soil should be deep turned in sufficient time prior to planting to allow destruction of previous crop residue that may harbor soil insects. Often whiteflies may be controlled by several natural enemies and diseases by early fall so. Seedcorn maggots cannot be effectively controlled after the infestation begins. either avoid these or. Flea beetle larvae can damage roots by feeding from the surface into the cortex. Avoid planting behind peanuts and root crops such as sweet potatoes and turnips. Armyworms. When possible. However. Armyworms are easily managed with foliar insecticides. The silverleaf whitefly can be a problem during most common aphids to inhabit carrots are the green peach aphid and the cotton or melon aphid. Treatments are justified if adults or larvae and damage are easily found in several locations. Infestation may become severe on carrots grown in these production areas. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 49 . Flea beetle larvae can be prevented easily with soil insecticides. the early seedling stage of fall plantings. Fields with a history of whitefringed beetle larvae should not be planted to carrots because there are no currently registered insecticides effective on this pest. FOLIAR INSECtS Foliar insect pests may be monitored and insecticides applied as needed. an insecticide application may be necessary. The adult and larvae of the vegetable weevil may attack carrots. preventive applications of insecticides should be sprayed every seven days until the stress is minimized.g. Usually natural predators and especially parasites regulate beet armyworm populations below economically damaging levels. although these are not as critical. then foliar insecticides are justified. After plants are well established. if shoulders are exposed at the soil surface. 15% or more. The Flea beetles. If plants are in the cotyledon to first true leaf stage. whiteflies. flea beetles should be controlled only if foliage losses are projected to be moderate to high. Fleas beetle adults may cause severe damage to the foliage on occasion. See Table 14 for further post harvest information. At-planting soil insecticides will prevent the development of maggot infestations for several weeks after planting. broadcast incorporate a soil insecticide prior to planting. larvae will feed on tender carrots. If a field has a history of soil insect problems. If populations persist and colonize plants rapidly over several weeks and honeydew or sooty mold is observed readily. Several species of aphids may develop on carrots. treatment of young plantings is justified. avoid planting just after crops that are slow to decompose such as tobacco and corn. The adult and larvae feed on the foliage. Plantings in fields that were recently in permanent pasture should be avoided as should fields recently planted to sod/turf. The damage will take on the appearance of narrow “s” shaped canals on the surface. Often parasitic wasps and fungal diseases will control these aphids. If carrots are attacked during the seedling stage and infestations persist over time. HAVEStING AND StORAGE Topped: 4 to 5 months at 32°F and 90% to 95% relative humidity. Vegetable weevil.. beet Armyworm. Aphids. The seedcorn maggot is an opportunistic pest that takes advantage of crops that are under stress or where there is decaying organic matter. treatments should be made if damage or flea beetles are observed on more than 5% of the plants.

7 Papaya Ring Spot Virus tolerance/resistance.4.4.5.9.10 Poinsett 76 2.6.5.4. Planting Dates.5. Growing on plastic mulch can also enhance earliness.000 per acre or more) concentrate fruit maturity for increased yields.5. seed suppliers add this seed to the gynoecious variety.10 Sassy 2.10 T T Talledega 2. 4 Downy Mildew tolerance/resistance.10 N N N N S T 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.6.7.3.10 S S S T S S S T T T T Pickling Types . For earliness container-grown transplants are Cucumber Slicers AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West Spring 4/1–7/15 3/1–4/30 Planting Dates Fall 8/1–8/30 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/15 6/1-6/15 6/1-7/1 5/15-7/15 7/15–8/31 8/1–9/15 7/25–8/21 8/14–9/14 7/15–8/15 NR 4/15–7/15 3/1–4/30 5/10-6/1 5/5-6/1 4/25-5/15 3/15–5/15 3/1–5/15 4/1–5/15 3/15–5/1 4/15–5/15 5/15–7/31 planted when daily mean soil temperatures have reached 60°F but most cucumbers are direct seeded.3.8.5.5.10 Vlasstar 2.6.3. 10% to 15% pollinizer plants must be planted.10 StoneWall Sweet Success Thunder S S S S S S S S S S T T T T 2. Upon pollination female flowers will develop into fruit.9. 8 Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance. high plant populations (55. Both pickling and slicing gynoecious varieties are available.3. 10 Slice More 2.3.5.10 General Lee 4.3. 5. Page 50 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .5.4.6.6. 2 Anthracnose tolerance/resistance.6. Dasher II 2.5. 6 Cucumber Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.3.5.6. 3.4.8.6.8.6.3.6.3.10 Indy 2.4.5. For machine harvest of pickling cucumbers.10 Expedition 2.4.5.Multiple Harvest Calypso 2.10 Vlasset 2.7.10 Speedway 2.10 Jackson Kirby 2.3.3.5.4.6.10 3.10 Pickling Types .4. Consult the following table for planting dates for transplants in your area. 9 Watermelon Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance.6. To produce pollen.3.6.4.5.10 Intimidator 2. use gynoecious varieties. 6.4.10 Rockingham 2.6.Multiple or Once-over Harvest Cates 2.3.5.5. 10 Scab tolerance/resistance.8.7.3.cucumbers Varieties1 CUCUMbERS Slicer / Fresh Market Ballerina Cobra AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN T T A A A A G A A A G G G G G A A A A G G G G K K L L L L L L M M M M G G G K K K K L L L L L M M N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N A A A 5 Powdery Mildew tolerance/resistance.10 Eureka Fancipak 2. Early plantings should be protected from winds with hot caps or row covers.3.9. 3 Angular Leaf Spot tolerance/resistance.4.6.5. For earlier cucumber production and higher.10 Daytona 2.9. A gynoecious plant produces only female flowers.6. more concentrated yields.3.5.

to 12 inches apart. An alternative control option for cucumber beetles is the use of Admire at planting.0 2.0 52. space 3 to 4 feet apart.1 216.1:1) Days after planting Preplant 0-7 8-21 22-63 64-70 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 24. Herbicides labeled and recommended for use on cucumbers may not provide satisfactory weed control when used under clear plastic mulch on nonfumigated soil. Pickling cucumbers grown in high-density rows for once-over harvesting can compensate for at least 10% stand losses. Slicers: Space rows 3 to 4 feet apart with plants 9 SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Seed Corn Maggot: (See preceding “Seed Treatment” section. losses from this disease vary greatly from field to field and among different varieties. Mulching. Seed for slicers: 1. increases soil temperature. Growers should consider drip irrigation with plastic mulch. Fertilizer must be applied during bed preparation.6 0.0 45.0 0. Seed for pickles: 2 to 5 pounds per acre. Black plastic mulch laid before field planting conserves moisture. provides more uniform maturity and reduces weed problems.5 150. Black plastic can be used without a herbicide.9 1.5 3.8 37. Page 51 . WMV.0 24.3 196. but require slightly higher fertilizer rates.6 75. Direct seeding through the mulch is recommended for maximum virus protection.0 31. Plastic and fumigant should be applied on well-prepared planting beds 2 to 4 weeks before field planting. space three rows 24–28 inches apart on a bed. Melonworm: Make one treatment prior to fruit set.2 1. for machine harvest.0 136.0 1. At least 50% of the nitrogen (N) should be in the nitrate (NO3) form. The soil must be moist when laying the plastic.0 *Adjust based on tissue analysis.0 150.0 1. foliar insecticides should be used to control adult beetles before they feed extensively on the cotyledons and first true leaves. PRSV-W. Plastic should be placed immediately over the fumigated soil. Aphids: Aphids transmit several viruses (CMV.0 31.4 120. however. Treatments may be required until stems begin vining (usually about 3 weeks after plant emergence). see the section on “Irrigation”. 2 to 4 inches apart for machine harvest. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Cucumber* (N:K.5 52.0 1.7 1.0 110. Pickleworm. Fumigation alone may not provide satisfactory weed control under clear plastic.5 1.1:2) Days after planting Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 25.0 2. Plants for hand harvest should be 6 to 8 inches apart in the row.0 1. For more information. and increases early and total yield. Also see “Maggots” section in Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control.5 1. On farms with a history of bacterial wilt infections and where susceptible cultivars are used.0 136. Fumigated soil aids in the control of weeds and soil- Spacing.6 Cucumber Pickling AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall 8/1–8/30 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/15 6/1-6/15 6/1-7/1 5/15-7/15 7/15–8/31 8/1–9/15 NR 7/15–8/15 NR 8/1–8/30 8/1–8/30 7/1-8/10 7/25-8/25 4/15–7/15 3/1–4/30 4/15–7/15 3/1–4/30 5/10-6/1 5/5-6/1 4/25-5/15 4/1–5/15 3/15–5/15 4/1–4/15 4/20–5/20 5/25–7/31 3/15-5/15 4/15–6/15 5/5-6/15 5/1-6/1 Preplant 0-14 15-63 64-77 Alternative Fertigation Schedule for Cucumber* (N:K.Cucumber Slicers SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates (con't) Fall 8/1–8/30 8/1–8/30 7/1-8/10 7/25-8/25 3/15–5/15 4/15–6/5 5/5-6/15 5/1-6/1 is a history of soilborne diseases in the field.) Cucumber beetle: Cucumber beetles can transmit bacterial borne diseases.5 pounds per acre. Close spacing increases yields. Foil and other reflective mulches can be used to repel aphids that transmit viruses in fall-planted (after July 1) cucumbers. Begin spraying shortly after plant emergence and repeat applications at weekly intervals if new beetles continue to invade fields. at which time plants are less susceptible to wilt infections. and then treat weekly. Pickles: For hand harvest. note: Use of Admire at planting can lead to spider mite outbreaks later in the season. Fumigation will be necessary when there Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 wilt.

Note: Continuous use of Sevin or the pyrethroids may result in mite outbreaks. Begin treatment when 50% of the terminal leaves show infestation. See the section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations. subsoil between rows to allow for faster drainage following rainfall. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is important. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. Apply Bravo on alternate weeks to control other diseases. Localized infestations can be spot-treated.etc. Application of appropriate crop protectant at last cultivation may be helpful. Nematode Management. Use nematicides listed in the “Nematodes” section of Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control. HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. Mites: Mite infestations generally begin around field margins belly Rot: Belly rot is a soil-borne disease. CAUTION: DO NOT mow or maintain these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. and grassy areas. fields should be adequately drained to ensure that soil water does not accumulate around the base of the plants. DISEASE MANAGEMENt Phytophthora blight: To minimize the occurrence of this disease. For further information on aphid controls.) and can delay plant maturity. Page 52 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . apply a crop protectant every 14 days. Do not make more than four applications per crop. POLLINAtION Honey bees are important for good fruit set. In addition. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours when bees are not in flight. see the preceding “Mulching” section. Treat seedlings every 5 to 7 days or as needed. Just before plants begin vining. when vining begins. weed Management: See the previous "Mulching" section for futher information on weed control under clear plastic mulch.

EGGPLANt AL GA KY LA L MS M M M M M M M M NC SC TN T A A A G G G G G G G G K K G G G G G K K K K L L L L L N N N N N S S S S S S T T T T Ghost Buster 3 Green Giant 5 Ichiban 6 LittleFingers 6 Long Tom 6 Night Shadow Rosalita Rosita Santana 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. The first fruit should be pruned off until the flower is at least 8 inches above the ground. (some soils will require 100 pounds per acre of K20). or seed can be sown directly into the pots and thinned to a single plant per pot. transplant Production. This is described in detail in the tomato section of this guide. Page 53 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .5 and in the absence of a soil test. Temperatures below 65°F result in poor growth and fruit set. Control aphids on seedlings in greenhouse before transplanting to field. Eggplant AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 4/1–7/15 3/1–4/30 4/15–7/15 3/1–4/30 5/15-6/1 5/10-6/15 5/1-7/1 4/15–5/15 3/15–5/15 4/15-6/15 3/1-4/30 4/15–5/10 5/15–7/15 4/1–4/30 5/1–6/30 4/25-7/15 4/15-6/15 Planting Dates Fall NR 7/15–8/31 NR 7/15–8/31 NR NR NR 7/1–8/15 7/1–8/30 NR 8/1-8/31 8/1–8/15 NR 8/1–8/31 NR NR NR reducing decay. Thoroughly incorporate into the soil. Dry seed. Soak seed in hot water at 122°F for 25 min- Spacing. while utes. Seedlings should be transplanted to 2-inch or larger pots or containers anytime after the first true leaves appear. then dip in a slurry or dust with Thiram at the rate of 2/3 teaspoon per pound of seed (4 ounces per 100 pounds). plants: 2 to 3 feet apart in the row. Sow seed in the greenhouse 8 to 10 weeks before field planting. Staking eggplant improves quality and yield. Before mulching. N N N S T 4 Purple exterior with white stripes. Optimum temperatures for germination and growth are 70° to 75°F. Three to 4 ounces of seed are necessary to produce plants for 1 acre. Seed treatment. If additional stems grow too large remove them. transplanting Dates. this will allow for straight fruit to form. adjust soil pH to 6.P2O5 and K2O. apply fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N. Drip Irrigation and Fertilization. Use a 5 foot tomato stake between every other plant and place string along each side of the plants as they grow. 2 White exterior with purple streaks. Eggplant is a warm-season crop that makes its best growth at temperatures between 70° to 85°F. Side branches of eggplant should be pruned up to the first fruit and 2 main stems should be used.eggplant Varieties1 Black Bell Calliope 2 Casper 3 Classic Dusky Epic Fairy Tale 4 A A A A A A A A A A A A 3 White exterior. Rows: 4 to 5 feet apart. L M M N N N N S S S S T T T Pingtung Long 6 M M L 5 Green exterior. 6 Small diameter fruit. Staking. Harden plants for a few days at 60° to 65°F and set in field after danger of frost and when average daily temperatures have reached 65° to 70°F.

1 1.1 2. Continue fertigating until the last harvest. Silverleaf whitefly: Treat when an average of 5 or more adults Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Eggplant (high soil potassium) Days after planting Preplant 0-22 22-49 50-70 71-91 92-112 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 50.5 pound per acre of actual boron. Page 54 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . fertilize with 50 to 60 pounds of nitrogen per acre and 80 to 100 pounds of potash per acre (K2O).0 0. Although the fruit can often be “snapped” from the plant. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after fieldtransplanting the eggplant.0 101. On low to low-medium boron soils.2 238.After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system.1 1.0 2.2 280. whiteflies. so handle with care.0 145. the first crop may be completed by June or July.0 100.0 0. Plants will begin producing fruit 4 to 6 weeks after ratooning and should produce eggplants until frost. Control of many early season pests including CPB.5 0.0 2. Alternative Fertigation Schedule for Eggplant* (low soil potassium) Days after planting Preplant 0-22 22-49 50-70 71-91 92-112 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 50.0 101.” not producing any more flowers and any subsequent fruits.2 are found per leaf. Mow plants 6 to 8 inches above the soil line.0 1. This combination will produce vigorous re-growth and stimulate flowering.7 1. Depending on the location. However.1 1.2 174.2 1. they should be clipped with a sharp knife or scissors to prevent damage. When over mature.0 100. seeds are hard and dark. harvesting prior to full size may reduce potential yields. weed Management. the soluble fertilizer program should be initiated using the following table. and the flesh is characteristically spongy.4 80.5 110.2 1.5 0.2 195. being sure to leave two to three leaf axils. Next.2 124.5 111. The use of row covers can be highly effective for flea beetle management early in the season.0 0. Flea beetles (Fb): CPB has the ability to rapidly develop resistance to insecticides. FB. Refer to “Eggplant” insecticide section for management options. Plants at this point will appear “topped out. When harvesting. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.5 1.7 1.1 151. without wrinkles. * Adjust based on tissue analysis.7 80.0 2.5 60.7 0.5 0. also include 0.5 60. HARVEStING AND StORAGE Eggplant may be harvested once the fruit has reached one-half to full size for a given variety.1 192.0 145. the fruit is dull in color. Eggplant skin is tender and easily bruised. See ”Mulching” section for further infor- mation on weed control under clear plastic mulch.1 150.7 RAtOONING EGGPLANt: PRODUCING A FALL CROP FROM A SPRING PLANtED CROP Ratooning eggplants can be done after the first crop is complete to allow a second crop to develop. cut the stem approximately 1/4 inch from the fruit.1 130. Harvest-ready fruit have a glossy appearance and are firm. Harvest eggplant fruit before they become over mature.1 124. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Colorado Potato beetle (CPb). and aphids can be accomplished through the use of Admire at planting.

Avoid planting the Creole types of softneck garlic in the northern range (also called Early. dry weather. Garlic should be planted 4 by 4 inches apart in triple rows or multiple beds 16 to 18 inches apart. Apply all top dressings to dry plants at midday to reduce chance of fertilizer burn. 150 pounds phosphate (P2O5) per acre and 150 pounds potash (K2O) per acre and disk about 6 inches deep before planting. INSECt MANAGEMENt thrips. When plants are about 6 inches tall (about March 15). White Mexican. Because sulfur may be partially associated with the extent of pungency. apply about 75 pounds nitrogen (N) per acre. or fine textured soils as long as they are loose and friable. Louisiana. The cloves must not be so deep that the soil will interfere with the swelling of the bulbs. Elephant-type garlic (milder than regular garlic and up to four times larger) may not yield very well when fall-planted in areas with severe cold or extensive freezing and thawing cycles. Avoid planting the long. Elephant garlic has performed well. Both the Italian and Creole types have a white outer skin covering the bulb.5 to 6. Cloves dropped into furrows are likely to lie in all positions and may produce plants with crooked necks. Garlic is commonly grown on muck. Between-row spacing depends on the equipment available. Garlic cloves should be planted during the fall Spacing. Secure a strain of softneck garlic from a local grower or gardener who has had success with fall-planted garlic. which cause heaving. Vertical placement of cloves by hand gives optimal results. Planting. whereas the skin around each Creole clove is white. you may wish to use ammonium sulfate for the last top dressing (May 1).8. nor so shallow that rain. slender cloves from the center of the bulb and cloves weighing less than 1 gram. Allium ampeloprasum Hardneck. and birds will dislodge them. Final bulb size is directly related to the size of the cloves that are planted. but the Italian type has a pink skin around each clove. heaving from alternate freezing and thawing. make sure pH is 6. In moderately fertile soils. Despite this coiled appearance. Plant according to the times listed in the following table to ensure that good root systems are established prior to winter. such a strain should be well adapted to your area to overwinter. Maintain a soil pH of 6. “Rocambole” (hardneck) types have coiled seedstalks. because they are not very winter-hardy and do not keep well.). they have produced satisfactory yields. If ammonium sulfate is used. however. these are perfectly normal and not the result of any poor cultural practice or herbicide contamination. in western North Carolina when it is well-hilled with soil or mulched with straw. Thrips could therefore present the most serious insect problem on garPage 55 because a chilling requirement must be met for good bulb devel- Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Unlike many strains sold commercially. topdress with 25 pounds per acre nitrogen and repeat the top dressing about May 1. Use of organic matter or cover cropping is important. Fertilize accord- opment.8. etc.2 to 6. Clove tops should be covered with 1 to 1. Many of the most productive Italian garlic strains produce seed heads prior to harvest. Whether removed as they form or left intact. Soil Fertility. Garlic AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Planting Dates 9/15–11/10 10/1–11/30 9/15–11/10 10/1–11/30 9/1-10/1 9/10-10/15 9/15-11/1 9/1–11/30 9/1–11/30 9/15–10/30 9/15–11/10 8/15–10/15 10/1–11/30 8/15–10/15 9/1-11/1 9/15-11/1 ing to soil test recommendations for garlic. Softneck. sandy.5 inches of soil. the population of thrips increases following harvest of adjacent alfalfa or grain. The Italian and Elephant types take about 220 days to mature.garlic and elepHant garlic Varieties1 GARLIC Creole Elephant California Early 2 3 AL GA G KY LA MS NC SC TN L A A L A 3 4 G K L M N N N S S S T T T Elephant (Tahiti) Italian 1 2 German Extra Hardy 4 New York White Neck 2 Abbreviations for state where recommended. During hot.

Page 56 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . gourmet restaurants). Washington. Clean the remaining bulbs to remove the outer loose portions of the sheath. The demand for garlic is increasing due to recent reports about the health and medical benefits of garlic. Picked at the proper time. Treat if thrips counts exceed an average of 5 thrips per plant. The markets of the northern and eastern United States will take the bulbs trimmed like dry onions and known as “loose garlic. garlic is best stored under temperature and humidity conditions required for onions [32°to 35°F and 65% relative humidity].. narrow. wellventilated storage room at 60° to 90°F is satisfactory. Braid or bunch together by the tops of the bulbs. wholesale shipper. two dozen to a mesh bag. Read and follow specific label directions for use on garlic. Many of the larger vegetable markets. (See "Onions" in the Insect Control section of this publication). Before then. push all of them down and pull a sample. There are only about 10 days to 2 weeks for optimal garlic harvest. Bring in for drying immediately from field. New growers should develop a local retail market (roadside stands. Garlic stored at above 70% relative humidity at any temperature will mold and begins to develop roots. each clove should be fully segmented and yet fully covered by a tight outer skin. and small. Louis. or cut off the tops and roots and bag the bulbs like dry onions. so avoid prolonged storage at this temperature. Processors are not particular about having the cloves enclosed in a neat sheath and occasionally accept sprouted bulbs. Curing can also be accomplished in a well-ventilated shed or barn. Emphasize gentle handling. Bulbs should be graded into three sizes—large. such as the large chain stores. tied together. However. Garlic-growing can be very profitable when freshness is stressed and if the tops are braided. First-class garlic bulbs must be clean and have unbroken outer sheaths. HARVEStING AND StORAGE Elephant garlic is ready for harvest in mid-May to mid-June— it must be harvested when around 30% of foliage is starting to yellow or the bulbs will split. Each string or bunch should contain bulbs of uniform size and of the same variety. Marketing. if not listed. or placed into long. The bulbs are usually pulled and gathered into windrows. Philadelphia. the garlic is unsegmented. Cure for about 6 weeks. night markets.lic. Tops are placed uppermost in the windrow to protect bulbs from the sun. Do not tap or bang bulbs together to remove soil. Run a cutter bar under the bulbs to cut the extensive root system and partially lift them. Outdoor curing is not recommended where morning dew can keep it too damp. much after that period the cloves can separate so widely that the outer sheath often splits and exposes part of the naked clove. plastic mesh bags so they can be effectively displayed at roadside or night-market stands. and the garlic is left in the field for a week or more to dry or cure thoroughly.C. and trim the roots close to the bulb. Chicago. discard diseased and damaged bulbs. could retail garlic in the form of clean.” Frequently. and St. When properly cured. The bulbs must be thoroughly dried before being shipped or stored. Pittsburgh. 30 to 50 bulbs are tied in bunches. After curing garlic. uniform cloves. Storage in open-mesh sacks in a dry. When a few tops fall over. or processing market before planting. medium. do not use. garlic keeps well under a wide range of temperatures. D. The main markets are New York. Garlic cloves sprout quickly after bulbs have been stored at temperatures near 40°F.

Treatment should begin when the infestation is first noticed. Action thresholds for greens crops are currently lacking. collard. but low levels of caterpillars can be tolerated during the early stages of growth. The next seeding should be made when the previous crop is 50% emerged. BTs are ineffective against beetle pests. Broad-spectrum insecticides used for caterpillar management can lead to aphid infestations. Greens can be succession seeded throughout the indi- cated times. Rows should be 12-24 inches apart and in-row spacing should be 1-2 inches. They are often associated with heavier soils and weedy areas. Caterpillars: Many of the same caterpillars that feed on the large cole crops (cabbage. These materials are generally ineffective against these insects although the new neonictinoid insecticides work well with little effect on natural enemies. AL A A A A A A A A A A A A A GA G KY K K K K K LA L L L L L L L MS M M M M M M M M NC SC S TN T G G G G G G G G G G N N S S S S S S S S S S S S T T T T T T T K K K K L L L M M N N N N N N L L T T T Seeding.greens: mustard & turnip Varieties1 MUStARD Florida Broadleaf Greenwave Red Giant Savannah Southern Giant Tendergreen 2 tURNIP GREENS Alamo All Top Just Right Purple Top White Globe Seven Top Shogoin Southern Green Top Star Topper Tokyo Cross 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. The use of BTs and other soft materials are encouraged in order to maintain natural enemy populations in the crops. Frequent use of broad-spectrum insecticides for flea beetle management often leads to resurgence of other pests. Frequent examinations of the crops are necessary to avoid undetected infestations. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 57 . HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. etc. Flea beetles: These small insects can be serious pests of greens crops. 2 Mustard spinach. Planting Dates Mustard and turnip AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 2/1–4/30 2/1–5/15 3/15–4/30 2/1–5/15 3/15-4/30 3/10-4/25 3/1-4/15 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 1/20–4/1 1/15–3/1 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–9/15 4/1-5/30 2/15-4/15 Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/31 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/31 7/1-7/15 7/15-8/1 8/1-8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/20 8/10–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–10/15 NR 7/1-7/30 8/1-8/31 SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Aphids: These insects can be serious pests of greens crops.) will feed on greens.

HARVEStING AND StORAGE Spring-transplanted leeks are ready for harvest in July. Page 58 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Culture. sow in seed beds as indicated in following table. Rows: 20 to 30 inches apart. About 2 pounds of seed are required to provide enough plants to set an acre. Transplants are used for early spring plantings. Plug cells have worked well. plants: 4 inches apart in the row. See Table 14 for postharvest information. Seed should be planted 1/3 to 1/2 inch deep 8 to 12 weeks before field setting. Planting Dates Leek AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Fall 9/15-10/31 NR 9/15–10/31 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 4/1-6/15 3/25-7/1 3/15-7/15 NR 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 4/1-6/30 3/15-8/1 Field Spacing. Fallplanted leeks are ready for harvest by November can be overwintered. transplants. Set plants in trenches 3 to 4 inches deep. To develop a long white stem. Plants will be ready to set in early August. Leeks grow slowly for the first 2 or 3 months.leeKs Varieties1 LEEKS Albinstar Alcazar Alora Arena Catalina Firena Lancelot Otina Tadorna 1 AL A A GA KY LA MS NC N N SC S S TN G G A A A A A N N N N N S S S S Abbreviations for state where recommended. For summer planting. start to gradually fill in trenches and then hill soil around stems to 3 or 4 inches.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 59 . and escarole Varieties1 LEttUCE Head 3SX-193 Desert Queen2 Great Lakes Ithaca Mighty Joe Mavrick Wallaby Green Leaf Grand Rapids Nevada Salad Bowl Sierra Slobolt Tango Tiarra Red Leaf New Red Fire Red Head Red Prize Red Sails Red Salad Ruby AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A G L L L N N N N N N N N N N N S S S S S T A A A A A G G K K L L L M T S S S S T T T T K A A A A G K N K L L N N N N N N S S S S S S S T T Cos or Romaine Green Forrest Green Towers Ideal Cos King Henry Paramount Parris Island Cos Sunbelt Tall Guzmaine Butterhead Adriana Bennett Buttercrunch Ermosa Esmeralda Nancy A G G A A A A K K K L L T T G G K L L N N N N N N N N N N N T A A A A A A A G K K K L S S S T T T ENDIVE Fresian Green Curled Rufflo Salad King ESCAROLE Aligia Elisa Florida Deep Heart Full Heart Full Heart 65 1 2 L S S S S S S A A L N N Abbreviations for state where recommended. Recommended for fall production only (bolting susceptible). endiVe.lettuce.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15 . Temperatures above 85°F for several days will cause seed stalk formation and bolting in lettuce. in that the plastic reduces the amount of soil that gets inside the leaves. Pelleted seed should be watered at night during high-temperature periods (soil temperatures above 80°F) until germination occurs. Leaf and Butterhead type lettuce are planted 3 to 4 rows per bed with beds spaced 66 to 72 inches on centers. Romaine types do best with 2 or 3 rows per bed and 12 to 15 inches in row spacing. Temperatures below 70°F during the seedling stage promote premature stalk formation in endive and escarole. Use white plastic when air temperature exceeds 85°F. Direct-seeded lettuce is sown in prepared beds as early in the spring as the ground can be worked. Properly hardened lettuce transplants can tolerate temperatures as low as 20° to 25°F. Spring crop. Seed for the lettuce crop is sown in heated greenhouses in November to February at the rate of 4 to 6 ounces of seed for 1 acre of plants. Most leaf lettuce varieties can be planted in 3 or 4 rows to the 30 inch bed top. Seeding and transplanting.Lettuce and endive are cool-season crops. SPACING Lettuce: Head lettuce is planted in rows 2 feet apart with plants 12 to 15 inches apart in the row. Lettuce transplants Lettuce Cos or Romaine AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West TN East TN West SC East SC West Spring 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/1-4/30 3/25-4/15 3/15-4/1 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 NR 2/1-4/10 3/15-8/1 3/15-4/30 3/1-4/15 2/1-4/15 3/1-5/15 Planting Dates Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/30 9/15–10/30 NR 8/25-9/15 NR are started in frames or greenhouses. Using polyethylene mulch can be very beneficial for all types of lettuce and endive. Space plants 9 to 12 inches apart in the row. Lettuce Head AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 4/1-4/30 3/25-4/15 3/15-4/1 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 2/1–4/10 3/1-8/10 2/1-4/15 3/15-5/15 3/15-4/30 3/1-4/15 Planting Dates Fall 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15 9/15-11/1 NR 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/30 9/15–10/30 8/25–9/25 NR NR NR 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15 Endive/Escarole AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring 4/15-5/30 2/1-3/31 4/15-5/30 2/1-3/31 4/1-4/30 3/25-4/15 3/15-4/1 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 NR 3/20-6/15 5/1-8/15 2/1-4/15 3/1-5/15 3/15-4/30 3/1-4/15 Planting Dates Fall 8/1-9/15 8/1-9/30 NR 8/1-9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/30 9/15–10/30 NR 8/1-9/15 NR 9/15-11/1 NR Lettuce Leaf and Butterhead AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Page 60 Spring 4/15–5/30 2/1–4/15 4/15–5/30 2/1–4/15 4/1-4/30 3/25-4/15 3/15-4/1 1/15–3/15 1/15–3/15 3/15-4/30 2/1-4/15 2/1–4/20 3/1-8/25 2/1–4/15 3/1–5/15 3/15-4/30 3/1-4/15 Planting Dates Fall 8/1–9/30 8/1–10/15 8/1–8/30 8/1–10/15 NR NR NR 9/15–10/30 9/15–10/30 8/1-9/30 8/1-10/15 8/25–10/1 NR 9/15–11/1 NR 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15 Mulching. Seed should be sown shallow—some of the seed will actually be uncovered and visible. In row spacing should be 9 to 12 inches and between row spacing should be 9 to 12 inches.

Do not produce vegetable transplants with bedding plants in the same greenhouse. Head lettuce seedlings. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 61 . HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. are vulnerable to CEW attack in August to September. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Keep lettuce fields isolated from endive and escarole for spray purposes. Endive/Escarole: Plant three to four rows per bed and space Leafhopper: Control of leafhoppers will prevent spread of let- beds 66 to 72 inches on centers. repeat as needed. This insect can cause serious damage to the fall crop. spray seedlings 4-5 times at 5-day intervals. thrips: Scout for thrips and begin treatments when observed. Space plants 9 to 15 inches apart in the row. Corn Earworm (CEw).Use black plastic in spring and white plastic when mean daily temperature at planting is >85°F. Control must be achieved before center leaves start to form a head (15 to 18 leaf stage). In the fall. spray when plants are one-half inch tall. tarnished Plant bug. note. In the spring. tuce yellows. in the 7 to 18 leaf stage. it is usually numerous where weeds abound.

3 Downy Mildew tolerance/resistance (DM).5.9 Magnum 45 Mission 6 Primo 4. 7.7.5.8.8. 6 Powdery Mildew tolerance/resistance (race specific).8.melons Varieties1 CANtALOUPES and MIxED MELONS Eastern Ambrosia 2.9 Fusarium Wilt race 0.6.8. Page 62 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .10 Magellan 6.5.9 SXM7057 Oriental Crisp-flesh Sprite Ananas 1 2 A N N N N T A A A K N N T N N T Sugar Nut A A G N N S Duke 6 Abbreviations for state where recommended. Local markets only. 4.8.9 Jaipur 7.5 Powdery Mildew race 1 or 2 tolerance/resistance (PM).9 Magenta Proteo 4. 3.7. 6 Aphrodite Athena 4.5 N N L N N N S 6 A A A G G L L L L M M N T Super 45 6 Honey Dew Honey Max Rocio 3. or 2 tolerance/resistance (FW). 11 Orange flesh.10 Western AChaparrel 4 Durango 6.1.9 Temptation Galia Elario T N Galia 4 Golan 329 Solar Ace Sunny Gal Juan Canary Golden Beauty 229 6 Golden Lady Sensation Premium Sonora 6.9 Superstar 2.9 Silver Express 4.9 AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A G A G K K K A A A G L L M M M N N N N N S S T T T T T Odyssey 2.7.10 Santa Fe Saturno A A A K N N N N N T 6.5. 10 Fusarium Wilt tolerance/resistance (race specific).

Western types typically are not sutured. also include 0.7 129. Early plantings should be protected from wind with row covers or rye strips. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system. dry climates.9 0.5 119.2 100. Eastern types are sutured. firm. P2O5 and K2O. In the southeastern United States. This is due to the uneven. and the fruit produces a strong odor. The required amount of seed can then be estimated using Table 6 and 7 and knowing how many seeds make up an ounce of the desired variety.3 2.5 pound per acre of actual boron.3 154.5 and that provide a space of at least 1.0 0.Melon types. Consult the following table for planting dates in your area. Most growers and consumers are familiar with cantaloupes and honey dew melons. Some types are more bland. adjust soil pH to 6. Juan Canary. and oriental crisp-flesh types.6 77. Plantings can continue until about 100 days before first frost. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Melon* (low potassium soil) Days after planting Preplant 0-28 29-49 50-77 78-91 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 25. honey dew fruit are more susceptible to cracking or splitting open.5 0. then thoroughly incorporate into the soil.3 1.7 1. Most are an off-white or beige but some have a yellow rind.0 50. and usually have a two-week shelf life. sweet flesh. The fruit does not slip like a cantaloupe.250 seeds. If the seed is of good quality with a high germination test. The fruit generally have smooth rinds with some corky striations becoming obvious as the fruit nears or becomes ripe.0 1. an average of 7. Cantaloupes turn beige and slip from the vine when ripe and have an orange.6 temperatures have reached 60°F. Transplant or seed when daily mean in the absence of a soil test apply fertilizer to supply 25 pounds per acre of N. The flesh is soft and white to light green.3 258. The oriental crisp-flesh melons have a crispy white flesh and have white and/or yellow rinds.2 1.5 inches for each plant. high moisture conditions often encountered in the southeastern United States.5 1.5 inches by 1.4 1. Other specialty melons include Galia.5 1.5 155. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field transplanting or direct seeding the muskmelon.2 75. On low to low-medium boron soils. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 63 . Smaller pots or cells will restrict root growth and provide less protection to the newly set transplant. One ounce of melon seed contains 950 to 1.5 *Adjust based on tissue analysis. one seed per pot is sufficient. larger and generally have a shorter shelf life (a few days) than western types. Planting and Spacing.8 50.0 119. and honey dews are sweeter than cantaloupes. Transplants should be grown in pots or cells Melon AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall* 8/1–8/30 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/15 NR NR NR 7/1–7/31 7/1–8/15 NR NR 7/1–7/15 NR 7/1–7/30 NR NR NR 4/15–6/15 3/1–6/30 4/15–6/15 3/1–4/30 5/15-6/15 5/10-7/1 4/25-7/15 4/1–6/30 3/15–6/30 4/1–4/10 3/1–3/15 4/15–5/15 5/15–7/31 3/15–5/15 4/15–6/5 5/5-6/15 4/15-6/1 *Later plantings should be transplanted.7 0. Before mulching.9 1. while improved eastern varieties such as ‘Athena’ have a longer shelf life and can be shipped to more distant markets. are round with a corky beige netting.0 50. Honey dew melons are typically grown in the southwestern United States in arid. Flesh color is typically light green.4 129.5 102. The Juan Canary melons have a bright yellow rind when ripe but will not slip from the vine. Many eastern types are only suited for local markets. the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated according to that described in the table below.9 50. Temperatures below 45°F can stunt plant growth.0 0. 20 to 25 ft should suffice per plant.5 to 2 feet on plastic mulch and 2 to 4 feet on bare ground.5 3. while others are more sweet like the variety Sprite.5 144. Continue fertigating until the last harvest. 2 2 Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Melon* (high potassium soil) Days after planting Preplant 0-28 29-49 50-77 78-91 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 25. Rind color can vary among varieties.5 239. Normal in-row spacing for melons is 1. Flesh color is white to very pale green.3 77. The Galia type melon rind normally turns from green to golden yellow and will slip from the vine when ripe. Drip Fertilization. On bare ground. Cantaloupes are typically separated into two categories.0 0.5 to 15 ft should be allocated per plant on plastic mulch. Plant Production. Typically. (some soils will require 50 pounds per acre of K2O). eastern and western.

but DO NOT APPLY HERBICIDE TO THE SURFACE OF THE PLASTIC. Apply nonselective herbicides in bands to the soil strips between plastic mulch before crop seedlings emerge. An alternative control option for cucumber beetles is the use of Admire at planting. See section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations. SCM problems subside with later plantings. Apply selective postemergence herbicides broadcast or in bands to the soil strips between mulch to control susceptible weeds. Harvest daily or twice daily in hot weather. The use of plastic mulch is especially beneficial when growing melons. Aphids: Aphids can delay plant maturity.Plastic Mulch.5 to 1 inch of rainfall or overhead irrigation within 48 hours of application and BEFORE PLANTING OR TRANSPLANTING. Healthy vines and leaves must be maintained until melons are mature to obtain high-quality melons. Leafhoppers: High numbers of potato leafhoppers cause leaf yellowing (chlorosis) known as hopper burn. planting sequences. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Spacing on plastic mulch is typically 5 to 6 feet between rows and 18 to 30 inches in-row. 2 Page 64 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . 4. Treatments may be required until vining. Melonworm: Make one treatment prior to fruit set. Incorporate preemergence herbicide into the soil with 0. Also adult beetles can cause direct feeding injury to young plants. It substantially reduces the amount of fruit rots and often results in a 100% increase in yields than if the crop is grown on bare ground. and fertilization and irrigation efficiency. high yields. White plastic can be used instead of black plastic mulch when air temperatures exceed 85F to reduce excessive heat that can occur under black plastic at the later planting dates. For further information on aphid controls. or crop injury may result. Herbicides may wash from the plastic into the plant hole and result in crop injury. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until blooms have closed before application. Note. and herbicides labeled for melon. Complete soil preparation and lay plastic mulch and drip irrigation (optional) before herbicide application. Marketable yields will generally range between 7. It is critical to be familiar with the unique character of each melon.000 to 10. and then treat weekly. Begin spraying shortly after plant emergence and repeat applications at weekly intervals if new beetles continue to invade fields. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is important. see the preceding “Mulching” section. ing a broadcast acre (43. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. Many other types of melons do not slip and juding maturity can be difficult. In some cases. Foliar insecticides should be used to control adult beetles before they feed extensively on the cotyledons and first true leaves. For Soil Strips between Rows of Plastic Mulch. overhead irrigation can be used if small holes are punched in the plastic. Pickleworm. treatment. note: Use of Admire at planting can lead to spider mite outbreaks later in the season. HARVEStING AND StORAGE Cantaloupes should be harvested at quarter-to half-slip for shipping. Use the SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Seed Corn Maggot (SCM): Use insecticide treated seed or at- planting soil-insecticide treatments to avoid SCM in the early season. Cucumber beetle: Cucumber beetles transmit bacterial wilt. 5. POLLINAtION Honeybees are important for pollination. 3. All herbicide rate recommendations are made for spray- and most cultivars of muskmelons are highly susceptible to this disease.000 fruit per acre when grown on black plastic mulch. at which time plants are less susceptible to wilt infections. Treat every 7 to 10 days or as needed. which will result in yield loss. Wet the outside 3 to 6 inches of plastic.560 ft ). Spray preemergence herbicides on the soil and the shoulders of the plastic strips in bands before weeds germinate. Squash bug: Begin treatments shortly after vining. 1. Treat seedlings every 5 to 7 days or as needed. Many melons will change thier water not color. 2. Black embossed plastic mulch is generally used to increase soil temperatures in the spring as well as provide weed control. and quality fruit. Fruit maturation is usually quickened with the use of plastic. following land preparation.

5 239. Fall yields of cutback okra will often exceed that of spring crops or the yields of a crop that is not cut back.3 2. Market price for okra typically declines sharply as the summer progresses.0 50. space the rows about 3.5 1. Apply 1 to 2 pound per acre of actual boron.6 77.3 258. seed in the greenhouse in cells and transplant to the field through black plastic mulch.5 1.7 1.5 Ratooning Okra: Producing a Fall Crop from a Spring Planting. it is very sensitive to frost and cold temperatures and should not be planted until soil has warmed in the spring. 8-0-24. (some soils will require 50 pounds per acre of K2O). the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated according to that described in the tables below.5 155.3 1. Drip Fertilization.7 129.2 100.0 50. Ratooning okra will allow the plants to rejuvenate and produce a crop in the fall.5 inch deep. consider ratooning or cutting back your okra. Page 65 . 4 to 4. Generally only one planting is made. Before mulching. when okra prices are generally higher.5 and 4/15–6/15 3/1–4/30 5/1–7/15 3/15–4/30 5/15-7/1 5/10-7/15 4/20-8/1 4/15–5/31 3/15–5/31 4/15–6/1 5/1–5/30 5/25–7/31 5/1-6/30 5/15–7/15 5/15-6/15 4/15-6/15 in the absence of a soil test apply fertilizer to supply 25 pounds per acre of N.3 77. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Okra* (low potassium soil) Days after planting Preplant 0-14 15-28 29-84 85-91 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 25.5 feet apart. Cut plants back using a mower.5 3. for medium and tall varieties.0 0.9 50. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system.5 144.5 102. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field transplanting or direct seeding the okra.5 119.3 154. Thin plants when they are 5 inches high.6 Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Okra* (high potassium soil) Days after planting Preplant 0-14 15-28 29-84 85-91 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 25. Okra AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall 7/15–8/15 8/1–8/30 7/15–8/15 8/1–8/30 NR NR NR 7/1–7/31 8/1–7/31 8/1–9/1 8/1–8/30 NR NR NR 7/1-7/31 7/25-8/25 ing 6 to 12 inches of each plant above the ground. Seeding and Spacing.2 1.5 feet apart.2 75.0 0. For cooler areas. then thoroughly incorporate into the soil.0 0. with 3 or 4 seed per foot of row (5 to 7 pounds per acre).5 0. Drill seeds 1 to1. leavVegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 * Adjust based on tissue analysis. or 13-0-44 to encourage re-growth and the development of side branches. P2O5 and K2O.8 50.9 1. Continue fertigating until the last harvest. however. Re-fertilize with 15-0-14.4 1.0 1.7 0.9 0.oKra Varieties1 OKRA Annie Oakley II Cajun Delight Clemson Spineless 80 Emerald Fontenot Green's Best Gold Coast Lee Louisiana Velvet North and South 1 AL A A A A GA G G G G KY K K K LA L L L L L L L MS M M M NC N N N N SC S S S S TN T T T A L A M N S T Abbreviations for state where recommended. Okra is a tropical annual which is widely adapted.4 129. Dwarf varieties should be spaced 12 to 15 inches apart in the row. After the market price drops. For dwarf varieties. plants of tall varieties should be spaced 18 to 24 inches apart. adjust soil pH to 6.0 119.

Okra pods are subject to chilling injury below 50°F.5 inches long at this stage and are tender and free of fiber.Plastic Mulching. Pick pods at least every second day to avoid the development of large. On plastic mulch. Drip irrigation systems must be used with plastic mulch. undesireable pods. transplant at the three-to four-leaf stage into staggered double rows spaced 15 to 18 inches apart between the double rows. The pods are 3 to 3. HARVEStING AND StORAGE An okra pod usually reaches harvesting maturity 4 to 6 days after the flower opens. Okra should be kept at temperatures between 50° to 55°F and of 85% to 90% relative humidity. Place plants 12 inches apart. Polyethylene (black plastic) mulch can offer growers several advantages. Page 66 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .

Also designates a "type" of onion and performance may vary.onions and green onions Varieties1 GREEN ONIONS Crystal Wax Emerald Isle Evergreen Bunching 2 Ishikura Long Parade Southport 2 White Spear ONIONS (Short Day) Caramelo Century Georgia Boy Golden Eye Granex 33 Honeybee Honeycomb Miss Megan Mr. All of these varieties can be used for green onions.” varieties must be on the Georgia Department of Agriculture’s “Recommended Vidalia Onion List” and grown in the Vidalia area. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 67 . ** Georgia Growers note: To be marketed as “Vidalia. Bulbing type. Buck Nirvana Ohooppee Sweet Primavera Savannah Sweet SS 2005 Sweet Caroline Sweet Harvest Sweet Jasper Sweet Melody Texas Early Grano 502 Texas Grano 1015Y WI-129 White Granex 3 A G** L L N K K N N L K N N N L T T A G** G** G** G** G** G** L L M N N S S S A G** G** G** G** G** G** G** G** G** G** G** N S S L N S L L A K K AL A L L L M N S S S S S S T GA KY LA MS M NC N SC S TN Beltsville Bunching 2 Yellow Granex 3 ONIONS (Intermediate Day) Buffalo Candy Expression Hi Ball Juno Superstar (white) Sweet Sandwich Tough Ball 1 2 3 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

hill with 1 to 2 inches of soil to ensure white base. Row spacing up to 24 in. For dry bulb onion production from transplants follow planting dates recommended in the following table. 12-14 in. apart and space seed 0. Planting Dates Onion Transplants AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Planting Dates Onions (dry) NR 11/1–2/15 NR 11/1–2/15 4/1-6/15 3/25-7/1 3/15-7/15 12/15–1/31 12/15–1/31 12/15–3/1 10/1–2/15 10/1–3/1 9/15–10/15 10/1–11/15 9/15–10/15 9/15/10/15 3/1-3/30 Spacing. Green onions can also be produced from transplants. In-row spacing should be 4-6 inches.5 inches deep. Cutworms: See cutworm section in Soil Pests-Their Detection and Control. Seed depth should be 0. Direct seeding dry bulb onions can save money on labor and materials.Planting and Seeding Dates. Seeding dates for green onions are listed in the table below. apart on beds prepared on six-foot centers. Onion Direct Seed AL North AL South GA North GA South LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Green Onions NR 8/1–4/30 NR 8/15–10/15 9/15–10/31 10/1–10/31 NR 10/15–2/15 8/1–6/15 4/1–8/15 3/15–7/30 2/15–10/15 9/1-9/30 NR Onions (dry) SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Soilborne pests are often controlled with a preplant application of a soil insecticide. and planting depth is correct (~ 0. Seedcorn Maggot: An early season problem that is common NR 9/1–10/15 NR 10/5–10/25 9/15–10/31 10/1–10/31 NR NR 9/15–10/31 9/1–9/30 9/15–11/15 NR NR NR following winter injury to plants or in fields where planting occurs soon after a cover crop has been plowed under. Green onions during winter production will require 12-14 weeks. Spring production may be shorter. in-row spacing. It may be necessary to apply water more than once a day during periods of hot. For bunching onions. works well for smaller operations. Watering is required to insure germination and emergence. In the northern range of the Southeast for dry bulb onions.25 in. however. Page 68 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .5 inches apart (2-6 pounds per acre). set the planter to sow seed with a 3-4 in. space rows 12 to 16 in. sets and seed can be planted as soon as soil conditions are favorable in the spring. Plant transplants for bulb onions as indicated in the following table. For green onions.75 to 1. For direct seeded onions. Care should be taken so that the seed is singulating properly. It is critical that the beds be properly prepared without any previous plant debris.). Hand planting sets. It is recommended that coated or encrusted seed be used with a vacuum planter to insure good seed singulation. Preplant fertilizer application of 1/5 to 1/4 of required amount with proper bed moisture is recommended. On-farm transplant production can be performed in most conditions for dry bulb onion production. Transplant production should begin by seeding plantbeds from late August to the end of September. Seed for bunching onions can be planted as soon as soil conditions are favorable in the spring and successive plantings can be made throughout the summer in the cooler parts of the Southeast. Place transplants or sets 1. Four to five rows are planted 12-14 in. apart on beds prepared on six-foot centers.25-0. can be used.5 to 2. A common method of producing transplants is to seed in high density plantings with 30-70 seed per linear foot. See seeding dates in table below. Onion production from sets has not worked as well because it is difficult to mechanically orient the sets with the growing point up. HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. In the northern range of the Southeast it may be preferable to purchase transplants.5 inches. Cultivation. soil is not clogging the seeder. thrips: Use a threshold of 5 thrips per plant. A vacuum planter with a double row planter or a scatter shoe will work well. dry weather. A typical planting arrangement for dry bulb onions is to plant four rows.

Flat leaf parsley tends to be more aromatic than the curled leaf and is used for flavoring in cooking. Curled leaf parsley is more attractive and is primarily used as a garnish. Setting of transplants is usually not economical for either crop. and mildews. Parsley and cilantro are usually har- 3/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–5/30 2/1–3/31 5/10-7/10 5/1-7/20 4/15-7/1 2/15–4/15 2/1–4/15 NR 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 NR NR 4/1-8/1 4/1-5/30 vested by hand and bunched with rubber bands or twist ties in the field. Cilantro is often seeded weekly to supply a continuous crop throughout the summer. Parsley is a biennial grown as an annual. agricultural chemicals Parsley/Cilantro AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Fall NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR 9/15–10/31 9/15–10/31 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/30 NR 9/1–11/15 8/15–9/30 NR 8/1-9/1 cleared for use on parsley and cilantro. If there are any approved fungicides they should be sprayed as soon as symptoms appear.parsley and cilantro Varieties1 PARSLEy Curly Leaf Banquet Garland Moss Curled Starke Flat Leaf Dark Green Italian Giant of Italy Plain Italian Green CILANtRO Santo 1 AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A A A A G M N N N N S S S S S S Forest Green L N A A A G G K L L L M M N N N S S S T T Jantar Longstanding Abbreviations for state where recommended. There are two varietal types of parsley: flat-leaf and curled leaf. Spacing between single rows is 15 to 18 inches. have germination checked and adjust seeding rate accordingly. Final in-row spacing should be 6 to 8 inches for parsley and 2 to 5 inches for cilantro. Seeding and Spacing. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Root and crown rot of parsley is best controlled by a two-year crop rotation with non-susceptible plants. Planting Dates organic loam soil. and limited movement through the fields during wet conditions. Cultural controls include use of drip irrigation. Harvesting and Storage. Parsley seed is slow to germinate. if any. These crops should be irrigated. Weed control is important and can best be obtained by using black plastic mulch and cultivation. Parsley and cilantro are prone to leaf blights. crop rotation. Parsley and cilantro can be precision seeded into raised beds with 3 to 4 rows per bed.0 and 7. Parsley and cilantro require about 100 pounds N per acre. well-prepared seed bed Seeding rates are from 16 to 24 pounds per acre for parsley and 15 to 50 pounds per acre for cilantro. leaf spots. Parsley and cilantro grow best in a well-drained. Pest Control. Seed is sown 1/3 to 1/2 inches deep in a Cultivation. Store at 32° F with high humidity. If seed is more than 1 year old. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 69 . which should be split-applied throughout the season.0. There are few. soil pH between 6.

Storage can be up to 6 months. and stored at 32°F at 90% to 95% relative humidity. Seed as indicated in the following table. topped. Planting Dates Parsnip AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/15–10/15 7/15–9/30 NR NR 3/15–4/30 2/1–5/15 3/15–4/30 2/1–5/15 4/1–6/1 3/20–6/15 3/10–7/1 NR 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 4/1–6/1 3/10–7/1 Harvesting and Storage. Parsnips left in the ground over winter should be removed before growth starts in the spring. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Parsnips may be dug. Adjust seeder to give 8 to 10 plants per foot of row. Seeding and Spacing. Page 70 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . The seeds germinate slowly. Thin seedlings to 2 to 4 inches apart in the row. Never use seed that is more than 1 year old.parsnip Varieties1 PARSNIP All American Harris Model Javelin 1 AL A GA G KY LA MS NC N SC S S S TN K N N Abbreviations for state where recommended. Seed 3 to 5 pounds per acre at a depth of 1/4 to 3/8 inch in rows 18 to 30 inches apart.

Planting garden peas for processing is based on the heat-unit theory. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 71 . Seed at a depth of no more than 1 inch unless soil is dry. First plantings can be made as soon as the soil can be tilled in the spring. Seed treatment. Garden peas thrive in cool weather and tolerate frost.englisH/garden peas Varieties1 Dual ENGLISH/GARDEN PEAS Green Arrow Knight Novella Oregon Sugar Pod II 2. For garden peas and processing peas.snow pea. Harvesting and Storage. Use press wheel drill or seeder to firm seed into soil. or treat seed with a slurry or dust that contains an approved fungicide. Seeding and Spacing.3 Sparkle Blunt Spring Sugar Ann 3 G G A A G K A AL GA G A G G G K K L L L L M K L L M L M N N N N N N N N S T S S T T S T N S S T T KY LA MS NC SC TN Sugar Bon 3 Sugar Snap 3 Tall Telephone (Alderman) 1 2 3 Abbreviations for state where recommended. plant 3-4 seeds per foot in rows 6-8 inches apart. Use seed already treated with an approved English/Garden Peas AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall 8/1–8/31 8/1–9/30 8/1–8/31 8/1–9/30 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/15–11/30 8/15–10/30 NR NR 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15-4/15 3/1-4/1 2/20-3/20 11/15–2/1 11/15–2/1 4/10-4/25 3/25-4/5 2/15–4/15 4/1–6/15 2/1–3/15 3/1–4/15 3/15-4/30 2/15-3/30 seed treatment. requiring seed 80-120 pounds per acre in 30 inch rows. Inoculation of seed enhances early nodule formation. Flat podded . Edible Pod Type. See Table 14 for further postharvest information.

Vining types should be seeded 1 to 2 per foot or 20 to 30 pounds of seed per acre. but Southern peas is the preferred name. Fertility. Plant seeds 3/4 to 1 1/4 inch deep Page 72 tility with pH of 5.soutHern peas Varieties1 SOUtHERN PEAS Blackeye AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN Bettergro Blackeye California Blackeye #5 Magnolia Blackeye Queen Anne Royal Blackeye A A A A G G L G K L L M M N S S T Pinkeyes Coronet Mississippi Pinkeye Pinkeye Purple Hull Pinkeye Purple Hull .BVR QuickPick Pinkeye Top Pick Pinkeye Cream Elite Mississippi Cream Tender Cream Texas Cream 8 Texas Cream 12 Top Pick Cream White Acre-BVR Crowders Clemson Purple Colossus 80 Dixie Lee Hercules Knuckle Purple Hull Mississippi Purple Mississippi Shipper Mississippi Silver Purple Tip Crowder Top Pick Crowder Zipper Cream 1 A K G A A A G G G S L L G A A A G G G N N L A A A A A A G G G G G G G K K L L L L L N S T M M M N N N N N N S S S S S S T T T S S T T L M S M S T T L L L L M M M N N N S S T T T T Big Boy (cream/browneye) Abbreviations for state where recommended. Bush types should be seeded 4 to 6 per foot or 30 to 50 pounds of seed per acre. make three insecticides applications at five-day intervals for curculio control.5 is desirable. Sow when soil temperature reaches 60°F in rows spaced 20 to 42 inches apart depending on cultivation requirements. In India Southern peas are known by 50 common names and in the United States are called “Field peas”. Crop rotation or fumigation is important for nematode control. Most soils will produce a good crop. Southern peas originated in India in prehistoric times and moved to Africa. Seeding and Spacing. Southern peas require relatively warms soils for good germination.8 to 6. “Cowpeas” and “blackeyes”. Seeding too early causes poor stands and you may need to replant. “Crowder peas”. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . High fertility produces excessive vine growth and poor yields. Cowpea Curculio: At first bloom. Inoculants of specific N fixing bacteria may increase yield especially in soils where Southern peas have not been grown. but medium fer- and continue sowing until 80 days before fall frost. then to America. Insect Management.

Average production is 60 to 200 bushels per acre. Do not use burlap sacks because they are not properly ventilated. This is the best stage for shelling and eating. Southern peas weigh 22 to 30 pounds per bushel.Harvesting and Storage. Southern peas are sold in bushel hampers or mesh bags. Begin harvest when a few pods are beginning to change color and harvest only pods with well formed peas. harvest will begin 65 to 80 days after seeding and continue for 3 to 5 weeks. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Planting Dates Southern Peas AL North AL South GA North GA South LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West KY East KY Central KY West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Fall NR 7/15–8/30 NR 7/15–8/30 7/1–7/31 7/15–8/15 NR 8/1–8/30 8/1–8/30 NR NR NR NR 7/15–8/1 NR NR NR 4/15–7/31 3/15–6/15 5/15–7/15 3/15–5/15 4/15–7/31 4/1–5/31 4/15–7/15 3/15–6/15 3/25–6/15 4/15–7/15 5/10-6/15 5/5-7/1 4/20-7/15 4/1–6/15 4/15-7/15 5/10-7/15 4/15-7/31 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 73 . Depending on variety and weather. One person can harvest 12 to 20 bushels per day if yields are average.

peppers Varieties1 PEPPER (open pollinated) Bell Capistrano Jupiter AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A A A A A A G G G G K K K K L L M M N N N S S S S T T T T Frying type Cubanelle Early Sweet Banana Sweet Banana L Hot type Anaheim Carolina Cayenne Cayenne L.8 Brigadier 4.8 K A A A A A A A A A A G G G K N A A A A K A A G G G K K K L N N S S S M M G G K L L N N S M N S K K L N S L G G G M N N G G G K K K L L L L M N N N S S S K L M N S T T T Camelot X3R 8 Enterprise Heritage 3 Declaration 2. 8 7 Paladin 2 Plato 3 Patriot 3. 8 Excursion II 3 King Arthur Magico 3 Orobelle T T Lafayette 7.4. 8 Polaris 8 T T T Purple Bell 9 Revolution Stilleto 3 Summer Gold 7 Tequila 9 Valencia 7 T T T T X3R Aladdin 8 X3R Aristotle 2. 5. 3. 8 X3R Wizard 8 X3R Red Knight 8 Page 74 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Red Thick Charleston Hot 10 Habañero Hungarian Wax Jalapeño M Long Thin Cayenne Surefire Tula N N L L M N N N M M L N N N N S S S S S S S S A A A A A G G G G G K K L L L T T T PEPPER (Hybrid) Bell Alliance 2.

Peppers are a warm-season crop that grow best at temperatures of 70° to 75°F. Prepare a fresh solution for each batch of seed. Mature purple fruit. Plant seed soon after treatment. Set plants 12 to 18 inches apart in double rows. plant varieties that have excellent foliage. Phytophthora Root Rot tolerance. 8 A A A A 6 7 8 9 10 G G M M L N N N Super Cayenne 10 1 2 3 4 5 L Tobacco Etch Virus tolerance/resistance (TEV). 6. Seed treatment. Use at the rate of 1 gallon of solution per pound of seed. Potato Virus Y tolerance/resistance (PVY). 2 and 3. dip seed in a solution containing 1 quart of household bleach and 4 quarts of water plus 1 teaspoon of surfactant for 15 minutes. Plant on raised. 5 Delicias El Rey Grande Inferno Ixtapa Mitla G G G G L K K L L M N N T T T S S T T Mesilla 4. Nematode resistance (N). Wash seed in running water for 5 minutes and dry seed thoroughly. Provide constant agitation. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 75 . dome-shaped beds to aid in disease control.Varieties1 AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN PEPPER (Hybrid) (con't) Frying type Aruba Banana Supreme Biscayne Gypsy Hy-Fry Key Largo Ancho Purple Beauty 9 Ancho 101 San Juan Tiburon San Martin Hot type Cariar A A A A A A A A A A A A A G G G G G M M M K N N N N N N S S S T G K N M L N T T T Agri Set 4108 8 Compadre 4. Mature yellow fruit or mature orange fruit. Poor fruit set and blossom drop can be expected when night temperatures drop below 60° or day temperatures rise above 85°F. If seed is not treated in order to minimize the Pepper AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall NR 7/15–8/30 NR 7/15–8/30 NR NR NR 6/15–7/31 6/15–7/31 NR 8/1–8/15 8/1–8/15 NR 7/10–8/1 NR NR NR 5/15–6/30 3/1–4/30 5/15–6/30 3/1–4/30 5/20-6/15 5/10-7/1 5/1-7/15 4/1–5/15 3/1–5/15 4/20–6/30 3/1–4/30 4/15–5/10 5/15–7/15 4/1–5/15 5/1–6/30 5/15-7/1 4/20-6/30 occurrence of bacterial leaf spot. Bacterial Leaf Spot resistance for races 1. Planting and Spacing. Abbreviations for state where recommended. Space rows 4 to 5 feet apart. This crop is sensitive to temperature extremes. 6 Nazas (Serrano) Tormenta 4. To minimize sunscald when growing pepper on sandy soils and on plastic mulch without drip irrigation. Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus tolerance/resistance (TSWV). Tomato Mosaic Virus tolerance/resistance (ToMV). Select fields with good drainage.

6 1.5 57.4 347. these viruses cannot be adequately controlled with insecticide applications.0 80. CMV.0 0. P2O5 and K2O. Use nematicides listed in the “Nematodes” section of Soil Pests—Their Detection and Control.7 0.8 130.0 80.0 1. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Pepper* (low soil potassium) Days after planting Preplant 0–14 15–28 29–42 43–56 57–98 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 50.6 1. Be sure not to grow any ornamental bedding plants in the same greenhouse as pepper transplants.6 177.5 3. PVx. TSWV can be severe on peppers during both greenhouse production of transplants and during field production of the crop. PVy): Use tolerant or resistant varieties to control these viruses when available and provided that the fruit quality is consistent with market demands.8 177.5 1.4 66.5 101. Consult label before use. The use of pheromone insect traps is recommended. Page 76 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .8 196. Note: For best green peach aphid control during periods of drought. European Corn borer (ECb): European Corn Borer (ECB). apply insecticide 2 to 3 days after irrigation. After transplanting the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated following that described in the following table. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after transplanting the peppers.4 Use tolerant or resistant varieties. Thorough spray coverage beneath leaves is critical. growers may wish to use yellow trap pans containing water to determine when mass flights of winged aphids occur. Pepper weevil (Pw): PW is a pest occasionally imported on older transplants or transplants with flowers or fruit.0 100. thrips transmit the virus from infected ornamental plants (flowers). adjust soil pH to 6.6 1. Pepper Maggot: Pepper maggot flies are active from June 1 to mid-August. The virus is spread to peppers by thrips. Begin an insecticide program BEFORE a problem is observed.5 pound per acre of actual boron. apply enough fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N.0 107.8 Nematode Management.8 3.8 116. VIRUSES Aphid-transmitted Viruses (tMV. Continue fertigating until the last harvest.5 0. but symptom expression can be delayed through their use combined with the use of reflective mulches.5 0. treat when more than ten moths per trap per week are found.8 1. thrips-transmitted virus (tomato Spotted wilt Virus. During transplant production.0 2. tSwV): Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Pepper* (high soil potassium) Days after planting Preplant 0–14 15–28 29–42 43–56 57–98 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 50. Because aphids transmit these virus.0 0. (some soils will require 100 pounds per acre of K2O) then thoroughly incorpotrate into the soil. also include 0. and in the absence of a soil test. HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.7 66.8 1.0 0.0 101. On soils testing low-medium for boron. Follow table in Insect Control section of this publication.0 100.5 57. tEV.8 1. Before mulching.7 1. Use these varieties in areas where these viruses have been prevalent or when high aphid pressure is expected.8 126. Monitor greenhouses and scout fields for thrips..0 0.4 227.8 1. * Adjust for soil and tissue analysis SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Green Peach and Melon Aphid.0 107.Drip Fertilization. Generally.5.8 151.8 154.

cut seed pieces and wider spacing for whole (B-size) seed. sample fields weekly for CPB to determine the need to spray. Use certified seed. As a general guideline. The further fields can be planted from last year’s solanaceous crop. Do not use seed pieces that weigh less than 1. Beginning at plant emergence. if more than 25 adults or 75 large larvae or 200 small larvae are counted per 50 stems. Plant seed pieces immediately after cutting or store under conditions suitable for rapid healing of the cut surfaces (60° to 70°F plus high humidity). which tend to set few tubers and produce oversize tubers. At each site. eggplant. large larvae (more than half-grown).or W-shaped path throughout the field. Use closer spacing for large. The amount of yield loss as a result of CPB feeding depends on the age of the potato Page 77 .5 oz each. Use close spacing for potatoes being marketed in 5. Bark formulations have been effective treatments to reduce seed piece decay. a treatment is recommended. Seed-Piece treatment. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 crops (crops other than potato.or 36. Select at least 10 sites per field along a V. select one stem from each of five adjacent plants and count and record all adults. Some fungicide seedpiece treatments are formulated with fir or alder bark. Purple flesh. Dust seed pieces immediately after cutting with fungicide. Warm potato seed Irish Potato AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 7/15-9/1 7/1-9/15 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 2/15–4/30 1/15–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/20-6/15 3/15-7/1 3/15-7/15 1/15–2/28 1/15–2/28 1/20–3/15 1/20–3/1 2/15–3/31 4/1–6/15 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 3/20-4/30 2/15-3/31 (65°F to 70°F) for a period of 2 to 3 weeks before planting to encourage rapid emergence. Planting and Spacing. and small larvae (less than half-grown). and pepper) is extremely important in reducing CPB problems.irisH potatoes Varieties1 POtAtOES Atlantic Coastal Chip Dark Red Norland Deter Wilcut 2 Fonteno Harley Blackwell Katahdin Kennebec La Belle La Chipper La Rouge Norchip Purple Magic 2 Red LaSoda Red Pontiac Superior Vivaldi Yukon Gold 1 2 AL A A GA G KY LA L MS M NC N N N SC S S S S TN K L L T N N G K L L L A K A G G G A G K K K K M L M L N N N N N N N S T S S S S T T N S S T Abbreviations for state where recommended. tomato.inch rows. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Colorado Potato beetle (CPb): Rotation to nonsolanaceous Space seed 7 to 12 inches apart in 34. the more beneficial it will be in reducing CPB problems. Avoid the application of late-season sprays to prevent the buildup of insecticide-resistant beetles.and 10-pound consumer packs and for Katahdin and Kennebec. The recommended planting dates for potatoes are in the following table.

Potato tuberworms are primarily a problem with late potatoes. but. Cutworms: See “Cutworms” section in Soil Pests-Their leafhopper counts exceed three adults per sweep or one nymph per 10 leaves. Check with the county Extension agent in your area for the most effective control. However. aphids and whiteflies. in cull piles. The Superior variety (short season) cannot compensate for early season defoliation by overwintered beetles. Cutworms are especially troublesome to tubers where soil cracking occurs. may significantly increase CPB insecticide resistance. Potato tuberworm: Treat when foliage injury is first noted. Sanitation is very important. Note: Several insecticides may no longer be effective in certain areas due to CPB resistance. for proper timing of ECB sprays. Superior can withstand up to 50% defoliation without yield loss. European Corn borer (ECb): Continued treatment for ECB Detection and Control. Variegated cutworms feed on lower leaves and petioles.plant. leafhoppers. during the last 30 days of the season. four aphids per leaf during bloom. Use of Admire or Platinum at planting will also control flea beetles. consult the county Extension agent and/or area pest management information. HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. Flea beetle (Fb). or potatoes in storage. Leafhoppers: Treatment is suggested if Potato Aphid (PA). and 10 aphids per leaf within two weeks of vine kill. Green Peach Aphid (GPA): Insecticide treatments are recommended when aphid counts exceed two per leaf prior to bloom. Page 78 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Alternate insecticide classes from one year to the next to avoid resistance.

V Magician PM.B Iron Man F.S Oz S Small Sugar V Spookie V Trickster B Medium 6-12 lbs Autumn Gold V Casper V. W.W Midas Mystic Plus PM. V Neon S Orange Bulldog VT.F. V Gold Bullion Gold Medal S Harvest Jack V Howdy Doody S Magic Lantern PM. V Mother Lode S Pro Gold 510 V Reliable Scarecrow V Spartan Socerer s 20 Karat Gold SB A A A A A G G G G G S L L L N N N M N N N N N N N N N A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A G L K K K G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G T T T T M T T T T T K K L L L M N N K L M N N N N N N N T S S T T T K K K K L A A A M M T K L N S T T Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 79 .V Schooltime B Large 12-20 lbs Appalachian S Aspen S Big Autumn S Cinderella W Dependable s Fairy Tale BU. VT Merlin PM.SB Gooligan PM.pumpKins and Winter sQuasH Varieties1 PUMPKIN Miniature <2 lbs Apprentice B.F.PH Munchkin S Touch of Autumn SB AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G K T T T T T T T T T T T T T K K K K K K K K K L N L M N N S S Small 2-6 lbs Cannon Ball PM.W Cotton Candy W Frosty B Ghost-Rider V Hybrid Pam S Jarrahdale BL Lumina V.PH Baby Boo Bumpkin S Gold Dust PM.V Prankster PM. V Jack-Be-Little S Lil October Lil Pump-ke-mon B Lil Ironsides S. S Magic Wand PM.PH.PM.

AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G G G K L M M M M N N S K K K K K K L L N N N N T T T T T T T N T T T T T A A A G G G A A A A N G G G G K K L L L N N N N S S S S S T T T M M A A A A A A A G G K K L L M N N N S S S T T T T A A G K K L M N S N T T T T A A A A A G G G G K M N N N N N S S S S M M T PM Powdery mildew tolerance. S Semi-vining growth habit.V New Moon PrizeWinner V HARDSHELL SqUASH Acorn Celebration Swan White Acorn Table Ace Table Queen Tay Belle PM Buttercup Buttercup Butternut Avalon Premium Butternut Supreme Butternut Waltham Early Butternut Ultra Hubbard Golden Hubbard Hubbard Delite Improved Green Spaghetti Pasta Vegetable Spaghetti Miscellaneous Types Cushaw Green Striped Cushaw Orange Striped Gold Nugget Golden Delicious Kabocha Sweet Mama Imperial Delight Calabaza El Dorado V La Estrella V 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. V Warlock PM Giant >50 lbs + Atlantic Giant V First Prize V Full Moon W. V Vining growth habit. SB Semi-bush growth habit. Page 80 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . PH Phytophthora tolerance. BL Blue skin.Varieties1 PUMPKIN (con't) Extra Large 20-50 lbs Aladdin PM. F Fusarium tolerance. W White skin. VT VT Virus tolerance. B Bush type. S Big Max V Gold Medallion V Gold Rush V Harvest Time Howden Biggie V Mammoth Gold V New Moon Phantom V Super Herc PM.

Use of small grain cover residue may require additional nitrogen fertilizer (20 to 30 lbs N/acre in addition to the normal recommendation) if cover crop is fairly mature when killed. The transmission of plant viruses by aphids has the potential to be the most damaging to the crop. Cucumber beetles also cause direct damage to pumpkin and winter squash rinds. winter peas. Pumpkin / Hardshell Squash AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Halloween 6/15–7/15 6/15–7/15 5/1–6/15 6/15–7/15 5/10-6/1 5/5-6/15 4/25-7/1 6/15-7/15 6/15-7/15 6/20–7/5 6/20–7/5 6/15–7/10 5/25–6/30 NR NR 6/1-7/15 5/15-6/15 Vine types: Rows–8 to 10 feet apart. Type of winter cover crop residue can affect pumpkin seed depth. or as needed. Planting after soils warm in the spring will improve vigor (pumpkins are normally planted after soil warms so this may not be a management problem). Herbicides may wash from a large area of plastic into the plant hole and result in crop injury. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Cucumber beetle: Cucumber beetles cause direct feeding damage to the foliage. Fall treatments with foliar insecticides to prevent feeding damage may also reduce incidence of bacterial wilt. Re-apply insecticide every seven days for four weeks. Spray preemergence herbicides on the soil and the shoulders of the plastic strips in bands before weeds germinate. Inspect seed placement and adjust for correct depth. dull-red to brownish) as soon as moths are caught in the traps. If pheromone traps are not used. When moths are caught. No-till planters currently in use with row crop production will plant pumpkin seed but seed plates or feed cups need to match up with seed size.6 to 8 feet apart. Apply selective postemergence herbicides broadcast or in bands to the soil strips between mulch to control susceptible weeds. Unfortunately. butternut squash and processing pumpkins are susceptible to bacterial wilt. The application of Stylet Oil can delay virus infection. When the aphid probes the leaf surface. plants–4 to 5 feet apart in Planting Dates Hardshell Squash 4/15–6/15 3/15–5/15 4/15–6/15 3/15–5/15 5/15-6/15 5/10-7/10 4/20-7/15 4/15–5/15 3/15–5/15 4/15-6/15 3/15-5/15 4/15–5/20 5/25–6/30 3/20–5/1 4/15–6/15 5/15-6/30 4/25–6/30 conservation tillage practice with pumpkins. planting sequences. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 soon after planting to monitor the activity of the adult moths. In some cases. inspect plants for second-generation eggs. especially bees. Treat seedlings every five to seven days. Use the fol- lowing land preparation. This reduces the infectivity of the virus resulting in less disease in the squash plant. Start inspecting plants closely for squash vine borer eggs (1mm [1/25 inch] diameter oval. 1. 2. Applications should be made in afternoons or evenings after flowers close to reduce the spraying of valuable pollinators. and herbicides labeled for pumpkins or squash or crop injury may result. Aphids: Aphid feeding can delay plant maturity. seed–2 to 4 pounds per acre. DO NOT APPLY HERBICIDE TO THE SURFACE OF THE PLASTIC. 4. Incorporate preemergence herbicide into the soil with 0. note: All herbicide rate recommendations are made for spraying a broadcast acre (43. plants–2 to 4 feet apart in row. insecticide use for aphids does not reduce the spread of virus. No-tillage is the most commonly used bush types: Rows–5 to 6 feet apart. Early spring planting with no-tillage in pumpkin may delay growth and days to harvest. a preventive treatment should be applied when vines begin to run. Young plants need to be protected with insecticide as soon as they emerge or are transplanted. Page 81 . 3. A better approach is the application of Stylet Oil to fill tiny grooves between the leaf cells. flattened. treatment.560 ft2). Semi-vine types: Rows. or crimson clover) is used as residue. seed–2 to 4 pounds per acre. Jack-o-lantern pumpkins and most other varieties of squash are rarely susceptible to bacterial wilt. Improper seed plates or cups will break pumpkin seed. Complete soil preparation and lay plastic and drip irrigation (optional) before herbicide application. seed–4 to 6 pounds per acre. plants–2 to 3 feet apart in row. While Hubbard squash. its stylet must pass through a layer of oil. Seed in the field as indicated in the fol- lowing table: Conservation tillage.5 to 1 inch of rainfall or overhead irrigation within 48 hours of application and BEFORE PLANTING OR TRANSPLANTING. especially on the underside of the leaves is important. Thorough spray coverage. The first application of insecticide should occur when eggs begin to hatch or just prior to hatching. overhead irrigation can be used if small holes are punched into the plastic. Squash Vine borer: Pheromone baited sticky traps can be used For Soil Strips between Rows of Plastic Mulch.Seeding and Spacing. Normal pumpkin nitrogen fertilizer recommendations can be used if a legume cover crop (hairy vetch. Continue monitoring the pheromone traps into August to detect the emergence of the new moths. row. and begin the insecticide applications when eggs first begin to hatch or just prior to hatching.

refer to the preceding “Mulches” section for information on metallized reflective mulch used to repel or disorient aphids that can spread viruses. Localized infestations can be spot-treated. See section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations. POLLINAtION Honey bees are important for pollination. Temperatures below 50°F cause chilling injury. high fruit yields. Delicious. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until blooms have closed before application. fruit size. Treat every 7 to 10 days when adults or nymphs appear.but requires application every other day. Squash bug: Begin scouting shortly after plant emergence. Harvest as soon as fruits are mature and prior to frost. and the Hubbard strains. Use one hive per acre to get good pollination. in bloom. The hardshelled varieties. and quality. Use care in handling fruit to prevent wounds. The control of squash bugs is particularly important where yellow vine disease occurs since squash bugs vector the pathogen responsible for this disease. Also. Cure after harvest at temperatures between 80° to 85°F with a relative humidity of 75% to 80% for 10 days. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. HARVEStING AND StORAGE Use clean storage bins and sanitize. Store at 55°F and 55% relative humidity. such as Butternut. CAUTION: DO NOT mow these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. thorough coverage and high pressure sprays. note: Continuous use of Sevin or pyrethroid sprays may result in mite outbreaks. Spider Mites: Mite infestations generally begin around field margins and grassy areas. Be sure to thoughly clean and santize bins prior to usage adn subsequent storage. can be stored for several months. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds Page 82 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .

Space rows 8 to 15 inches apart with 12 to 15 plants per foot in the row. Seed 10 to 15 pounds per acre. SPACING AND SEEDING Radishes: A quick-growing. the radish becomes hot. and pithy. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Radish AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall 8/1–10/15 8/1–10/31 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/15 8/1-9/1 8/15-9/15 9/15-10/1 8/1–10/30 8/1–10/30 8/1-9/15 8/1-9/30 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/15 8/1-9/15 8/1-9/30 Page 83 2/15–5/15 1/15–3/31 3/15–5/15 2/1–3/31 3/15-5/15 3/10-5/10 3/10-4/1 2/1–3/15 1/15–3/15 3/5-4/30 2/1-3/31 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–6/15 3/15–6/30 4/1-5/30 3/1-5/1 . cool-season crop that makes its best quality and root shape when grown at temperatures of 50° to 65°F in moderate to short day lengths.radisHes. then at 8. Seed as early in the spring as soil can be worked. Under medium to short day lengths. tough. When growth is checked.to 10-day intervals through the fall. Crop must be grown rapidly (23 to 28 days) and with an adequate moisture supply. L L S T T T T A A L L M M N N N S S S S Seed treatment. roots are generally well shaped and tops are small. then dust with a level teaspoon of fungicide per pound of seed. Soak ruta- bagas for 20 minutes and turnips for 25 minutes. Dry. Long days (15 hours) and warm temperatures induce seedstalk formation. Soak seed in hot water at 122°F. rutabagas. and turnips Varieties1 RADISH: Salad types Cherry Belle Champion Fireball Cherry Beauty Early Scarlet Globe Master Red Red Boy Red Silk Sparkler AL A A A A G GA KY K LA L MS M M M NC N N N N S S S SC S TN T K A A A A A A A A A A A A G G K L M G G M M N N N N M M M N N N N N N N N White Icicle RADISH: Storage types April Cross Everest Omny G G Long Black Spanish RUtAbAGAS Laurentian Macomber tURNIPS Purple Top Round Black Spanish S S S Purple Top Yellow Globe Purple Top White Globe Royal Globe Shogoin Royal Crown Tokyo Cross White Egg White Lady 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.

Thin to 4 to 8 inches in the row when plants are 2 to 3 inches tall. rutabaga. Usually considered a fall crop. Page 84 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Seed can also be broadcast at the rate of 2. Bruised. it can be grown in the spring. Rutabaga AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/15 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/15 NR NR NR 7/15–10/30 7/15–10/30 NR 8/1–9/30 NR 8/15–10/15 7/15–9/30 NR NR turnip (Roots) AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall 8/1–10/15 8/1–10/30 8/1–9/15 8/1–10/15 7/1-7/15 7/15-8/1 8/1-8/15 7/15–10/31 7/15–10/31 7/25–8/20 8/10–9/15 8/1–9/15 NR 8/1–9/30 8/1–9/15 7/15-8/10 8/1-8/25 2/15–5/15 1/15–3/31 3/15–5/15 2/1–3/31 3/15-4/15 3/10-4/10 3/1-4/1 2/1–3/15 1/15–3/15 1/20–4/1 1/15–3/1 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–4/1 3/15–4/30 3/15-5/30 3/1-5/1 2/15–5/15 1/15–3/31 3/15–5/15 2/1–3/31 3/15-5/15 3/10-5/10 3/10-4/1 2/1–3/15 1/15–3/15 NR 2/15–4/15 4/1–8/15 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 3/15-5/15 3/10-4/1 turnips: Seed as early in the spring as soil can be worked or HARVEStING AND StORAGE Rutabagas: Pull and trim tops in field. and turnip. Plants should be 2 to 3 inches apart in the row. 0. turnips: The crop is dug mechanically and either bunched or at least 70 days before the early freeze date in the fall. For further postharvest information on radish. in rows 14 to 18 inches apart. spray-rinse with clean water.Rutabagas: A cool-season crop that develops best at tempera- tures of 60° to 65°F. Turnips can be stored at 32° to 35°F and at 90% to 95% relative humidity. topped. or diseased rutabagas will not store well. damaged.5 inch deep. Wash rutabagas in clean water. see Table 14. Sow 1. Seed at least 90 days before the early freeze date in the fall. then dry as rapidly as possible before waxing and shipping.5 pounds per acre. Seed in rows 1 to 2 pounds per acre.25 to 0. Rutabagas can be stored 2 to 4 months at 32°F and at 90% to 95% relative humidity.5 to 2 pounds of seed per acre at a depth of 1 inch in rows 30 to 36 inches apart.

spinacH Varieties1 SPINACH Baker Ballet AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN T L A A A L A G K K L A G K L L N S T L N S T T T G G K L N N S N T Bloomsdale Long Standing 2 Greyhoutnd Hybrid #7 Hybrid Chesapeake Mig-Smooth Leaf Melody Regiment Springer Tiger Cat Tyee 2 Unipak 151 2 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. See the ”Maggots” section in Soil Pests-Their Detection and Control. treat seed with an approved commercially available insecticide or use a broadcast application of a soil-incorporated insecticide. 2 Savoy type.and 8-row beds.33 ounces per 100 pounds (1 teaspoon per pound). HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 For further postharvest information. Clipped: 18 to 25 pounds per acre. Spacing. Market: rows on 12-inch centers. Seed treatment. Not clipped: 10 to 14 pounds per acre. Seeding Rates. Garden webworms: Sprays must be applied before webbing 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 3/10-4/10 3/1-4/1 2/15-3/15 2/1–3/15 2/1–3/15 NR 2/15–6/30 4/1–8/15 2/1–4/1 3/15–4/15 2/1-3/31 2/1-3/31 8/1–9/15 8/15–9/30 8/1–9/15 8/1–9/30 8/1-8/15 8/15-9/1 9/1-9/15 9/1–11/15 9/15–11/15 NR 8/1–9/15 NR 8/15–10/15 8/1–9/30 8/15-10/15 8/15-10/15 occurs. Planted on 6. Processing: rows on 12-inch centers. Spinach AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Seed Corn Maggot: To prevent maggot damage to spring-seeded plants. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 85 . Use treated seed or treat seed with Thiram at 5.

6. Page 86 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .summer sQuasH Varieties1 SUMMER SqUASH Yellow Crook Neck Destiny III 3.5. has a prominent yellow stem.6 Lioness 4. 7 Papaya ringspot virus tolerance/resistance.5.5. 5 Watermelon mosaic virus tolerance/resistance.6 Justice III 3.4.5.5.6 Dixie Gentry Gold Star 6.5.5. 2 Py .5 Yellow Straight Neck Conqueror III 4. 8 Powdery mildew tolerance.5 XPT 1832 III Zucchini Agriset 843 Cash Flow Declaration II 3.7 Lynx 4.4.4.4.4. 3 Transgenetic.5 Supersett 2. 6 Cucumber mosaic virus tolerance/resistance.4.5.6 Senator Spineless Beauty Tigress 4.5 Judgement III 3.7 Daisey Enterprise Fortune 2 Goldbar Lemondrop Liberator III 3. 4 Zucchini yellows mosaic virus tolerance/resistance.4.4.5 Sunray 2 Superpik 2.7 President Revenue 4.7 Payroll 4.4.Precocious yellow gene.5.5 Grey Zucchini Cancun 4 Ishtar Premium Scalloped Patty Green Tint Peter Pan Scallopini Sunburst AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A A A A A A A A A A A A A G G G G G G G G G G G K K K K L L M M M L L N N N N N N N S S S S S S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T K K N N N N N N N N N S S S S S S S S S K L L K K K M M M A A A A G G G L L L M N A A A A A A G K L L N N N N N N N N M N N N N S S S S T T T T T T T T T G G G L S S S S S S A G K K K K L L A A A G G G M M M T T T T T A A A A A N N N N S S S K K L T T 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended.6.6.4.5.6 Leopard 4.6 Elite Green Eclipse Independence II 3.4.8 Medallion Prelude II 3.6 Multipik 2.5 Dividend 4.7 Monet 5.7 Cougar 4.5 Patriot II 3.5.

Page 87 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . but requires application every other day.5 to 2. Summer Squash AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall 8/1–8/30 7/15–9/15 NR 7/15–9/15 NR NR NR 7/15–8/31 8/1–9/15 7/25–8/14 8/14–9/14 7/15–8/15 NR 8/1–8/30 7/30–8/15 NR NR SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Cucumber beetle: Cucumber beetles cause direct feeding damage to the foliage.5 seed per acre. This reduces the infectivity of the virus resulting in less disease in the squash plant. Re-apply insecticide every seven days for four weeks. increases soil temperature. The first application of insecticide should occur when eggs begin to hatch or just prior to hatching.6 1.Seed treatment.5 52. plastic mulches can be used to repel aphids that transmit viruses in fall-planted (after July 1) squash. reduces mechanical damage to fruit. A better approach is the application of Stylet Oil to fill tiny grooves between the leaf cells. its stylet must pass through a layer of oil.0 107.1:1) Days after planting Preplant 0–7 8–21 22–63 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 24. Unfortunately. The control of squash bugs is particularly important where yellow vine disease occurs since squash bugs vector the pathogen responsible for this disease. or as needed. Continue monitoring the pheromone traps into August to detect the emergence of the new moths. Treat every 7 to 10 days when adults or nymphs appear. and Spacing.6 soon after planting to monitor the activity of the adult moths. thorough coverage and high-pressure sprays. When the aphid probes the leaf surface. refer to the preceding “Mulches” section for information on metallized reflective mulch used to repel or disorient aphids that can spread viruses. Start inspecting plants closely for squash vine borer eggs (1mm [1/25 inch] diameter oval. and increases early and total yield. The transmission of plant viruses by aphids has the potential to be the most damaging to the crop. and begin the insecticide applications when eggs first begin to hatch or just prior to hatching.0 1. Squash Vine borer: Pheromone baited sticky traps can be used 4/15–8/15 3/1–4/30 5/1–8/15 3/1–4/30 5/15-7/15 5/10-8/1 4/20-8/15 3/15–5/15 3/1–5/15 4/15–6/15 2/15–5/1 4/1–5/30 5/15–7/31 3/15-7/30 4/15–7/30 5/10-8/1 4/15-7/15 Mulching. The application of Stylet Oil can delay virus infection. Seeding. If pheromone traps are not used. Check with seed supplier to determine if seed has been treated with an insecticide and/or fungicide. rye strips.0 24.0 2. Reflective. Applications should be made in afternoons or evenings after flowers close to reduce the spraying of valuable pollinators. Young plants need to be protected with insecticide as soon as they emerge or are transplanted. Seed or container-grown transplants are planted when daily mean temperatures have reached 60°F. Space rows 3 to 6 feet apart with plants 1.0 136.1:2) Days after planting Preplant 0–14 8–28 29–63 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 24.6 49. inspect plants for second-generation eggs. Direct seeding through the mulch is recommended for maximum virus protection. Thorough spray coverage.5 2.5 3. insecticide use for aphids does not reduce the spread of virus. especially on the underside of the leaves is important.0 0.6 54. Growers should consider drip irrigation. 50 percent of the nitrogen(N) should be in the nitrate (NO3) form. Treat seedlings every five to seven days. Early plantings should be protected from winds with row covers. especially bees. Seed as indicated in following table. Plastic mulch laid before field planting conserves moisture.0 1. or wind breaks. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for Summer Squash (N:K.5 1. Black plastic mulch can be used without a herbicide. Aphids: Aphid feeding can delay plant maturity.0 52.9 1.0 31. In most situations. The soil must be moist when laying the plastic. Use 4 to 6 pounds of Alternative Fertigation Schedule for Summer Squash (N:K.0 136. flattened. See the section on “Irrigation” in this handbook.5 feet apart in the row. When moths are caught.8 85.2 1. Also. transplanting.3 190.8 36. a preventive treatment should be applied when vines begin to run.3 2.0 1. Plastic should be applied on well-prepared planting beds. Squash bug: Begin scouting shortly after plant emergence. dull-red to brownish) as soon as moths are caught in the traps.0 31.0 24.

Then seed beds without further tillage. CAUTION: DO NOT mow these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. Varieties with the Py gene should be used for late spring or summer plantings since viruses are more prevalent in the summer than spring plantings. or crop injury may result. Incorporate herbicide into the soil with1/2 to 1 inch of rainfall or overhead irrigation within 48 hours of application and BEFORE PLANTING OR TRANSPLANTING. All herbicide rate recommendations are made for spraying a broadcast acre (43. Herbicides may wash from a large area of plastic into the plant hole and result in crop injury. Disease Management. 1. HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. Certain yellow-fruited varieties contain the precocious (Py) gene.Spider Mites: Mite infestations generally begin around field margins and grassy areas. For Seeding into Soil without Plastic Mulch. Complete soil preparation and lay plastic and drip irrigation before herbicide application. Spray preemergence herbicides on the soil and the shoulders of the plastic strips in bands before weeds germinate. squash fruit to be distorted or off-color rendering them unmarketable. Viruses (CMV. For Soil Strips between Rows of Plastic Mulch. Allow weed seedlings to emerge and spray with Gramoxone a week prior to seeding. Stale bed tech- nique: Prepare beds 3 to 5 weeks before seeding. Papaya Ringspot Virus and ZyMV): Plant infection by viruses often causes POLLINAtION Honey bees are important for producing high yields and quality fruit. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. planting sequences. treatment. wEED MANAGEMENt See the previous “Mulching” section for further information on weed control under clear plastic mulch. and herbicides labeled for squash. note: Continuous use of Sevin or pyrethroid sprays may result in mite outbreaks. Use the fol- lowing land preparation. 4. Use resistant varieties where possible. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until bloom is completed before application. wMV. DO NOT APPLY HERBICIDE TO THE SURFACE OF THE PLASTIC.560 ft2). See section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations. The varieties are distinguished by their yellow stem. but even these may not escape virus. Apply selective postemergence herbicides broadcast or in bands to the soil strips between mulch to control susceptible weeds. Page 88 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . The Py varieties can normally mask virus fruit symptoms of certain viruses for several harvests. 2. note. 3. Localized infestations can be spot-treated.

Late season Even Sweeter (sh2) Pegasus (sh2) Silver King (se) Silver Queen (su) Tahoe (sh2) WSS 0987 (sh2) Yellow .Early Bodacious (se) Mirai 130Y (sh2) Seneca Horizon (su) Sweet Riser (se) Xtra-Tender 173A (sh2) A A A Xtra-Tender XT 372 (sh2) Xtra-Tender XT 378 (sh2) Yellow .Mid-Season Accelator (sh2) Bandit (sh2) G A A G G L K M N N A G G L A A A A G G G K K L M M L M M G G L L M N N N N N N N N N S S T T T S S T T S S S S S S S T T Crisp N’ Sweet 711 (sh2) Gold Queen (su) GSS 0969 (sh2) Honey Select GSS 0966 (sh2) 3 N S T Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 89 .Mid-Season Alpine (se) Argent (se) Avalon (se) Brilliance (se) Devotion (sh2) Silverado (se) A G A G A A A A A A G G K L M G G G K K M K K L N N N S N N N N N T S T S T S T T T T T Ice Queen (sh2) Snowbelle (se) Snow White (sh2) Sweetbelle (sh2) WH 0809 (sh2) Summer Sweet 8101R (sh2) Xtra-Tender 375 A (sh2) Xtra-Tender 377 A (sh2) Xtra-Tender 378 A (sh2) White .sWeet corn Varieties1 CORN.Early AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN Platinum Lady (se) 2 Quick Silver (su) Summer Sweet 7311W (sh2) Sweet Ice (se) White Out (se) A A A G K M N N N N S T T White . SwEEt White .

M M N N S S S S T T T Kandy Korn (se) Merit (su) Morning Star (sh2) Passion (sh2) Prime Plus (sh2) K K L Summer Sweet 7630Y (sh2) Summer Sweet 7210 (sh2) Vision (sh2) Sweet Talk (sh2) XT H1273 (sh2) Xtra-Tender 1178 (sh2) Bicolor . Sh = supersweet. 2 3 Transgenetic or "BT" corn.Mid-Season BC 0805 (sh2)3 Big Time (sh2) BSS 0977 (sh2 Cameo T T T T T N N S S T T BSS 0982 (sh2)3 Charisma Mirai 131BC (sh2) Mirai 301BC (sh2) Montauk Obsession (sh2) Polaris (sh2) Providence Rapport (se) Sensor (se) Summer Sweet 8102 (sh2) SS MS Var#950BC Sweet Chorus (se) Sweet G90 (su) Sweet Rhythm (se) Sweet Symphony (se) Synergy Xtra-Tender 282A (sh2) 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. SwEEt Incredible (se) AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN Yellow . Se = Sugary enhanced.Varieties1 CORN.Early Dazzle (sh2) T T T T Xtra-Tender 1575 (sh2) BC 0808 (se)3 Double Gem (se) Lancelot (se) Precious Gem (se) Renaissance Temptation (se) Xtra-Tender 270A (sh2) Bicolor .Mid-Season (con't) L A A A A A K G G L L M N N N S S S M S S G A N N N N N S S S S S S G A A G G G L L T T M S G T A K L S A A A A G G M G G M 2 Su = Normal. )3 T T Peaches & Cream (se) T K M N N N N S T T T S S T T T S Page 90 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .

and destruction of the crop are part of the terms of contract when purchasing BT sweet corn seed. Seed is drilled in the field about 1 inch deep. Isolation of sugary enhanced from normal sugary sweet corn types is recommended to maximize quality. early seasons varieties planted closest. A nematode assay is recommended before using this system. Supersweet sweet corn (sh2) cultivars have a crunchier kernel. Seed is sown as early as February in more southern regions on light. sugary enhanced (se). Check with seed supplier to ensure seed was treated with an insecticide and fungicide. pop corn. Certain restrictions such as isolation. These new types of sweet corn combine the genetics of sh2. Allow plastic to remain over plants for 30 days after emergence. Another advantage is that se sweet corn types maintain their quality for a longer period of time than normal sugary sweet corn types (su). equipment. In-row spacings range from 6 to 12 inches apart. conserve moisture. tough kernels. BT sweet corn has been genetically modified by incorporating a small amount of genetic material from another organism through modern molecular techniques. normal sugary (su). Use a high vigor seed variety to avoid uneven and reduced stand. In sweet corn. are sweeter than su and se cultivars. known under trade names such as Everlasting Heritage have varying degrees of increased sugar content with a creamier kernel texture as compared to su sweet corn types. Supersweet (sh2) sweet corn must be isolated by a distance of 300 feet or 12 days difference in silking date to avoid cross pollination from field corn. Syngenta Seeds has incorporated the BT gene into several sweet corn cultivars that are sold commercially under the trade name of Attribute followed by a series of numerals to identify the cultivar. Examples of cultivars of the normal sugary sweet corn are ‘Silver Queen’ (white kernel). Page 91 . with smalleared. however.There are three primary genes contributing to sweetness in sweet corn. other mammals. Plant these cultivars using the same recommendations as those of the sh2 types of sweet corn. and birds. Use a high vigor seed variety for early plantings. These cultivars are high in sugar levels. If nematodes are present in the soil. and produce earlier maturity. and seed size. Plant small acreages of new cultivars to test market their acceptance. ‘Merit’ (yellow kernel) and ‘Butter and Sugar’ (bicolor kernel). sugars in these cultivars are rapidly converted into starch if not cooked the day of harvest. Seed of supersweet (sh2) sweet corn cultivars should be handled very gently and the use of plateless planter is recommended to prevent damage to seed. quality is usually very minimally affected should cross pollination occur. Sweet Corn AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall NR 7/15-8/15 NR 7/15–8/15 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 4/15–5/30 2/1–4/30 4/15–4/30 2/1–3/31 5/1-6/15 4/20-7/10 4/10-7/20 3/1–5/15 2/15–5/1 3/20–4/9 2/21–3/14 3/15–4/30 4/15–6/15 3/1–4/15 3/30–5/30 4/15-6/30 4/15-6/15 Isolation requirements for the sweet corn genotype are impor- Mulching. when selecting a cultivar. however. or wasps) but more importantly this protein is safe for consumption by humans. Many older supersweet cultivars require warm soil (70°F or higher) to germinate since they are less vigorous than the se or su genotypes. The sugary enhanced (se) sweet corn gene. be sure to evaluate its acceptance in the market. This translates into increased sweetness with a smoother kernel texture. the incorporated BT genes is particularly effective in providing protection against European corn borer and corn earworm. and/or sugar enhanced (se) types. then cut and remove plastic from field. 4-foot-wide plastic. Corn is seeded in the usual manner. Apply herbicide and then cover with clear. tant in order to obtain the highest quality sweet corn. Failure to properly isolate the sh2 genotype will result in it producing starchy. Recently germination of sh2 sweet corn cultivars has been improved and is now comparable with the su and se types. and will delay the conversion of sugar to starch extending their shelf life. bees. They are. Seeding and Spacing. Xtra-tender. Normal sugary sweet corn (su) has been enjoyed for many years. and have a pericarp which is tender (this improves the eating quality of the sweet corn). Seed treatment. generally not harming insects in other orders (such as beetles. except 10 to 20 days earlier in double rows 14 inches apart and on 5.to 6-foot centers. normal sugary (su). se. Plants can then be cultured in the usual manner. It is recommended that augmented sweet corn types be isolated from all other sweet corn types for best quality. fish. In general. control measures are necessary before planting. Su sweet corn is known for its creamy texture and mild sugars. flies. Varieties are spaced 30 to 42 inches apart between rows depending on cultural practices. and supersweet or shrunken-2 (sh2). minimum acreage requirements. and su genotypes. These cultivars are commonly sold in farmer’s markets and roadside stands. The Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 protein produced by the BT gene is very selective. Cultivars of “Supersweet” or “shrunken” sweet corn (sh2) derive their name from the appearance of the dried kernel which is much smaller than kernels of su or se sweet corn types. Another important development in sweet corn cultivar development is the incorporation of the BT gene (called BT sweet corn). The use of clear plastic mulch will improve stands. hold well in storage. Ultrasweet. and Triplesweet are names for the latest development in sweet corn cultivars. sandy soils.

geographical location. note: Soil-applied insecticides may be ineffective during the first week of plant growth if soil temperatures are cool. Granular formulations. are generally more effective than liquid formulations for ECB control. If CEW populations are heavy. No-tillage is the most commonly used conservation tillage practice with sweet corn. under high pressure. Repeat sprays at three to five day intervals until 90% of the silks have wilted. Ears damaged by other insects attract SB. Foliar applications of an insecticide may be necessary during this period. Applications during low populations can end up to 5 days before last harvest. Some markets may not accept these hybrids. and make applications with a high pressure sprayer (200+ psi) with drop nozzles directed at the silks. Treat susceptible varieties at spike stage when 6 or more beetles per 100 plants can be found. Corn Flea beetle: Flea beetles transmit a bacterial wilt disease. For ECB on early plantings. An early tassel treatment is usually more effective than a whorl treatment because larvae are more exposed to the chemicals. FAW. Early in the season. Eggs are laid singly on the fresh silks. Early spring planting with no-tillage in sweet corn may delay growth and days to harvest. The impact of infestation on mid-and late-season plantings depends on the stage of the plants when the infestation occurs. Treat fields in early tassel stage if more than 15% of the emerging tassels are infested with ECB. European Corn borer (ECb): Thorough spray coverage in during silking is not practical because of the low thresholds for ear damage. treatments will need to be made according to the legal “days to harvest” of the chemical. use a wetting agent. FAW. Begin to control CEW when 10% of the ears are silked. it may be necessary to begin treatments when the very first silks appear. Corn hybrids having a long. and these beetles are numerous after mild winters. However. Another management tactic for CEW and European corn borer (ECB) control is the use of BT sweet corn. supplemental sprays may be needed to achieve damage-free ears. Inspect seed placement and adjust for correct depth. winter peas. apply first spray or granular application when 15% of the plants show fresh feeding signs. Minimum acreage and resistance management practices are required with BTs sweet corn. and time of year. Direct sampling for CEW.Conservation tillage.to late-whorl stages. These hybrids produce their own natural insecticide for control of these pests. Additional applications may be necessary if infestation remains above 15%. maximize the gallonage of water per acre. whorls and on plants is essential.to 6-day schedule. For foliar spray applications. During mid. HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. Many insecticides are highly toxic to bees. short-season varieties. Treat for FAW during the early whorl stage when more than 15% of the plants are infested. or young corn earworm (CEW) larvae. Direct sprays toward the middle third of the plant. and ECB known as Stewart’s Wilt. During heavy populations and high temperatures. Control is more difficult late in the season. treatment for both FAW and ECB may be necessary if more than 30% of the plants are infested. Silk sprays should continue on a schedule based on area blacklight and pheromone trap counts. it may be necessary to treat on a 1-to 3-day schedule. INSECt MANAGEMENt DECISION-MAKING whorl/tassel Infestation: In general. silk sprays may be required on a 3. if necessary. Sap beetle (Sb): Loose-husked varieties tend to be more sus- ceptible to sap beetle attack. Ear Infestation. Begin treatment when 10% of the ears show silk. Fall Armyworm (FAw): Direct granules over the plants so that they fall into leaf whorls when FAW first appear and repeat application. No additional nitrogen above recommendations is required if a legume cover crop (hairy vetch. When CEW populations are heavy. For best control during heavy populations. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt corn earworm (ceW): CEW initiates egg laying when the plants begin to silk and ends when the silks wilt. or crimson clover) is used as residue. Type of winter cover crop residue can affect sweet corn seed depth. if applied over the whorl. Planting after soils warm in the spring will improve vigor. Use of small grain cover residue may require additional nitrogen (20 to 30 lbs N/acre in addition to the normal recommendation) if cover crop is fairly mature when killed. Repeat every 3 to 5 days as needed. note: Insecticides used for worm control at silk may not control SB infestations. No-till planters currently in use with row crop production will plant sweet corn seed with minimal modifications. tight-fitting shuck appear to suffer less damage than those with loose shucks. high-spray gallonage (50 to 75 gallons per acre) is necessary for effective FAW control. Page 92 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Begin sampling at pollen shed and treat when 5% of the ears have adults and/or eggs. insect larval feeding (ECB and FAW) during the whorl stage of sweet corn development has a greater impact on early planted.

Both species are highly mobile and will also feed on several other host plants including. Adults will emerge in approximately one week. Cuttings should be free of insects before planting. Field Planting. Fertilize with 75 pounds of 8-8-8 or its equivalent per 100 square yards of bed space. spray fields 2 to 3 days before digging. Where worms are abundant at harvest. The larval stage lasts from 8-30 days depending on the temperature and food supply. Row spacing is 36 to 48 inches. Seed roots can then be bedded. Diabrotica balteata. larvae may continue feeding on sweetpotatoes left in the field and in storage. Adult beetles feed on sweet potato foliage. and soybean looper all feed on foliage leaving small to large holes. southern armyworm. Adult beetles lay eggs in the soil and larvae developing in the soil feed on developing sweet potato roots. In plant beds and newly set fields. Clear or white plastic may also be used over greenhouse hoops with thermostatically controlled fans and vents. 8 to10-inch long sprouts can be set with the transplanter on ridges 8 to 10 inches high. soybeans. they should be cut from the beds by snipping above (1”) the soil line. After harvest. Use a high-phosphate starter solution (15–30–15 or equivalent at the rate of 3 pounds in 50 gallons of water) during transplanting. but damage from these insects increases late season. Feeding on the roots can occur throughout the production season. and the spotted cucumber beetle. Bed seed stock in land not planted with sweetpotato for 3–5 years. damage may be serious. corn earworm. Well-rooted.5 inches long (20 to 28 days). Cucumber beetles (rootworms): Adults and larvae of the table for your area. To presprout. beet armyworm. Feeding injury results in unsightly blemishes on the roots at harvest. and cover with 2 to 3 inches of soil. Numerous generations of these insects can develop and injure Page 93 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .sWeetpotato Varieties1 SwEEtPOtAtO Beauregard Centennial Covington Evagelina Hernandez Jewel O’ Henry White Delite 1 AL A GA G KY K LA L MS M NC N N SC S TN T T Carolina Ruby A G A A A G G K K M K L N N N N N S S S T T White Hayman Abbreviations for state where recommended Plant Production. distance between plants in the row is 8 to 14 inches. Cover beds with clear or black plastic to promote earliness. One bushel of seed stock requires 20 to 30 square feet of bed area. Keep beds moist and temperature between 75° to 85°F. Plastic should be ventilated after 7 days with one 2-inch hole every 4 linear feet of bed to prevent accumulation of carbon dioxide. fall armyworm. Diabrotica undecimpunctata feed on sweet potato. and corn. The plastic should be left on the bed until danger of frost has passed. Sweetpotato AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS Planting Dates 5/1–6/30 3/15–5/15 5/15–6/15 4/1–6/15 5/20-6/1 5/10-6/10 5/1-7/15 5/1–6/30 4/15–6/30 4/25–5/20 banded cucumber beetle. yellowstriped armyworm. Apply insecticide to plant beds and in fields as needed. creating irregular holes in the leaves. various vegetable plant species. When sprouts are ready to be transplanted. This minimizes the transfer of diseases that could be on sweetpotato roots (scurf and other root rots). store seed roots at 85°F and 90% relative humidity until the sprouts are 1 to 1. About 500 sprouts can be produced from 1 bushel of seed stock. Mid to late season foliar feeding may reduce yields or delay sizing of roots when coupled with plant stress. Pupae are found just below the soil surface. Remove harvested sweetpotatoes from the field immediately. A presprout procedure started 3 to 4 weeks before normal bedding time is recommended. Plant in the field as indicated in the following Sweetpotato NC East NC West SC East SC West TN East TN West Planting Dates (con't) 5/1–7/15 5/25–6/30 4/15–6/15 5/1–6/15 5/15-6/30 5/1-6/30 SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Lepidoptera larvae: Sweetpotato hornworm.

Monitor movement of ornamental sweetpotatoes which often contain tortoise beetles and other insects. Control adults with insecticides. Adults feed on foliage leaving channels on the upper leaf surfaces. undisturbed soil. inspect the storage house and use traps. Larvae feed on roots causing damage sweetpotatoes decay due to other causes such as souring. Adults feed on weed seeds (pigweed) and corn pollen. Japanese beetles are attracted to traps. cure and store only sound sweetpotatoes. Infested sweetpotatoes are riddled with small holes and galleries especially in the stem end. chilling. white grubs. Avoid planting in fields with corn wireworm. Beauregard is very susceptible to flea beetles. They are most active in July and August and produce eggs in groups without mating. Temperature should never go below 50°F or chilling injury may result. Mississippi. broadcast and incorporate a preplant insecticide. Record whitefringed beetle sites and do not plant sweetpotatoes in these locations. They do not cause rots. If necessary. Hayman. whitefringed beetle. they should be cured in the storage house at 80° to 85°F and 90% relative humidity for 6 to 8 days. Pheromone traps are under evaluation. Fruit flies may become established in cull piles and spread to the storage house. Use a preplant insecticide and foliar sprays when adults are active. Regal. Fruit flies feed on decaying vegetables. but relative humidity should be maintained at 85%. In the spring. Avoid planting behind corn. Some cultivars are resistant to nematodes. damage by tortoise beetles threatens wireworms.sweet potatoes throughout the production season. spring rose beetle. Adults and larvae which feed on sweetpotato foliage include: mottled tortoise beetle. Tobacco wireworm adults can be monitored with yellow sticky cups. Isolate plant beds and control morningglory. including those produced out-of-state. This is the most serious worldwide pest wireworm leave small. and in fields to detect sweetpotato weevil. soil rot. Maggots may be seen in decaying roots. North Carolina or South Carolina. corn newly set plants or plants under stress. Adults and larvae feed on foliage. grain. on the surface of sweetpotatoes. spray with an appropriate insecticide. but prefer stems and roots. Jewel is tolerant to sweetpotato flea beetle. After the roots are dug. White bucket traps attract spring rose beetles. Cultivar tolerance exists to such diseases as bacterial root rot. wheat. There are several generations per year. Larvae are identified by differences in their last abdominal segment. pest management. and Rhizopus soft rot. and Sweetpotato Feathery Mottle Virus. shallow. southern potato wireworm. Monitor adults with yellow sticky cups. Fruit fly. Only flightless. The market place demands a high quality sweetpotato root. Page 94 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Control morningglories and weeds along field margins and plow under crop debris. must be certified. Leaves of infested plants are riddled with large. Wireworm adults (click beetles) lay their eggs in grassy. or oatmeal bait stations. Some varietal tolerance exists. depending on length of exposure. female adults occur and feed at the base of plants leaving scars on the stem. and argus tortoise beetle. and grain sorghum. Avoid land previously in sod or fallow. If necessary. They turn bitter and are unfit for consumption by either humans or livestock. Rhizopus soft rot. Chemical control with weekly or biweekly sprays is difficult. PRODUCING qUALIty SwEEtPOtAtOES Quality sweetpotatoes are the result of sound production. See Table 14 for further postharvest information. Fruit flies may be a nuisance in storage houses when along fence rows. blacklegged tortoise. Tolerant cultivars to some diseases and insects exist. Use resistant or tolerant varieties. temperature should be lowered to 55°F. as adults do not feed on sweetpotato and are only controlled when sprays contact adults or larvae move into a treated area. Timed foliar sprays are of limited value. In fields with a history of infestation use a preplant or a side-dressed soil insecticide over the foliage up to the last cultivation. Monitor for adults or leaf notching. sunken trails on the surface. All purchased roots/plants. Soil applied insecticides can reduce damage from these insects if applied close to planting. eggs are laid in the soil near host plants. Larvae feed on roots etching shallow. striped tortoise beetle. Tobacco wireworm. greenhouses. however. Apply insecticides to young plants if needed. They also feed and notch leaves. which enlarge. Use only “seed” and plants produced in approved and trapped weevil-free areas. sprouting will occur and root weight decrease. Louisiana. Dispose of culls. and green June beetle. Sweetpotato weevil. winding. foliar insecticides applied every two weeks and soil insecticides. Adults lay eggs in grassy areas (also see section on wireworms). After curing. similar to that of wireworms and white grubs. Sumor and Resisto have some tolerance to insects. shallow or deep holes in the surface of sweetpotato roots. Avoid infested fields and rotate crops. and at the edges of wooded areas. and golden tortoise beetle. Species include Japanese beetle. sweetpotato weevil is not in commercial production areas in Alabama. irregular. darken and split. Only grasses are not suitable as hosts. Harvest. Limited control may be achieved by using tolerant varieties. Fusarium wilt. Sweetpotato flea beetle. irregular damage of sweetpotatoes. Control beetles in plant beds and fields. Use pheromone traps in plant beds. These can cause large. and handling practices. Wireworm adults are attracted to black-light insect traps. Control weeds and do not allow them to mature to seed. Resistant varieties are available. Adults should be scouted weekly during the production season and labeled insecticides should be applied when the number of beetles sampled reaches or exceeds the treatment threshold of 2beetles/100sweeps. HARVEStING AND StORAGE A 3 to 4 month growing season is required for root development. Adult beetles overwinter in debris. tortoise beetle: Generally. or use a granular material at root swell. round holes. Above 60°F. Wireworms may be detected prior to planting using corn.

18 Celebrity Crista 2.18 Fletcher 2.11.14.17.18 Solar Set (Fall only) Talladega 2.11.18 7 M Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 95 .10.11.18 Mountain Belle 10.8.8.15.18.18 Mountain Crest 10.11.11.10. Nick Snappy Smarty 10.11.14.15.18 Red Defender Rutgers Redline 3.15 Elfin 7 G G G G G G K M M T T Jolly Elf 11.20 8.15.18 Mountain Fresh Plus Mountain Fresh 10.18 Solar Fire 3.18 17 Grape Types Cupid Brixmore 14.15.10.12.10.18 Navidad 11 Rosa N N N N N N N Santa Claus St.15.11.11.15.10.10.15.10.11.10.18 Phoenix 3.8.19 10.18 3.8.14 Floralina 8.10.18 Cherry Grande 8.3.10.12.14.11.15.11.10.10.18 Florida 47R 8.15.19 Mountain Glory 2.11.14.10.11.10.11.18 Mountain Spring 10.11.11. 10.11.11.12.18.15 Cherry Types Marcelino 6 Sun Gold Sun Leaper 3.12.11.9.11.12.11.18 BHN 543 10.8.15.12.10.18 BHN 640 2.12.18 BHN 216 3.11.10.18 2.10.10.11.18 Quincy 2.18 2.10.11.10.15.18.18 BHN 669 4 BHN 745 21 Bradley Big Beef 8.tomatoes Varieties1 tOMAtOES Fresh Market Bella Rosa BHN 444 BHN 602 Amelia VR 2.18 Carolina Gold 10.18 AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN A A G K L L L M N S T T K A A G G K L L L A A A A A A A A A A A A A A G G G G G L T T A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A G G G G K K M K L L L L M N N N N N N S S S S S S T S M N N S S S S T K L L L M M N N S T T T T G G G G G K K K K K K K K L L L L L M N N N S S S L L M M M M M T M M N N N N N S S S S T T T T T T T T T T N N S S T T T 2.15.18 Florida 91 3.11.8.11.12.

P2O5 and K2O.12.0 313.14. Before mulching.18.14. Seed treatment.18. 4 Southern Bacterial Wilt resistant.9.11. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system.10.0 125.11.8. 2 Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus resistant (TSWV).14.7 1. Dust with 1 teaspoon of Thiram per pound of seed. (some soils will require 100 pounds per acre of K2O) then thoroughly incorporate into the soil. 14 Nematode resistance (N).0 80. Wash seed in running water for 5 minutes and dry seed thoroughly. 3 Heat set (heat tolerant).0 2.0 132. Drip Fertilization.12. seed should be treated with chlorine. vinegar per gallon of water).18 BSS 436 Golden Sunshine 22 Mariana 8.5 0. If seed is not treated with chlorine by the seed company.11.8 221. Use 1 gallon of solution per pound of seed.10.9 Page 96 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Do not harden transplants by withholding fertilizer.2 4.0 200. 4/15–6/15 3/1–4/30 4/15–6/15 3/1–4/30 5/15-6/1 5/5-6/15 4/20-7/1 3/15–6/30 3/1–6/30 4/20–6/30 3/1–3/15 4/15–5/10 5/15–7/15 3/1-4/30 3/15–4/30 5/1–6/30 5/1-6/30 4/20-6/20 in the absence of a soil test.5 5.20 Spectrum 882 8. 22 Orange fruit.5 418. To minimize the occurrence of bacterial can- ker.8. 20 Tomato Mosaic Virus resistance (ToMV).19 Pony Express 9. Prepare a fresh solution for each batch of seed.11.10. also include 0.10. apply enough fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N.15.18 A A G G L M N N N S S T T T N A A A G G 8 Alternaria Stem Canker T T S G K K K K N N Picus 2.15.Varieties1 tOMAtOES (con't) Roma Types BHN 410 9. 19 Early Blight tolerance.15. 15 Gray Leaf Spot resistance (St).0 101.10.11. Allow plants to wilt slightly between light waterings. 21 Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus resistance (TYLCV). Harden plants by withholding water. superior quality.8 179. bacterial spot. 5 Local markets only.5 and.18. 16 Tobacco Mosaic Virus resistance (TMV).12.5 57. adjust soil pH to 6. Provide constant agitation. 17 Yellow fruit. tolerance/resistance (FCRR).18 T T T Sunoma 9. the soluble fertilizer program should be initiated according to that described in the following table.14.6 1.6 1.9 2. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after fieldtransplanting the tomatoes.11.18 Muriel 2.20 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. tolerance/resistance (F).10. 7 Determinant grape tomato.0 0. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for tomato (low soil potassium) Days after planting Preplant 0–14 15–28 29–42 43–56 57–77 78–98 Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 50.15. tomato AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West SC Coastal Island SC East SC West TN East TN West Spring Planting Dates Fall NR 7/15–8/30 NR 7/15–8/30 NR NR NR 7/1–8/10 7/15–8/15 NR NR 8/1–8/15 NR 7/1-7/15 7/1–7/15 NR NR NR Hardening transplants. The final rinse should be done with acidified water (1 oz.11. 18 Verticillium Wilt resistance (V).5 pound per acre of actual boron.10.15.11. 6 Super sweet medium sized cherry.4 66. 2 or 3 13 Fusarium Crown Root Rot tolerance/resistance (ASC).12 Fusarium Wilt race 1.0 0.10.4 148. 10.8 151.18 AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN BHN 685 2. then dip seed in a solution containing 1 quart of household bleach and 4 quarts of water plus one-half teaspoon of surfactant for 1 minute. On soils testing low to low-medium boron.5 2.14.5 3. and bacterial speck.11. Recent research has shown that hardening tomato plants by exposure to cool temperatures (60° to 65°F/day and 50°to 60°F/night) for a week or more causes catfacing.18 Plum Crimson 10. Continue fertigating until the last harvest. 9 Bacterial Speck tolerance/resistance (BSK-0). It is usually desirable to harden ten- der tomato seedlings before planting them in the field.

Pruning: Pruning is practiced to establish a desired balance between vine growth and fruit growth. two small parallel holes. Pruning should be done before the first stringing because the string can slow the pruning process. Little to no pruning results in a plant with a heavy load of smaller fruit.5 2. schedule 40PVC pipe. Prune when the suckers are no more than 2 to 4 inches long. The tool serves as an extension of the worker’s arm (the length cut to the worker’s preference) and helps to keep the string tight. note: If strings are too tight. The same process is continued on the other side of the row. feet apart with plants 15 to 24 inches apart in the row. Pruning can result in earlier maturity of the crown fruit and improves spray coverage and pest control.2 148.8 1. For indeterminate varieties. Proper stringing consists of tying the twine to an end stake passing the string along one side of the plants. Pruning when suckers are too large requires more time and can damage the plants. See state specific guides for a full description of staking.8 141. Consumers are attracted to heirloom tomatoes because many varieties are very flavorful. Staking improves fruit quality by keeping plants and fruit off the ground and providing better spray coverage. Vigorous cultivars may require larger and longer stakes. and then looping the twine around each stake until the end of a row or section (100-foot sections with alleys may be helpful for harvesting) is reached. and increase disease incidence. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 been available for 50 years or more. must be drilled to feed the string through one hole along the length of the tool and through the other hole. or wooden dowel.5-feet long by 1-inch square are driven about 12 inches into the soil between the plants. heirloom tomatoes are Page 97 . The first stringing should be strung 8 to 10 inches above the ground when plants are 12 to 15 inches tall and before they fall over. See the “Drip Irrigation” section of General Production Recommendations for detailed recommendations on fertilizing tomatoes grown with plastic mulch and drip irrigation.5 2. Run the next string 6 to 8 inches above the preceding string before plants start to fall over.0 1. Removing all suckers up to the one immediately below the first flower cluster is adequate for most determinate cultivars. Use between row spacings of 5 to 6 feet with inrow spacings of 18 to 24 inches.0 125. Removing the sucker immediately below the first flower cluster or pruning above the first flower cluster can result in severe leaf curling and stunting of the plant and should be avoided.5 275.5 200.0 0. Stake Culture.5 Less-vigorous determinate cultivars generally require less pruning. Staking tomatoes consists of a series of wooden stakes with twine woven around the stakes to train the plants to grow vertically off the ground. Placing an additional stake at an angle and tied to the end stake of each section will strengthen the trellis system. Space determinate varieties in rows 4 to 5 tion system. requiring trellising and constant pruning. are open pollinated. and tend to crack. Staking. To make tying convenient. or paint black plastic with a 5:1 (v/v) mixture of exterior.0 2.8 155. use a homemade stringing tool.to 4-pound boxes. and have interesting names.7 66. With a broom handle or wooden dowel. With conduit. Yield. Heirloom tomatoes are varieties that have * Adjust based on tissue analysis Fresh Market. powerdriven stake driving tool.0 223.0 0. A stake placed between every other plant is adequate to support most determinate varieties.0 80. The fruit are usually thin-skinned. Staked tomatoes are easier to harvest than ground tomatoes. Form-raised.5 0. Do not prune plants when they are wet to avoid spread of diseases. Growers should experiment with several degrees of pruning on a small scale to determine pruning requirements for specific cultivars and cultural practices. Lay black plastic mulch tightly over the beds. Moderate pruning results in fewer fruits that are larger and easier to harvest.5 101. This tool can be made from a length of metal conduit. Staking tomatoes is a highly specialized producGround Culture. Pruning is variety-and fertility-dependent. For the growers. come in many sizes and shapes. dome-shaped beds to aid in disease control.Days after planting Preplant 0–14 15–28 29–42 43–56 57–77 78–98 Suggested Fertigation Schedule for tomato (high soil potassium) Daily Daily Cumulative nitrogen potash nitrogen potash –––––––––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––––––––––– 50. broom handle.5 57. Select “tomato twine” that is resistant to weathering and stretching and that binds well to the wooden stakes.8 1. Most varieties have little disease resistance. Drive stakes to a consistent depth so that spray booms can be operated in the field without damaging the trellis system.5 1. Three to four stringings are required for most determinate varieties. delay maturity. When air temperature exceed 85F use white on black plastic mulch. and fruit quality of fresh mar- ket tomatoes are increased by the use of black plastic mulch in combination with drip irrigation. Stakes can be driven by hand with a homemade driving tool or with a commercially available. Lay black plastic mulch tightly over the beds. The following recommendations are for the shortstake cultural system using determinate cultivars that grow 3 to 4 feet in height or for indeterminate varieties that grow 6 to 7 feet in height. soft.7 0. and grow “true to type” from seed saved from fruit each year. They are generally indeterminate. the string is fed through the pipe.0 132.2 2.8 176. flat white latex paint and water. Tomato twine is available in 3. Approximately 30 pounds of twine is required per acre. Stringing should be done when the foliage is dry to prevent the spread of diseases. Heirloom tomatoes. they can make harvesting fruit difficult and can scar fruit. The string tension must be tight enough to hold the plants upright. fruit size. A second pruning may be required to remove suckers that are too small to be easily removed during the first pruning and to remove ground suckers that may develop. Stakes 4 to 4. each about 1 inch from the end. colorful. space rows 5 to 6 feet apart with plants 24 to 36 inches apart in the row.

including the beet armyworm. Cherokee Purple. worse on green shouldered varieties). Insecticide sprays should be made after most egg masses have hatched. moths will switch egg laying to other hosts. CPB have developed resistance to many different insecticides. as described for the determinate tomatoes. weathercheck (fruit exposed to dew). and larvae feed within leaves. yellow shoulder (direct sun exposure. Colorado potato beetle adults and larvae feed on tomato foliage and can cause extensive defoliation if not controlled. A trellis can be constructed of 3 inch diameter. (tobacco mosaic virus. If the main growing point is broken off. sunburn and sunscald (direct rapid exposure to the sun). but control may be necessary when populations are high (20-30% defoliation). low K or soil compaction). but late-season infestations are common in northern areas. suckers must be removed several times a week. or larger. strong trellis. especially in areas with high disease pressure. because larvae feed on leaf tissue for only a short time before boring into fruit. irregular water. so knowledge of the resistance status of populations is essential in choosing which insecticides to use. If using a standard staking system. Some of the most popular include Brandywine. In contrast to tomato fruitworm. Stripey. The use of pheromone-based mating disruption is an effective control method. graywall and blotchy ripening. Mr. As larvae increase in age they bore into stems and/or fruit. posts set 10-15 feet apart within the row. long stakes instead of the normal 4-ft. there are many insecticides that provide excellent control. For organic production. Consequently. Thoroughly scout fields and spray only when necessary.. and/or nutrition). Pieces of twine. but can bring high prices on the local market. it might be necessary to grow heirloom tomatoes under high tunnels. growth. German Johnson. they must be grown on a tall. Stink bugs: The green and brown stink bug can be important direct pests of tomato. Infestations are usually sporadic in the more northern regions of the southeastern US. CPB feed only on solanaceous plants. Initiate mating disruption at the first sign of mines on foliage. armyworms will also feed extensively on foliage as well as fruit. southern armyworm and yellowstriped armyworm. long stakes. Some growers use the standard string and weave-staked culture system for heirloom tomatoes. Numerous insecticides also control pinworm. but when corn silks begins to dry. long posts. tomato Pinworm: The tomato pinworm is more common in the SPECIAL NOtES ON PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Colorado Potato beetle (CPb).e. a sucker can be trained to take its place. Run a stout wire (12 gauge) across the tops of the posts and secure it with staples. overcast cloudy environment. resulting in small round holes Page 98 southern compared with northern regions of the southeast. Stink bugs are most common in smaller fields (i. is potentially the most damaging pest of tomato. creating blotchy mines. but are an annual problem in more southern areas. Moths lay eggs on foliage. or fields that are adjacent Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . including tomato. A two stem system may also be used. rotation to nonsolanaceous crops is very effective in helping to avoid infestations. Corn that is in the silking stage is a preferred host of fruitworm. above ground.challenging to produce and difficult to ship. The key to controlling this insect is to ensure that there is a toxic pesticide residue on the plant during egg laying periods so that larvae are killed shortly after hatching. apart within the row and pruned to a single stem system. Adults feed on foliage. off the ground and secured to the posts. in which the plants should be spaced 18-30 in. 5 acres or less) that are surrounded by weedy borders. Flea beetles are primarily a problem early in the season shortly after planting. should be tied to the top wire above each plant. eggplant and tomato have previously been grown. but before larvae become large. Fleabeetles (Fb): While flea beetles are a common pest of tomato throughout the southeastern US. Beet armyworm is notorious for exhibiting resistance to a wide range of insecticides. apart within the row. Use 7-8 ft. There are hundreds of varieties of heirloom tomatoes available. internal browning. but they use 6-ft. tOMAtO DISORDERS Your state Extension service has bulletins that describes fruit disorders in detail. plants are usually spaced 8-10 in. long enough to reach the ground. Once the plants are established. blossom end rot (low soil calcium and/or soil moisture). it is important to maintain a good fungicide spray schedule. In a trellis system. plants should be spaced 18-24 in. apart. but the recent registration of newer insecticides has greatly aided the management of this pest. tomato Fruitworm: The tomato fruitworm. In most situations this damage does not affect early season growth or subsequent yields. and populations tend to be concentrated in areas where potato. Because most heirloom tomatoes have little disease resistance. but they are sporadic in occurrence. Armyworms: At least three species of armyworms are potential pests of tomato. The twine can be anchored with a loop to each plant or to a bottom line of twine that is strung about 6 in. also known as the corn earworm and cotton bollworm. cracking (variety. Treatment should be made if populations exceed 15 adults per 10 plants or a combination of 20 CPB larvae and/or adults per 10 plants. and the presence of feeding damage on leaves can help differentiate between fruitworm and armyworm damage. Here are several common disorders of tomato and their causes: catfacing (cool day and/or night temperatures or very hot dry days). leaving 6-7 ft. and Green Zebra. However. high N. Colorado potato beetle are most common in areas where significant acreage of potatoes is also grown. on leaves. and are usually controlled by insecticides applied for other insects. Because most heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate. Tomato fruitworm moth activity can be monitored with pheromone traps and serves as a measure of the adult population within an area.

aggravate mite populations and can lead to high mite densities. Mites can also move from other crops (including other tomato fields) into tomatoes throughout the season. Preventive control can be achieved with soilapplied systemic insecticides applied to the soil or at planting. but symptom expression can be delayed through their use combined with the use of reflective mulches.to soybeans. but thorough coverage of foliage is important. Mites can be sampled by using a sample of 10 leaflets (terminal leaflet on a leaf from the upper one-third of the plant). Localized infestations can be spot treated. thrips transmit the virus from infected ornamental plants (flowers). Unfortunately. Use nematicides listed in the both infest tomatoes in the southeast. Generally. When mites reach an average of 2 mites/leaflet. tSwV): Use tolerant or resistant varieties. on tomatoes and other vegetables grown in the southeast. they are very difficult to control. growers may wish to use yellow trap pans containing water to determine when mass flights of winged aphids occur. Be sure not to grow any ornamental bedding plants in the same greenhouse as pepper transplants. preventive control is usually necessary for effective. VIRUSES Aphid-transmitted Viruses (tMV. The tobacco thrips and western flower thrips are vectors of tomato spotted wilt virus. CMV. a miticide should be applied. Once whitefly populations of either species become established on a crop. Generally. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 99 . Twospotted spider mite is the most common mite pest. The virus is spread to peppers by thrips. tEV. Because aphids transmit these virus. Hence. Monitor greenhouses and scout fields for thrips. The majority of virus infections are the result of primary spread (thrips transmitting the virus from surrounding weeds directly to tomatoes or greenhouse infections). HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information.. or the application of other insecticides when populations are low. PVx. from a minimum of 5 sample sites per field. This damage appears as small dimples in fruit. there is not a good sampling method to assess population densities before damage occurs. Mites: Mites have become an increasingly important problem “Nematodes” section of Soil Pests–Their Detection and Control. An average of 1 thrips per flower has worked well as a treatment threshold level. Nematode Management. and insecticides do not kill thrips quickly enough to prevent inoculation. Note that certain pesticides. Sample thrips in tomato flowers by placing a white index card below flowers and tapping the flowers with a finger. In fact. these viruses cannot be adequately controlled with insecticide applications. one to three applications of an insecticide are necessary to prevent damage. This is the result of thrips feeding and/or laying eggs in small fruits before stamens are shed from flowers. Thrips can also cause direct damage to tomato fruit. chemical control of stink bugs is often not necessary in fields that do not fit the previous description. During transplant production. However. Use these varieties in areas where these viruses have been prevalent or when high aphid pressure is expected. Begin an insecticide program BEFORE a problem is observed. the silverleaf whitefly is more common in the southern region and the greenhouse whitefly is more common in the northern region of the southeast. and preventive strategies are used. but the broad mite and carmine spider mite can also infest tomatoes. such as pyrethroids and some neonictinoids. and are also indirect pests of tomato due to their ability to transmit tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). an aggressive early insecticide control program early in the season (3 to 4 weeks after transplanting) and the use of reflective mulches have helped to reduce the incidence of TSWV in tomatoes. Mites overwinter on weeds and move into tomatoes in the spring as weeds die. PVy): Use feeding or oviposition scars on small fruits. TSWV can be severe on peppers during both greenhouse production of transplants and during field production of the crop. thrips: Thrips can cause direct damage to tomato fruit by their DISEASE MANAGEMENt Damping-Off: Plantbed: Use seed treatment and plant in a disease-free mix. seasonlong management. whiteflies: The greenhouse whitefly and silverleaf whitefly can tolerant or resistant varieties to control these viruses when available and provided that the fruit quality is consistent with market demands. Depending on the surrounding habitat and abundance of stink bugs within an area. thrips-transmitted virus (tomato Spotted wilt Virus.

S Buttercup 2.Watermelon Varieties1 wAtERMELONS Diploid. Hybrid Celebration R Damara Escarlett IR Fiesta IR Gold Strike 3.S Cooperstown S Crunchy Red Gypsy S Liberty Imagination S S S Summer Flavor 800 IR VS Matrix IR Millennium S Millionaire Premiere S MS Revolution R Seedless 402 S Seedless 4502 Sugar Heart S IR Slice N’ Serve S Summer Sweet 5244 S Page 100 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .S Jamboree Juliette IR Patriot S IR MS AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN T A A G G L M M N N N L L A A A A A G L G K A A A A A A A G G G G G G G K L L M K K K K L L L L L L L M M M M N N N S S S T T A A A G G G A A A A G G K G G K L M M K G K M N N N N N N N N N N N S S S T T T A G G A G M N S N S S S S S S S S T T T T T T T T M N N N N N N N S S T T S S S G G G L L L N S T M L M M N N N N S S S S T T S S S T T T Jubilation IR Mardi Gras R Regency IR Royal Star IR Royal Sweet Sangria R Sentinel S R Stars N’ Stripes S Starbrite S Summer Flavor 710 S Top Gun Icebox Mickylee R Sugar Baby Triploid Amarillo 2. Open-pollinated Anthem IR Crimson Sweet Jubilee II IR Diploid.

5 inches by 1. Seedless watermelons must be transplanted since these seed require a specific environment in order to achieve a high percentage of germination. Inadequate pollination results in triploid watermelon fruit that are triangular in shape and of inferior quality. viable pollen needed to induce fruit set and development. (Seedless watermelons produce inadequate pollen. so consult the following table for your area. Temperatures in the greenhouse should be maintained at 80° to 90°F. Planting. Several seed companies have developed new varieties for use soley as a pollenizer. Method 2: A second method is to plant the pollenizer between every third or fourth plant within each row without changing the plant spacing of the seedless (triploid) watermelon.Varieties1 Triploid AL GA KY LA MS NC SC TN wAtERMELONS (con't) Super Seedless Variety # 7187 S Super Seedless Variety # 5244 S Super Seedless Variety # 7167 S Tri-X Carousel S Tri-X Palomar S Tri-X Shadow S Tri-X 212 S Tri-X 313 S Wrigley S A G N S A A A A A G G G G M T T T T T T G M N N N N N S S S S S Triploid Mini (NoTe: many of these varieties only available under contract) Bambino 714 S Bibo S A Extazy 3 A Leopard S Little Deuce Coupe S A Mielheart S A Petite Perfection S A Petite Treat S A Pixie A Rosa Sweet A Vanessa S A 1 Abbreviations for state where recommended. Check with seed supplier to determine if seed has been treated with an insecticide or fungicide. rye strips. If the seed is of good quality with high germination. Seedless watermelon seed must be planted with the point of the seed facing up (root end). then resume normal watering. one seed per pot is sufficient. These pollenizers can be interplanted into a field totally devoted towards the production of triploid watermelons. Transplants: Transplant container-grown plants into specialized “pollenizers” must be used for seedless watermelon production. Unique. Inadequate pollination increases the incidence of hollowheart. or windbreaks. When this method is chosen. Plant Production.) Seeded (diploid) or Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Growing media should be kept slightly drier than normal until 10 to 15% emergence. Be sure that seeds have been assayed for bacterial fruit blotch. G G G G G G M K N N N N N N N N N S S S S S S S S S T T G 3 Orange flesh fruit. Triploid watermelon flowers do not produce sufficient. at times slowing growth or reducing stand. The required amount of seed can be estimated using Table 6.5 inches for each plant. Dedicated row pollenizer plantings place the pollenizer variety in the outside row and then every third row throughout the field. Method 1: Use of a dedicated row. Transplants should be grown in containers that provide a space of at least 1. Fields should be inter-planted with pollenizer plants or diploid watermelon plants in order to provide viable pollen. 2 Yellow flesh fruit. T VS=very susceptible to Fusarium wilt race 1 IR=intermediate resistance to Fusarium wilt race 1 R=resistant to Fusarium wilt race 1 S=susceptible to Fusarium wilt race 1 MS=moderately susceptible to Fusarium wilt race 1 Seed treatment. the use of a special pollenizer is recommendPage 101 plastic mulch when daily mean temperatures have reached 60°F. Smaller pots or cells will restrict root growth and provide less protection to the newly set transplant. compact growth habits prevent these pollenizers from competing for space with triploid plants. so a “pollenizer” variety is required to ensure good pollination of seedless watermelons. Therefore. pollen from a normal (diploid) or a special diploid pollenizer watermelon variety must be present. There are two methods that can be used to incorporate pollenizer plants into the field. POLLINAtION AND PLANtING ARRANGEMENt Fruit set and enlargement in watermelon is dependent upon growth regulators from pollen grains and from embryos in the developing seeds within the fruit. Early plantings should be protected from winds with row covers. Planting dates vary. The seed coat of seedless watermelons tends to adhere to the seedling as it emerges.

Honeybees are important for high fruit yields and quality.5 pound per acre of actual boron. After mulching and installing the drip irrigation system.0 63.ed. and in the absence of a soil test. plant vigor. P2O5 and K2O.0 35.0 63. Special pollenizer varieties have been developed solely for pollen production and most do not produce marketable fruit.0 147. For optimal results. however. Some cultivars can only be obtained on a contract basis. however.5 2. On soils testing low to low-medium boron.0 1. Continue fertigating until the last harvest. Be sure to follow suppliers’ instructions. Before mulching. The use of special pollenizers with Method 2 allows the field to be dedicated to the production of seedless watermelons. The first soluble fertilizer application should be applied through the drip irrigation system within a week after field transplanting or direct-seeding the watermelons.0 1. Page 102 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Pinnacle. Apply insecticides only in the evening hours or wait until bloom is completed before application. As a general rule. SP-4. adjust soil pH to 6. also include 0.’ Other cultivars and lines are currently being developed and evaluated. if mini seedless watermelons are planted. watermelon AL North AL South GA North GA South KY East KY Central KY West LA North LA South MS North MS South NC East NC West Planting Dates 5/15–6/30 3/1–6/30 5/15–6/15 3/1–6/30 5/15-6/15 5/5-7/1 4/20-7/15 3/10–6/30 3/1–7/5 4/15–5/15 2/15–5/1 4/15–6/30 5/25–6/30 watermelon SC East SC West TN East TN West Planting Dates (con't) 4/1–4/30 4/15–6/15 5/5-6/30 4/25-5/30 Drip Fertilization and Mulching. MINI SEEDLESS wAtERMELON The mini seedless watermelon was introduced in 2003 and demand for this product has continued to increase. Jenny.0 * Adjust based on soil and tissue analysis 1 Growth Stage can vary from season to season.0 93.0 35.0 160. the soluble fertilizer program should then be initiated according to that described in the following table. disease resistance. Suggested Fertigation Schedule for watermelons* Days after planting Growth stage1 Daily nitrogen Daily potash Cumulative nitrogen potash –––––––––––––– (lb / A) –––––––––––– Preplant 0-28 29-49 50-77 78-91 Planting to Flowering Flowering to First Fruit Set Fruit Set to Initial Ripening Harvest 1.0 147. their rind pattern must be used to distinguish pollenizer and seedless fruit. and environmental conditions. Populations of pollinating insects may be adversely affected by insecticides applied to flowers or weeds in bloom. The rind pattern and/or shape of the seeded pollenizer fruit must be easily distinguished from that of the seedless fruit in order to reduce confusion at harvest. direct field seeding of the pollenizer variety should be done on the same day the triploid seed is planted in the greenhouse. Seed 3-5 pounds of seed per acre. and Sidekick. it is important to use a pollenizer variety that is marketable because up to one-third of all watermelons produced in the field will be from this seeded variety. The use of standard diploid variety planted using Method 2 may decrease yields of the triploid plants. If transplants are used for pollenizers.0 1. pollen production.0 93. Patron. Direct-seeded: Seed when soil temperatures reach 55°F. The recommended spacing for watermelons is 6-10 feet between rows with 24-30 square feet per plant. apply enough fertilizer to supply 50 pounds per acre of N. Selection of a pollenizer variety that will be harvested should also take into account market demand. The mini seedless watermelon market is still developing and additional research is needed before more definitive cultivar and production recommendations can be made.fertigate watermelons based on their growth stage as opposed to days after planting. With Method 2. these fruit generally range from 3 to 8 pounds.5 2. under no circumstances should the pollenizer variety and the seedless variety be planted in separate but adjacent blocks! When using Method 1. but tend to yield a percentage of fruit on the large side (> 8 lb) are ‘Extazy’ and ‘Valdoria. Special pollenizer varieties found to perform well in the southeast are: SP-1.0 160.0 1. most special pollenizers are distinguishable from triploid fruit by size. It is important that pollen from the diploid pollenizer variety be available when the female blossoms on the triploid plants are open and ready for pollination. Some cultivars that produce well and produce high quality fruit. they can be seeded a few days before triploid transplants are scheduled to be seeded. See section on “Pollination” in the General Production Recommendations.5.0 1. This market is still evolving. while others are generally available to growers. (some soils will require 100 pounds per acre of K2O) then thoroughly incorporate into the soil.

All commercial watermelon varieties are susceptible to race 2. These superscripts indicate the reaction of commonly grown diploid and triploid varieties to race 1 of Fusarium wilt. see the preceding “Drip Fertilization and Mulching” section. control may be needed to prevent feeding damage to seedlings. Herbicides may wash from a large area of plastic into the plant hole and result in crop injury. Many seeded (diploid). and “R” for resistant are listed next to each recommended variety. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 103 . “S” for susceptible. seedless (triploid) varieties are susceptible to race 1. 4. Georgia. Complete soil preparation and lay plastic and drip irrigation before herbicide application.FUNGAL DISEASE MANAGEMENt Fusarium wilt: Fusarium wilt of watermelon is widespread throughout the southeastern US. coverage beneath leaves is important. For Soil Strips between Rows of Plastic Mulch. 3. Thorough spray 5. All herbicide rate recommendations are made for spraying a broadcast acre (43. 2. planting sequences. “IR” for intermediate resistance. Spray preemergence herbicides on the soil and the shoulders of the plastic strips in bands before weeds germinate. For further information on aphid controls. including the pollenizers that they select for seedless watermelon production. Apply nonselective herbicides in bands to the soil strips between plastic mulch before crop seedlings emerge. Most varieties of watermelon. and South Carolina. Treat seedlings every 5 to 7 days or as needed. Avoid wetting the outside 3 to 6 inches of plastic. 1. Incorporate preemergence herbicide into the soil with 0. Mites: Mite infestations generally begin around field margins HARVEStING AND StORAGE See Table 14 for postharvest information. however. other than heirloom varieties. and grassy areas. Aphids: Aphids can delay fruit maturation. Localized infestations can be spot-treated. Note. Growers should choose resistant varieties whenever possible. The superscripts “VS” for very susceptible. Apply selective postemergence herbicides broadcast or in bands to soil strips between mulch to control susceptible weeds. and herbicides labeled for watermelons. and DO NOT APPLY HERBICIDE TO THE SURFACE OF THE PLASTIC. note: Continuous use of Sevin or the pyrethroids may result in mite outbreaks.560 ft2). which is present in parts of Florida. SPECIAL NOtES FOR PESt MANAGEMENt INSECt MANAGEMENt Cucumber beetle: Watermelons are resistant to bacterial wilt.5 to 1 inch of rainfall or overhead irrigation within 48 hours of application and BEFORE PLANTING OR TRANSPLANTING. hybrid varieties are resistant to race 1. “MS” for moderately susceptible. Treat when an average of two beetles per plant is found. CAUTION: DO NOT mow or maintain these areas after midsummer because this forces mites into the crop. Use the fol- lowing land preparation treatment. are resistant to race 0. while all round. or crop injury may result.

Centipedes are not typically white in color and have large Chilicerae with venomous fangs. or bulbs. Collect soil samples from 20 scattered sites per acre. similar to other root problems. it will be necessary to place the bait stations randomly throughout the field such as placing two bait stations at the highest elevation in the field. Wireworm infestations tend to concentrate in some locations.25 inch) white centipede-like animals that move quickly and try to avoid light. several wireworms may be found in one bait station and none in others. Do not confuse the symphylans with true centipedes—centipedes eat other arthropods and are considered beneficial. Dig up the bait stations in 10 to 14 days and count the number of wireworms. Fields where small grain or grasses have been grown the preceding 2 or 3 years are the best candidates for bait stations. roots. Frequently. Dry or cold [less than 45°F] soil will reveal few. Detection: The above injury to young plants or tubers frequentwhen to apply: Insecticides can be applied either in the spring or fall when the soil temperature at the 6-inch depth is at least 50°F and soil moisture is equivalent to that desired for planting. Follow this procedure for baiting: 1. as there is no practical post-planting control. when to treat: If samples are taken in the spring. A common practice is to flag off the spot and treat that area with soil insecticides in the following fall or spring. Samples taken in September or October may average four or five per shovelful and will warrant treatment before the next crop. Method 2 1. Soil solarization has not been an effective control. Symphylans have 12 pairs of legs on 14 body segments. How to apply: When intended as a broadcast application. Further evidence can be obtained by sampling. It may be possible to limit treatment to areas of the field where the wireworm concentration is heaviest. Page 104 developing plants. In a band treatment as with potatoes. 3. GARDEN CENtIPEDES (SyMPHyLANS) Garden centipedes are arthropods that are related to insects. Because wireworm infestations are often localized within a field. if any. If a spot becomes established. Be sure the soil temperature at the 6-inch depth ranges between 45° and 85°F and that soil moisture is equivalent to that desired for planting. then two stations on a slope and finally two stations in the lowest point in the field. The symphylans will float to the top. 4. Immediately after application. slender (less than 0. because the symphylans are continuously grazing on the fibrous roots. Mix 1 cup of untreated wheat and 1 cup of untreated shelled corn at each station. Symphylans have beaded antennae. a labeled soil insecticide should be used. using either of the following methods: Method 1 A technique using baits has been developed for evaluating wireworm potential before planting. apply an appropriate soil insecticide at planting 3 to 6 inches deep along both sides of the row. the insecticide is applied immediately before planting. control is generally warranted if there is an average of over two symphylans per shovelful of soil. Each sample should represent a soil profile 12 inches deep and 6 inches in diameter. Bury the bait about 4 inches deep. Rotation does not appear to be an effective control.pest management soil pests—tHeir detection and control wIREwORMS Wireworms injure vegetable crops by killing seeds or seedlings and tunneling and scarring tubers. When early spring planting is required. use a low-gallonage sprayer or granule distributor designed for low dosages. Sift soil and count wireworms. In some instances. Detection: The first symptom is an area or patch of poorly tion (Method 1) or if you find five or more wireworms in 20 soil samples (Method 2). what to Use: See the crop protectant section for each crop for ly is sufficient evidence to warrant control measures. The plastic collects solar heat and speeds germination of the corn and wheat. Check the soil in these areas so that treatment can be made before planting the next crop. 2. One bait station per acre is desirable. Cover the ground over each bait station with an 18-inch square of black plastic. 2. mix insecticide with soil to adepth of at least 6 inches by disking twice in opposite directions. including most vegetable species. The bait stations should be established 2 to 3 weeks before the anticipated planting date. Mark each station with a flag or stake. Control: If you find an average of one wireworm per bait sta- appropriate chemical to use. It is reasonable to assume that symphylans can be transported in soil on field equipment. They feed on germinating seed and fibrous roots of many crop and noncrop plants. Dig up the soil and look for small. They are often associated with moist areas of a field and typically establish in spots or field edges. 3. symphylans. and on decaying plant material. which entices overwintering wireworms. Insecticides Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . a fall treatment is suggested. the crops planted into that area have a difficult time growing out of the damage. Another method of sampling is to drop the soil into a bucket of water.

slugs seek shelter under protective debris and will avoid the drying effects of sun and wind. The adult of the maggot (a fly) fluctuates in abundance in different areas in different years. As a result. the roots will be found to have been eaten off. beans. Others attack the seedlings or transplants. Increase the amount of water used to at least 30 gallons per acre. Adult beetles lay eggs in the soil during June and July. If cutworms are actively cutting plants. preventive controls are good insurance before planting if there were previous maggot problems. Control: Grub damage is usually associated with grassy or weedy fields. Direct sprays at the base of the plants where cutworms are actively feeding. Cutworms are attracted to light and can lay eggs on transplants growing in greenhouses which are lighted at night. decaying vegetation.. and usually the curve-bodied grubs can be found in the soil. During the day. will wilt. and underground fleshy parts of these plants rot. note: Effectiveness of soil-applied insecticides decreases as soil temperature decreases below 55°F. and serious problems have occurred in potatoes. spear. Manure and other organic matter should be thoroughly worked into the soil in the fall so is not as attractive to the egg laying seed corn maggot flies in the spring. stones. Root Maggot: Plants whose roots are attacked by the root mag- 2. the grubs work their way deep into the soil and return to the surface the following spring. grubs may take from 1 to 3 years to become adults and may cause problems year after year. Page 105 . During periods of drought. to sprout or. especially in dry weather. which causes a pattern of patchy growth in fields where plants are dead or dying. All slugs require damp or humid surroundings for development. The cutworm eggs and larvae may be accidentally transferred to the field with the plants. Some attack the tuber. Follow all label directions and restrictions when using these materials. However. Injury is most severe in wet. Above ground. Control: Where cutworms are suspected. In all cases. but are related to snails. a postplanting contact treatment maybe necessary.M. especially in dry weather. it is weak or sickly. Depending on the insect. and will seldom reach full growth. Problems may often occur in crops planted to fields that were previously in sod or turfgrass. got will appear riddled with maggot tunnels. Apply fumigants in the same manner as described in the “Nematodes” section that follows. As the soil cools in the fall. If injured plants are pulled up. rendering them unmarketable. Weedy or minimum-tillage fields are especially attractive egg-laying sites for cutworm adults (moths). Control: Treatments with Lorsban have generally been superior 4. corn and spinach. low-lying areas in fields are more subject to attack than other areas. MAGGOtS Two kinds of maggots can become pests during the growing year. This treatment should be worked into the soil immediately after applying and just before planting. 3. killing them outright or causing them to be unproductive. Grubs cause damage by feeding on the roots and underground parts of the plant from one to several Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 SLUGS Slugs are not insects. The plants may yellow and wilt. weed control is a useful management tool to any slug problem. and post-plant treatments may be recommended depending on the crop. or fruit by chewing the edible portion. CUtwORMS There are a number of cutworm species that attack vegetable plants. fields should be scouted for cutworm damage within a week of planting or plant emergence. Cleaning fields may help prevent serious grub damage. Transplant water treatments. when cutworms are most active.. to other treatments. and fumigant treatments are usually made in the fall. sweetpotatoes. plants appear offcolor. Refer to crop section or Extension for latest recommendations. consult the label for application details. Most cutworms are night feeders and hide under sod clumps. No effective insecticides are labeled for grub control in vegetables. The following procedures may help improve control when a contact insecticide treatment is used: 1. because it is impossible to determine when and where maggots will attack and because nothing can be done once the injury is noted. etc. cold springs and on land high in organic matter. GRUbS Grubs are the larvae of various beetles and can be serious soil pests in vegetable crops. if it does. preplant broadcast. in-furrow treatments. a broadcast incorpora- inches below the soil surface. what to use: See the crop protectant section for each crop for appropriate materials to apply. Most vegetables can be attacked. Control: Best control is achieved by using a seed treatment such as Agrox or Lorsban. presumably because of more desirable conditions. Seed Corn Maggot: Seed attacked by seed maggots usually fails tion treatment may be necessary just before planting. Spray between midnight and 5 A. Even if a broadcast treatment is used.are generally applied before spring planting. during the day. soil insecticides that are applied for wireworm control may also be effective in reducing grub populations. Cultivate after insecticide application to improve contact with cutworms.

Broadcast bait using ground equipment or aircraft when slugs become troublesome. These nematicides do not volatilize in the soil as fumigants do. 4. Treat organic soils when soil is drier than that desired for planting. These nematicides are listed in the sections dealing with the vegetables on which they can legally be used. or cultipacked to delay loss of fumigant. Date collected. Consult Extension for the procedure and form are listed on the manufacturer’s label and must be carefully followed to ensure satisfactory results. Apply fumigant-type nematicides to a depth of 6 to 8 inches. Crop to be planted. if any. A light irrigation through sprinklers will also delay gas escape. aticides are currently available for selected vegetable commodities. Submitting. How to Collect Soil and Root Samples for Nematode Detection when to treat: The ideal time to apply a nematicide is whenever the soil temperature at a 6-inch depth ranges between 50° to 80°F and there is adequate soil moisture. work soil to a depth of several inches so that gases may escape.” Page 106 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Beer traps are very effective in small areas. Immediately after application. This can be accomplished by unearthing each plant with a shovel and taking a handful of soil and roots or by using a soil sampling tube (3/4-inch diameter) until 1 quart of soil is obtained. and history of affected area. One week after application.Control: Carbaryl bait is labeled for slug control in many crops. Handling: After collecting and mixing a composite soil and root sample. Send only a single blended sample from each field. Rates for nematicides and multipurpose soil fumigants are provided in the nematode control in Vegetable crops section of of this handbook. Consequently. Treat mineral soils when soil moisture is equivalent to that desired for planting. place it in a plastic freezer bag and close the bag tightly to prevent the sample from drying out. The following information may be necessary so that control recommendations. Nematicides to use: Dosage. To do this. is less desirable because some nematicides may linger in cool. NEMAtODES Determine the degree of infestation before applying a nematicide. Take a mixture of roots and soil from at least 10 separate sites within the root zone or under at least 10 plants. Treat all soils only after crop residues have decomposed thoroughly. Samples collected after the host plant is plowed down are very misleading and should not be used. restrictions. Severe injury or killing of sensitive plants. Because of a reduction of nitrifying bacteria by the nematicide. so consult the label carefully before use. Fall months are generally ideal for treatment. may occur on heavy soils following heavy rains or if increased rates of a fumigant is used. Protect the samples from high or freezing temperatures. Slugs are attracted to the beer and drown upon entering the pan. wet soils increasing the likelihood of injuring young plants. although possible and frequently practiced on light sandy soils. collect soil and root samples and submit these samples to your state’s Plant Diagnostic Laboratory or Nematode Detection Laboratory. The following suggestions are made so that samples will be collected properly and arrive at the laboratory in good condition. Plant symptoms. collect samples from edges of affected area. Nonfumigant Nematicides: Several nonfumigant types of nem- required by your state. 3. such as tomato. and crop specificity Whenever nematode damage is suspected. soils should be dragged. Repeat treatment as needed. Procedures for submission and sampling are noted below and are also available from Extension. At least 2 to 3 weeks should intervene between the application of Telone-based products and the time a crop is planted. at least 50% of the nitrogen in the initial fertilizer application should be in the nitrate form. can be made. The application of a nematicide in the spring. **Be sure to mark samples: “For Nematode Detection. These plastic films increase the efficiency of treatments. Collecting: If a large area in a field is believed to be involved. Note that some of these materials are not labeled in all states. Name and address of person submitting the sample and grower. A plastic film seal is needed when methyl bromide or certain other fumigants are used as noted on the product label. present crop. rolled. an examination of both soil and roots is necessary to determine to what extent nematodes are involved. Do not mix samples from several fields. See manufacturer’s label recommendations for specific crops and waiting times. soil temperature and moisture requirements are not as critical for these chemicals. 2. Include with each sample: 1. Place 1/2 inch of beer in a shallow flat pan.

Many new insecticides have been developed over the last decade. in time with continued exposure to the insecticide. has a new mode of action and the package says: resistance management and tHe insecticide resistance action committee (irac) codes for modes of action of insecticides Many insecticides affect a particular chemical involved in the function of an insect’s nervous. and miticides for Vegetables Recommendations of specific chemicals are based upon information on the manufacturer’s label and performance in a limited number of trials. New packaging has been developed with a colored banner on the top of the package and label giving the irac code. This can result in the insecticide having undesirable effects on these other animals (non-target effects). insecticides. This limited persistence in the environment also reduces the potential for non-target effects. Clemson University. This will help them to plan their rotation of materials to avoid rapid development of insecticide resistance and help prolong the life of these important new crop protection materials while providing adequate management of their pest problems. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. thus making the insecticide selective for a particular type of insect. To make it easier to determine an insecticide’s mode of action. Unfortunately. the natural process of mutation will result in genetic modifications that alter the enzyme so that it is unaffected by the insecticide. the irac has developed a numerical code with a different number corresponding to each mode of action. or other system. Because environmental conditions and methods of application by growers may vary widely. Since only one enzyme is affected. Louisiana State University. will produce a population of insects that are resistant to the insecticide. Page 107 . It is the mode of action to which the insect will become resistant. the primary means of reducing non-target effects has been to make these newer insecticides very specific for a particular chemical (usually an Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 group 23 insecticide Growers can now easily identify the mode of action of a specific insecticide. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. The chemicals that these insecticides affect are often found in other animals as well. Also. Since most of the new insecticides have been developed to be very specific. These insects will reproduce and. the insecticide. enzyme produced by a single gene) found only in certain insects or groups of insects. Insects possessing the modified gene will not be affected by the particular insecticide. Different insecticides affect different enzymes. contact Extension. To prevent the development of resistance. Usually. there is a negative aspect to this specificity.org. More information about insecticide resistance and a concise chart of all of the irac codes can be found at the website: www. specifically to minimize non-target effects and reduce persistence in the environment compared to older insecticides. proper scouting is necessary to determine when modes of action should be rotated.registered fungicides. However. Auburn University. and generations often overlap in the field. resistance will develop much more quickly than with previous insecticides.Resistance to this type of insecticide tends to develop slowly. performance of the chemical will not always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data. Because of this. For example.irac-online. University of Georgia or Mississippi State University nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. but it has begun to occur. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by North Carolina State University. an insect management program must rotate the modes of action of the insecticides used during the cropping cycle. non-target effects and persistence in nature have contributed to concerns about these older insecticides. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. Some broad-spectrum insecticides affect chemicals that occur in many places within the insect and have a wide ranging effect on the insect body. it is important not to apply insecticides with the same mode of action to successive generations of the same insect. respiratory. Although insecticides may have different names. these are older insecticides that have been in use for many years. These classes are called modes of action. Insect development time can vary by species and environmental conditions. digestive. For assistance. they can have the same mode of action and affect the same enzyme or system. bE SURE tO CHECK tHE PRODUCt LAbEL bEFORE USING ANy PEStICIDE. Movento®. and insecticides are placed into classes based on which enzymes are affected.

an applicator is required to be certified or to work under the direct supervision of a certified individual. which includes both private and commercial applicators. waterproof hat. never smoke. Note: See the back cover of this publication for phone numbers of pesticide certification agencies in the Sourtheastern US. such as Guthion. and accurately follow all directions and precautions specified on the labeling. an approved respirator. and ranchers. greenhouse growers. avoid inhaling pesticide sprays. For detailed information on certification of pesticide applicators. Only an experienced applicator wearing the protective clothing and safety equipment prescribed by the manufacturer should handle highly toxic pesticides. weedcontrol firms. and disposal of pesticides before applying any chemicals. After each spraying or dusting. and use only those that have state and federal registration. Avoid drift to nontarget areas. Examples of commercial applicators are: exterminators. any person who applies pesticides for nonagricultural purposes. Both of these conditions are required by law. Private applicators who purchase and apply restricteduse pesticides must be certified and registered. motels. In order to handle and apply pesticides safely. read and obey all labeling instructions. For restricted-use pesticides. dusts. aerial applicators. each applicator should have a baseline blood cholinesterase level determined if you will be applying any organophosphate or carbamate insecticides. Lannate. pesticides for the purpose of raising some type of agricultural commodity. Examples of private applicators are dairy farmers. etc. For the custom or professional applicator. any applications done on a “for-hire” basis are considered commercial applications. and coveralls. all applicators should carefully read the label. HANDLING PEStICIDES Before opening a pesticide container. or supervises the use of. Commercial Applicator: Any person who uses. This certification is designed to show that users of pesticides know how to use pesticides safely in order that they do not endanger the user. Users of pesticides are classified as either private applicators or commercial applicators. The application can be done on land owned or rented by the applicator or the applicator’s employer. it is essential to use the proper personal protective equipment (PPE). and owners of apartments. do not contaminate streams. Use pesticides for only those crops specified on the label. Always keep a record of all pesticides used. Always have the label readily available when applying a pesticide. Before the start of the spray season. and Temik. skin. or the environment. When applying pesticides.. any person who applies pesticides as a part of his or her job with any governmental agency. wash the area immediately with clean water and a liquid detergent.be safe WitH pesticides general information LAwS AND REGULAtIONS Be sure to check current state and federal laws and regulations regarding the proper use. When cleaning or filling application equipment. of. tree services. If clothing becomes contaminated. or supervises the use boots and gloves. bathe and change clothing. airblast sprays drift more than boom sprays. Always have someone present or in close contact when using highly toxic pesticides -those with the signal word danger plus skull and crossbones symbol. or other water supplies. and Rodenticide Act of 1972 (FIFRA) required each state to set up a program to certify users of pesticides. vegetable or fruit growers. eat or drink while using pesticides. APPLyING PEStICIDES Before using a pesticide. The certification process is somewhat different for each group. Fungicide. Wash contaminated clothing separately. However. always begin the day with clean clothing. storage. Your physician should be advised of the types of pesticides used in your work. safety equipment should at least consist of unlined neoprene or rubber Page 108 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . landscapers. and proper measuring equipment. Do not handle or apply pesticides if you have a headache or do not feel well. A single drop of certain pesticides in the eye is extremely hazardous. If hands. who do their own pest control work. restaurants. fellow humans. Be prepared to wash a contaminated eye with clean water for 15 minutes. pesticides on a “for-hire” basis. coat. and vapors. The definitions of private and commercial applicators are as follows: Private Applicator: Any person who uses. CERtIFICAtION–PEStICIDE APPLICAtORS The Federal Insecticide. nursing homes. be sure to have a decontamination site as prescribed by the Worker Protection Standards (WPS) and a supply of clean water and liquid detergent available for drenching and washing in case of an accident. call your state's Department of Agriculture or Extension for information. APPLy tHE CORRECt DOSAGE • To avoid excessive residues on crops for feed and food • To achieve optimum pest control and minimum danger to desirable organisms • To avoid chemical damage to the crops • To obtain the most economical control of pests. ponds. remove it immediately. or other body parts become contaminated or exposed. Dusts drift more than sprays.

long-sleeved shirt and long-legged pants. The signs must be clearly readable at a distance of 25 feet and printed in English and the language of the worker.4D. Pesticides containing one of the ingredients listed below have a 48-hour reentry time: disulfoton (Di-Syston) methidathion (Supracide) endosulfan (Thiodan) methyl parathion (Penncap-M) ethion mevinphos (Phosdrin) metasystox-rphorate (Thimet) 5. Existing safety standards specified on the label remain in force. The people of an area or community may have to be evacuated if the smoke from a pesticide firedrifts in their direction. contact the US National Response Team (NRT) at http://www. FARM wORKER SAFEty Federal pesticide legislation sets an interval during which unprotected persons may not reenter areas treated with certain pesticides to ensure that there is no danger to excessive exposure. especially hormone-like weedkillers such as 2.nrt. This should be a regular procedure for greenhouse operators. The sign must contain the words: Danger Name of the pesticide Treatment date Do not enter until 7. Store the pesticides in a cool. Special precautions may be needed in case of a fire in these storage areas. It is illegal to store any pesticide in any container other than its original container. Location and name of crop treated Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 ii. These pesticides are azinphos-methyl (Guthion) and EPN. timely warning to such workers shall be given. woven. If the label states a longer reentry time or has more stringent requirements than indicated here. Points for special attention are: 1. PPE) to enter a field treated with pesticides until sprays have dried or dusts have settled. These intervals (days to reentry) are listed on each pesticide's label. This time period is listed on the pesticide label as the Restricted Entry Interval (REI). b. unless they are exempted from such. protective clothing: hat or head covering. Herbicides. 2. For the protection of others. Date of safe reentry into treated area d.org/. Pesticides classified in EPA Category 1 have a reentry time of at least 24 hours. The sign must not be removed during the reentry time. especially firefighters. This bulletin board should include a map of the farm which designates the different areas of the farm that might be treated and listing of the following information: i. Date of application c. dry. and shoes and socks. When workers are expected to be working in the vicinity of a field treated or to be treated with a pesticide. if other than English. Any restricted use pesticide (RUP) or container contaminated by restricted pesticides must be stored in a secure. Brand and common chemical name of pesticide applied. warning signs must be posted for the duration of the reentry time. 6. Page 109 . Keep your local fire department informed of the location of all pesticide storages. No owner shall permit any worker not wearing protective clothing (that is. should not be stored with other pesticides—primarily insecticides and fungicides—to prevent the accidental substitution of the herbicide for these chemicals. Fighting a fire that includes smoke from burning pesticides can be extremely hazardous to firefighters. but must be removed before workers are allowed to have contact with the treated plants. locked enclosure while unattended. This enclosure must bear a warning that pesticides are stored there. 3. In no case during the reentry period are farm workers allowed to enter the treated area to engage in activity requiring substantial contact with the treated crop. StORAGE Pesticides should always be stored in their original containers and kept tightly closed. the label restrictions must be followed. For all pesticides. To obtain Prefire Planning Guides. A fire with smoke from burning pesticides may endanger the people of the immediate area or community. the storage area should be posted as Pesticide Storage and kept securely locked.tREAtED AREAS Be sure all treated areas are posted so as to keep out unauthorized personnel. workers must be warned by posting a bulletin board at all point(s) where workers might assemble. e. No pesticide shall be applied while any person not involved in the application is in the field being treated. 4. contact the Pesticide Control Program office or the Cooperative Extension pesticide office in your state. When a pesticide having a reentry time greater than 7 days is applied. well-ventilated area that is not accessible to children and others who do not know and understand the safe and proper use of pesticides. a. Keep an inventory of all pesticides held in storage and locate the inventory list in an accessible place away from the storage site so that it may be referred to in case of an emergency at the storage site. PPE is required for any early entry into the treated area and is only allowed for trained applicators. Pesticides should be stored under lock and key. For additional information on these and other state farm worker safety regulations. Firefighters should be cautioned to avoid breathing any smoke from such a fire. Additional safety equipment may be needed. REENtRy PERIOD Persons must not be allowed to enter the treated area until after sprays have dried or dusts have settled and until sufficient time has passed to ensure that there is no danger of excessive exposure.

diarrhea. streams. The triple rinse-anddrain (see below) procedure or the pressure-rinse procedure (see below) is the recommended method to prepare pesticide containers for safe disposal. Crush or puncture the container for disposal in a sanitary landfill or deposit in landfills that accept industrial waste. place pesticides in warm storage [50°-80°F] and shake or roll container every few hours to mix product or eliminate layering. After the container has been drained into the sprayer tank (container is upside down). For additional information on the disposal of pesticides themselves or unrinsed containers or rinsate. A small amount of drift can be hazardous to food crops and to wildlife. Calibrate sprayers to make sure of the output. Check with the landfill operator prior to taking empty containers for disposal. pinpoint pupils. contact the state Pesticide Control Program office or Extension. An adequate supply of absorbent material.Pesticide Formulation EC General Signs of Deterioration Evidence of separation is such as a sludge or sediment Milky appearance does not occur when water is added. See additional precautions in section ”Protecting Our Groundwater. This method can save money as well as protect the environment. • Do not dump pesticides in sewage disposal or storm sewers because this will contaminate water. The rinsing device has a sharp probe to puncture the container and several orifices to provide multiple spray jets of water. Agitate the container thoroughly. • Use large orifice nozzles at relatively low pressure. • Adjust equipment to keep spray on target. Repeat two more times. • Use drift control additives when permitted by the pesticide label. While under transport. Add water to the pesticide container. and discomfort in the chest. or deliver the intact container to a drum reconditioner or recycling plant. honey bees. Excessive lumping or caking. G. except those intended for such use. PEStICIDE tRANSPORt Containers must be well-secured to prevent breakage or spillage. call the Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 tainer for disposal. unless these locations and equipment are especially designed and licensed for this purpose by the state. If in doubt. nausea. Be sure to take a copy of the pesticide label. • Do not spray at high travel speeds. • Use nonvolatile pesticides. • Spray when soil is coolest and relative humidity is highest.” MINIMIZE SPRAy DRIFt • Avoid spraying when there is strong wind. • Adjust boom height as low as practical. DISPOSAL Pesticides should not be disposed of in sanitary landfills or by incineration. Keep pesticides out of ponds. WGD D. For minor symptoms.) Protect bees and other beneficial insects by choosing the proper chemical and time of day for application. drain the container into the spray tank by holding the container in a vertical position for 30 seconds. seek medical assistance immediately. pesticides must be stored in a separate compartment from the driver. PEStICIDE POISONING If any of the following symptoms are experienced during or shortly after using pesticides: headache. jab the pointed pressure rinser through the bottom of the inverted container. Excessive lumping. Puncture or otherwise create a hole in the bottom of the pesticide container to prevent its reuse. and a fire extinguisher must be available. blurred vision. For additional information on pesticide transport. • Avoid using excess quantities of pesticides. then drain the liquid (rinsate) into the spray tank by Page 110 . Thirty seconds of rinse time is equivalent to triple rinsing. Empty and clean sprayers away from water areas (such as ponds. All pesticide containers and equipment must be secured to the vehicle so as to prevent removal by unauthorized person(s) when the vehicle is unattended. PROtECt OUR ENVIRONMENt • Do not burn pesticides. streams. The best method to dispose of a pesticide is to use it in accordance with current label registrations. See back cover for telephone numbers. Chemicals off-target pollute and can do harm to fish. holding in a vertical position for 30 seconds. SP. wildlife. etc. Rinse for at least 30 seconds. call the state agency responsible for hazardous wastes. WDG After freezing. • Use nozzles that do not produce small droplets. triple Rinse–and–Drain Method. a shovel. and water supplies. The spray jets of water rinse the inside of the container and the pesticide residue is washed down into the sprayer tank for proper use. An optional method to rinse small Oils WP. call the manufacturer. The above requirements do not apply if the pesticide is being transported within the application equipment tank. Milky appearance does not occur when water is added. weakness. powder does not suspend in water. The smoke from burning pesticides is dangerous and can pollute air. Pressure Rinse Method. If layering persists or if all crystals do not completely dissolve. and other desirable organisms. An added benefit is that the container is rendered unusable. lakes. The door or hatch of any service vehicle tank containing a pesticide must be equipped with a cover that will prevent spillage when the vehicle is in motion. To empty a pesticide con- pesticide containers is to use a special rinsing device on the end of a standard water hose. do not use the product. cramps.

Use a respirator and rubber gloves to clean up spills. A special respirator with a self-contained air supply should be worn in these situations. • Full-face piece respirators provide respiratory protection against particulate matter. and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). like other air purifying devices. however. This type of filtration system has the additional advantage of cooling the person wearing it. They can be used only in atmospheres containing sufficient oxygen to sustain life. • Battery powered air-purifying respirators equipped with pesticide filters/cartridges are also effective in filtering out pesticide particles and vapors. Information can also be obtained by calling CHEMTREC at 800/424-9300. full-face masks. supplied-air. and then understand the specific uses and limitations of the available equipment. and are connected by a breathing hose to a battery powered filtration system. From the blood capillaries of the lungs. metal fumes. use. • Wash with soap and clean water. • Call a physician and the state Poison Control Center or Agency. Gas masks. and protective helmets. Select a respirator that is designed for the intended use. See back cover for emergency telephone numbers. Respiratory protective devices vary in design. Dust masks should never be used when mixing or applying liquids because splashed or spilled liquids. hoods. trisodium phosphate. See back cover for emergency telephone numbers. • Mechanical filter respirators (dust masks) provide respiratory protection against particulate matter such as mists. They are available as halfmasks. They are available either as halfmasks. In selecting a respiratory protective device. or as reusable full-facepieces. • Many respiratory protective devices are combinations of chemical cartridge and mechanical filter (prefilter) respirators. NOTE: The label will specify which respirator is needed for that particular pesticide. But. provided that this concentration does not exceed an amount that is immediately dangerous to life and health. • Be prepared to give the active ingredient name (common generic name) PEStICIDE SPILLS Keep a supply of absorbent on hand to scatter over liquid spills in the storage room. See back cover for telephone numbers. They are for use only when exposure to high continual concentrations of pesticide is unlikely. such as when mixing pesticides outdoors. cover the eyes. these toxic substances are rapidly transported throughout the body. and always follow the manufacturer’s instructions concerning the use and maintenance of that particular respirator. respiratory protectiVe deVices for pesticides For many toxic chemicals. and nonvolatile dusts. Air-purifying devices include chemical cartridge respirators. or pesticide vapors can be absorbed by the mask. Let it soak a couple of hours and reabsorb the solution from the floor. • Chemical cartridge respirators provide respiratory protection against certain gases and vapors in concentrations not greater than 0. IN CASE OF AN ACCIDENt Remove the person from exposure: • Get away from the treated or contaminated area immediately • Remove contaminated clothing. and self-contained. covering only the nose and mouth. provide protection when the air supply is low. and mouth. provided that their concentration does not exceed an amount that is immediately dangerous to life and health.1% by volume. Prompt action and treatment may save a life. tyPES OF RESPIRAtORS Respiratory protective devices can be categorized into three classes: air-purifying. or as full-facepiece respirators for both respiratory and eye protection. cover the contaminated surface with household lye. The phone numbers for emergencies are listed on every product label. and protective capability. this system does not supply oxygen and must be worn only when the oxygen supply is not limited. These can provide respiratory protection against both gases and particulate matter. the user must first consider the degree of hazard associated with breathing the toxic substance. or liquid detergent. the respiratory (breathing) system is the quickest and most direct route of entry into the circulatory system. nose. Since most pesticide contaminants can be removed from the atmosphere by air-purifying devices. This procedure is recommended for cleaning truck beds that are contaminated. They are available either as disposable or reusable halfmasks that cover the nose and mouth.appropriate Poison Control Center in your state. like full-facepieces. Report pesticide spills to the proper state agency. Different respirators may be needed for application of different chemicals or groups of chemicals. Sawdust or janitorial sweeping compound works well in absorbing the liquids in a cleanup. but will last longer than cartridges when continuously exposed to some pesticides. Select only equipment approved by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Specific information concerning pesticide cleanup can be obtained by calling the manufacturer directly. A gas mask will not. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 111 . The NIOSH/MSHA approval numbers begin with the letters TC. and/or against certain specific gases and vapors. we will look at these in greatest detail. gas masks (also referred to as canister filter respirators). and battery powered respirators. mechanical filters.

or throat become irritated • Breathing becomes difficult • The air being breathed becomes uncomfortably warm • Nauseous or dizzy sensations are experienced Cartridges or filters may be used up or abnormal conditions may be creating contaminant concentrations which exceed the capacity of the respirator to remove the contamination. FACtORS tHAt AFFECt MOVEMENt OF wAtER AND CONtAMINANtS The depth of aquifers. a contaminant can pass through the cartridge. the cartridge must be changed immediately. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 protecting our groundWater . Where it is shallow. Cartridge respirators are not recommended for use against chemicals that possess poor warning properties. Their depth also affects how quickly water and contaminants reach an aquifer. the user’s senses (smell. valves. hold water. A prefilter should be replaced whenever the respirator user feels that breathing is becoming difficult. Two tests can be done to check the fit of most chemical cartridge respirators. or other fumigants. respirators labeled only for protection against gases and vapors should not be used for particulates. The depth of the aquifer below the surface depends on many factors. nose. Remember. methyl bromide. inhalation should cause the facepiece to collapse. When the chemical cartridge becomes saturated. and filters must be maintained in good condition. All valves. usually allowing the user to smell it. Thus. preferably in a tightly sealed plastic bag. In areas where it is deep. After each use of the respirator. that moves down through the soil layers to the aquifer. cartridges and canisters that protect against certain organic vapors differ chemically from those that protect against ammonia gases. in conjunction with soil types. Thus. Readjusting the headbands may at times not be sufficient to obtain a good seal.Chemical cartridge respirators protect against light concentrations of certain organic vapors. If there is a good seal. and mechanical filters in a clean. ponds and wetlands. All respirators must be inspected for wear and deterioration of their components before and after each use. etc. by their nature. Wipe the facepiece with a clean cloth and allow to air dry. For example. snowfall. This water is used by 90% of the rural population in the United States as their sole source of drinking water. A beard or large sideburns may prevent a good face seal. Groundwater collects under our soils in aquifers that are comprised of layers of sand. If air enters. The facepiece. adjust the headbands or reposition the facepiece until a good seal is obtained. canisters. Cartridge longevity is dependent on its gas and vapor adsorption capacity. A different type of chemical cartridge (or canister) must be used for different contaminants. gravel. Do not store respirators with pesticides or other agricultural chemicals. Special attention should be given to rubber or plastic parts which can deteriorate. There are times when the mechanical prefilter also needs to be changed. Wash the facepiece with soap and warm water. and the humidity. cartridges and filters do not supply oxygen. Get to fresh air immediately if any of the following danger signals are sensed: • Contaminants are smelled or tasted • Eyes. However. and chemical filters (cartridges or canisters) should be properly positioned and sealed. The first test requires that you place your hand tightly over the outside exhaust valve. readjust the headbands until a tight seal is obtained. Masks with a self-contained air supply are necessary for these purposes. Similarly. One source of contamination is agricultural practices. Groundwater is the water contained below the topsoil. Respirators labeled only for protection against particulates must not be used for gases and vapors. Dispose of all spent cartridges to avoid their being used inadvertently by another applicator who is unaware of their contaminated condition. taste. shallow water tables tend to be more vulnerable to contamination than deeper ones. The effective life of a respirator cartridge or canister depends on the conditions associated with its use—such as the type and concentration of the contaminants. fittings. If air escapes between the face and facepiece. Do not use them where oxygen may be limited. Fit the respirator on the face to ensure a tight but comfortable seal. Handle respirators with the same care given to other protective equipment and clothing.Protection of our groundwater by the agricultural community is essential. Contamination of the water supply by pesticides and other pollutants is becoming a serious problem. connecting tubes or hoses. influences how much surface water reaches the aquifer. we see lakes. exhalation should cause slight pressure inside the facepiece. This water comes from rainfall. At this point. Undergo medical examination and become certified to use an approved respirator. cartridges. Be sure the filter is approved for protection against the pesticide intended to be used. Store the respirator facepiece. The second test involves covering the inhalation valve(s) by placing a hand over the cartridge(s). or fractured bedrock which. the user’s breathing rate. irritation) must be able to detect the substance at a safe level if cartridge respirators are to be used correctly. followed by a thorough rinsing with clean water to remove all traces of soap and bleach. mechanical filters. we find arid regions. remove all mechanical and chemical filters. USE AND CARE OF RESPIRAtORS Respirators are worn as needed for protection when handling certain pesticides. Be sure that the cartridge or canister is approved for the pesticide you intend to use. and then immerse it in a sanitizing solution such as household bleach (two tablespoons per gallon of water) for two minutes. Chemical cartridge respirators cannot provide protection against extremely toxic gases such as hydrogen cyanide. It may be necessary to reposition the facepiece to prevent air from escaping between Page 112 the face and facepiece. no single type of cartridge is able to remove all kinds of chemical vapors.. read and understand the instructions on the cartridge or canister and all supplemental information about its proper use and care. dry place. Prior to using a respirator. If there is a good seal.

Care and maintenance of equipment is also an important consideration. if any back-flow into the water system occurs. Check the pump to ensure that it is working properly. Use some type of anti back-flow device in any system used for chemigation or to fill the sprayer with water. If applications during periods of high rainfall or heavy irrigation are made. In the event of an accident. The use of an air gap only is no longer acceptable. there is a greater risk of contaminating your groundwater. Soils with high organic matter content are less vulnerable than those with low organic matter content. If the equipment does not function properly. The method of application may have an effect. 3. or field applications. Soils with high clay or organic matter content may hold water longer and retard its movement to the aquifer. contamination might occur. If they have cracked casings trouble is being invited. therefore. CHEMIStRy PLAyS A ROLE The characteristics of an individual pesticide affect its ability to reach groundwater. sandy soils allow water to move downward at a fast rate. 7. For both sprayers and chemigation systems. Many states laws require that anti back-flow devices be placed on all sprayer water intake systems prior to the water entering the tank. A chemical’s ability to adhere to soil particles plays an important role. check the nozzles for wear and clogs. leaking. Equipment should be calibrated at the beginning of the season.Conversely. Uncalibrated equipment can cause over-delivery as well. Soil texture also influences downward water movement. it is more likely that contamination may occur. check the water lines for clogs and leaks. If the sprayer loading area or pesticide storage building is too close to a well. Clogged. lower water solubility. If using materials that persist for long periods of time. or are not tightly held by the soil. Evaluate management practices. REMEMbER. or many times a season. this distance should prevent contamination. 5. can increase the threat of contamination. Apply materials only when needed. Be sure to calibrate equipment. Early season applications. The timing of pesticide applications has an effect on groundwater contamination. If in an area with a shallow water table or the soil is low inorganic matter or sandy in nature. may pose a greater chance for groundwater contamination. be sure to follow the procedures listed on the material’s label. inspect all of the working parts of the sprayer or chemigation system. GROUNDwAtER MUSt bE PROtECtED. 2. Wells should be at least 50 feet away from pesticide storage and loading areas. High levels of clay and/ or organic content in soils also provide a large surface area for binding contaminants that can slow their movement into groundwater. Persistence is measured by the time it takes half of a given pesticide to degrade. Chemicals with a high affinity for soil adsorption are less likely to reach the aquifer. and any time changes or adjustments are made to the equipment. The increased water content in the soil might speed up the downward movement of a pesticide. If they are too close to application areas.This tendency. For sprayers. the water table in the spring may be higher than at other times. This minimum distance should also be followed for field irrigation wells. overdelivery may occur. Prior to the beginning of the season. Those chemicals with a water solubility greater than 30 ppm may create problems. Finally. Do not irrigate immediately after a pesticide application. when not needed. which increases the chance of groundwater contamination. In these cases. incorporation. however. thus decreasing movement of water and contaminants. The most important characteristics are solubility in water. Those that persist for a long time may be more likely to cause contamination than materials that breakdown quickly. These practices maybe the most important factors in determining the risk of contaminating groundwater. these devices will prevent pesticides from entering the well. choose a pesticide that has a low water solubility and is not persistent. Adsorption is also affected by the amount of organic matter in the soil. unless required by a pesticide’s label. HOw tO PREVENt CONtAMINAtION OF GROUND wAtER Examine the chemical properties of the pesticides used. 6. The use of pesticides. 1. pesticide storage areas. Another material may be selected that has a shorter persistence. Check the condition of any wells in the vicinity of sprayer loading areas. Pesticides that are highly soluble in water have a higher potential for contaminating groundwater than those that are less soluble. then your groundwater may become contaminated. This is called the chemical’s half-life. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 8. or worn lines and nozzles can cause pesticides to be delivered in too high an amount or into unwanted areas. In the event of a pump shutoff or other failure. 4. how persistent a chemical is in the environment may affect its ability to reach groundwater. Also. periodically during the remainder of the season. the potential for contamination can be increased due to the amount of pesticide in the soil. Check irrigation practices as well. Finer textured soils have fewer spaces between particles than coarser ones. Chemicals with an overall estimated half-life longer than 3 weeks pose a threat to groundwater. depends on the soil type. and chemigation all increase the chance of contamination. the risk of contamination may be greater. The following chart assists with these decisions. The location of wells can be important. Determine the local soil and geologic circumstances. adsorption to soils. or higher potential for soil adsorption. If using these techniques. and persistence in the environment. The water solubility of a chemical indicates how much chemical will dissolve in water and is measured in parts per million (ppm). Page 113 . Direct injection. Cracks in a well casing provide a direct point of entry for pesticidecontaminated water that is in the soil. are very water soluble. If the same materials are used year after year.

7 4. to convert milligrams (mg) to ounces (oz).000035 oz Conversions: body weight in Pounds (lb) to body weight in Kilograms (kg) (lb) (kg) 25 = 11. These acute values are for a single exposure and not for repeated exposures such as may occur in the field. The acute dermal LD50 is also expressed in mg/kg.9 4.000035 = 0.000 31.3 23.000 mg = 0. Some chemicals are very hazardous from dermal (skin) exposure as well as oral (ingestion).000 toxicity and LD50 Calculations weight Conversions 1 ounce (oz) = 28 grams (gr) 1 pound (lb) = 454 grams (gr) 1 gram (gr) = 1. To determine the LD50.5 200 = 90 I Danger-Poison Warning Caution None2 0 – 50 II III IV 50-500 500-5. body weight in Pounds 60 100 150 1 EPA accepted categories. multiply mg by 0. LD50 Insecticide Furidan 11 ------------------Ounces-----------------0. Example: 100 x 0.000 5.010 1. the following is a chart of LD50 figures converted to ounces for three commonly used products in the agricultural industry.000 2.7 30 200 0.000 20.45 = 45 kg Note: All the following calculations use a body weight of 100 pounds.toXicity of cHemicals used in pest control The danger in handling pesticides does not depend exclusively on toxicity values. however.000 milligrams (mg) 1. Hazard is a function of both toxicity and the amount and type of exposure. products in this category usually display “Caution. this type of exposure is similar to ingestion. Example: 495 mg x 0. to do this multiply weight in lb by 0. multiply given LD50 by body weight in kg.017 oz.5 Page 114 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .000-20.000035.8 5.5 75 = 33.7 9. first convert body weight to kilograms.5 0.45 = 45 kg Next.800 Fungicide Chlorothalonil 10.017 2.8 15.75 100 = 45 150 = 67.” Read all labels and become familiar with the symptoms of pesticide poisoning.000 5. note: LD50 numbers are given by the manufacturer.45.25 50 = 22. For help in a pesticide emergency. Example: LD50 of 11 x 45 kg = 495 mg Next. Toxicity values are expressed as acute oral LD50 in terms of milligrams of the substance per kilogram (mg/kg) of test animal body weight required to kill 50 percent of the population. A compound may be highly toxic but present little hazard to the applicator if the precautions are followed carefully. Although inhalation values are not given.035 Herbicide Micro-Tech/Partner 1. Rats are used to obtain the oral LD50 and the test animals used to obtain the dermal values are usually rabbits. seek immediate medical attention and call the appropriate poison information number on the back cover of this book.035 oz 1 mg = 0. Example: 100 lb x 0. 2 No signal word required based on acute toxicity.45. multiply known body weight in pounds by 0.026 0.005 0. Categories of toxicity1 Categories Signal word LD50 Value (mg/kg) Oral Dermal 0 – 200 200-2.9 0.000 To determine an exact weight.

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03 to 0. Layton. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG 2. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 75 WG (Lorsban) 4 E methomyl. Abney. Apply as needed. University of Tennessee: F. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 75 WG (Lorsban) 4 E dimethoate 400. Do not apply more than 0. G. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dimethoate 400.06 lb 1 60 0. Smith. Apply as needed with ground equipment.9 lb 1.45 to 0. University of Georgia: A.i. Effective insecticide resistance management involves the use of alternations. In recent years.5 lb 1 lb 0 — Do not make more than 1 preharvest application per season. The use of carbamates may result in aphid buildup.5 lb 1 to 2 qt 1 pt 2 pt 1. Riley. Do not apply more often than once every 3 days.0 pt 0. Apply as needed.4 lb a. Do not make more than 2 applications during the fern stage. Japanese beetle. Mississippi State University: M.5 to1 lb 0. For asparagus beetle only. Morgan Read the pesticide label before application. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. rotations. Insecticides are placed into IRAC MOA classes based on their mode of action (insecticides in the same MOA class have the same mode of action). MOA 1B (various brands) 57% EC methomyl.R. Let a row on edge of field near overwintering sites of asparagus beetles fern out. Grasshopper carbaryl. For aphid control on ferns after harvest. MOA 11B2 Cutworm.2 EC spinetoram. Louisiana State University: A.4 LV (Lannate) 90 SP 0.5 to 1. University of Kentucky: R.1 lb 6 oz 4 oz 4 to 8 oz 0. This use is only for asparagus ferns.5 lb 1 lb 180 1 Active Ingredient Per Acre 1 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks — Apply during the fern stage.086 lb 1 to 2 lb — 1 Asparagus beetle. Sparks. or sequences of different insecticide MOA classes.INSECT CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES NC State University: M.5 to 3 pt 0. the number of generic products has increased significantly.45 lb 180 1 1 permethrin. Clemson University: P.33 lb 2 pt 1 pt 2 pt 0. Hale. The repeated use of the same insecticide or related products in the same MOA class should be avoided.33 lb 2.5 to 1 lb 1 Page 116 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . MOA 1B malathion. For brevity. MOA 1B (various brands) 57% EC pymetrozine. With established beetle populations. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Beet armyworm. Bessin. INSECT CONTROL FOR ASPARAGUS Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1. The trade names listed are intended to aid in identification of products and are not intended to promote use of specific trade names nor to discourage use of generic products.75 oz 0. Low rate to be used on seedlings or spears. Aphid colonies appear by early September.5 lb 1. D. per acre per season. do notapply within 60 days of spear harvest.F. TABLE 2-1. Manage beetles and grasshoppers in the fall. Yellow-striped (Dipel) DF armyworm chlorpyrifos.5 pt 0. This will attract and hold beetles for that directed insecticide spray (trap and destroy).L. Commodity ASPARAGUS Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation chlorpyrifos.4 LV 2 to 4 lb 1. these generic products typically are not listed within each section. J.25 to 2. three consecutive weekly sprays are required. Kennedy. High pressure (200 psi) and high volume (50 gallons per acre) aid in vegetable insect control. Bacillus thuringiensis. Do not exceed 5 pt per acre per year. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.G.5 lb 0. Ground sprays with airblast sprayers or sprayers with hollow cone drop nozzles per row are suggested. Incorporate several methods of control for best results. Walgenbach. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. Do not exceed 5 pt per acre per year. 1. MOA 1B malathion.

Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms–Asparagus Commodity European aphid Asparagus beetle Japanese beetle ASPARAGUS Grasshopper Beet armyworm Cutworm Yellow-striped armyworm Insect Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. Alternative Control Measures–Asparagus Commodity Insect European asparagus aphid Asparagus beetle Japanese beetle ASPARAGUS Beet armyworm Cutworm Grasshopper Yellow-striped armyworm Alternative Control Measures Wash plants or irrigate frequently to prevent them from colonizing.n Table 2-2. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators. Nine spotted lady beetle predator and Eulophidae Tiphidae Protozoa Soldier bug Moist bran mixed with BTK and molasses on soil surface. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 117 . midges. Hand pick and spray with BTK or neem. Spray with pyrethrins or rotenone. Hand pick and spray with BTK or neem. lacewings. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars. Spray with pyrethrins or rotenone. Use a few plants as a trap crop and spray with pyrethrins or rotenone. Spined Soldier bug n Table 2-3.

PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or ediblepodded beans and 21 days for dried shelled beans. 1 to 1.015 lb 3 7 7 On foliage as needed.49 to 0. May also be applied in drop irrigation system.5 fl oz 16 to 24 fl oz 21 (Provado) 1. Will not control black bean aphid.66 EC gamma-cyhalothrin. 75 WSP (Orthene) 97 PE bifenthrin.TABLE 2-4.1 lb 0. Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans.5 to 6 oz 0.6 oz 0.0 oz 0.6 to 6. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.017 to 0.25 lb 1 (succulent or edible pod). MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.84 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.25 to 0.0 oz 0. Also controls leafhoppers and thrips.015 lb 0. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC acephate.666 to 1.333 lb 0.06 lb 7 7 3 (succulent).25 lb 1 to 2 lb 0.56 to 3. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP 80 S XLR Plus esfenvalerate.66 EC zeta-cypermethrin.25 lb 1 (succulent or edible pod).i.i.84 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 50 WP zeta-cypermethrin.1 lb 0.4 fl oz 0.03 to 0. Looper acephate. MOA 1A (Lannate) 90 SP (Lannate) 2. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 14 Do not apply more than 2. per acre per season.6 F lambda-cyhalothrin.1 to 6. per acre per season.i. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC Bean leaf beetle. Do not feed treated plants to livestock.03 to 0.33 lb 1. 21 (dried) 3 2.03 to 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC methomyl. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only.1 lb 3 14 Lima beans may be treated and harvested the same day. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC zeta-cypermethrin. Apply Admire postseeding or as transplant drench with sufficient water to reach root zone.5 to 1 lb 0. MOA 1B (Orthene) 97 PE (Orthene) 75 WSP bifenthrin. Lima beans may be treated and harvested the same day. Japanese beetle Bean thrips bifenthrin. 2.5 lb 1 qt 4.56 to 3.5 EC Aphid (continued) imidacloprid. European corn borer.1 to 6.8 EC Cucumber beetle carbaryl.1 lb 3 1 0.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin.73 to 0.06 lb 3 (succulent).49 to 0.72 to 4. As a sidedress. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Corn earworm. 21 (dried) 5 4 lb 2.5 lb 0.4 fl oz 0. Provado is for foliar application only. Do not apply more than 0.01 to 0. PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or ediblepodded beans and 21 days for dried shelled beans. MOA 1B gamma-cyhalothrin.5 to 1 lb 2. Three applications of Thiodan or Phaser per season. 0.8 EC 3.8 EC Cowpea curculio endosulfan.75 to 1 lb 2.5 to 1 lb 0. Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.i.5 oz 2.1 to 6. 28 (dried) 1 (succulent or edible pod). Commodity BEANS (Snap.02 to 0.72 to 4. to the side of the row and incorporate 1 or more inches. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only.01 to 0. Lima bean may be treated and harvested the same day.56 to 3. per acre per season.017 to 0.66 to 1.5 lb 1. PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or ediblepodded beans and 21 days for dried shelled beans.5 to 1 lb 2.03 lb 0.84 fl oz 4.8 to 9.6 F (various brands) 2F 0.97 lb 0. DO NOT use EC formulation on lima beans.66 lb per acre per season. per acre per season. Do not feed treated plants to livestock.0 oz 0. 28 (dried) 14 Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans.5 to 1 pt 2.45 lb 0.8 lb a. MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC dimethoate 4 EC.4 fl oz 0.03 to 0.4 fl oz 4. 2. Do not apply more 2 lb a.05 lb 3 Do not exceed 0.56 to 3. MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S. Do not apply more than 2 lb a. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.05 lb 3 3 Do not exceed 0.4 LV spinetoram. INSECT CONTROL FOR BEANS Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0.97 0. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC spinetoram.03 to 0. Do not apply more than 0.45 lb 0.84 fl oz 2.03 lb 7 7 2. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0. 75 WSP (Orthene) 97 PE bifenthrin.017 to 0.06 lb active ingredient per acre per season.02 to 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate. Do not feed treated foliage to animals.02 to 0. Pole) Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation acephate.6 oz 2 lb 2 lb 1 lb 0. Lima. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.03 to 0.72 to 4.8 to 9. 21 (dried) Page 118 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .5 pt 5 to 6 oz 0.04 lb 0.12 lb active ingredient per acre per season. apply 24 in. Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.333 lb 0.8 lb a. Do not feed treated foliage to animals.03 to 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.97 lb 0. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.75 to 1 lb 0.25 to 0.375 lb 7 to 10.

TABLE 2-4. INSECT CONTROL FOR BEANS
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0.666 to 1.333 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 2 to 2.5 lb 1.25 to 1.875 lb 1 qt 4.8 to 9.6 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.5 to 1 lb 0.49 to 0.97 0 1 to 1.5 lb 1 to 1.5 lb 1 lb 0.03 to 0.05 lb 3 Do not exceed 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated plants to livestock. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 14 Do not apply more 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may be treated and harvested the same day.

Commodity BEANS (Snap, Lima, Pole) (continued)

Insect Cutworm

Insecticide and Formulation acephate, MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP 97 PE carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP 80 S XLR Plus esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC

Grasshopper Leafminer

bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC cryomazine, MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 WP naled, MOA 1B (Dibrom) 8 EC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC

1.6 to 6.4 fl oz 2.66 oz 1 pt 4 to 8 fl oz

0.02 to 0.1 lb 0.125 1 lb 0.03 to 0.06

3 7 3 3 (succulent); 28 (dried) 7 7 0 Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season on succulent beans or more than 12 fl oz on dried beans. Do not feed treated foliage to livestock. Do not feed treated foliage to livestock. On foliage when pods begin to form and at 10-day intervals.

Lesser cornstalk borer

gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC

2.56 to 3.84 fl oz 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz 3 lb 1.875 lb 2 qt 4.8 to 9.6 oz

0.01 to 0.015 lb 0.02 to 0.03 lb

Lima bean vine borer

carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP 80 S XLR Plus esfenvaleate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC

2.5 lb 2.5 lb 2 lb 0.03 to 0.05 lb 3

Do not exceed 0.8 a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated plants to livestock. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only. Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may be treated and harvested the same day.

Lygus bug

acephate, MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP 97 PE bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP 80 S XLR Plus dimethoate, MOA 1B (Dimethoate) 4 EC

14 0.67 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 5.12 to 6.4 fl oz 0.5 lb 0.49 to 0.97 lb 0.08 to 0.1 lb 3, succulent; 14, dried 0 3 lb 1.875 lb 2 qt 1 pt 2.5 lb 2.5 lb 2 lb 0.5 lb 7 14 0.67 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 2.1 to 6.4 fl oz 0.5 lb 0.49 to 0.97 lb 0.03 to 0.1 lb 3 3 1 to 2 lb 0.625 to 1.25 lb 1 qt 1 pt 0.9 to 1.9 oz/ 1,000 ft row 0.5 to 1 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 1 lb 0.5 lb 1 to 2 lb 7 60

On foliage when pods begin to form.

Do not apply if bees are visiting area to be treated when crops or weeds are in bloom. Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may be treated and harvested the same day.

Mexican bean beetle

acephate, MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP (Orthene) 97 PE bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dimethoate, MOA 1B (Dimethoate) 4 EC disulfoton, MOA 1B (Di-Syston) 8 EC

On foliage as needed. Use low rate on young plants.

Apply in furrow below seed at planting time. Avoid contact of insecticide with seed. Make only one application. Also controls apids, leafhoppers, and thrips. Apply in furrow below seed at planting time. Avoid contact of insecticide with seed. Make only one application. Also controls apids, leafhoppers, and thrips. Do not exceed 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated plants to livestock. Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed.

endosulfan, MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC phorate, MOA 1B (Thimet) 20 G

3 0.67 to 1.3 qt 1 to 2 lb 4.8 to 9.6 oz 4.9 to 9.4 oz/ 1,000 ft row 0.5 to 1 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0.03 to 0.05 lb 1 to 2 lb 3 60

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TABLE 2-4. INSECT CONTROL FOR BEANS
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0.666 to 1.333 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 1.6 to 6.4 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.5 to 1 lb 0.49 to 0.97 lb 0.02 to 0.1 lb 3 3 4 lb 2.5 lb 1 qt 0.5 to 1 pt 4.8 to 9.6 oz 2 lb 2 lb 1 lb 0.25 to 0.5 lb 0.03 to 0.05 lb 7 3 Do not exceed 0.8 lb a.i. per acre per season. Do not feed treated plants to livestock. Use on lima beans is for dry beans only. Do not graze before 3 days or use for hay before 7 days. Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed. PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or ediblepodded beans and 21 days for dried shelled beans. Seed can be purchased pretreated. 60 3 21 3 3 7 7 1 3 9 (hand harvest) 14 21 Preharvest interval for hand harvest is 9 days. For use on snap beans only. Apply Admire as a postseed or transplant drench with sufficient water to reach root zone. As a sidedress, apply 24 in. to the side of the row and incorporate 1 or more inches. May also be applied in drop irrigation system. Provado is for foliar application only. Three applications of Thiodan per season. Do not use EC formulation on lima beans. Do not feed treated foliage to animals. Do not feed treated foliage to animals. On foliage as needed. Drill granules to the side of seed at planting. Avoid contact with seed. On foliage as needed. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 14 Do not apply more than 2 lb a.i. per acre per season. Lima beans may be treated and harvested the same day.

Commodity BEANS (Snap, Lima, Pole) (continued)

Insect Potato leafhopper

Insecticide and Formulation acephate, MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S, 75 WSP (Orthene) 97 PE bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC methomyl, MOA 1A (Lannate) 90 SP (Lannate) 2.4 L phorate, MOA 1B (Thimet) 20 G zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC

0.5 lb 1.5 to 3 pt 4.9 to 9.4 oz/ 1,000 ft row 2.72 to 4.0 oz

0.45 lb 0.45 to 0.9 lb 1 to 2 lb 0.017 to 0.25 lb

1 1 to 3 60 1 (succulent or edible pod); 21 (dried)

Seedcorn maggot

Use seed pretreated with chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B (Lorsban), and a fungicide. phorate, MOA 1B (Thimet) 20 G 4.9 to 9.4 oz/ 1,000 ft row 5.1 to 6.4 fl oz 1 to 3 pt 2.1 to 6.4 fl oz 1 to 2 lb 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz 1.5 pt/100 gal water 2.1 to 6.4 fl oz 9 to 13.6 oz 1 to 2 lb 0.08 to 0.1 lb 0.5 to 1.5 lb 0.033 to 0.1 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0.01 to 0.015 lb 0.02 to 0.03 lb 1.5 lb 0.02 to 0.1 lb 0.225 to 0.34 0.25 to 0.375 lb 7 to 10.5 fl oz 16 to 24 fl oz 3.5 oz 4.9 to 9.4 oz/1,000 ft row 0.04 lb 1 to 2 lb 7 60

Spider mite Stink bug

bifenthrin 2 EC, MOA 3 dicofol 4 EC, MOA 20 bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC endosulfan, MOA 2A (Thionex) 50 WP gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC naled, MOA 1B (Dibrom) 8 EC

Whiteflies

bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC buprofezin, MOA 16 (Courier) 40 SC imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F (various brands) 2 F (Provado) 1.6 F

Wireworm

phorate, MOA 1B (Thimet) 20 G

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n

Table 2-5. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms–Beans
Commodity Aphid Bean leaf beetle Bean thrips Corn earworm Cowpea curculio BEANS (SNAP, LIMA & POLE) Cutworm Lesser cornstalk borer Lima bean vine borer Lygus bug Mexican bean beetle Potato leafhopper Spider mite Stink bug Seedcom maggot Lady beetle, predator mites, and lacewings Eucoilidae and parasitic nematodes Lacewing and flower bug Insect Tiphidae Flower bug, lacewings, and predatory mites Flower bug, lacewing, lchneumonid wasps and Pteromalidae Soldier beetle, braconid wasps, and parasitic nematodes. Drench soil with parasitic nematodes weekly to control larvae. Moist bran mixed with BTK and molasses on soil survace Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles, lacewings, midges, Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators

n

Table 2-6. Alternative Control Procedures–Beans
Insect Aphid Leaf beetle Japanese beetle Bean thrips Corn earworm Alternative Control Procedures Wash leaves with strong spray of water, or use spray with insecticidal soap, neem or pyrethrins. Hand pick and spray with insecticidal soap, pyrethrins, neem, or BTK. Hand pick and spray with insecticidal soap, pyrethrins, or neem. Spray with insecticidal soap, insecticidal oil. Hand pick and spray with insecticidal soap, pyrethrins, neem, or BTK. Hand pick and spray with insecticidal soap, pyrethrins, or neem. Spray with insecticidal soap, pyrethrins, or neem. Drench soil with parastic nematodes weekly to control larvae. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars. Spray with insecticidal soap, neem, pyrethrins, rotenone, BTK or insecticidal oil. Insecticidal oil Insecticidal oil

Commodity

BEANS (SNAP, LIMA & POLE)

Cowpea curculio Cucumber beetle Cutworm Potato leafhopper Spider mite Stink bug

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TABLE 2-7. INSECT CONTROL FOR BEET
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 4.4 to 10.5 oz 10 to 24 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.156 to 0.375 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 21 Must be applied to the soil. May be applied via chemigation into the root zone through low-pressure drip, trickle, micro-sprinkler, or equivalent equipment; in-furrow spray or shanked in 1 to 2 in. below seed depth during planting; or in a narrow (2 in. or less) 1 to 2 in. band directly below the eventual seed row in a bedding operation 14 or fewer days before planting. Higher rates provide longer lasting control. See label for information on approved application methods and rate per 100 row feet for different row spacings. Will also control flea beetle. Provado is for foliar application only. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 12 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. 7 7 Do not apply more than 32 fl oz per acre per season. On foliage as needed. 14 days if tops are used; 3 days if tops not used.

Commodity BEET

Insect Aphid

Insecticide and Formulation imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F (various brands) 2 F

(Provado) 1.6 F Aphid (continued) thiamethoxam, MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC

3.5 oz 5 to 12 fl oz

0.04 lb 0.04 to 0.09 lb

7

(Actara) 25 WDG Armyworm, Beet webworm Blister beetle, Flea beetle spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP 80 S XLR spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC

1.5 to 3 oz 6 to 8 oz

0.023 to 0.047 0.047 to 0.063 lb 1.5 lb 1.5 lb 1 lb 0.047 to 0.163 lb

3 lb 1.875 lb 1 qt 6 to 10 oz

3

Leafminer

1

Control will be improved with addition of a spray adjuvant.

n Table 2-8. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms–Beet
Commodity Aphid Beet webworm BEET, Table Leafminer Insect Braconids. Eulophidae, lacewing and attract parasitic wasps. Pick and destroy mined leaves and remove egg clusters. Spray plants with neem. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles, lacewings, midges, Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators.

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TABLE 2-9. INSECT CONTROL FOR BROCCOLI, BRUSSEL SPROUT, CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 3 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.038 to 0.056 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7

Commodity

Insect

Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid, MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG

BROCCOLI, Aphid, Flea beetle BRUSSEL SPROUTS, CABBAGE, CAULIFLOWER

chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B (Lorsban) 50 W 75 WG dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B dinotefuran, MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG

21 2 lb 1.33 lb 0.5 to 1 pt 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 1 lb 1 lb 0.25 to 0.5 lb 0.045 to 0.179 lb 0.226 to 0.268 lb 7 1 21

On foliage when insects appear. Repeat as needed.

Do not follow soil applications with foliar application of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Foliar applications of Venom are not effective against aphids. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; a post-seeding or transplant drency with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or through drip irrigation. Apply in furrow at planting time or as sidedressing after plants emerge. For best results do not apply with fertilizer. Spray to wet plant surfaces.

disulfoton, MOA 1B (Di-Syston)15 G

42 7.4 oz/1,000 ft row (for any row spacing) 1.1 oz/1,000 ft row 4.4 to 10.5 fl oz 10 to 24 fl oz 1 lb

(Di-Syston) 8 EC imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F (various brands) 2 F

— 0.16 to 0.375 lb 21

Do not follow soil applications of Admire with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Use only one application method. Admire Pro may be applied via chemigation into the root zone, in-furrow spray at planting directed on or below the seed, a narrow row directly below the eventual row in seedbed operation 14 days or fewer before planting, as a post-seeding or transplant drench, or as a subsurface side-dress on both sides of the row. Imidacloprid also controls whiteflies. Provado is for foliar applications. Imidacloprid also controls whiteflies. Not effective against flea beetle.

(Provado) 1.6 F

3.75 fl oz

0.05 lb

7

pymetrozine, MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MOA 23 (Movento) 2 SC Armyworm emamectin benzoate, MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb, MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG

2.75 oz 4 yo 5 fl oz 2.4 to 4.8 oz 2 oz 3.5 oz

0.023 0.06 to 0.08 lb 0.0075 to 0.015 lb 0.48 lb 0.065 lb

7 1 7 1 3 For control of low numbers of beet armyworms; not for corrective treatments of higher numbers of larvae. Add a wetting agent to improve spray. Do not apply more than 14 oz (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. The minimum interval between sprays is 3 days. Use lower rates (4 to 8 oz) for early season applications or on small plants. Use higher rates (8- to 10 oz) for mid- to late-season applications or for heavy infestations. Do not exceed 64 fl oz per acre per season. See rotational crop restrictions on label. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.

methoxyfenozide, MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F

4 to 10 oz

0.063 to 0.156 lb

1

rynaxypyr, MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC

3.5 to 5 fl oz 5 to 10 fl oz

0.45 to 0.65 lb 0.04 to 0.08 lb

3 1

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MOA 3 (various) 2 EC emamectin benzoate. MOA 11B 2 (Xentari) WDG. 8 oz 1 to 2 qt 0. MOA 11B2 (Javelin) WG. per season.26 lb a. Imported cabbageworm. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG 0 8 oz 0. CAULIFLOWER (continued) Insecticide-resistant populations.48 lb 0. Crossstriped cabbageworm Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) 2X.10 lb 0. MOA 11B2 (Dipel) 4 L.08 lb 3 1 0 On foliage every 7 days.8 oz 4.) per acre per crop.2 to 4. Corn earworm.5 oz 0. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F 1. See rotational crop restricitons on label.5 to 1 lb 0. MOA 11B2 (Xentari) WDG.2 to 0. or 24 fl oz per acre.83 EC 6 to 12 fl oz 0.09 to 0. Use lower rates (4 to 8 oz) for early-season applications or on small plants.05 lb 0. may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. Do not exceed 1. or 24 fl oz per acre.48 lb 0.3 lb 7 7 3 1 7 Apply in spray volume of 20 to 50 gal per acre.015 lb 0. during periods when eggs and larvae are present.67 SC spinetoram.83 EC 6 to 12 fl oz 0. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC methoxyfenozide.078 lb 7 rynaxypyr.) per acre per crop. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.to late-season applications or for heavy infestations.2 EC rynaxypyr. CAULIFLOWER Amount of Formulation Per Acre Active Ingredient Per Acre Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks Commodity Insect Insecticide and Formulation BROCCOLI.92 to 3. it may occur later.08 lb 1 3 1 Page 124 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Do not exceed 64 fl oz per acre per season.4 EC gamma-cyhalothrin.065 lb 7 1 3 Add a wetting agent to improve spray coverage. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) DF.04 to 0.66 EC flubendiamide. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 0. MOA 11B1 emamectin benzoate. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.65 lb 0. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG esfenvalerate. BRUSSEL SPROUT.03 lb 4 to 10 oz 0.0075 to 0.4 oz 3.5 to 1 lb 2. INSECT CONTROL FOR BROCCOLI. and use higher rates when larvae are large. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG 3.5 to 5 fl oz 5 to 10 fl oz 0. The minimum interval between sprays is 3 days. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides often aggravate diamondback moth problems. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG flubendiamide. CABBAGE. Insect control may be improved by adding NIS. novaluron.1 to 6. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.4 to 4.033 to 0. Use lower rates when targeting eggs or small larvae.5 to 1 lb 0.45 to 0. avoid transplants from Georgia and Florida. Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.67 SC spinetoram. MOA 11B1 bifenthrin. on other plantings.TABLE 2-9. Diamondback moth BRUSSEL SPROUTS. per season. Make no more than three applications.i. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.015 lb 0. MOA 15 (Rimon) 0.5 to 1 lb 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Cabbage looper.063 to 0. To manage resistance. Use higher rates (8 to 10 oz) for mid.2 fl oz 2. Use higher rate under high pest pressure.01 to 0.078 lb 7 permethrin. This usually occurs when true leaves appear.92 to 3.5 to 1 lb 0.065 0. Do not apply more than 14 oz (0.04 to 0.09 to 0.5 lb 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG fenproparthrin. A spreader-sticker will be helpful.5 to 1 lb 2.8 to 9. lambda-cyhalothrin.84 oz 0.66 to 16 oz 0. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0. . and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time.0125 lb 0.1 lb 6 oz 4 oz 3.5 EC indoxacarb. MOA 15 (Rimon) 0. Make no more than three applications.i.0075 to 0. The minimum interval between sprays is 3 days. Use lower rates when targeting eggs or small larvae.5 to 5 fl oz 5 to 10 oz 0.8 oz 2 oz 3.5 oz 0.5 to 3.03 to 0.92 pt of Warrior per acre per season.26 lb a. 1.156 lb 1 1 novaluron.015 to 0. and use higher rates when larvae are large. CABBAGE. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.5 lb 0.045 to 0.045 to 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb.6 oz 2 oz 10.065 lb 1 3 Add a wetting agent to improve spray. On summer or fall plantings.5 to 1 lb 0.

015 lb 0.226 to 0.5 to 3.047 to 0.5 fl oz 4 to 10 fl oz 2.156 lb 0.06 to 0.078 lb 0. Root maggots are of concern in the higher elevations in western North Carolina. BRUSSEL SPROUTS. MOA 4A (Provado) 2 F methomyl.075 lb 0.047 to 0.8 EC Corn earworm. MOA 1B (Diazinon 50 W) 50 WP — Thrips dimethoate 4 EC. Crossstriped cabbageworm (continued) Harlequin bug. spiromesifen. — Transplant water: Apply in transplant water of drench water at 4 to 6 oz per plant at transplanting.5 fl oz 4 to 5 fl oz 0.6 to 9. MOA 3 Imported cabbageworm. CAULIFLOWER Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG dinotefuran.6 to 2.1 to 0.04 lb 0. MOA 4A (Venom 70 SG) endosulfan. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 4 EC (Lorsban) 15 G 3 to 4 oz 3 to 4 oz 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 0. MOA 4A (Assail 30 SG) dinotefuran. CABBAGE. Directed spray to transplants: Spray the base of the plant immediately after transplanting.5 lb/ 50 gal — — — 1 — diazinon.179 lb 0.TABLE 2-9.000 ft row 4. MOA 15 (Rimon) 0.33 lb 1.25 to 0.75 oz oz 1. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any nionicotinoid insecticide.08 lb 0.83 EC spinetoram. wide band behind planter shoe and in front of press wheel for shallow incorporation.000 ft row 0.5 oz 6 to 12 fl oz 6 to 10 fl oz 2. a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone. band behind planter shoe and in front of press wheel.132 to 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP lambda-cyhalothrin. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.45 lb 0. Direct seeded: Place across seed row in 4-in. Dimethoate and methomyl are most effective against thrips.056 to 0.75 lb 7 1 7 Do not exceed 6 oz of Venom per season.8 oz 2.179 lb 0. 1 qt 1. Stink bug acetamiprid.0 oz 1 to 4 oz (foliar 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.268 lb 7 7 1 7 1 7 3 1 7 1 21 Make no more than three applications.92 to 3.03 lb 1 lb 2 pt/100 gal 1. CABBAGE. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG Use s spreader stick to improve control. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Do not exceed 1. zeta-cypermethrin.09 to 0.075 lb 0. Webworm emamectin benzoate.065 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30”5 WDG methoxyfenozide. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 4 EC (Lorsban) 75 WG chlorpyrifos.24 to 4 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. BRUSSEL SPROUT.84 oz 0.015 to 0.4 to 4.5 fl oz per acre per season. MOA 23 (Movento) 2 SC 7 to 8. INSECT CONTROL FOR BROCCOLI. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC Root maggot chlorpyrifos.25 to 0. per acre per season. using a minimum of 40 gal per acre. or 24 fl oz.5 to 4.5 to 1 pt 3.2 oz/ 1.08 lb 7 1 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 125 .92 pt of Warrior per acre per season. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2.133 lb 0. Direct seeded: Apply in a 4-in.5 lb 1.75 oz/ 1.0075 to 0.06 to 0. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG indoxacarb. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SC spirotetramat.025 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 1 Commodity BROCCOLI. Do not exceed 25. Do not apply endosulfan to brussels sprouts or cauliflower within 14 days of harvest.4 LV novaluron. Use only one application method.014 to 0.045 to 0. MOA 1B imidacloprid. CAULIFLOWER (continued) Insect Insecticide and Formulation Cabbage looper.045 to 0. (Mustang MAX) 0. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2F Whitefly Whitefly (continued) acetamiprid. or through drip irrigation.5 lb 0.

featherlegged flies (Tachinid) n Table 2-11. and BTK. midges. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators. or refined horticultural oil. Commodity Lacewing. rotenone. or refined horticultural oil. neem. Stink bug. Pteromalidae. imported cabbageworm. Entrust. lacewing. Encyrtidae. Drench soil with parastic nematodes. neem or refined horticultural oil. Spray with insecticidal soap. and soil drench with parastic nematodes. COLE CROPS Flower bug. Ichneumonid wasps and Pteromalidae. Spray with insecticidal soap. Refined horticultural oil Commodity COLE CROPS Cutworm Flea beetle Thrips Stink bug Page 126 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Cotesia plutella and Cotesia glomerata) Corn earworm Beet armyworm Flea beetle Thrips Harlequin bug. lacewings. Flower bug.n Table 2-10. Pteromalidae. & cross-striped cabbageworm. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars. and BTK. pyrethrins. Trichogramma wasps. and Root maggot Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organism Lady beetles. lacewing. BTK and Entrust. Diadegma Wasps. and predatory mites Eucoilidae. Trichogramma wasps. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organism–Cole Crops Insect Aphid Cabbage looper Caterpillars (including diamondback moth. lacewings. Trichogramma wasps. Soldier bug Braconids. Alternative Control Procedures–Cole Crops Insect Aphid Caterpillars Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. or spray with insecticidal soap.

06 to 0. at planting.8 oz 4 to 8 oz 3. See label for information on approved application methods.06 to 0.2 EC rynaxypyr. Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. subsurface side-dress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.045 to 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG flonicamid. 6.16 lb 0.72 lb 0.04 to 0.086 lb 0.10 lb 0. INSECT CONTROL FOR CANTALOUPE Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2.065 lb 0.72 lb 0.4 EC flubendiamide. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. MOA 11B1 bifenthrin. Commodity CANTALOUPE. MOA 9C (Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid.48 to 0. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F permethrin.5 lb 2 pt 1. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications.5 to 1 lb 2. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F rynaxypyr. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 2 to 3 oz 4 to 10 fl oz 3. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.25 to 0.6 to 6. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC 2. MOA 11B2 (Xentari) WDG. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC dimethoate.175 lb 0.67E dinotefuran.4 oz 4. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 0. 5 to 10 oz 3 0 On foliage as needed. Do not exceed 8 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Use only one application method.062 to 0.5 0. Limit of two applications after bloom.2 lb 3 3 7 1 3 0 Use higher rates against large larvae.2 to 0.67 SC spinetoram. Cabbage looper Bacillus thuringiensis (Crymax) WDG. or hill drench. as a post-seeding drench.66 EC fenpropathrin.5 pt 3 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.66 to 16 oz 2 to 3 oz 4 to 10 fl oz 0. or through drip irrigation.48 to 0.045 to 0.5 lb 8 oz 0.5 to 5 fl oz 5 to 10 oz 0. or trickle irrigation.5 oz per acre per season.5 fl oz 0. MUSKMELON Insect Aphid.078 1 3 1 Use higher rates against large larvae.6 oz 10. On foliage as needed. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.5 lb 0. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting.375 lb 0 21 Must be applied to the soil.226 to 0.1 to 0.4 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.065 lb 0. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1. transplant water drench.16 lb 0. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam.10 lb 0.05 lb 0.078 lb 1 3 Coragen may be used for foliar or drip chemigation.6 F 2 to 2. For foliar or drip chemigation.5 to 1.5 to 1 lb 0.268 lb 1 21 Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide.135 to 0. Do not apply more than 2. May be applied preplant. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 127 .4 to 12.04 to 0. Leafhopper Insecticide and Formulation bifenthrin. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications.08 to 0. or through drip irrigation. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 3 Limit of two applications after bloom. a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone.6 to 6. post seeding or transplant as a drench. See label for instructions. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone.8 oz 7 to 10.66 pt per acre per season.089 lb 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methoxyfenozide.04 to 0. Do not exceed 5. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies. MOA 11B2 (Dipel) 2X. pymetrozine. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methoxyfenozide.75 oz 5 to 8 oz 0.67 SC spinetoram.04 to 0.TABLE 2-12.5 to 5 fl oz 0.12 lb 0 30 Armyworm flubendiamide.8 to 9.03 to 0.5 to 1. MOA 1B (Dimethoate E267) 2E (Dimethoate E267) 2.3 lb 0.

5 to 1 lb 0. May be applied preplant.16 lb 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Spider mite abamectin.10 lb 1 lb 2 lb 1.04 to 0.2 to 0.66 to 16 oz 0. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG 0.5 lb 0. Melonworm bifenthrin. On foliage when worms appear in blossoms.2 to 0. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.8 to 9.2 EC Leafminer abamectin.5 lb 0.009 to 0.4 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.03 to 0. See label for informaiton on approve application methods.13 lb 1 3 7 1 3 1 An NIS may improve insect control. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.179 lb 0.2 lb 6.1 to 0.10 lb 1 lb 2 lb 1. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methoxyfenozide.6 oz 10.5 fl oz 3 7 3 7 7 Do not make more than one application per season.04 to 0.009 to 0.045 lb 0.8 oz 4 to 8 oz 8 to 16 oz 2. MOA 10B (Zeale) 72 WSP spiromesifen.72 lb 0.6 oz 10. Commodity CANTALOUPE.8 to 9.2 EC rynaxypyr (Coragen). use the higher rate.06 to 0. subsurface sidedress. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.5 oz 16 to 24 oz 1 3 7 21 Do not apply more than 2.25 lb 1 qt 0 7 0 3 3 3 Do not use more than six applications per season. MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WS extoxazole. Under high pest pressure.4 EC imadicloprid. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC carbaryl. or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation.25 lb 1 qt 3 to 4 oz 4. Will also control aphids and whiteflies.0018 lb 0.6 F (various brands) 2F permethrin.04 to 0. MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC carbaryl MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dinotenfuran. Page 128 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .375 lb 7 to 10.4 EC flubendiamide.3 lb 0. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus endosulfan.66 EC fenpropathrin. 2 1 qt 1 to 2 lb 4. MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0.0018 lb 2 oz 0. as a post-seeding drench or hill drench.7 oz 1 pt 2. For foliar or drip chemigation.0 lb 2 to 3 oz 7 to 8.135 0. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1. 5 to 10 oz 8 to 16 oz 0.1 lb 6 oz 4 oz 2 to 3.026 to 0.5 fl oz 0.66 EC fenpropathrin.67 SC spinetoram.15 EC cyromazine. MOA 4A (Venom 70 SG) esfenvalerate.66 pt per acre per season.4 oz 0. MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 WS dimethoate 4 EC. MUSKMELON (continued) Insect Cucumber beetle Insecticide and Formulation bifenthrin.3 lb 0.48 to 0. Repeat as needed. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F permethrin.03 to 0.6 to 6. INSECT CONTROL FOR CANTALOUPE Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 3 Limit of two applications after bloom.75 to 1. Protect pollinators. Limit of two applications after bloom. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.4 to 12.15 EC bifenazate.6 to 16 oz 2 to 3 oz 4 to 10 fl oz 0.1 to 0.6 to 6.25 to 0.132 to 0. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0. Do not exceed three applications of endosulfan per year. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.TABLE 2-12.375 to 0. Must be applied to the soil. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP esfenvalerate. Rarely a problem before July.75 lb 0.09 to 0. MOA 1B Pickleworm. at planting. Do not exceed 6 oz of Venom per acre per season.05 lb 0.05 lb 0.078 lb 0.

054 to 0. Must be applied to the soil. Encyrtidae. Alternative Control Procedures–Cantaloupe Muskmelon Commodity Aphid Cabbage looper MUSKMELON (Cantaloupe) Cucumber beetle Leafhopper Leafminer Spider mite Thrips Insect Spray with pyrethrins. or through drip irrigation. Spray with insecticidal soap. and BTK Soldier beetle.268 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 1 21 On foliage as needed. or BTK. Do not make more than two applications per season. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications. lacewing.045 to 0. subsurface sidedress. Lady beetles. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 6 to 104 oz (10??) 9 to 13. Commodity CANTALOUPE. lacewing and attract parastic wasps. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Trichogramma wasps.25 to 0.25 to 0. Spray with insecticidal soap. pyrethrins. Spray with pyrethrins. Refined horticultural oil. MOA 1B (Diazinon) AG 500 3 to 4 qt 3 to 4 lb — n Table 2-13. and lacewings Flower bug. Do not apply more than twice per crop cycle.1 to 0.TABLE 2-12.226 to 0. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications. Broadcast on soil before planting and thoroughly work into upper 6 in. a postseeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone. neem. postseeding or transplant as a drench.179 lb 0. Appy against adults. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. neem or refined horticultural oil. Do not follow soil applications of Venom with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Whiteflies buprofezin. Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water.375 lb 7 to 10. lacewings. Do not exceed 3 applications per season. midges. braconid wasps. and do not make applications closer than 14 days apart. INSECT CONTROL FOR CANTALOUPE Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1 pt 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.268 lb 3 7 1 21 Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. and predatory mites n Table 2-14. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms– Cantaloupe Muskmelon Commodity Aphid Cabbage looper MUSKMELON (Cantaloupe) Cucumber beetle Leafhopper Leafminer Pickleworm Thrips Insect Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles.5 fl oz 5 to 11 oz 7 30 Wireworm diazinon.17 lb 7 7 to 8. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC 8 to 10 oz 0. See label for informaiton on approve application methods. Will also control aphids and cucumber beetles. as a post-seeding drench or hill drench. Spray plants with neem.045 to 0. Use only one application method. MOA 16 (Courier) 40 SC dinotefuran.179 lb 0. MUSKMELON (continued) Insect Thrips Insecticide and Formulation dimethoate 4EC. MOA 7C (Knack) 0.5 oz 16 to 24 fl oz 21 pyriproxyfen. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth.067 lb 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG spinetoram. lacewings. or refined horticultural oil.86 EC spiromesifen. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Use only one application method. MOA 1B dinotefuran. Pteromalidae.6 F (various brands) 2 F 0. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications. a postseeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone.226 to 0. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting. and parastic nemotodes. or spray with insecticidal soap. predator mites. imidicloprid.6 oz 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 129 . Lacewing. Pick and destroy mined leaves. before nymphs are present. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG thiamethoxam.5 lb 0. rotenone or refined horticultural oil. neem. or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. drench soil with parastic nematodes weekly to control larvae. or through drip irrigation. Soil applications may be applied by: a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting. and flower bug Eulophidae.078 lb 0.08 to 0.38 lb 0. neem. at planting. May be applied preplant.13 lb 0.046 to 0. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. or through drip irrigation.

5 fl oz 10 to 24 fl oz 21 Must be applied to the soil.5 lb 4 to 10 fl oz 6 to 8 fl oz 6 to 8 fl oz 4 qt 0. or refined horticultural oil. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. Alternative Control Procedures–Carrot Insect Leafhopper Leafminer Alternative Control Procedures Spray with insecticidal soap.06 to 0.75 to 1. Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Naturally Occurrring Biological Control Organism Commodity n Table 2-17. May be applied via chemigation into the root zone through low-pressure drip.062 lb 0. 1 1 3 3 — Use higher rates against large larvae. neem pyrethrins. Higher rates provide longer lasting control. or equivalent equipment. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Leafminer Wireworm spinetoram.16 to 0.6 F (various brands) 2 F thiamethoxam.17 lb 30 (Actara) 25 WDG Armyworm.023 to 0. in-furrow spray or shanked-in 1 to 2 in. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3EC (Thionex) 50WP imidacloprid. n Table 2-16. Parsleyworm. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F spinetoram.046 to 0. See label for information on approved application methods and rate per 100 row feet for different row spacings.25 lb 1 qt 0. Broadcast and incorporate preplant. INSECT CONTROL FOR CARROT Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2/3 to 1 1/3 qt 1 to 2 lb 0. or less) 1 to 2 in.4 to 10. Actara is applied foliarly.078 to 0. MOA 1A (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus methomyl. directly below the eventual seed row in a bedding operation 14 or fewer days before planting. immediately after seeding with sufficient water to ensure incorporation into the root zone.5 to 3 oz 1.45 lb 0. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC 5 to 11 oz 0. MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL carbaryl. Commodity CARROT Page 130 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .23 to 0.062 lb 4 lb 7 On foliage as needed.047 lb 0. rotenone. Radiant will not control leafhoppers. trickle. or through trickle irrigation. Spray plants with neem. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seeding.38 lb 4. Pick and destroy mined leaves. or in a narrow band (2 in.4 LV (Lannate) 90 SP methoxyfenozide.6 fl oz 0. Do not exceed 4 oz Actara per acre per season.046 to 0.0125 lb 7 0 1 lb 1. below seed depth during planting. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organism–Carrot Insect Armyworm CARROT Parsleyworm Leafhopper Leafminer Soldier bug Trichogramma wasps Lacewing and flower bug Eulophidae. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC diazinon.5 pt 0. micro-sprinkler.16 lb 0.0 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 Commodity CARROT Insect Aphids Insecticide and Formulation endosulfan. Do not make more than 4 applications per year. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. Leafhopper beta-cyfluthrin. MOA 1B (Diazinon) (AG 500) 1.5 to 1. lacewing and attract parasitic wasps. Do not exceed five applications per season.TABLE 2-15.25 to 0.

4 LV permethrin. See Rotational Crop Restrictions on label. or as a post-seeding or transplant drench. Foliar or drip chemigation. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.04 to 0. On foliage as needed.06 to 0. 6 to 10 fl oz 1 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 131 .08 lb 0. MOA 17 (Trigard 75WP) rynaxypyr.37 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 21 Apply via chemigation into the root zone.to late-season applications and to heavier infestations and under conditions in which thorough coverage is more difficult.12 lb 0. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 WDG methoxyfenozide. Corn earworm. For mid.5 to 5 fl oz 0. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2.TABLE 2-18.5 fl oz 16 to 24 fl oz 4 to 5 fl oz 3 pt 0.6 lb 7 Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 3. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions. and do not exceed 64 fl oz per season. Leafminer Insecticide and Formulation imadocloprid. Methomyl may induce leafminer infestations.015 lb 0.06 to 0. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F 4 to 10 oz 7 rynaxypyr. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per application. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Leafminer abamectin. Use higher rates for armyworms. MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC Armyworm. INSECT CONTROL FOR CELERY Amount of Formulation Per Acre 7 to 10. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.0075 to 0. See label for instructions. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.08 lb 1 5 to 10 fl oz 8 to 16 oz 2.2 EC emamectin benzoate.67 SC spinetoram.6 F (various brands) 2 F spirotetramat.019 lb 0.065 lb 0. Not for flea beetle or leafminer. as an in-furrow spray at planting on or below the seed.098 lb 0.2 lb 6 to 12 oz 4 to 8 oz 2. MOA 6 (Agri-Mek 0. 7 3 Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.8 oz 0.67 SC spinetoram.5 fl oz 1 7 7 1 Foliar or drip chemigation. Commodity CELERY Insect Aphid.046 to 0.045 to 0.1 to 0.4 to 4.15EC) cryomazine. Looper methomyl. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.25 to 0.065 to 0.66 oz 5 to 7. Flea beetle.08 lb 0. Imidacloprid will not control leafminers.9 lb 0.009 to 0. For early season applications only to young crop and small plants. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.

rotate to an insecticide with a different mode of action. 8 oz 1 to 2 pt 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG methoxyfenozide.24 to 4. Insecticide-resistant populations.045 to 0.5 to 3. After two applications. Provado is for foliar applications.8 oz 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG methoxyfenozide.and lateseason applications.4 to 4. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 50 W dimethoate 4 EC.08 lb 7 7 1 0 Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. DF.158 to 0.0 2. MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC Caterpillars.0075 to 0.5 to 1 lb emamectin benzoate. begin when true leaves appear.5 to 3. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 WDG indoxacarb.377 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 21 14 21 Admire Pro may be applied via chemigation into the root zone.4 to 4. MOA 1B imidacloprid. Do not apply insecticides with the same mode of action more than twice to any generation of diamondback moth. To manage resistance. Use low rates for early season applicatons to young or small plants. Not for webworm. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated. Commodity COLLARD Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid.5 pt 4.015 lb 0. a narrow row directly below the eventual row in seedbed operation 14 days or fewer before planting. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC zeta-cypermethrin. Cabbageworm. MOA 11B1 emamectin benzoate. Imported cabbageworm.014 to 0.5 lb 0. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 WDG esfenvalerate.015 lb 0. when insects appear.5 to 1. MOA 11B2 (Dipel).5 to 1. in-furrow spray at planting directed on or below the seed. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone.6 F pymetrozine.063 to 0. Crossstriped cabbageworm Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) 2 X. For mid. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.72 lb 0.4 to 10.06 to 0.8 fl oz 2. MOA 11B2 (Dipel) 2 X.0475 lb 0.5 lb 0.156 lb 0. including Cabbage looper.5 to 1 lb 0. 1 3 to 6 oz 3 to 6 oz 3.48 to 0.5 to 1 lb 0. Insecticides may not control cabbage looper under all conditions. on other plantings. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F permethrin. avoid transplants from Georgia and Florida. Admire will also control flea beetle. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 WDG 0 0. may not be controlled with some registered insecticides.25 lb 0. Bacillus thuringiensis (Crymax) WDG. use 6 to 10 oz.8 oz 0. MOA 11B2 (Xentari) WDG. Foliar or drip chemigation.015 lb 14 Use a spreader/sticker. On foliage every 7 days.0075 to 0.047 to 0.03 to 0. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2F Diamondback moth 2.065 lb 0. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides often aggravate diamondback moth problems.8 oz 2.4 to 4.038 to 0.056 lb 1 lb 0.05 to 0.1 lb 14 5. or as a subsurface side-dress on both sides of the row.67 SC spinetoram.5 to 1 lb 2. MOA 11B2 (Dipel) 4 L. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides aggravates diamondback moth problems.6 F (various brands) 2 F (Provado) 1. MOA 3 (Asana XL) flubendiamide. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC (various) 25 WP rynaxypyr. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb.TABLE 2-19. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.75 oz 4 to 5 fl oz 0. Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per crop. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG chlorpyrifos. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.5 to 5 fl oz 0.12 to 0. On summer or fall plantings.065 lb 0.5 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0. See label for instructions.16 lb 1 1 14 3 1 Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per crop. INSECT CONTROL FOR COLLARD Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 3 oz 2 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0.065 lb 5 to 10 oz 2. Apply to both sides of leaves when larvae are small. and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time.5 oz 4 to 10 oz 7 1 3 1 Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides aggravates diamondback moth problems. or as a post-seeding or transplant drench.047 to 0.023 0.5 lb 0.5 oz 8 to 10 fl oz 0.5 fl oz 10 to 24 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.046 to 0. MOA 11B2 (Xentari) WDG.025 lb 0.6 oz 2 to 3 oz 2.8 to 9. MOA 11B2 (Javelin) DG.8 EC Cabbage webworm emamectin benzoate.5 to 1 lb 0. Page 132 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .0075 to 0. MOA 11B1 3.08 lb 0. Use a spreader/ sticker.05 lb 0.5 lb 8 oz 1 pt 0.

047 to 0.5 to 5 fl oz 0. Do noto make more than applications. lacewings. See label for instructions. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.86 EC spiromesifen. and BTK Trichogramma wasps Braconids COLLARD n Table 2-21. refined horticultural oil refined horticultural oil Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 133 . For transplanted crops. lacewing. Whitefly 1 qt 1. apply as a 4-in. Apply against adults. INSECT CONTROL FOR COLLARD Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 3 oz 3.75 fl oz 1.5 to 1 lb 0.5 to 4. neem or refined horticultural oil. or spray with insecticidal soap.1 to 0.5 lb 3. MOA 23 (Movento) 2 SC 3. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP zeta-cypermethrin. Alternative Control Procedures–Collard Commodity Aphid COLLARD Flea beetle Harlequin bug Stink bug Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. midges. Do not make more than 3 applications or apply more than 25. Thionex may be used only once per season. rotate to an insecticide with a different mode of action.8/1. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG COLLARD (continued) Diamondback moth (continued) rynaxypyr.0 oz 0. Stink bug acetamiprid. Encyrtidae. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG endosulfan.5 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.065 lb 0. 1 qt 1. before nymphs are present.6 to 2. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone.67 SC spinetoram. n Table 2-20.06 to 0. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG endosulfan.065 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 1 3 Do not apply Avaunt more than twice to any generation of diamonback moth.045 to 0.054 to 0. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SC spirotetramat. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms–Collard Commodity Aphid Cabbage looper Caterpillars (including diamondback moth & imported cabbageworm) Flea beetle Harlequin bug Stink bug Root maggot Eucoilidae Insect Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR chlorpyrifos. Spray with insecticidal soap. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.134 lb per acre per season.075 lb 0. Foliar or drip chemigation. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Flea beetle carbaryl.025 lb 1 — 1.000 ft row 2. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 4E Harlequin bug. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP pyriproxyfen. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Trichogramma wasps.046 to 0.2 to 4.067 lb 0.5 lb 1. Drench soil with parastic nematodes.75 lb 30 7 21 Harlequin bugs may be serious from mid-July until frost.08 lb 7 7 1 Do not apply Knack more than twice per season or exceed 0.5 fl oz per season.TABLE 2-19.75 lb 7 21 For directed-seeded crops.0 oz 0.48 to 0.5 lb 1 lb 0.5 lb 8 to 10 fl oz 7 to 8. MOA 7C (Knack) 0.72 lb 0. Thiodan may be used only once per season. or a total of 14 oz per season per crop. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 4 EC (Lorsban) 75WDG acetamiprid.133 lb 0. apply as a directed spray immediately after transplanting. Pteromalidae. or refined horticultural oil. pyrethrins. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.1 to 1. Commodity Insect Insecticide and Formulation flubendiamide. After two applications.875 lb 1 qt 1 to 2 pt 3 to 4 oz 1.075 lb 0. Use a spreader stick to improve control. rotenone.5 fl oz 4 to 5 fl oz 0.08 lb 1 5 to 10 oz 1 14 3 lb 1. band over the row after planting. neem.02 to 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb.056 to 0.8 EC Root maggot chlorpyrifos.

2 lb 6 to 12 oz 4 to 8 oz 1 Check label for variety limitations and grazing restrictions.5 oz 0.1 to 6.03 to 0. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3. Under very high pressure from corn earworm. bifenthrin. Populations build on overmature and damaged fruit and vegetables.8 oz 0. Apply as soil broadcast or as band directed at the base of the plants. 2.65 to 3. MOA 3 Grasshopper. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.08 EC Cutworm bifenthrin. Warrior. or 0.8 to 4. Use lower rate for black cutworm under low or no trash conditions.047 lb 0. Bt formulations will not control heavy infestations during tasseling.2 lb a.045 to 0. Do not feed to livestock. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 DG 2.05 lb 0.4 fl oz 0.03 lb 0. Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per season. 0.8 oz 2. or after planting. MOA 1A (Lannate) 90 SP (Lannate) 2.5 lb (300 fl oz) per acre each season. 2 lb 1. Larvin may not control corn earworm.23 to 0. To protect ears. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC gamma-cyhalothrin. MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL 3 to 6 oz 20 to 30 oz 0. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0. 5 to 10 lb 5 to 10 lb 0 Use for control of European corn borer and fall armingworm DURING WHORL STAGE ONLY.4 LV permethrin. European corn borer Insecticide and Formulation transgenic sweet corn varieties expressing Bt protein Bacillus thuringiensis Various granular formulations beta-cyfluthrin. Use higher rate for other cutworms and high trash conditions under no or low tillage conditions.TABLE 2-22.8 fl oz per acre per season.5 to 3. 3 days later. Commodity CORN (Sweet) Insect Corn earworm. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC beta-cyfluthrin.i.4 fl oz 0.5 EC esfenvalerate. spray when tassel shoots first appear.1 to 6. indoxacarb. Suppresses fall armyworm. Do not exceed 24 fl oz per season. Do not graze for 30 days after application.66 EC lambda-cyhalothrin. MOA 1A (Penncap-M) 2 FM 4. Do not apply more than 36 oz per acre per year. Fall armyworm.i. DO NOT APPLY more than 1. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC carbaryl.8 to 1. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.1 to 6.8 fl oz per acre per season.013 lb 3 1 0 esfenvalerate. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.to 3-days until harvest.4 fl oz 2. apply at 2.5 to 1 lb 4 Page 134 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Apply as needed until first tassel shoots appear in whorl. Make no more than 4 applications per season. Japanese (various) 2 EC beetle. Infestations usually associated with prior ear damage.1 to 0.022 lb 0. Do not use methomyl for European corn borer control.84 fl oz 4.03 0.1 lb 0. Rootworm beetle Sap beetle bifenthrin. Limit 12.018 to 0.065 lb 3 spinetoram.6 to 2.8 fl oz 2.5 lb a.) per acre per crop. Asana XL each season. during. Do not graze for 30 days after application.56 to 3.01 to 0. permethrin.48 lb a.1 lb 0.03 to 0. then every 2 to 3 days for 5 applications.4 fl oz 0.5 pt 0.0 oz 2. Sanitation is important. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC methomyl.25 lb 1 qt 2 to 4 pt 0.015 lb 0. Do not graze for 30 days after application.75 to 1.02 to 0.i.03 to 0. additional insecticide applications may be required to prevent damage to the ear tips.1 lb 1 1 Limit 12.66 EC Flea beetle.8 to 9. do not exceed 7. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC thiodicarb.1 lb 1 lb 1 0 Limit 12.75 lb 1 0 2. INSECT CONTROL FOR CORN (SWEET) Amount of Formulation Per Acre Active Ingredient Per Acre Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks Highly effective against European corn borer.6 fl oz 0. Corn tasseling after July 1 may require daily applications from first silk through 60% dry silk followed by applications at 2-day intervals until harvest to ensure worm-free ears.2 EC 1.03 to 0.0125 to 0.6 oz 2. Minimum interval between sprays is 3 days. Following the fifth application.025 lb 0. MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL bifenthrin. but insecticide applications may be required to prevent damage when populations are heavy. MOA 1A (Larvin) 3. Do not graze for 30 days after application.03 to 0. For control of fall armyworm and European corn borer in WHORL STAGE ONLY.45 lb 0 1 1 1 1 0 4 to 6 oz 0. Do not apply more than 14 oz Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.023 to 0.1 to 6. Limit 12.8 fl oz per acre per season. After silk initiation. May be applied before. Corn earworms and fall armyworms present in the late whorl stage must be controlled before tassel emergence to prevent migration to ears.007 to 0. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus encapsulated methyl parathion.8 fl oz per acre per season.2 EC zeta-cypermethrin.5 to 0.

MOA 4A (Gaucho 600) bifenthrin. slurry mixes. of soil using tines. Wireworm Insecticide and Formulation Seed treatments: clothianidin. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Flower bug. Position in front of press wheel over the row. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Corn (Sweet) Insect Aphid Corn earworm Fall armyworm European corn borer Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. Rootworm. chains. sweet Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 135 . midges. band over the row directly behind the planter shoe in front of press wheel. sweet n Table 2-24. or any other type of on-farm treatment. Trichogramma wasps. lacewings. Not for use in hopper binds. T-band over an open seed furrow.5 lb (40 in. Fall armyworm European corn borer Alternative Control Procedures Commodity CORN.000 ft row In-Furrow: 6. lacewing.13 fl oz per 80. Apply as a 5.000 seeds 4 to 8 oz per cwt seed 6. For postemergence treatment use 2 to 3 pt. MOA 3 (various) 1.000 linear ft of row 0. Place granules directly in the seed furrow behind the planter shoe. or other suitable equipment. and BT and encourage native parasitic flies and wasps. Ichneumonid wasps and Pteromalidae Soldier bug Flower bug.5 G chlorpyrifos. Place granules in a 7-in.to 7-in. Commodity CORN (continued) Insect Southern corn billbug. Trichogramma wasps. row) OR 8 oz/10 ft row 2 lb 0 1 to 2 lb — 1 lb — n Table 2-23. MOA 4A (Poncho 600) imidacloprid. Granules must be incorporated into the top 1 in. Alternative Control Procedures – Corn (Sweet) Insect Corn earworm Resistant varieties Resistant varieties Use tolerant cultivars. Commodity CORN. Rotation is advised.005 to 0. row spacing) OR 8 to 16 oz/ 1. MOA 1B (Counter) 15 G 4 pt Banded: 6.006 lb — Active Ingredient Per Acre — Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks — Seed treatments are applied by commercial seed treaters only. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 4 E terbufos. INSECT CONTROL FOR CORN (SWEET) Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1.5 to 13 lb (40 in. Spray twice weekly with BTK or apply granular BTK to whorl.TABLE 2-22. Not for billbug.4 to 8 oz/1. Spray pyrethrins or ryania on larvae. Preplant incorporation treatment.

MOA 3 (various) 2 EC carbaryl.047 lb 0 30 0 Cucumber beetle.8 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Page 136 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Do not exceed 0.04 to 0.4 oz 0. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3. Flea beetle bifenthrin.TABLE 2-25. MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 WS spinetoram. Do not make more than six applications per season. They also spread bacterial wilt disease.6 oz 10. Foliar applications should not be made after plants have started to bloom. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0. transplant water drench. or through drip irrigation.7 oz 6 to 8 oz 0. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications.6 F (various brands) 2 F pymetrozine.226 to 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 2 1 qt 1 to 2 lb 5. Allow 7 days between applications. 2 lb 1.66 EC Leafminer abamectin.66 pt per acre per season. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP flonicamid.05 lb 0. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam.6 to 6. INSECT CONTROL FOR CUCUMBER Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1 qt 1 to 2 lb 2 to 2.25 to 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.8 to 9.2 fl oz per acre per season. or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. MOA 9C (Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid.25 lb 1 qt 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.25 to 0.1 lb 0.12 lb 0. Beetles are most destructive to seedlings. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications.75 lb 0.045 to 0.10 lb 1 lb 3 0 On foliage as needed. 2) a postseeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone. MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0. Commodity CUCUMBER Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation endosulfan.375 lb 0. See application method under Aphid.094 to 0.08 to 0.05 lb 0.023 to 0.268 lb 1 21 endosulfan. as a post-seeding drench. post seeding or transplant as a drench. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC (Actara) 25% WDG 2.38 lb 7 to 10.5 fl oz 10 to 24 fl oz 0 21 Must be applied to the soil.4 fl oz 4.5 to 1 lb 0.5 oz per acre per season.0018 lb 2 oz 0. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any neonicotinoid insecticide.6 oz 8 to 16 oz 2.8 to 9.2 lb 6 to 12 oz 4 to 8 oz 2.5 to 3 oz 0.4 EC imidacloprid. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP esfenvalerate. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.6 F permethrin. Do not exceed three applications of endosulfan per year. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.04 to 0. May be applied preplant.75 oz 5 to 8 oz 1. Do not apply more than 2. at planting.03 to 0. See label for information on approved application methods.1 to 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 2.089 lb 0. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.5 to 1 lb 0. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.062 to 0.66 to 16 oz 7 to 10. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dinotefuran.179 lb 0. Do not exceed 5. 75 lb 0.2 EC Cutworm bifenthrin.009 to 0.2 to 0. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth. Use only one application method.5 fl oz 0. Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. or hill drench.66 EC fenpropathrin. or 3) drip irrigation.086 lb 0.25 lb per acre per season.3 lb 0.15 EC cyromazine. subsurface side-dress.03 to 0. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 2 Do not exceed three applications of endosulfan per year. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate.6 to 6. Soil application may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting.125 lb 3 3 7 0 1 3 7 21 0 Limit to 19.

5 oz per acre per season. Commodity CUCUMBER (continued) Insect Pickleworm. On foliage as needed.047 to 0.045 to 0.1 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 2 1 qt 1 to 2 lb 4. Use only one application method.0018 lb 0. See comments under Aphids for application instructions and restrictions.72 lb 0. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.6 to 6.67 SC spinetoram. MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC endosulfan.6 fl oz 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG imidacloprid.1 lb 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG methomyl.08 to 0.11 to 0.067 0 7 Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC 1. MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WS bifenthrin.5 fl oz 5 to 8 oz 0.04 to 0. Melon worm. MOA 23 (Oberon). Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See comments under Aphids. or 3) drip irrigation. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. 7 to 8.11 lb 3 1 3 0 6. 2 SC thiamethoxam. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.1 to 0.75 to 1 lb 2.86 EC spiromesifen. Cabbage looper Insecticide and Formulation bifenthrin.12 lb 7 30 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 137 . MOA 7C (Knack) 0.05 lb 0. MOA 16 (Courier) 40 SC dinotefuran. Do not exceed three applications of endosulfan per year.38 lb 0.063 to 0. Limit 19.TABLE 2-25.1 to 0.2 EC rynaxypyr. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2. Soil application may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting.226 to 0.03 to 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Whitefly buprofezin. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 5 to 10 oz 5 to 16 oz 0.4 fl oz 10. Limit 19. 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC fenpropathrin.6 to 6. See label for instructions.009 to 0.66 EC flubendiamide.25 to 0.5 to 6 oz 0.054 to 0.088 to 0.25 to 0.045 to 0.268 lb 0.065 lb 0.125 lb 0.2 lb 0. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG pyriproxyfen.45 lb 0.5 lb 0.13 lb 0.08 lb 0.2 fl oz per acre per season.15 EC bifenazate.04 to 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG permethrin. Allow 7 days between applications. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP esfenvalerate.6 oz 2 to 3 oz 2. Do not exceed 5.04 to 0. Do not make more than 3 applications per season.4 to 12. Allow 7 days between applications.5 fl oz 16 to 24 oz 2.375 to 0.4 LV spinetoram. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.2 fl oz per acre per season. and do not make applications closer than 14 days apart.48 to 0. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG Thrips dinotefuran.8 to 9. Do not apply more than twice per crop cycle. INSECT CONTROL FOR CUCUMBER Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2.13 lb 0.75 oz 8 to 10 oz 0.666 oz 7 to 8. Do not make more than one application per season. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications.086 lb 0.08 lb 0.6 F (various brands) 2 F pymetrozine.75 lb 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.2 lb 0. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any neonicotinoid insecticide. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. Spider mite abamectin.5 pt 6 to 10 oz 9 to 13.5 to 5 fl oz 0. See comments under Aphids.375 lb 1 1 7 21 21 Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage.179 lb 1 Foliar or drip chemigation.4 EC spiromesifen.4 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.8 oz 4 to 8 oz 3. No more than two applications.5 to 1 lb 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb. 7 to 10.5 fl oz 1 to 4 oz 1 7 3 3 7 7 1 Foliar applications should not be made after plants have started to bloom. Do not make more than two applications per season.

lacewings. Braconids Eulophidae. Eucoilidae and parastic nematodes Lady beetle. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Cucumber Commodity Aphid Cabbage lopper Cucumber beetle Flea beetle CUCUMBER Leafminer Pickleworm Spider mite Thrips Whitefly Insect Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. lacewings. drench soil with parastic nematodes weekly to control larvae. or refined horticultural oil. Pteromalidae Soldier beetle. lacewing and attract parastic wasps. braconid wasps. Spray with insecticidal soap. neem or refined horticultural oil. predator mites. Drench soil with parastic nematodes. n Table 2-27. or spray with insecticidal soap. and Encarsia formosa. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Trichogramma wasps. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface. or refined horticultural oil. pyrethrins. Encyrtidae. Lace wings. Refined horticultural oil Page 138 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . and parastic nemotodes. midges. neem. and predatory mites. Spray plants with neem.n Table 2-26. Alternative Control Procedures – Cucumber Commodity Aphid Cucumber beetle Flea beetle CUCUMBER Cutworm Leafminer Spider mite Thrips Whitefly Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. Spray with insecticidal soap. and lacewings Flower bug. Pick and destroy mined leaves. neem pyrethrins. lacewing. Refined horticultural oil Spray with insecticidal soap. rotenone.

25 to 0. MOA 6 (Agri-Mek) 0.078 to 0.06 to 0.25 to 0.56 to 3.075 lb 7 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 139 .5 lb 7 to 10. and do not exceed 7 oz of formulation per season. It may be applied in-furrow at planting.375 lb 0. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC 2. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.04 lb 21 Admire Pro is applied to the soil.75 fl oz 0. Do not apply more than once every 7 days.04 lb 0 methomyl. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP imidacloprid. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. MOA 23 (Movento) 4 to 5 fl oz 0.009 to 0.15 EC 8 to 16 fl oz 0. and do not exceed a total of 7 oz per season.23 to 0. as a sidedressing and incorporated after plants are established.030 to 0.75 to 3 pt 0. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG endosulfan. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC 5 to 8 oz 0.75 lb 0. (Actara) 25 WDG 2 to 3 oz 0.125 lb 5 lambda-cyhalothrin. Do not exceed 8 oz per acre per season. INSECT CONTROL FOR EGGPLANT Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 4 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.6 F 3.12 lb 30 Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth. pymetrozine. MOA 1A (Vydate) 2 L 1 pt 0. Commodity EGGPLANT Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid.75 oz 0. or through drip irrigation. Do not apply more than once every 7 days.5 oz 0. use the higher rate. Actara is for foliar application.TABLE 2-28.047 lb 0 Blister beetle gamma-cyhalothrin. as a post seeding or transplant drench.02 to 0.5 to 1 lb 7 May be applied to foliage or through drip irrigation. or 2) injection into overhead irrigation system using adequate volume to thoroughly saturate soil media. For short-term protection of transplants at planting.08 lb 1 Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.03 to 0.9 lb 5 oxamyl.000 plants) not more than 7 days before transplanting by 1) uniformly spraying on transplants.075 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 Thoroughly cover foliage to effectvely control aphids. thiamethoxam. postseeding or transplant as a drench.038 to 0.5 oz per acre per season. For resistance management.375 lb 0. spirotetramat.84 fl oz 0.56 to 3.018 lb 7 Apply when adults and small larvae are present but before large larvae appear. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of plants. apply Admire Pro (0. Do not exceed two applications per year.84 fl oz 0. Do not exceed 5. (Provado) 1. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.4 LV 0.44 oz/10.086 lb 14 Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Provado is for foliar applications only. On foliage as needed.6 F 1 1 qt 1 lb 0.5 EC 2. acetamiprid. or through drip irrigation. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG 2 to 4 oz 0. followed immediately by sufficient overhead irrigation to wash product into potting media. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG 2.0075 to 0.03 lb 5 Colorado potato beetle abamectin.

03 to 0. are known to be resistant to one or more of the following insecticides: esfenvalerate.56 to 3. MOA 11C (Novodor) FC bifenthrin 2 EC.047 to 0.268 lb 7 1 imidacloprid. 2) a postseeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone.02 to 0. (Actara) 25 WDG Eggplant lace bug imidacloprid. or 3) drip irrigation. pyrethroid. If control failures or reduced levels of control occur with a particular insecticide. Use only one application method. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.TABLE 2-28.2 fl oz 3 pt 2. permethrin. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications.8 fl oz per acre per season. Use only one application method. If an additional insecticide application is necessary. scout fields and apply insecticides only when needed to prevent damage to the crop.75 fl oz 2. San Diego.03 to 0.1 to 6. or 3) drip irrigation. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC 3. See application methods under Aphids.088 to 0.179 lb 0.04 lb 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. MOA 4A (Provado) 1. do NOT make a second application of the same insecticide at the same or higher rate.6 F lambda-cyhalothrin. MOA 1B (various brands) 57 EC Flea beetle bifenthrin 2 EC. To reduce risk of resistance. oxamyl.088 to 0.078 to 0.065 lb 0. INSECT CONTROL FOR EGGPLANT Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 4 qt Active Ingredient Per Acre 2 to 4 qt Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 0 Resistance to many insecticides is widespread in Colorado potato beetle. Commodity EGGPLANT (continued) Insect Colorado potato beetle (continued) Insecticide and Formulation Bacillus thuringiensis var.268 lb 1 Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any neonicotinoid insecticide. Limit 12. a different insecticide representing a different class (carbamate. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications.03 to 0. Soil application may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting.03 lb 21 0 5 Do not apply more than once every 7 days. Soil application may be applied by: 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting. MOA 3 dinotefuran. Some populations in N.226 to 0.C. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications on any neonicotinoid insecticide. and endosulfan.4 fl oz 0. See label for instructions.226 to 0. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications. Allow 7 days between applications.01 lb 1 lb 0 0 3 7 0 Limit 12.047 lb 0.6 F malathion.375 lb 0. organophosphate.045 to 0. MOA 3 (Warrior) 2 EC rynaxypyr. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 2.25 lb 1 lb 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0. neonicotinoid. Crop rotation will help prevent damaging Colorado potato beetle infestations.08 lb 0. Foliar or drip chemigation.5 lb 0.8 to 6. Do NOT use insecticides belonging to the same class 2 years in a row for Colorado potato beetle control. 2 lb 1. MOA 3 carbaryl.84 oz 0.25 to 0.4 fl oz 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0. chlorinated hydrocarbon. Allow 7 days between applications. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dinotefuran. Page 140 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .6 F (Provado) 1.5 oz 3. Thrips.1 to 6.179 lb 0.17 lb 1 5 to 10 oz 5 to 11 oz 1 30 See application methods under Aphids. and do not exceed 7 oz of formulation per season.67 SC spinetoram. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 2 to 3 oz 3. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone.01 lb 0.04 to 0.075 1. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC thiamethoxam. 7 to 10.5 to 5 fl oz 0. or biological) should be used. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications. 2) a postseeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone.8 fl oz per acre per season.

08 lb 0.6 F (various brands) 2 F methomyl.25 to 0.25 to 0.25 to 0. Do not apply more than once every 7 days.018 lb 0.5 to 3 pt 6 to 10 pt 0. European corn borer.226 to 0.8 EC Leafminer abamectin.5 fl oz 16 to 24 fl oz 1.04 lb 0.75 to 1.0 oz 8 to 16 fl oz 1 to 2 qt 5 to 10 oz 8 to 16 fl oz 0.08 3 1 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 141 .03 to 0.45 to 0. MOA 6 (Agri-Mek) 0.5 to 5 fl oz 0. Soil applications are more effective against thrips than foliar applications are.15 EC oxamyl. Foliar or drip chemigation.078 to 0.45 to 0. INSECT CONTROL FOR EGGPLANT Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1 qt 1 lb 7 to 10.4 LV methoxyfenozide.66 EC fenpropathrin.TABLE 2-28. MOA 3 (Warrior) 2 EC methomyl.75 lb 0.4 EC flubendiamide.03 to 0.67 fl oz 2 oz 2. 30 Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 1 Do not exceed two applications of endosulfan per year. re-treatments at 7 to 14 days may be required.6 F thiamethoxam. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.268 lb 0. 1.045 to 0.4 LV spinetoram.04 to 0.5 lb 0.67 SC spinetoram.84 oz 0 7 7 3 1 3 5 Do not apply more than 14 oz per acre per season.179 lb 0.125 lb 0. Use low rates for low to moderate infestations. MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WS hexakis.03 lb 21 0 See application methods under Aphids.02 to 0.009 to 0.03 to 0. See application methods under Aphids.009 to 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG lambda-cyhalothrin. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG Thrips dimethoate 4 EC.05 lb 0. See label for instructions.6 fl oz per acre per season.04 to 0.9 lb 0. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F 2 to 3 oz 2.67 pt 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 1 1 7 7 1 7 3 3 7 7 1 21 21 See Aphids for application instructions.47 to 0.045 to 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 7 to 10. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.24 to 4. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate.065 lb 0. Apply at rates of 8 to 16 oz to large plants or when infestations are heavy.2 lb 0. and do not exceed 7 oz of formulation per season. MOA 1B dinotefuran. Do not exceed 42.13 lb 0.049 to 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb. MOA 12B (Vendex) 50 WP spiromesifen.065 lb 0.6 F (Provado) 1.75 fl oz 5 to 8 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP imidacloprid.25 lb 5 1 Apply at rates of 4 to 8 fl oz early in season when plants are small.9 lb 0.375 to 0.5 to 1 lb 0. Corn earworm bifenthrin. and high rates for severe infestations. Beet army worm.5 lb 1 to 1. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Spider mite abamectin.025 lb 0.48 lb 0. See Whitefly for application instructions.5 fl oz 0.5 to 3.5 to 3 pt 4 to 16 oz 0. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.4 fl oz 4. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 3.047 lb 0. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.15 EC bifenazate.375 lb 0.063 to 0.5 oz 2.014 to 0.6 oz 10.56 to 3. MOA 6 (Agri-Mek) 0. MOA 1A (Vydate) 2 L spinetoram.01 lb 0.018 lb 0. Use low rates for low to moderate infestations.5 lb 0.0 lb 2 to 3 lb 7 to 8. rynaxypyr. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC zeta-cypermethrin.08 lb 0.8 to 9. During periods of continuous moth flights.1 to 0.335 lb 0. Do not make more than one application per season. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per application or 64 fl oz of Intrepid 2F per acre per season. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC (Actara) 25 WDG Hornworm. MOA 4A Admire Pro 4.5 fl oz 3.375 lb 1 5 to 10 oz 2. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. and high rates for severe infestations imidacloprid.1 to 6.5 to 0. Commodity EGGPLANT (continued) Insect Insecticide and Formulation Flea beetle (continued) endosulfan.

086 lb 0. Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. rotenone. Do not exceed 20 fl oz of Knack per acre per season. lacewings. and BT Soldier bug Flower bug. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.5 fl oz 5 to 11 oz 0. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season. Do not exceed 3 applications or 25.1 to 0. rotenone. Trichogramma wasps. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Flower bug.05 to 0. midges. neem pyrethrins. rotenone. Do not wait until heavy populations have become established.75 oz 8 to 10 oz 0. neem pyrethrins.5 fl oz per season.5 oz 16 to 24 fl oz 2. and soil drench with parasitic nematodes Trichogramma wasps Flower bug. Encourage native parastic flies and wasps. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 0.08 to 0.25 to 0. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Eggplant Insect Aphid Thrips Colorado potato beetle Eggplant lace bug Hornworm European cornborer Beet armyworm Corn earworm Leafminer Spider mite Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. Spray with insecticidal soap. Ichneumonid wasp Braconids. Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid insecticides (Assail or Venom). Spray with insecticidal soap.375 lb 7 to 10. BTSD or refined horticultural oil. Do not apply more than 7 oz per season. BTK or refined horticultural oil. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. Commodity EGGPLANT (continued) Insect Whitefly Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. Knack prevents eggs from hatching. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SC thiamethoxam.75 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 Begin applications when significant populations of adults appear. lacewings. or through a drip irrigation system. It does not kill whitefly adults.TABLE 2-28. MOA 7C (Knack) 0. and do not exceed 4 applications per season. and do not apply a second application within 14 days of the first application.054 to 0. Do not exceed 5. Check label for plant-back restrictions. Spray pyrethrins or ryania on larvae. Do not apply more than once every 7 days. Applications should begin when 3 to 5 adults per leaf are present. Drench soil with parastic nematodes. Use tolerent cultivars. Spray plants with neem.226 to 0. predator mites. or spray with insecticidal soap. Soil applications may be applied in a narrow band on the plant row in bedding operations. lacewing and attract parastic wasps Lady beetle. Refined horticultural oil. Trichogramma wasps. neem. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in furrow at seed or transplant depth. and predatory mites Lacewing.133 lb 0. or refined horticultural oil. Commodity EGGPLANT Hornworm European cornborer Beet armyworm Corn earworm Leafminer Spider mite Page 142 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . rotenone. rotenone.268 lb 21 imidacloprid. as a post-seeding or transplant drench. neem pyrethrins. See Aphids for application methods and restrictions.5 to 4 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.6 F (various brands) 2 F pymetrozine. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG dinotefuran. Alternative Control Procedures – Eggplant Insect Aphid Thrips Colorado potato beetle Flea beetle Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water.067 lb 21 14 14 spiromesifen. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. BTK or refined horticultural oil.5 oz per acre per season. Use only one application method. pyrethrins. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC 7 to 8. or through drip irrigation. Do not make more than 2 applications per season.045 to 0. INSECT CONTROL FOR EGGPLANT Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2. or refined horticultural oil. Use plastic lined trench as a trap or flamers. Ichneumonid wasps and Pteromalidai Eulophidae. neem or refined horticultural oil. and lacewings Commodity EGGPLANT n Table 2-30. Pick and destroy mined leaves and remove egg clusters. lacewing.17 lb 7 30 n Table 2-29. as a side-dress after planting and incorporated 1 or more inches. neem pyrethrins. BTK or refined horticultural oil.179 lb 1 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of plants. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG pyriproxyfen. at postseeding or transplant as a drench. Spray twice weekly with BTK. Do not follow soil applications of other neonicotinoid insecticides (Assail or Venom).86 EC 0.

4 to 4. Flea beetle Insecticide and Formulation imidaclopridm MOA 4A (Admire) 2F (Provado) 1.8 oz 2.5 to 3.4 to 4.5 to 5 fl oz 0.065 3 5 to 10 oz 2. as a sidedress and incorporated after plants are established. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb.09 to 0. Provado is applied as a foliar spray.065 lb 0. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1. Commodity KOHLRABI Insect Aphid.0075 to 0. See label for instructions.04 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 21 7 Admire may be applied in-furrow at planting. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG flubendiamide.045 to 0. Do not apply more than 3 applications or 24 fl oz per acre per season.8 oz 2 oz 2.065 lb 0.5 oz 6 to 12 fl oz 0.48 lb 0. and higher rates when larvae are large.078 lb 1 7 1 3 7 A wetting agent may improve performance.04 to 0. Will not control flea beetle. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG novaluron. rynaxypyr.047 to 0.5 oz 1 7 7 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 143 .015 lb 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG 3.75 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.08 lb 0. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. MOA 15 (Rimon) 0.6F spirotetramat.25 to 0. Do not exceed 24 oz of Admire or 18. Looper emamectin benzoate. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG indoxacarb.67 SC spinetoram.015 lb 0.83 EC 4 to 5 fl oz 2. MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC Armyworm. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.08 lb 0.06 to 0. Imported cabbageworm. Use lower rates when targeting eggs or small larvae.045 to 0. Diamondback moth. INSECT CONTROL FOR KOHLRABI Amount of Formulation Per Acre 16 to 24 oz 3.375 lb 0. as a post seeding or transplant drench.TABLE 2-31.5 to 3. Foliar or drip chemigation. or through drip irrigation.0075 to 0. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. Corn earworm.75 oz Provado per acre per crop per year. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Webworm emamectin benzoate.

MOA 11B2 (Crymax) WDG (Dipel) DF bifenthrin.5 to 1.9 lb 0. On foliage as needed.078 to 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG lambda-cyhalothrin.5 oz 1 3 For control of low numbers of beet armyworm and not for corrective treatments of higher numbers of larvae.065 lb 0.03 to 0. a narrow row directly below the eventual row in seed bed operation 14 days or fewer before planting. in-furrow spray at planting directed on or below the seed.4 LV methoxyfenozide.6 to 6.4 oz 3.8 fl oz 2.17 lb 0.01 to 0.5 to 3. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F 4 to 10 oz 0. and do not exceed 4 applications per season. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb.015 lb 1 3.045 lb 0. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat.06 to 0.4 to 4. Page 144 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Commodity LETTUCE Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid.5 fl oz 10 to 24 fl oz 0. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. it may be applied as a transplant or through drip irrigation.5 pt 4.75 oz 4 to 5 fl oz 5 to 11 fl oz 1. Do not exceed 5. use 10 to 16 oz.125 lb 0.5 lb 0.046 lb 7 0 3 30 7 Armyworm emamectin benzoate. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG diazinon. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG 2. Post seeding. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F rynaxypyr. The minimum interval between sprays is 3 days. or as a subsurface side-dress on both sides of the row. Admire Pro may be applied via chemigation into the root zone.5 oz per acre per season. INSECT CONTROL FOR LETTUCE Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 4 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.086 lb 0. or as a narrow surface band above the seedling and followed by irrigation. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram. Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action.6 F (various brands) 2 F (Provado) 1. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at the seeding or transplant depth.5 lb 0.158 to 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb. Do not follow applications of Platinum with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG flubendiamide. Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.45 to 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. Provado is for foliar applications.023 to 0.0075 to 0.) per acre per crop.8 oz 0.156 lb 0.045 to 0.8 oz 7 7 Do not make more than two sequential applications without rotating to another product with a different mode of action. MOA 1B imidacloprid.i. Do not exceed 2. The minimum interval between sprays is 3 days. For mid. use 6 to 10 oz.10 lb 0. Apply before aphids reach damaging levels.5 to 1.25 lb 0.5 to 3 oz 0. MOA 1B (Diazinon) (AG 500) (Diazinon 50 W) 50 WP dimethoate 4 EC. Foliar or drip chemigation.4 to 10.5 to 5 fl oz 4 to 8 oz 1 1 0 0.5 to 3 pt 4 to 10 oz 1 7 to 10 1 Low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants.065 lb 7 2 to 3 oz 3.377 lb 7 21 Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide.015 to 0.5 lb 0. For mid.5 lb 1 pt 1 lb 0.015 lb 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC emamectin benzoate. Use low rates for early-season applications when plants are small. as a post-seeding or transplant drench.063 to 0.4 pt per acre per season. MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam.26 lb a.TABLE 2-32.2 to 4.065 oz 0.5 lb 8 oz 2.075 lb 0. Do not use on leaf lettuce.and lateseason applications. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Cabbage looper. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG flubendiamide.and lateseason applications. Tobacco budworm Bacillus thuringiensis.045 to 0.2 oz 1. Corn earworm.03 lb 0. 1. Actara is applied as a foliar spray. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC methomyl. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.08 lb 0. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 14 Do not apply more than once every 7 days.i.26 lb a. methoxyfenozide.04 to 0.062 to 0. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC (Actara) 25 WDG 3.0475 lb 0.6 F pymetrozine.156 lb 1 3 Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.038 to 0.063 to 0.025 lb 0.92 to 3. 2 oz 2.) per acre per crop.

There is a 12-month plant-back restriction for a number of crops.025 lb 0.5 to 5 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Narrow band below or above the seed line at planting. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap neem.045 to 0. MOA 4A (Actara) 25 WDG 2. Soil applications may be applied by: 1. lacewings. rotenone. BTK or refined horticultural oil. Commodity LETTUCE Cabbage looper Corn armyworm Leafhopper Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 145 . 2. Corn earworm.24 to 4. lacewing.045 to 0. midges. or 3. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.023 to 0. BTK or refined horticultural oil.6 to 6.2 oz 4 oz 1. pyrethrins.268 lb 1 7 7 21 Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide.67 SC zeta-cypermethrin.04 lb 0. or refined horticultural oil.045 lb 5 7 7 1 1 7 Do not use on leaf lettuce. BTK or refined horticultural oil.5 pt 3. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 2.130 lb 0.75 fl oz 1. Spray with insecticidal soap. rotenone. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG zeta-cypermethrin.025 lb 0. drip irrigation. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap neem.0 oz 0.10 lb 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC dinotefuran. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Commodity LETTUCE Cabbage looper Corn armyworm Leafhopper n Table 2-34.24 to 4 oz 5 1 Leafhopper bifenthrin. Use only one application method. n Table 2-33. or spray with insecticidal soap.25 lb 0.8 EC permethrin. rotenone. neem pyrethrins. INSECT CONTROL FOR LETTUCE Amount of Formulation Per Acre 3. Trichogramma wasps.065 lb 0. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3. MOA 4A (Provado) 1. 14-day interval for leaf lettuce. neem or refined horticultural oil.8 EC dimethoate 4 EC. Pteromalidae. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Lettuce Insect Aphid Armyworm Soldier bug Encrytidae. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC permethrin. MOA 3 (various) 3. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre (foliar) or 12oz per acre (soil). pyrethrins. pyrethrins.014 to 0.014 to 0.1 to 0.6 F lambda-cyhalothrin. Alternative Control Procedures – Lettuce Insect Aphid Armyworm Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. Check label for restrictions. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap neem. rotenone.4 oz 1 to 3 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 1 foliar or drip chemigation Commodity LETTUCE (continued) Insect Cabbage looper.5 to 3 oz 0. and BTK Soldier bug Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles.TABLE 2-32.04 to 0. Tobacco budworm (continued) Insecticide and Formulation rynaxypyr.2 EC thiamethoxam.1 lb — 0. MOA 1B imidacloprid. post seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation.226 to 0.92 to 3.2 lb 6 to 12 oz 4 to 8 oz 5 to 10 oz 2.04 to 0.2 EC spinetoram.08 lb 0.

023 to 0.01 to 0. Do not exceed one application per season.015 lb 0.023 0. MOA 11B1 emamectin benzoate.5 to 5 fl oz 1 5 to 10 oz 1 0 On foliage every 7 days. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F rynaxypyr.158 to 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. Movento will not control flea beetle. See label for instructions. 5 to 11 fl oz 1. MOA 1B imidacloprid. MOA 11B2 (Javelin) DG.4 to 4.156 lb 0.015 lb 0. in-furrow spray at planting directed on or below the seed. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. In summer or fall plantings. use 6 to 10 oz. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methoxyfenozide. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.4 to 10. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC (Actara) 25 WDG 3.75 lb 1 qt 1.5 to 1 lb — 0. Imported cabbageworm.and lateseason applications.6 F malathion.063 to 0. For mid. 3. MOA 1B (various brands) 57 EC 25 WP pymetrozine. See label for instructions. including cabbage looper.065 lb 0.5 lb 0.04 to 0.065 lb 0.172 lb 0. when insects appear. MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam.08 lb 7 1 1 Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants.MELON (See Cantaloupe) TABLE 2-35.25 lb 0.0475 lb 0.75 oz 4 to 5 fl oz 0. it may be applied as a transplant or through drip irrigation.156 lb 0. begin when plants appear.08 lb 7 7 1 1 Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG endosulfan. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F rynaxypyr.5 to 3 oz 0. or as a narrow surface band above the seedling and followed by irrigation.06 to 0.and lateseason applications. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at the seeding or transplant depth. On foliage when aphids appear. 3. Post seeding.377 lb 14 21 Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 21 On foliage when aphids appear. or as a subsurface side-dress on both sides of the row. Crossstriped cabbageworm Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) DF.46 lb 30 7 Armyworm emamectin benzoate.063 to 0. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Provado is for foliar applications. Admire Pro may be applied via chemigation into the root zone.05 lb 0. Flea beetle Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG esfenvalerate.6 oz 2 oz 4 to 10 oz 0. Foliar or drip chemigation.078 to 0.045 to 0.67 SC spinetoram. a narrow row directly below the eventual row in seed bed operation 14 days or fewer before planting.03 lb 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methoxyfenozide. use 6 to 10 oz.8 oz 2 oz 4 to 10 oz 0. Corn earworm.5 lb 0.5 fl oz 0.038 to 0.6 F (Provado) 1.75 to 1 lb 7 7 0.5 to 1 pt 0. Caterpillars. on other plantings. Commodity MUSTARD GREENS Insect Aphid. Foliar or drip chemigation. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 2.04 to 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP dimethoate 4 EC.045 to 0. MOA 3 (Asana XL) flubendiamide.5 to 5 fl oz 1 5 to 10 oz 1 Page 146 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .5 to 2 pt 4 to 5 lb 2. Repeat weekly as needed.5 pt 4. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 8 oz 0.8 fl oz 1.8 oz 9. INSECT CONTROL FOR MUSTARD GREENS Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 3 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG flubendiamide.67 SC spinetoram.2 to 4. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone.03 lb 0. For mid. Actara is applied as a foliar spray. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat.056 lb 0.0075 to 0.5 to 1 lb 3. as a post-seeding or transplant drench.08 lb 7 1 Fulfill will not control flea beetle. MOA 11B2 (Xentari) WDG.

Spray with insecticidal soap.4 to 4. may not be controlled with some registered insecticides.0075 to 0.03 lb 0. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG indoxicarb. Drench soil with parastic nematodes.02 to 0.025 lb 0. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated. Refined horticultural oil Refined horticultural oil Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 147 . Vegetable weevil endosulfan. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG rynaxypyr. MOA 11B2 (Xentari) WDG. 50WP malathion.015 lb 0. n Table 2-37.5 lb 8 oz 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG methoxyfenozide. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap.065 lb 0. MOA 11B2 (Javelin) DG. rotenone.0075 to 0. avoid transplants from Georgia and Florida. MOA 11B1 emamectin benzoate. BTK or refined horticultural oil.5 to 1 lb — 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 0 0. Pteromalidae Lacewing. lacewings. rotenone.06 to 0. To manage resistance. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.5 to 1. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Mustard Greens Commodity Aphid MUSTARD GREENS Cabbage looper Caterpillars ( including diamondback moth & imported cabbageworm) Flea beetle Insect Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. pyrethrins. or refined horticultural oil. See notes in cabbage section for diamondback moth resistance.75 to 1. MOA 1B (various brands) 57 EC (various brands) 25 WP zeta-cypermethrin. rotenone.8 EC 0. neem. Pteromalidae Braconids. Harlequin bug. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3EC. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. on other plantings when insects appear. Stinkbug.015 lb 0.047 to 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxicarb. or spray with insecticidal soap.12 lb 0.5 oz 3.04 to 0. neem.047 to 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC n Table 2-36.5 lb 0. Trichogramma wasps.5 to 1 pt 0.04 to 0. Bacillus thuringiensis (Crymax) WDG. INSECT CONTROL FOR MUSTARD GREENS Amount of Formulation Per Acre Active Ingredient Per Acre Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks Commodity MUSTARD GREENS (continued) Insect Diamondback moth Insecticide and Formulation Insecticide-resistant populations. midges. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides often aggravate diamondback moth problems.065 lb 0.065 lb 0. Pheromone mating disruption and overhead irrigation for diamondback moth.5 to 1.5 to 1 lb 2.67 SC spinetoram.75 to 1 lb 1.5 to 5 fl oz 5 to 20 oz 1 to 1 1/3 qt 0.TABLE 2-35.08 lb 7 1 7 3 1 1 Webworm emamectin benzoate. BTK or refined horticultural oil.5 lb 0. and soil drench with parastic nematodes.5 oz 4 to 8 fl oz 5 to 10 fl oz 0. neem or refined horticultural oil. MOA 11B2 (Dipel) DF. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Encytidae. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F spinetoram.2 to 4.8 oz 2 oz 2. and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time. Alternative Control Procedures – Mustard Greens Commodity Aphid Cabbage looper MUSTARD GREENS Caterpillars (including diamondback moth & imported cabbageworm) Flea beetle Harlequin bug Stink bug Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water.8 oz 2. Trichogramma wasps. On foliage every 7 days. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5% WDG flubendiamide.0 oz 2.5 to 3. begin when plants appear.25 to 2 pt 4 to 5 lb 3. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0. In summer or fall plantings. neem pyrethrins.045 to 0. lacewing.5 to 3.4 to 4.0 lb 7 1 3 1 1 21 Do not make more than one application per year. pyrethrins.08 lb 0.

Japanese beetle carbaryl.033 to 0. INSECT CONTROL FOR OKRA Amount of Formulation Per Acre 7 to 10. Do not make more than one application per season.054 to 0. MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WP bifenthrin. For corn earworm only. (Provado) 1. 1 1 0 3 7 21 Will not control beetles. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC imidacloprid. MOA 1B (various brands) 8 F (various brands) 25 WP Blister beetle. lacewing and attract parastic wasps. and parastic nemotodes. 2. or refined horticultural oil. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators. Spray with pyrethrins.5 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. neem. or 3) through drip irrigation. Trichogramma wasps.5 lb 2 qt 2 to 3 oz 8 to 16 oz 5 to 10 oz 0.375 to 0. Pick and destroy mined leaves and remove egg clusters. Encourage native parastic flies and wasps. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Okra Insect Aphid Leafminer Blister beetle Corn earworm Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. braconid wasps. Trichogramma wasps. Commodity OKRA Insect Aphid. or spray with insecticidal soap. drench soil with parastic nematodes weekly to control larvae. Scelionidae Tiphidae Commodity OKRA European corn borer Cucumber beetle Flea beetle Stink bug Japanese beetle n Table 2-40.4 fl oz 0.03 to 0.25 to 0.86 EC 3.045 lb 0. MOA 7C (Knack) 0. Ichneumonid wasps and Pteromalidae.5 fl oz 0. For corn earworm and European corn borer only. Spray with insecticidal soap. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.0475 lb 0.067 lb 0 14 n Table 2-39.TABLE 2-38. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus flubendiamide.6 F malathion.08 lb 0. 2) as a sidedressing and incorporated after plants are established.25 to 0.1 to 6. European corn borer. Alternative Control Procedures – Okra Insect Aphid Leafminer OKRA European corn borer Cucumber beetle Flea beetle Stink bug Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. Braconids. Cucumber beetle. refined horticultural oil Commodity Page 148 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . rotenone.6 F pyriproxyfen.5 lb 0 1 2 lb 4 lb 2.6 F 3.25 lb 0.04 to 0. Flea beetle. 2) as a sidedressing and incorporated after plants are established.377 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 21 Admire Pro is applied to the soil 1) infurrow at planting as a post-seeding or tranplant drench. Flower bug. and BT.8 oz 1. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Spider mites Stink bug Whitefly bifenazate. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. pyrethrins. Eulophidae.75 to 1 lb 0.5 lb 0 On foliage as needed. lacewing. Spray twice weekly with BTK. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methoxyfenozide. Drench soil with parastic nematodes.10 lb 7 to 10. or 3) through drip irrigation.0475 lb 1. Flower bug. neem or refined horticultural oil.6 F (Provado) 1.8 oz 8 to 10 fl oz 0. Corn earworm. Soldier beetle.125 to 0. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F spinetoram. Spray plants with neem. Leafminer Insecticide and Formulation imidacloprid. Drench soil with parastic nematodes weekly to control larvae. neem.5 pt 6 lb 0. Spray pyrethrins or ryania on larvae. lacewings.377 lb Admire Pro is applied to the soil 1) in-furrow at planting as a post-seeding or tranplant drench. midges. Do not make more than two applications per season. and soil drench with parasitic nematodes.

MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0. 1.2 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.15 to 0.92 to 3. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Onion maggot. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms n Table 2-43. Braconid Flower bug.1 fl oz/1.15 to 0. Pick and destroy mined leaves.04 to 0. Do not exceed 1.047 to 0.84 fl oz 0. Alternative Control Procedures – Onion Commodity Cutworms ONION Leafminer Onion thrips Insect Alternative Control Procedures Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars.025 lb 0. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.TABLE 2-41.01 to 0.5 pt 9 to 18 oz 0.5 lb 0. Commodity ONION Insect Armyworm.45 lb 0. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC methomyl. MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 WS spinetoram. lacewing and attract parastic wasps.0 oz 1. Dry bulb only.3 lb 0.92 to 3.025 1 1 n Table 2-42.015 to 0. drench the seed furrow at planting time. Spray with insecticidal soap. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC permethrin. or refined horticultural oil.2 EC (various) 25 WP spinetoram.015 to 0. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0. Dry bulb only. May not control western flower thrips. MOA 3 (Ammo) 2.2 EC (various) 25 WP Thrips encapsulated methyl parathion. MOA 1B (Penncap-M) 2 FM gamma-cyhalothrin.16 lb 1 lb 1 7 1 — Apply as in-furrow drench at planting.5 EC diazinon. Apply as a furrow treatment at time of planting.3 lb 0. lacewings.92 pt per acre per season.3 lb 4 to 12 oz 9 to 18 oz 2 pt 2.56 to 3. MOA 1B (Diazinon) (AG 500) 7 — Furrow application.017 to 0. Seed corn maggot chlorpyrifos.66 oz 6 to 8 oz Do not exceed 1.000 linear ft of row at 18 in.08 to 0.24 to 4.015 lb 1 15 14 14 7 1 Dry bulb only.06 lb 1.15 to 0. For adult control.25 lb 1. MOA 3 (various) 3. Dry bulb only.20 oz 0. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 14 1 4 to 12 oz 9 to 18 oz 5 to 10 fl oz 2.047 to 0. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Onion Commodity Beet armyworm ONION Leafminer Onion maggot Onion thrips Insect Soldier bug Eulophidae.0 oz 0. permethrin. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 149 .12 lb 0. Cutworm Insecticide and Formulation zeta-cypermethrin.014 to 0.2 EC (various) 25 WP spinetoram.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 4 E cypermethrin. MOA 3 (various) 3. Spray plants with neem. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Leafminer cryomazinem. Dry bulb only.15 to 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC zeta-cypermethrin. Use separate hoppers for seed and chemical. and predatory mites. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. INSECT CONTROL FOR ONION Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2. Use a minimumof 40 gal per acre and incorporate to a depth of 1 to 2 in. row spacing 4 to 5 oz 1 qt 0.025 lb 0.3 lb 6 to 8 fl oz 2.24 to 4.92 pt per acre per season.8 EC 0.8 EC lambda-cyhalothrin.06 lb 0. Do not make more than one application per year.08 lb 0. MOA 3 (various) 3.4 LV permethrin.

MOA 1A (Lannate) 2.33 qt 2. do not apply within 21 days of harvest.5 to 1 lb 1 to 2 pt 0.5 fl oz 2. MOA 3 Stink bug (various) 2 EC carbaryl.5 lb 0.01 to 0. (Proaxis) 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC dimethoate.4 fl oz 0.33 to 1 pt 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 3 to 6 fl oz 0. or as a post-seeding or transplant drench. Commodity Insect Insecticide and Formulation bifenthrin. MOA 1B imidacloprid. Loopers. MOA 1B (Dimethoate) 400 (4E) PEA.1 lb a.1 lb 0.5 lb 1 to 1.54 lb 7 3 (succulent). For dried shelled. MOA 3 (Asana) XL gamma-cyhalothrin.15 0.1 lb 0.01 to 0. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F 3.025 lb 3 7 3 1 (succulent or edible pod) 21 (drIed) 3 0 21 Apply to foliage as needed.6 F Armyworm. Apply Admire Pro via chemigation into the root zone. INSECT CONTROL FOR PEA Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2.8 to 9. Do not exceed 3 applications of endosulfan per year.17 to 0.6 F 0.03 to 0.5 fl oz 5 to 8 oz 0.84 fl oz 2. per acre per season.25 pt 7 to 10.03 to 0.063 lb 0.015 lb 7 7 7 21 7 For edible podded or shelled succulent peas.17 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 7 Limit 12.1 to 6.37 lb (Provado) 1. For dried shelled. Lygus bug.i. and do not apply more than 0.5 EC methomyl.6 F 7 to 10. Looper bifenthrin. Do not make more than one application per season.6 oz 0.TABLE 2-44.04 lb 7 0. Limit 12.25 to 1.25 lb spinetoram. Do not make more than one application per season.5 EC Armyworm methoxyfenozide.1 lb 7 3 5.8 fl oz per acre per season. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.063 lb 3 (succulent). Limit 12.56 to 3. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.1 to 6. and do not feed or graze if a mobile viner issued. MOA 3 European corn borer.12 lb 0. against corn earworm. as an in-furrow spray at planting.5 EC spinetoram.02 to 0.5 qt 0.09 lb 3 28 Page 150 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .45 to 0.) per acre per season. MOA 1A (Sevin) 4 L (Sevin) 80 S gamma-cyhalothrin.i. bifenthrin. or for 21 days if a stationary viner is used.i. endosulfan.03 to 0. 2.0 oz 0.56 to 3.015 lb 0.03 to 0.9 lb 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Bean leaf beetle carbaryl. Do not feed treated foliage to livestock.25 to 0.03 to 0.01 to 0.56 to 3.625 to 1.84 fl oz 4 to 8 fl oz 2. Thrips See BEANS for control bifenthrin.1 to 6. English and Aphid Snow Pea (Succulent and dried) imidacloprid. (dried) 0.25 to 0. On foliage as needed.05 to 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esvenvalerate.72 to 4.03 to 0.4 fl oz 1. MOA 2A (Thionex) 50 WP (Thionex) 3 EC gamma-cyhalothrin. MOA 1A (Sevin 80WSP) XLR dimethoate. Not for cutworm. Use lower rates on smaller plants and higher rates for mid.4 LV zeta-cypermethrin. 28 Radiant is not effective against aphids.04 lb 0.01 to 0. Cloverworm.4 fl oz 0. 0. gamma-cyhalothrin. Cutworm.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin. or as a post-seeding or transplant drench. or for 21 days if a stationary viner is used. 28 (dried) 3 3 (fresh) 21 (dried) 7 Do not apply within 14 days of grazing or harvest for forage. or estuaries. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.5 to 1 lb 3 0. Do not apply more than 12 fl oz (0.05 lb 3 Do not feed treated vines to livestock.33 pt Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.15 lb 0. MOA 3 (Warrior) Corn earworm.8 fl oz per acre per season. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.188 a. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.8 fl oz per acre per season.017 to 0. Apply Admire Pro via chemigation into the root zone. MOA 1B (Dimethoate) 400 (4E) 3. For succulent peas. and do not apply within 300 feet of lakes. or on or below the seed. ponds. do not apply within 3 days of harvest. Do not feed or graze if a mobile viner issued. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz (0.5 fl oz 0.25 lb a. do ot apply within 28 days of harvest.to late season applications. streams.1 lb 1 to 1. do not apply within 7 days of harvest.25 lb 2.1 to 6.875 lb 1 to 1. Provado is for foliar applications. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. as an in-furrow spray at planting on or below the seed.03 lb 0.56 to 3.8 EC Seedcorn maggot PEA (Cowpea) Aphid.5 to 3 pt 2. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC dimethoate 4 EC.37 lb 21 (Provado) 1. Do not feed treated foliage to livestock. 2.5 fl oz 0.84 fl oz 2.0625 to 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Leafhopper.6 F spinetoram.4 fl oz 0.04 to 0.56 to 3.) per acre per season. PHI is 1 day for succulent shelled or ediblepodded peas and 21 days for dried.84 fl oz 4 to 16 fl oz 0.66 to 1.5 to 1 qt 0.84 fl oz 1. Provado is for foliar applications. shelled peas.

and predatory mites. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Pea Commodity Aphid PEA (Blackeye) Thrips Cowpea curculio Leafminer PEA (Garden & English) Aphid Seedcom maggot Insect Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. Succulent peas treated with Thiodan must be harvested by combine only.03 to 0. Spray plants with neem. Flower bug. lacewings. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.5 to 1 lb 0.03 to 0. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC zeta-cypermethrin.74 to 4 fl oz 5 to 8 oz 0.8 to 9. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0. midges.063 lb 3 (succulent). long. midges. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 0.03 lb 0. Pick and destroy mined leavess. neem or refined horticultural oil. INSECT CONTROL FOR PEA Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2. lacewing and attract parasitic wasps.75 lb 0. Commodity PEA (Cowpea) (continued) Insect Cowpea curculio Insecticide and Formulation bifenthrin. MOA 3 Leafminer spinetoram. Make three applications at 5-day intervals starting when pods are 1/2 in.56 to 3. lacewings. As applied for worms.1 to 6.05 lb 0.6 oz 2. refined horticultural oil refined horticultural oil Wash with strong spray of water.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin.017 to 0.025 lb 21 14 21 21 28 Limit 12.1 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 3 1 qt 1 to 2 lb 4.8 fl oz per acre per season. Lady beetles. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators. neem or refined horticultural oil. or refined horticultural oil.02 to 0. Alternative Control Procedures – Pea Commodity Aphid Thrips PEA (Blackeye) Leafminer Stink bug Lygus bug PEA (Garden & English) Aphid Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. Eulophidae and parasitic nematodes.04 to 0.84 fl oz 2.01 to 0.TABLE 2-44.66 EC gamma-cyhalothrin. Eulophidae. or spray with insecticidal soap.015 lb 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP esfenvalerate. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators. Spray with insecticidal soap.56 to 3. or spray with insecticidal soap. lacewings. (dried) n Table 2-45. n Table 2-46.4 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.84 fl oz 2. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 151 . MOA 3 (various) 2 EC endosulfan.

033 to 0. or 2) injection into overhead irrigation system using adequate volume to thoroughly saturate soil media. On foliage as needed. Actara is applied as a foliar spray. 75 WSP (Orthene) 97 PE Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) DF.67 pt Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.045 lb 0.6 to 2. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.05 to 1 lb 0. Do not exceed 5.4 fl oz 1.5 fl oz 21 (Provado) 1. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide. Use only one application method. MOA 1B dinotefuran. Flea beetle Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP flonicamid. Looper.8 oz 0. 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone. Do not exceed two applications per season.1 to 6. MOA 1A (Vydate) 2 L pymetrozine.089 lb 0.5 EC rynaxypyr.5 to 1 lb 2.56 to 3.0075 to 0. as a post seeding or transplant drench. Do not exceed rate as leaf injury will result. Admire Pro is applied to the soil. See comments under European corn borer.03 to 0.1 lb 0. Corn earworm. Additional applications may be necessary to maintain control. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC beta-cyfluthrin. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum or Actara. MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam.5 oz per acre per season.TABLE 2-47. 7 to 10. Page 152 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.5 to 1.035 to 0. For short-term protection of transplants at planting.226 to 0.015 lb 0.17 lb 0. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.268 lb 1 21 endosulfan.06 lb 30 0 Armyworm. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.33 qt 2 lb 2 to 2. followed immediately by sufficient overhead irrigation to wsh product into potting media. Movento will not control flea beetle. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC (Actara) 25 WDG 3.5 lb 0. 4 to 5 fl oz 0.2 lb active ingredient per season. 2 to 3 oz 2. MOA 11B1 bifenthrin.8 to 1.045 to 0. One application will provide systemic protection for 3 weeks.49 to 0.44 oz/10.4 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 0 Do not apply more than once every 7 days.05 to 0.179 lb 0.045 lb 7 7 7 Do not exceed 0. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Provado is applied as a foliar spray.5 fl oz 1 5 1 Foliar or drip chemigation. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications.25 to 0. and do not exceed 4 applications per season.0475 lb 0.377 lb 4 0 Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid. MOA 9C (Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid.8 fl oz 2. post seeding or transplant as a drench.022 lb 0.054 lb 0. or through drip irrigation.08 lb 1 5 to 11 fl oz 2 to 4 oz 0. MOA 4A (Admire) 4.015 lb 0.012 to 0.33 lb 0. MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL emamectin benzoate. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications.000 plants) not more than 7 days before transplanting by 1) uniformly spraying on transplants. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone.6 F 1 lb 1. MOA 4A (Assail) 70 WP dimethoate 4 EC. It may be applied in-furrow at planting.5 to 1 lb 0. or through drip irrigation. apply Admire Pro (0.8 oz 0.08 to 0.01 to 0. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth.4 to 4. or 3) drip irrigation. INSECT CONTROL FOR PEPPER Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0.8 fl oz 1 to 2 qt 2.086 lb 0 1 0 Apply before aphids reach damaging levels.5 to 1. MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S. Not for flea beetle. For flea beetle control only. Apply when larvae are first observed. or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications.5 to 1 lb 0. Soil applications may be appled by 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting. Commodity PEPPER Insect Aphid.5 lb 0.75 oz 0.67 SC 7 0. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat.25 to 0. as a sidedress and incorporated after plants are established.026 to 0.06 to 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG gamma-cyhalothrin.84 fl oz 2 to 3. Hornworm acephate.5 to 1 lb 0.66 to 1. MOA 11B2 (Xentari) WDG.2 oz 0.6 F oxamyl.03 to 0. See label for instructions.97 0 0.062 to 0.

75 to 1 lb 0.56 to 3.03 to 0.045 lb 0.6 to 2.025 lb 0.047 to 0.97 lb 0.012 to 0.84 fl oz 0.009 to 0. Pepper weevil acetamiprid.5 to 1 lb 1 7 7 7 Do not exceed 16. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F 2.33 lb 0. per acre per crop).0075 to 0. MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 % WP dimethoate 4 EC.1 lb 0.25 lb 0.02 to 0. Minimum interval between sprays is 5 days.73 to 0. Do not exceed two applications per season.5 to 1 lb 0.88 pt per acre per season.73 to 0. 75 WSP (Orthene) 97 PE bifenthrin.8 fl oz per acre per season or 6 applications per season.24 to 4 fl oz 4 oz 2. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Blister beetle.4 fl oz 2 to 4 pt 0.5 pt 6 to 10 oz 7 0 0 1 7 See comments under European corn borer. 75 WSP (Orthene) 97 PE dimethoate 4 EC.4 LV rynaxypyr. MOA 1B spinetoram. Hornworm (continued) Insecticide and Formulation indoxacarb.019 lb 0. 0. Do not exceed 16. MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL esfenvalerate. Stink bug.04 to 0.84 fl oz 2. Pepper maggot acephate.75 to 1 lb 0.08 lb 3 1 Foliar or drip chemigation.84 fl oz 1.67 SC 7 1 to 1. Corn earworm.to 7-day intervals as long as moths continue to fly or egg masses are present on the plants. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC methomyl.4 fl oz 1.TABLE 2-47. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0. INSECT CONTROL FOR PEPPER Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2.03 lb 1 5 5 For all insecticides. Applications should target early instars.56 to 3. Leafminer abamectin.02 to 0.6 oz 2 to 3 oz 2. Looper.015 lb 0.i. Applications should target early instars.045 lb 0. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG lambda-cyhalothrin. MOA 1A (Vydate) 2 L Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 153 .5 to 0.84 fl oz 2.2 lb active ingredient per acre per season. Do not apply more than 2.033 to 0.02 to 0. Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0. MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 8 to 16 oz 2.8 EC 1 to 1.75 to 1 lb 2.08 lb 0. Do not exceed 0. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.03 lb 5 0.i.84 fl oz 4 to 16 fl oz 0.0775 lb 0.66 oz 0.33 qt 2 lb 2.26 lb a.125 lb 0. Apply at rates of 4 to 8 fl oz early in season when plants are small. Repeat weekly as needed.56 to 3.97 0.88 pt per acre per season.03 to 0. Drip chemi-gation must be applied uniformly to the root zone.33 lb 0.065 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 Use only higher rate for control of armyworm and corn earworm. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG gamma-cyhalothrin. as indicated by light trap catches.05 lb 0.06 to 0.125 lb 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC oxamyl. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC methoxyfenozide. Leaf-footed bug gamma-cyhalothrin.5 fl oz 0. Do not apply more than 2 lb a. MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC European corn borer 5 to 10 oz 2.022 lb 0.67 pt 1. 0.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG bifenthrin.i. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1. Adult flies may be active from early June through July.56 to 3.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin.1 to 6.1 to 6.033 to 0. MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S. Commodity PEPPER (continued) Insect Armyworm. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC beta-cyfluthrin.45 lb 0. Applications should be made at 5.5 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.35 lb active ingredient of Asana XL per acre per season.03 lb 7 7 7 1 5 5 Do not apply more than 2.5 to 3. or 1 lb a.8 fl oz per acre per season. on non-bell peppers. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0. See label for instructions.8 to 9. MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0.045 to 0. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP zeta-cypermethrin.8 fl oz 4. Apply at rates of 8 to 16 oz to large plants or when infestations are heavy. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.56 to 3.66 EC flubendiamide.1 lb 0.01 to 0. per acre per season on bell peppers. MOA 1B endosulfan. Do not exceed a total of 0.014 to 0. Do not apply more than 16 fl oz per application or 64 fl oz of Intrepid per acre per season.25 lb 1 spinetoram.15 EC cyromazine.25 to 1 lb 1 lb 0 4 On foliage when flies appear on yellow sticky traps. During periods of continuous moth flights re-treatments at 7 to 14 days may be required. acephate.026 to 0. begin applications at first fruit set when European corn borer moths are flying.5 pt 2 to 3.

2 EC thiamethoxam. pyrethrins. Avoid bringing in plants with fruit pods from Florida. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators n Table 2-49. neem. Encyrtidae. lacewings.13 lb 0 1 7 3 7 7 1 to 1. or refined horticultural oil. Handpick or spray with neem. Will not control broad mite. lacewings. rotenone. pyrethrins. or spray with insecticidal soap. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG Thrips acephate.0018 lb 0.6 F (various brands) 2 F methomyl. pyrethrins. or refined horticultural oil.75 to 1 lb 0. lacewing. Do not exceed 8 oz of Actara per acre per season. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap.025 lb 0. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. or refined horticultural oil. pyrethrins. or refined horticultural oil. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. Broad mite abamectin. Trichogramma wasps Flower bug. lacewing. Spray with insecticidal soap.5 fl oz 0. Spray with sulfur insecticidal soap. BTK. MOA 4A (Actara) 25 WP zeta-cypermethrin. Encourage native parastic flies and wasps.4 LV spinetoram. n Table 2-48.375 to 0. MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0.33 lb 0. BTK.TABLE 2-47. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Pepper Commodity Aphid Armyworm Looper Hornworm European corn borer Corn earworm PEPPER Stinkbug Flea beetle Leafminer Pepper maggot Pepper weevil Spider mite Thrips Flower bug. Spray pyrethrins or ryania on larvae. midges. and predatory mites Lady beetle. or refined horticultural oil.5 lb 21 See Aphids for application instructions. Use tolerant cultivars.73 to 0. Imidacloprid is more effective against tobacco thrips than western flower thrips.15 EC bifenazate. Page 154 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .25 to 0. neem. neem. Ichneumonid wasps and Pteromalidae Braconids Eulophidae.009 to 0. Do not use on non-bell peppers. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3. Treating transplants before setting in the field.047 to 0. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2.014 to 0.24 to 4 fl oz 8 to 16 oz 0. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. Pteromalidae Trichogramma wasps Flower bug.047 to 0. refined horticultural oil Drench soil with parastic nematodes.45 lb 0. Spray with insecticidal soap.1 to 0. Commodity PEPPER (continued) Insect Pepper weevil (continued) Insecticide and Formulation permethrin. rotenone.99 lb 0.8 EC Spider mite.75 to 1 lb 7 to 14 fl oz 16 to 32 fl oz 0. On foliage as needed. Control of thrips may be improved by adding a spray adjuvant. 75 WSP (Orthene) 97 PE imidacloprid. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 1. See comments under European corn borer. followed by drip irrigation may suppress incidence of tomato spotted virus. Trichogramma wasps. INSECT CONTROL FOR PEPPER Amount of Formulation Per Acre 6 to 12 oz 4 to 8 oz 3 to 4 oz 2.063 lb 0. Do not exceed 3 applications per season. neem or refined horticultural oil.2 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 Apply at 7-day intervals when infestation becomes evident. Do not make more than one application per season. See label for instructions. Spray twice weekly with BTK.5 lb 0. Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.08 lb 3 1 Do not exceed 29 fl oz per acre per season. predator mites. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. rotenone. lacewing and attract parasitic wasps.75 to 1 lb 7 to 8.1 to 0. MOA 1B (Orthene) 75 S. and lacewings Insect Soldier bug Trichogramma wasps. rotenone. BTK. pyrethrins. Alternative Control Procedures – Pepper Commodity Aphid Armyworm Looper Hornworm European corn borer PEPPER Corn earworm Stinkbug Flea beetle Leafminer Pepper weevil Spider mite Thrips Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WS spiromesifen. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.5 pt 6 to 10 oz 0. Pick and destroy mined leavess. neem. or refined horticultural oil. or BTK. rotenone. Spray plants with neem.

75 fl oz 0. methamidophos. and Currituck counties. do not use acetamiprid.33 qt 1 to 2 lb 3. permethrin (various products).5 to 2 pt 2 to 4 pt 2. Provado. Thorough coverage is important. Do not exceed a total of 5. See comments on insect rotation under Colorado potato beetle.045 lb 14 Colorado potato beetle Colorado potato beetle populations in most commercial potato-growing areas have developed resistance to many insecticides. This will make choosing an insecticide and maintaining insecticide rotations easier. beetle populations in different fields may differ in the insecticides to which they are resistant.75 to 1 lb 0. or thiamethoxam for aphid control if either of these compounds was applied to the crop for control of Colorado potato beetle. Camden. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG dimethoate 4 EC. may no longer provide control in particular areas. Monitoring the resistance status will aid in insecticide selection and help avoid control failures due to resistance. imidaclorpid. Imidan. Pasquotank. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle. MOA 1B endosulfan. and phosmet (Imidan) has been observed in most potato-producing counties. CROP ROTATION AND INSECTICIDE ROTATION (the use of insecticides representing different modes of action IRAC MoA class number in different years) are essential if insecticide resistance is to be managed and the risks of control failures due to resistance minimized.7 oz 0. Unnecessary insecticide applications should be avoided by scouting fields for insect pests and applying insecticides only when potentially damaging insect populations are present. Vydate. Commodity POTATO. do not use imidaclorpid or thiamethoxam for aphid control if either of these compounds was applied to the crop for control of Colorado potato beetle. Permethrin.075 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 Do not make more than 4 applications per season.086 lb 14 7 14 Allow at least 7 days between applications.5 to 4 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.TABLE 2-50. acetamiprid. Irish Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid.025 to 0. and Permethrin resistance has been observed in some areas. Recently. and Monitor is widespread among potato beetle populations in Carteret. Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and many small but few large larvae are present. Apply in at least 20 gal water per acre. INSECT CONTROL FOR POTATO.05 lb 7 To minimize selection for resistance in Colorado potato beetle. Monitoring the insecticide resistance status of local populations will also make insecticide selection easier. Resistance problems are most severe in potato-producing counties in southeastern North Carolina and north of the Albemarle Sound. Allow at least 7 days between foliar applications. Do not exceed two applications per season.67 to 1. MOA 6 (Agri-Mek) 0. An additional application should be used only if defoliation increases. Limiting insecticide applications to infested portions of the field will provide effective control and reduce costs. Assail belongs to the same class of insecticides (neonicotinoid) as Admire Pro. Asana.6 to 1.0018 lb 14 Apply when adults and/or small larvae are present but before large larvae appear. potato beetle infestations in rotated fields occur first along field edges early in the season. esfenvalerate (Asana).028 to 0. To minimize selection for resistance.17 lb a.5 to 1 lb 0. regardless of the target insect pest. Remember. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP imidacloprid.009 to 0. MOA 4A (Assail) 70 WP 0.075 lb 7 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 155 . 3 oz 0. MOA 4A (Actara) 25 WDG 1. If an additional insecticide application is necessary. Resistance to Ambush. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam. have the potential to increase the resistance of the Colorado potato beetle to insecticides. SCOUT FIELDS: All insecticide applications to the potato crop. As a result. there have been reports of low resistance to imidacloprid (Provado and Admire) in some areas. IRISH Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1. MOA 1A (Vydate) 2 L pymetrozine. do NOT make a second application of the same insecticide at the same or higher rate. MOA 1B (Monitor) 4 EC oxamyl. or were effective in the past.i.25 to 0. MOA 4A (Provado) 1. Pamlico.6 F 0.5 oz (0. a different insecticide representing a different IRAC MoA class number should be used. To minimize selection for resistance in Colorado potato beetle. Actara.15 EC 8 to 16 oz 0.) per acre per season. and Platinum and Colorado protato beetle populations have the potential to become resistant to this class. If control failures or reduced levels of control are observed with a particular insecticide. abamectin.5 to 1 pt 0. Asana.5 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0 1 0. Growers are advised to keep accurate records on which insecticides have been applied to their potato crop for control of Colorado potato beetle and on how effective those insecticides were at controlling infestations. but some resistance to oxamyl (Vydate).75 oz 0. insecticides that are effective in some areas. do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. SPOT TREATMENTS: Because overwintered potato beetles invade rotated fields from sources outside the field.

).To minimize selection for resistance. To minimize selection for resistance. Aerial applications generally do not provide acceptable control.) Admire Pro may also be applied as a seed treatment.t. Good spray coverage is important and B. Apply when most egg masses have hatched and both small and large larvae are present.).5 oz (foliar) 6. for early planted potatoes control may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle emergence. MOA 2A (Thionex) 2 EC (Thionex) 50 WP 1 lb 1. Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and most larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in.6 fl oz/100 lb of seed tubers imidacloprid.31 lb imidacloprid per season. There have been reports of low levels of resistance to imidicloprid. Foliar applications of imidacloprid should not be applied If soil applicaton were used . do NOT use endosulfan if it was applied to a potato crop in the field or an adjacent field within the last year.t. If potatoes are rotated to a field adjacent to one planted in potato last year. spray when about 50% of the egg masses encountered have hatched and many larvae (red and black colored and 1/4 to 1/3 in.3 qt 2 lb 1 imidacloprid seed piece treatment.75 fl oz 0.t. do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. a barrier treatment may be effective. preemergence. Apply first B. Do not apply other IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides to a field if seed pieces were treated with Genesis.0 F 0. Check label for restrictions on planting crops following Admire Pro treated potatoes.066 lb 0. To minimize the potential for resistance. Do not exceed 15 fl oz of Provado per field per acre per season.6 F 3. For early planted potatoes control may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle emergence. Regardless of formulation.05 lb 7 Page 156 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . To minimize selection for resistance. Use only in potato fields that have a history of potato beetle infestations. INSECT CONTROL FOR POTATO.05 to 0. sprays generally do not kill adults. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle.TABLE 2-50. long) are present. do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. Thorough coverage is important. MOA 11C (Novodor) dinotefuran. Commodity POTATO.28 to 0. Limit use to locations where Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields during the previous year. do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. B. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle. There have been reports of low levels of resistance to imidicloprid.6 F (various) 2.t.5 to 7. Soil treatment for preplant. Check label for instructions regarding this use. applications should be made by ground using a spray volume of at least 20 gal per acre. If possible have your populations tested for susceptibility before using endosulfan or other products.000 ft row (Provado and others) 1.t. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. See label for specific instructions.t. However.5 oz (soil) 0.33 lb 7 endosulfan. (See Vegetable IPM Insect Note #45. IRISH Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 3 qt Active Ingredient Per Acre 2 to 3 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 0 B. Additional applications may be needed only if defoliation increases.74 fl oz/ 1. Beetle larvae stop feeding after treatment but may remain alive on the plants for several days before dying. Some potato beetle populations are resistant to endosulfan.38 lb — Admire Pro applied in-furrow at planting time may provide season-long control.t. MOA 4A (Genesis) 240 g/L 0.4 to 0. An additional application should be made only if defoliation increases. Irish (continued) Insect Colorado potato beetle (continued) Insecticide and Formulation Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis (B. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle. 0. See product label for restrictions on rotational crops. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 1 to 1. do NOT apply more than a total of 0. products are effective against insecticideresistant potato beetle populations. or at ground crack only application only. Allow at least 7 days between foliar applications.

To minimize the potential for resistance.047 to 0. Do not apply more than 24 oz of Avaunt (0. Thorough coverage is important.078 0. See label for specific instructions.i. Do not make more than 2 applications of Actara per crop per season. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 DG 6 oz 0. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle. Limit use to locations where Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields in the previous year. INSECT CONTROL FOR POTATO. See product label for restrictions on rotational crops. do NOT use spinetoram if it was applied to a potato crop in the field or an adjacent field within the last year. 7 thiamethoxam seed piece treatment. do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. IRISH Amount of Formulation Per Acre 3 to 3. Leverage will control European corn borer if application coincides with egg hatch and presence of samll corn borer larvae. do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments.079 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 Apply when most of the egg masses have hatched and most larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in. Leverage should not be used in fields treated with Admire Pro.TABLE 2-50.75 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle. (21 oz of Radiant) per crop.16 fl oz/100 lb thiamethoxam. Allow at least 7 days between applications.058 to 0.7 SE indoxacarb.11 to 0. For early planted potatoes control may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle emergence. (Actara) 25 WDG 3 oz 0. To minimize selection for resistance.).066 0. An additional application should be made only if defoliation increases.11 lb 7 novaluron.i.047 lb 7 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 157 . In areas where Colorado potato beetles are resistant to other insecticides. An additional application should be made only if defoliation increases. MOA 4A (Cruiser) 5 FS 0.).33 lb a.) per acre per crop.83 EC rynaxypyr. Do not apply more than a total of 0. Limit use to locations where Colorado potato beetles were a problem in the same or adjacent fields during the previous year. MOA 15 (Rimon) 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 9 to 12 fl oz 2 to 3 oz 6 to 8 oz 0. To minimize selection for resistance. Apply when most egg masses have hatched and both small and large larvae are present.44 lb a. The beetles stop feeding following initial exposure to Avaunt but may take several days to die. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC 5 to 8 fl oz 0. Commodity POTATO (continued) Insect Colorado potato beetle (continued) Insecticide and Formulation imidacloprid + cyfluthrin premix.063 lb 14 14 7 Do not apply more than 9 oz Altacor per acre per crop season. Apply when most of the eggs have hatched and most of the larvae are small (1/8 to 3/16 in. For early planted potatoes control may be marginal because of the prolonged time between application and Colorado potato beetle emergence. MOA 4A and 3 (Leverage) 2. The minimum interval between applications is 5 days. See comments on insecticide rotation under Colorado potato beetle. To minimize selection for resistance. addition of PBO (piperonyl butoxide) as tank mix with Avaunt may be necessary.078 to 0. Actara is applied as foliar spray.044 to 0. Do not apply in consecutive generations of Colorado potato beetle and do not make more than two applications per single generation of Colorado potato beetle. There have been reports of low levels of resistance to imidicloprid. To minimize selection for resistance.125 lb Platinum applied in-furrow at planting time may provide season-long control.063 to 0. MOA 28 (Altacor) 35 WDG spinetoram. do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments. do not use foliar applications of any IRAC MoA class 4A insecticides if any of these compounds were applied to the crop as soil or seed piece treatments.

5 to 1 lb 0 1 See comments under Colorado potato beetle. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dimethoate 4 EC.5 to 2 pt 0. Plant bug. MOA 1B endosulfan. MOA 1B (Imidan) 70 WSB Leafminer Blister beetle. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Flea beetle Leafhopper phorate. 14 6 Prevent late-season injury by keeping potatoes covered with soil. row spacing) 1 to 2 lb 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP Potato tuberworm endosulfan. Control on all other varieties is recommended when infestations reach 20 percent infested stems. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2.1 to 0. 4 to 8 fl oz 0. 0.25 lb 1 pt 0. MOA 1B endosulfan.2 lb 0. MOA 3 (various) 3.2 E Thrips dimethoate 4 EC. MOA 1B (Monitor 4) 1.25 lb 1 lb 14 0 0 On foliage as needed. To prevent damage in storage. beta-cyfluthrin.33 qt 1 to 2 lb 0. Stink bug.5 to 1 lb 0. Do not apply more than 24 oz of Avaunt per acre per crop.0 oz 0.4 LV phosmet. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP methomyl. 0.5 to 1 lb 0. Irish (continued) Insect European corn borer Insecticide and Formulation The Atlantic variety of potato is very tolerant of injury by European corn borer larvae.5 to 1 pt 2 to 4 lb 1. Leaffooted bug.5 lb 0.5 to 1 pt 0.066 0.5 lb 1 to 2 qt 0.4 LV permethrin. MOA 28 (Altacor) 35 WDG spinetoram. Ground applications are usually more effective than aerial applications.022 lb 0 Apply when threshold is reached (usually during the first half of May). Do not apply more than 9 oz Altacor per acre per crop season.67 to 1.5 pt 1.5 lb 0. INSECT CONTROL FOR POTATO.i.047 to 0.5 to 6. 0. Do not apply more than a total of 0.065 to 0. (32 fl oz product) per crop. MOA 1B (Thimet) 20 G carbaryl.063 7 Page 158 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .047 to 0.45 to 0.11 lb 7 methamidophos. IRISH Amount of Formulation Per Acre Active Ingredient Per Acre Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks Commodity POTATO. Often a problem in the mountains.5 pt 2 qt 2 lb 6 to 8 fl oz 0.45 lb 1 lb 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 2 EC (Thionex) 50 WP spinetoram. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2.25 to 0. Consequently. A second application may be needed if the percentage of infested stems increases substantially 7 to 10 days after the first application. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP methamidophos.25 to 2.5 lb 1 to 2 lb 6 7 0 0 On foliage as needed.25 lb a. Apply when threshold is reached (usually during the first half of May). MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC 2 to 3 oz 6 to 8 oz 10 to 20 oz (38 in. practice sanitation. A second application may be needed if the percentage of infested stems increases substantially 7 to 10 days after the first application.33 lb 0. indoxacarb. MOA 1B carbaryl.33 qt 1 to 2 lb 1.5 to 1 lb 0.25 to 0.6 to 2. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG 3.67 to 1. MOA 1B (Monitor) 4 E methomyl. A second application may be needed if the percentage of infested stems increases substantially 7 to 10 days after the first application.75 to 1 lb 14 rynaxypyr. Apply when threshold is reached (usually during the first half of May).012 to 0. MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL 1.063 lb 2 to 3 lb 14 7 90 0 0.9 lb 1 See comments under Colorado potato beetle.5 to 2 pt 1. Vegetable weevil dimethoate 4 EC.5 to 1 lb 0.TABLE 2-50.67 to 1. On foliage when leafhoppers first appear. Ground applications are usually more effective than aerial applications. control is not recommended on Atlantic unless more than 30 percent of the stems are infested. 1 See comments under Colorado potato beetle.) Use of phorate can contribute to insecticide resistance with Colorado potato beetle.5 to 3 pt 0.044 to 0. MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus endosulfan.8 fl oz 0. Ground applications are generally more effective than aerial applications.625 to 1.75 to 1 lb 0. Repeat every 10 days as needed. Do not apply more than 14 fl oz of Baythroid per crop season.33 qt 1 to 2 lb 1.

ethoprop. pyrethrins. neem. Spray with insecticidal soap or refined horticultural oil. neem pyrethrins. IRISH Flea beetle Leafhopper Leafminer Plant bug Blister beetle Thrips Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. Spray twice weekly with BTK.5 to 3 lb 0. or refined horticultural oil. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators n Table 2-52. lacewing and attract parastic wasps. Drench soil with parastic nematodes. and flower bug Eulophidae. Spray plants with neem. n Table 2-51. BTK or refined horticultural oil. Spray pyrethrins or ryania on larvae. INSECT CONTROL FOR POTATO. Irish Commodity Aphid Colorado potato beetle European corn borer POTATO. rotenone. or fallow may increase risk of wireworm. Pick and destroy mined leaves.1 lb 2 to 3 lb 90 90 90 In-furrow at planting. soybean. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 159 .2 fl oz Row Treatment: 10 to 20 oz (38 in. Use plastic lined trench as a trap or flamers. Spray with insecticidal soap. neem or refined horticultural oil. Spray with insecticidal soap. rotenone. or refined horticultural oil. Ichneumonid wasp Flower bug. Lacewing. MOA 2B (Regent) 4 SC phorate. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. Spray with insecticidal soap or refined horticultural oil. MOA 1B (Thimet) 20 G 1. Handpick or spray with neem. Encourage native parastic flies and wasps. Irish Commodity Aphid Colorado potato beetle POTATO. rotenone. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles.TABLE 2-50. Use tolerant cultivars. IRISH European corn borer Flea beetle Leafhopper Leafminer Insect Lacewing. neem. MOA 1B (Mocap) 15 G fipronil. row spacing) 2. Can contribute to insecticide-resistance problems with Colorado potato beetle. Trichogramma wasps Braconids. pyrethrins. midges. In-furrow at planting. lacewings.000 row ft 3. Irish (continued) Insect Wireworm Insecticide and Formulation Planting in fields previously in corn.4 lb per 1. BTT or refined horticultural oil. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Potato. Alternative Control Procedures – Potato. pyrethrins. and soil drench with parastic nematodes. or spray with insecticidal soap. IRISH Amount of Formulation Per Acre Active Ingredient Per Acre Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks Commodity POTATO. rotenone.

TABLE 2-53. INSECT CONTROL FOR PUMPKIN
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2.5 to 4 oz 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.047 to 0.075 lb 0.04 to 0.1 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 0 3 Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications postbloom. Allow 7 days between applications.

Commodity PUMPKIN

Insect Aphid

Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid, MOA 4A (Assail) bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC flonicamid, MOA 9C (Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F

2 to 2.8 oz 7 to 10.5 fl oz

0.062 to 0.089 lb 0.25 to 0.38 lb

0 21 Must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using lowpressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for approved application methods. Will also control whitefly and cucumber beetles. Apply before populations reach damaging levels. Do not exceed 5.5 oz per acre per season. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

pymetrozine, MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam, MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC

2.75 oz 5 to 11 oz

0.086 lb 0.08 to 0.12 lb

14 30

Armyworm

flubendiamide, MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methoxyfenozide, MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F rynaxypyr, MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC

2 to 3 oz 4 to 10 fl oz 2 to 3.5 fl oz

0.03 to 0.045 lb 0.06 to 0.16 lb 0.026 to 0.045 lb 0.04 to 0.08 lb 0.04 to 0.1 lb

1 3 1 Do not exceed 4 applications per season, and do not reapply in less than 7 days. Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

5 to 10 fl oz 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz

3 3 Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom. Allow 7 days between applications. Phytotoxicity may occur following application of carbaryl during hot, humid weather.

Cucumber beetle

bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dinotefuran, MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG

1 lb 2 lb 1.25 lb 1 qt 3 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.132 to 0.179 lb 0.226 to 0.268 lb

3

1 21

Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications. Use only one application method. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre per season using foliar applications, or 12 oz per acre per season using soil applications. Soil applications may be appled by 1) a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting; 2) a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation to the root zone; or 3) drip irrigation. Do not exceed 3 lb a.i. per acre per year.

endosulfan, MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP fenpropathrin, MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.4 EC imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F Cutworm, Corn earworm bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC flubendiamide, MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG permethrin, MOA 3 (various) 25 W (various) 3.2 EC rynaxypyr, MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC

0 1 qt 2 lb 10.6 to 16 oz 0.75 lb 1 lb 0.2 to 0.3 lb 7

Insect control may be improved by adding NIS. Do not apply more than 0.8 lb (a.i.) per acre per season. See application methods under Aphid. Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom. Allow 7 days between applications.

7 to 10.5 fl oz 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz

0.25 to 0.375 lb 0.04 to 0.1 lb

21 3

4.8 to 9.6 oz 2 to 3 oz

0.03 to 0.05 lb 0.03 to 0.045 lb 0.1 to 0.2 lb

3 1 0

6.4 to 12.8 oz 4 to 8 fl oz 3.5 to 5 fl oz 0.045 to 0.065 lb 1 Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

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Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

TABLE 2-53. INSECT CONTROL FOR PUMPKIN
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.04 to 0.1 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom. Allow 7 days between applications.

Commodity

Insect

Insecticide and Formulation bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL)

PUMPKIN (continued) Leafhopper

5.8 to 9.6 oz 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz

0.03 to 0.05 lb 0.04 to 0.1 lb

3 3 Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom. Allow 7 days between applications.

Looper, Pickleworm, Melon worm

bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) fenpropathrin, MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.4 EC flubendiamide, MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb, MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG methoxyfenozide, MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F permethrin, MOA 3 (various) 25 W (various) 3.2 EC rynaxypyr, MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC

5.8 to 9.6 oz 10.6 to 16 oz

0.03 to 0.05 lb 0.2 to 0.3 lb

3 7 Insect control may be improved by adding NIS. Do not apply more than 0.8 lb (a.i.) per acre per season.

2 to 3 oz 2.5 to 6 oz 4 to 10 fl oz

0.03 to 0.045 lb 0.045 to 0.11 lb 0.06 to 0.16 lb 0.1 to 0.2

1 3 3 0 Do not exceed 4 applications per season, and do not reapply in less than 7 days.

6.4 to 12.8 fl oz 4 to 8 fl oz 3.5 to 5 fl oz 0.045 to 0.065 lb 0.04 to 0.08 lb 0.009 to 0.019 lb 0.375 to 0.5 lb 0.1 to 0.13 lb 0.04 to 0.1 lb 1 Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

5 to 10 oz 8 to 16 fl oz 0.75 to 1.0 lb 7 to 8.5 oz 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz

3 7 3 7 3 Do not make more than one application per season. Do not exceed 3 applications per season. Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom. Allow 7 days between applications. Adults are difficult to control.Phytotoxicity may occur following application of carbaryl during hot, humid weather. Do not exceed 6 oz Venom per acre per season.

Spider mite

abamectin, MOA 6 (Agri-Mek) 0.15 EC bifenazate, MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WS spiromesifen, MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG

Squash bug

bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S (Sevin) XLR Plus dinotefuran, MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC permethrin, MOA 3 (Ambush) 2 EC

1 lb 2 lb 1.25 lb 1 qt 3 to 4 oz 4.8 to 9.6 oz 12 oz 5.3 ox 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz 0.132 to 0.179 lb 0.03 to 0.05 lb 0.2 lb 0.10 lb 0.04 to 0.1 lb

0

1 3 1 0 3

Squash vine borer

acetamiprid, MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC endosulfan, MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP

Limit 19.2 fl oz per acre per season. Limit two applications post bloom. Allow 7 days between applications. Apply weekly to flower buds, stems, and vines beginning when moths first appear. Check vines in early June and August for borer presence. Do not exceed 3 lb of active ingredient per year.

0 1 qt 2 lb 0.75 lb 1 lb

esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC permethrin, MOA 3 (various) 25 W (various) 3.2 EC Thrips dinotefuran, MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC

9 oz

0.05 lb 0.1 to 0.2 lb

3 0

6.4 to 12.8 oz 4 to 8 oz 1 to 4 oz 6 to 10 oz 0.045 to 0.179 lb 0.047 to 0.08 lb 1 3

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Page 161

TABLE 2-53. INSECT CONTROL FOR PUMPKIN
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 5.3 oz 5.12 to 6.4 oz 9 to 13.6 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.10 lb 0.08 to 0.10 lb 0.25 to 0.38 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 0 3 7 Do not make more than 2 applications after bloom. Bifenthrin is for adult knock-down only. Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not apply more than twice per crop cycle or 4 applications per year total.. See comments under Aphids for application instructions and restrictions.

Commodity

Insect

Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid, MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC buprofezin, MOA 16 (Courier) 40 WP dinotefuran, MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG

PUMPKIN (continued) Whitefly

1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 (soil)

0.045 to 0.179 lb 0.226 to 0.268 lb 0.25 to 0.375 lb

1 21

imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F

7 to 10.5 oz

21

Admire Pro must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant; at planting; as a post-seeding drench, transplant water drench, or hill drench; subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. See label for information on approved application methods. Will also control aphids and cucumber beetle. Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make applications closer than 14 days apart.

pyriproxifen, MOA 7C (Knack) 0.86 EC spiromesifen, MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SC thiamethoxam, MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC

8 to 10 oz

0.054 to 0.067 lb 0.11 to 0.13 lb 0.08 to 0.17 lb

7

7 to 8.5 fl oz 5 to 11 oz

7 30 Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow at seed or transplant depth, postseeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.

n Table 2-54. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Pumpkin
Commodity Aphid PUMPKIN and WINTER SQUASH Cucumber beetle Cutworm Corn earworm Squash bug Squash vine borer Insect Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles, lacewings, midges, Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators. Braconid wasps, and parasitic nematodes. Drench soil with parasitic nematodes weekly to control larvae. Moist bran mixed with BTK and molasses on soil surface. Flower bug, Trichogramma wasps, lacewing, Ichneumonid wasps and Pteromalidae. Tolerant cultivars Tolerant cultivars

n Table 2-55. Alternative Control Procedures – Pumpkin
Commodity Aphid Cucumber beetle PUMPKIN and WINTER SQUASH Cutworm Corn earworm Squash bug Squash vine borer Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water, or spray with insecticidal soap, neem Spray with insecticidal soap, pyrethrins, neem, drench soil with parastic nematodes weekly to control larvae. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars. Spray with insecticidal soap, neem, pyrethrins, rotenone, BTK or refined horticultural oil Hand pick adults, provide a board for them to hide under and then collect bugs. Choose borer tolerant cultivars. Cover plants with floating rowcover until female flowers appear then use spray with insecticidal soap, pyrethrins, rotenone or BTK. Inject parasitic nematodes every 4 “ along infected stems.

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Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

TABLE 2-56. INSECT CONTROL FOR RADISH
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1.6 to 2.8 fl oz 5.8 to 9.6 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.0125 to 0.022 lb 0.03 to 0.05 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 7 Do not exceed 16.8 fl oz per acre per season.

Commodity RADISH

Insect Aphid, Flea beetle, Leafminer

Insecticide and Formulation beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F

4.4 to 10.5 fl oz 0.158 to 0.38 lb 1 fl oz/1,000 linear ft 3 to 4 qt 2 lb/100 gal (1.33 gal/1,000 ft row) — 3 to 4 lb 1 lb — Water-based drench in-furrow planting. Use a minimum of 40 gal of water per acre. Broadcast just before planting and immediately incorporate into the upper 4 to 8 inches of soil. In seed furrow at planting.

Root maggot, Wireworm chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B (Lorsban) 4E diazinon, MOA 1B (AG 500) (50 W) 50 WP

n

Table 2-57. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Radish
Insect Root maggot RADISH Wireworm Leafminer Flea beetle Eucoilidae Lady beetles, lacewings, midges, Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Eucoilidae, lacewing and attract parasitic wasps. Braconids, and soil drench with parasitic nematodes. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms

Commodity

n

Table 2-58. Alternative Control Procedures – Radish
Insect Root maggot Aphid RADISH Leafminer Flea beetle Eucoilidae Wash with strong spray of water, or spray with insecticidal soap, neem orhid Pick and destroy mined leaves. Spray plants with neem oil. Drench soil with parastic nematodes. Spray with insecticidal soap, neem, pyrethrins, rotenone, or refined horticultural oil. Alternative Control Procedures

Commodity

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

Page 163

TABLE 2-59. INSECT CONTROL FOR SPINACH
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0.8 to 1.2 oz 2 to 2.8 4.4 to 10.5 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.035 to 0.054 lb 0.062 to 0.089 lb 0.158 to 0.337 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 0 21 Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticides. Apply Admire Pro to the soil as an in-furrow spray directed at or below seed; at planting as a post-seeding or transplant drench; or through drip irrigation. For bedding operations, apply in a narrow band dpray directly below eventual seed row 14 or fewer days before planting. Provado is for foliar applications. Apply before aphids reach damaging levels. Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season. Do not apply more than once ever 7 days, and do not exceed 5 applications per season.

Commodity SPINACH

Insect Aphid

Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid, MOA 4A (Assail) 70 WP flonicamid, MOA 9C (Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F

(Provado) 1.6 F pymetrozine, MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC Leafminer cryomazine, MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 WP spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Armyworm, Corn earworm, Cutworm, Looper emamectin benzoate, MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 SG flubendiamide, MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb, MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 SG methomyl, MOA 1A (Lannate) 90 SP (Lannate) 2.4 LV methoxyfenozide, MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F permethrin, MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.2 EC rynaxypyr, MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC

3.8 fl oz 2.75 oz 4 to 5 fl oz 2.66 oz 6 to 10 oz 2.4 to 4.8 oz 2 oz 2.5 to 3.5 oz

0.0475 lb 0.086 lb 0.06 to 0.08 lb 0.125 0.047 to 0.08 lb 0.007 to 0.015 lb 0.03 lb 0.045 to 0.065 lb 0.45 lb

7 7 3 7 1 7 1 3 7

Spray adjuvants may enhance efficacy against leafminers. See label for information on adjuvants.

0.5 lb 1.5 pt 4 to 10 oz 0.063 to 0.156 lb 0.1 lb 6 oz 4 oz 3.5 to 5 fl oz 5 to 10 oz 2.24 to 4 fl oz 0.045 to 0.065 lb 0.04 to 0.08 lb 0.014 to 0.025 lb 3 1 1 1

Air temperature should be well above 32 degrees F. Do not apply to seedlings less than 3 in. in diameter. Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants and 6 to 10 oz for mid- to late-season applications. Do not make more than seven applications per season.

7

n Table 2-60. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Spinach
Commodity Leafhopper Flea beetle Aphid SPINACH Leafminer Armyworm Corn earworm Looper Insect Lacewing, and flower bug Braconids, and soil drench with parasitic nematodes. Lady beetles, lacewings, midges, Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Eucoilidae, lacewing and attract parasitic wasps. Soldier bug Flower bug, Trichogramma wasps, lacewing, Ichneumonid wasps and Pteromalidae Trichogramma wasps, Encyrtidae, lacewing, Pteromalidae, and BTK Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms

n Table 2-61. Alternative Control Procedures – Spinach
Commodity Aphid Leafhopper Flea beetle SPINACH Leafminer Armyworm Corn earworm Cutworm Looper Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water, or spray with insecticidal soap, neem. Spray with insecticidal soap, neem, pyrethrins, rotenone, or refined horticultural oil. Drench soil with parastic nematodes. Spray with insecticidal soap, neem, pyrethrins, rotenone, or refined horticultural oil. Pick and destroy mined leaves. Spray plants with neem. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap, neem pyrethrins, rotenone, BTK or refined horticultural oil. Handpick or spray with neem pyrethrins, rotenone, BTK or refined horticultural oil. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars. Handpick or spray with neem pyrethrins, rotenone, BTK or refined horticultural oil.

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Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

17 lb 0 30 Cucumber beetle bifenthrin.75 lb 0.2 EC Leafhopper bifenthrin. Under severe pressure. MOA 1A (Lannate) 90 SP (Lannate) 2.8 lb (a. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4. 30 3 0 See comments under Aphid for application instructions. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methomyl.4 EC flubendiamide. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.4 EC imidacloprid. Do not apply more than 0. Apply before populations reach damaging levels.062 to 0. Allow 7 days between applications.75 oz 5 to 11 oz 0.268 lb 0.6 to 6.66 oz 6 to 10 oz 2.2 fl oz per acre per season.2 to 0. Do not exceed three applications per year.03 to 0. Commodity SQUASH Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid.2 fl oz per acre per season.45 to 0.6 to 6. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.226 to 0.047 to 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC cyromazinem MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 WP spinetoram.6 oz 10.1 lb 3 Limit 19.6 F (various) 2F 2 1 qt 1 to 2 lb 2 to 2.6 oz 0.25 to 0. See comments under Aphid. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.2 EC thiamethoxam. See comments under Aphids for application instructions and restictions.5 to 3 pt Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 165 .04 to 0.8 to 9.66 EC fenpropathrin.179 lb 0.2 fl oz per acre per season.5 to 1 lb 0. use high rate. post seeding or transplant as a drench. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP flonicamid. Allow 7 days between applications. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.6 oz 10. or through drip irrigation. Seel label for information on approved application methods.089 lb 0. Under severe pressure.04 to 0. Do not exceed 5.045 lb 0.17 lb 0.TABLE 2-62.8 to 9.i. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.1 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 0 3 Limit 19.08 lb 0. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth. Melonworm bifenthrin.375 lb 7 to 10. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC endosulfan. MOA 9C (Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid. pymetrozine.) per season.66 EC permethrin. 2 to 3 oz 0.5 to 1 lb 1. 0. MOA 3 (various) 25 W (various) 3.6 to 6.66 EC fenpropathrin.4 fl oz 0.3 lb 0 3 3 3 7 NIS may improve insect control. at planting. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 2. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate.5 oz per acre per season. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2. transplant water drench.08 to 0.05 lb 0.4 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.08 to 0.i. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG bifenthrin.6 F permethrin. Limit 19. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies.8 oz 0.2 lb 12. Allow 7 days between applications.03 to 0.4 oz 4.8 to 9. Limit two applications postbloom.1 lb 21 0 6 oz 4 oz 5 to 11 oz 4. subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation.) per acre.03 to 0.6 to 16 oz 3 7 NIS may improve insect control. use high rate. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC dinotefuran.04 to 0.9 lb 1 3 Apply in late afternoon to minimize bee kills.132 to 0.1 lb 3 3 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.10 lb 0. Limit two applications postbloom. INSECT CONTROL FOR SQUASH Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2.5 fl oz 0.05 lb 0.047 to 0.125 lb 0.075 lb 0. Use preplant. as a post-seeding drench. Limit two applications postbloom. Pickleworm.2 to 0.03 to 0.4 fl oz 0. or hill drench.8 oz 8 fl oz 2.3 lb 1 21 esfenvalerate.6 to 16 oz 0.05 lb 0. 7 to 10. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC Cutworm esfenvalerate.4 LV 5. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.6 to 6.375 lb 0.5 fl oz 16 to 24 oz 0 21 Must be applied to the soil. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Looper. Do not apply more than 0. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC 2. Methomyl may induce leafminer infestation. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.086 lb 0.5 to 4 oz 2. Leafminer 2.8 lb (a.04 to 0.25 to 0.

1 to 0.3 oz 0. 3 to 4 oz 0. Allow 7 days between applications. as a post-seeding or transplant drench. methoxyfenozide. Commodity Insect Insecticide and Formulation SQUASH (continued) Looper. Apply weekly to flower buds.04 to 0. transplant water drench.226 to 0.045 to 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.4 to 12.268 lb 1 21 imidacloprid. MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WS spiromesifen. Limit two applications postbloom.03 to 0. and do not reapply in less than 7 days.2 EC Squash vine borer acetamiprid.026 to 0.5 fl oz 16 to 24 fl oz 21 Page 166 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .132 to 0.i.2 EC rynaxypyr. Do not exceed 3 lb a. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.0 lb 7 to 8. at planting.38 lb 7 to 10.5 to 5. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.375 to 5 lb 0. See label for instructions.08 to 0.2 fl oz per acre per season. per year.04 to 0. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.4 to 12.08 lb 0.06 to 0.05 lb 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 5 to 10 oz 8 to 16 fl oz 0.2 lb 1 2 1 qt 2 lb 4.019 0.3 oz 2.25 to 0.10 lb 9 to 13 fl oz 0.1 lb 1 Foliar or drip chemigation. Do not apply more than twice a year per crop cycle. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 0 Do not exceed 4 applications per season.10 lb 0. Check vines in early June and August for borer presence.10 lb 0. Do not follow soil application with foliar application of any neonicotinoid insecticide. 2 1 qt 2 lb 5. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. as a post-seeding drench. Only use one application method.15 EC bifenazate. See label for information on approved application methods.03 to 0.8 to 9. subsurface sidedress or by chemigatin using lowpressure drip or trickle irrigation. Do not exceed 6 oz Venom per acre per season.4 fl oz 3 7 3 7 0 3 Do not make more than one application per season.16 lb 0. INSECT CONTROL FOR SQUASH Amount of Formulation Per Acre 4 to 10 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Limit 19.4 fl oz 0.13 lb 0.67 SC spinetoram. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC dinotefuran.12 to 6. MOA 6 (Agri-Mek) 0.6 oz 0. MOA 18 Melonworm (contniued) (Intrepid) 2 F permethrin. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC buprofezin. Assail is most effective against newly laid eggs and nymphs.i. Soil applications may be applied in a narrow band on the plant row in bedding operation. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.6 to 6. or hill drench.065 lb 0. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.6 oz 3 0 6. and vines beginning when moths first appear.05 lb 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG endosulfan.04 to 0. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 WG bifenthrin.4 fl oz 0.4 to 12. per year.5 fl oz 5. Admire Pro must be applied to the soil. May be applied preplant.8 oz 4 to 8 fl oz 5.6 F (various) 2F 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP esfenvalerate.6 to 6.009 to 0. as a side-dress after planting and incorporated 1 or more inches. Allow 7 days between applications. or four applications per year. stems.1 to 0.66 EC permethrin.75 to 1. Limit two applications postbloom. 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0. Pickleworm.8 to 9. or through a drip irrigation system. Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage.TABLE 2-62. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3.1 to 0.75 lb 1 lb 0. Do not exceed 3 applications per season.8 oz 4 to 8 oz 2.10 lb 0 3 7 3 0 5.66 EC permethrin.2 lb 6.179 lb 0.2 fl oz per acre per season. Will also control aphids and cucumber beetles.2 EC Whitefly acetamiprid.1 to 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Spider mite abamectin. MOA 16 (Courier) 40 SC dinotefuran. Do not apply if temperature exceeds 90 degrees F.8 oz 4 to 8 fl oz 2 to 5 fl oz 0. MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP esfenvalerate.1 lb 0 3 Limit 19.38 lb Do not make more than two applications after bloom.3 oz 2.047 to 0. Do not exceed 3 lb a.25 to 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC endosulfan. Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid insecticides. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 WG bifenthrin. 4A (Assail) 30 WG bifenthrin.179 lb 0.2 lb 6.75 lb 1 lb 0. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG Squash bug acetamiprid.

TABLE 2-62. INSECT CONTROL FOR SQUASH
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 8 to 10 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.054 to 0.067 lb 0.11 to 0.13 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 Do not make more than two applications per season, and do not make applications closer than 14 days apart. Do not make more than 3 applications per season. Do not follow soil application with foliar application of any neonicotinoid insecticide. Platinum may be applied to direct seeded crops in-furrow at seed depth, or post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 fl oz per acre per season. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. Actara is for foliar application only.

Commodity SQUASH (continued)

Insect Whitefly (continued)

Insecticide and Formulation pyriproxifen, MOA 7C (Knack) 0.86 EC spiromesifen, MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SC thiamethoxam, MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC (Actara) 25 WDG

7 to 8.5 fl oz

7

5 to 11 fl oz 3 to 5.5 oz

0.08 to 0.17 lb 0.047 to 0.086 lb

30 0

n Table 2-63. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Squash
Commodity SQUASH, summer Aphid Cucumber beetle Leafminer Insect Braconid wasps, and parasitic nematodes. Eulophidae, lacewing and attract parastic wasps. Alternative Control Procedures Lady beetles, lacewings, midges, Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators.

n Table 2-64. Alternative Control Procedures – Squash
Commodity Aphid Cucumber beetle SQUASH, summer Cutworm Leafminer Squash vine borer Insect Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water, or spray with insecticidal soap, neem or refined horticultural oil. Spray with pyrethrins, neem, drench soil with parasitic nematodes weekly to control larvae. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars. Hand pick and destroy mined leaves and remove egg clusters. Spray plants with neem. Cover plants with floating rowcover until female flowers appear then use spray with pyrethrins, rotenone or BTK. Inject parastic nematodes every 4” along infected stems.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

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TABLE 2-65. INSECT CONTROL FOR SWEETPOTATO
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1 to 1.7 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.044 to 0.075 oz 0.044 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 Do not make more than 4 applications per season. Do not apply more frequently than once ever 7 days. Two applications of Provado may be needed to control heavy populations. Allow 5 to 7 days between applications. Do not exceed a total of 6 oz of Actara per crop per season.

Commodity SWEETPOTATO

Insect Aphids, Leafhopper, Whitefly

Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid, MOA 4A (Assail) 70 WP imidacloprid, MOA 4A (various) 1.6 F

3.5 fl oz

7

pymetrozine, MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam, MOA 4A (Actara) 25 WDG

2.75 to 5.5 oz 3 oz

0.086 to 0.172 0.094 lb

14 14 Two applications of Actara may be needed to control heavy populations. Allow 7 to 10 days between applications. Do not exceed a total of 6 oz of Actara per crop per season. Damaging earworm infestion may occur in August or September. If significant infestions are present on foliage during harvest, larvae may feed on exposed root. Do not make more than 3 applications or apply more than 30 fl oz of Intrepid per acre per season. Do not make more than 2 applications per crop per season.

Armyworm, Looper, Corn earworm, Hornworm

methoxyfenozide, MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F

6 to 10 fl oz

0.09 to 0.16 lb

7

novaluron, MOA 15 (Rimon) 0.83 EC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Cucumber beetle bifenthrin, MOA 3 (adults), Japanese (various) 2 EC beetle (adults), Tortoise beetle carbaryl, MOA 1A (Sevin) 50 WP (Sevin) 80 S, WSB (Sevin) XLR Plus spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Flea beetle, Wireworm bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC chlorpyrifos, MOA 1B (Lorsban) 15 G (Lorsban) 4 E

9 to 12 fl oz 6 to 8 oz

0.058 to 0.078 lb 0.047 to 0.063 lb

14 7 21

2.1 to 6.4 fl oz 0.033 to 0.01 lb (foliar) 3.2 to 9.6 fl oz 0.05 to 0.15 lb (layby) 2 lb 4 lb 2.5 lb 2 qt 6 to 8 oz 9.6 to 19.2 fl oz 0.047 to 0.063 lb 0.15 to 0.3 lb 2 lb 13.5 lb 4 pt

Do not apply more than 0.5 lb a.i. per season.

7

Treat for tortoise beetles only if significant defoliation is observed. Tortoise beetles are frequently present but rarely reach levels requiring treatment.

7 21 125 Apply as broadcast, preplant application to the soil and incorporate 4 to 6 in. prior to bed formation. This use has been demonstrated to control overwintered wireworm populations and reduce damage to roots at harvest. Chlorpyrifos will not control whitefringed beetle or other grubs that attack sweetpotato. Research has shown that best control is achieved when chlorpyrifos is applied as a preplant application incorporated 4 to 6 in. deep prior to bed formation, followed by 1 or more soil-directed, incorporations of bifenthrin during routine cultivation. Bifenthrin should be directed onto each side of the bed from the drill to the middle of the furrow and incorporated with cultivating equipmet set to throw soil toward the drill. The objective is to provide a barrier of treated soil that covers the bed and furrows. Foliar sprays of various insecticides that target adults to prevent egg laying have not been shown to provide any reduction in damage to roots by wireworm larvae at harvest. Postharvest application in storage. Apply as a space fog with a mechanical or thermal generator. Do not make more than 10 applications. Baythroid is for control of adults only.

Fruit fly

pyrethrins, MOA 3 (Pyrenone) beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL phosmet, MOA 1B (Imidan) 70 WSP

1 gal/100,000 cu ft 1.6 to 2.8 fl oz 1.33 lb 6 to 8 fl oz 1.33 lb

Sweetpotato weevil

0.013 to 0.022 1 lb 0.047 to 0.063 lb 1 lb

0 7 7 7

Thrips Whitefringed beetle

spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC phosmet, MOA 1B (Imidan) 70 WSB

Do not make more than five applications per season. Whitefringed beetle adults are active in July and August. Do not plant in fields with a recent history of whitefringed beetles.

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Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

n Table 2-66. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Sweetpotato
Commodity Sweetpotato weevil Fruit fly Flea beetle Leafhoppers SWEETPOTATO Leafminers Tortoise beetle Corn earworm Hornworm Looper Trichogramma wasps Trichogramma wasps, Encyrtidae, lacewing, Pteromalidae, and BTK. Lacewing, and flower bug Eulophidae, lacewing and attract parasitic wasps. Flower bug, Trichogramma wasps, lacewing, Ichneumonid wasps and Preromalidae. Braconids Insect Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms

n Table 2-67. Alternative Control Procedures – Sweetpotato
Commodity Sweetpotato weevil Flea beetle Cucumber beetle (adults) SWEETPOTATO Leafhoppers Leafminers Corn earworm Hornworm Looper Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap, neem, pyrethrins, rotenone, BTK or refined horticultural oil. Insect Alternative Control Procedures Use insect free seed, destroy all crop debris and infest material. Drench soil with parastic nematodes. Spray with insecticidal soap, neem, pyrethrins, rotenone, or refined horticultural oil. Spray with pyrethrins, neem. Spray with insecticidal soap, pyrethrins, neem, rotenone or refined horticultural oil. Pick and destroy mined leaves. Spray plants with neem.

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TABLE 2-68. INSECT CONTROL FOR TOMATO
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2 to 4 oz 0.5 to 1 pt 2 to 2.8 Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.038 to 0.075 lb 0.25 to 0.5 lb 0.062 to 0.089 lb 0.25 to 0.377 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 7 7 0 Do not apply more than once every 7 days, and do not exceed 5 applications per season. Do not exceed rate with dimethoate as leaf injury may result. Will not control flea beetle. For short-term protection at planting. Admire may also be applied to transplants in the planthouse not more than 7 days before planting at the rate of 0.44 (4.6 F formulation) or 1 oz (2 F formulation) per 10,000 plants. In the field, Admire may be applied as an in-furrow spray directed on or below seed, a narrow surface band followed by irrigation, as a transplant drench, or through drip irrigation system. Use Provado for foliar applications. For aphids only. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.

Commodity TOMATO

Insect Aphid, Flea beetle

Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid, MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG dimethoate 4 EC, MOA 1B flonicamid, MOA 9C (Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F (various brands) 2 F

7 fl oz

21

(various) 1.6 F pymetrozine, MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG spirotetramat, MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam, MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC

3.75 fl oz 2.75 oz 4 to 5 fl oz

0.04 lb 0.086 lb 0.06 to 0.08 lb

0 0 1

5 to 11 oz

0.08 to 0.17 lb

30

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. Actara is for foliar applications. Start applications when larvae are small, and continue at 5- to 7-day intervals during periods of infestation. Apply when larvae are first observed.

(Actara) 25 WDG Armyworm Bacillus thuringiensis (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2 (Dipel) 2X, MOA 11B2 (Xentari), MOA 11B1 emamectin benzoate, MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 WDG flubendiamide, MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG indoxacarb, MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 DG methoxyfenozide, MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F rynaxypyr, MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Colorado potato beetle acetamiprid, MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG endosulfan, MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP imidacloprid, MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 F (various) 2 F (various) 1.6 F rynaxypyrm, MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC thiamethoxam, MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC

2 to 3 oz 0.5 to 1.5 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 2.4 to 4.8 oz 2 to 3 oz 3.5 oz

0.03 to 0.047 lb 0.5 to 1.5 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0.5 to 1 lb 0.0075 to 0.015 lb 0.03 to 0.045 lb 0.065 lb

0 0

7 1 3

Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. The minimum interval between sprays is 5 days. Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants and 6 to 10 oz for midand late-season applications. Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

4 to 10 oz

0.063 to 0.156 lb 0.045 to 0.065 lb 0.04 to 0.08 lb 0.028 to 0.047 lb 0.75 lb 1 lb 0.25 lb 0.04 lb 0.045 to 0.065 lb 0.04 to 0.08 lb

1

3.5 to 5 fl oz

1

5 to 10 oz 1.5 to 2.5 oz

1 7 1 On foliage as needed.

1 qt 2 lb 7 fl oz 3.75 fl oz 3.5 to 5 fl oz

21 0 1

Use Admire for soil or transplant drench treatment and Provado for foliar applications.

Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

5 to 10 oz

1

5 to 11 oz

0.08 to 0.17 lb

30

Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth, post seeding or transplant as a drench, or through drip irrigation. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. Actara is for foliar applications.

(Actara) 25 WDG

2 to 3 oz

0.03 to 0.046 lb

0

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Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

TABLE 2-68. INSECT CONTROL FOR TOMATO
Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0.5 to 1 lb 0.5 to 1.5 lb 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz 1.6 to 2.8 fl oz 2.4 to 4.8 oz 4.8 to 9.6 oz 10.667 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.5 to 1 lb 0.5 to 1.5 lb 0.04 to 0.1 lb 0.125 to 0.022 lb 0.0075 to 0.015 lb 0.03 to 0.05 lb 0.2 lb 1 0 7 1 3 Use a spray volume of 25 to 120 gal per acre. Do not exceed 2.667 pt (42.667 fl oz) per acre per season. Do not exceed 16.8 fl oz per acre per season. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 0 Do not tank mix B.t. formulations with Dyrene.

Commodity TOMATO (continued)

Insect Cabbage looper, Hornworm, Tomato fruitworm, Pinworm

Insecticide and Formulation Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) DF, MOA 11B2 (Crymax) WDG, MOA 11B2 bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL emamectin benzoate, MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 WDG esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC fenpropathrin, MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.4 EC flubendiamide, MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.5 EC indoxacarb, MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC methomyl, MOA 1A (Lannate) 2.4 LV methoxyfenozide, MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F

2 to 3 oz 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz 2.5 to 3.5 oz

0.03 to 0.045 lb 0.01 to 0.015 lb 0.045 to 0.065 lb 0.02 to 0.03 lb 0.45 to 0.9 lb 0.063 to 0.156 lb

1 5 3 Do not apply more than 14 oz of Avaunt (0.26 lb a.i.) per acre per crop. The minimum interval between sprays is 5 days. Do not exceed 2.88 pt per acre per season. Do not use on cherry tomatoes. Methomyl may induce leafminer infestation. Use low rates for early-season applications to young or small plants and 6 to 10 oz for midand late-season applications. Intrepid provides suppression of pinworm only. Foliar or drip chemigation. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone. See label for instructions.

2.56 to 3.84 oz 1.5 to 3 pt 4 to 10 oz

5 1 1

rynaxypyr, MOA 28 (Coragen) 1.67 SC spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC Cutworm beta-cyfluthrin, MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL esfenvalerate, MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.66 EC gamma-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin, MOA 3 (Warrior) 1 EC zeta-cypermethrin, MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.8 EC Leafminer abamectin, MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC cryomazine, MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 WP spinetoram, MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Spider mite abamectin, MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0.15 EC bifenazate, MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WS spiromesifen, MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG Stink bug bifenthrin, MOA 3 (various) 2 EC endosulfan, MOA 2A (Thionex) 3 EC (Thionex) 50 WP fenpropathrin, MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.4 EC

3.5 to 5 fl oz

0.045 to 0.065 lb 0.04 to 0.08 lb 0.014 to 0.025 lb 0.125 to 0.022 lb 0.03 to 0.05 lb 0.01 to 0.015 lb 0.02 to 0.03 lb 0.02 to 0.025 lb 0.009 to 0.0018 0.125 lb 0.09 to 0.125 lb 0.009 to 0.0018 0.375 to 0.5 lb 0.1 to 0.13 lb 0.04 to 0.1 lb

1

5 to 10 oz 2.24 to 4.0 oz 1.6 to 2.8 fl oz 4.8 to 9.6 oz 2.56 to 3.84 fl oz 2.56 to 3.84 oz 3.2 to 4.0 oz 8 to 16 fl oz 2.66 oz 6 to 8 fl oz 8 to 16 fl oz 0.75 to 1.0 lb 7 to 8.5 fl oz 2.6 to 6.4 fl oz

1 1 0 1 5 5 1 7 0 1 7 3 7 1 2 Do not exceed 6 applications or 3 lb a.i. per acre per year. Use a spray volume of 25 to 120 gal per acre. Do not exceed 2.667 pt (42.667 fl oz) per acre per season. Do not exceed 48 fl oz per acre per season, or more than two sequential applications. See label for plant-back restrictions. Do not exceed 29 fl oz per acre per season. Do not exceed 48 fl oz per acre per season, or more than two sequential applications. Do not make more than one application per season. Do not exceed 3 applications per season. Do not exceed 2.88 pt per acre per season. Do not use on cherry tomatoes. Do not exceed 16.8 fl oz per acre per season.

1 qt 2 lb 10.667 fl oz

0.75 lb 1 lb 0.2 lb 3

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TABLE 2-68.86EC spiromesifen.25 to 0.4 LV spinetoram.08 lb 14 7 to 8. MOA 1B (Diazinon) AG 500 or 50 WP 2 to 4 qt 2 to 4 lb — Page 172 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . or soybean. to the side of the row and incorporate 1 or more in.179 lb 0. Trickle irrigation applications will also control aphids and stinkbugs. MOA 16 (Courier) 40 SC dinotefuran. Provado. and do not exceed 5 applications per season.02 to 0.25 to 0.. Actara is for foliar applications. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SC spirotetramat. Do not make more than 3 applications per season. MOA 1B dinotefuran.5 to 2 pt 1. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth. Provado.56 to 3. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC (Actara) 8 to 10 oz 0.11 to 0.375 lb pyriproxyfen.5 oz 0.25 to 0.5 fl oz 4 to 5 fl oz 7 1 5 to 11 oz 3 to 5. Do not apply more than once every 7 days.268 lb 1 21 imidacloprid.17 lb 0. Do not exceed 11 oz Actara per acre per season.08 to 0.047 to 0. Do not apply more than two applications per growing season.25 to 0. post seeding or transplant as a drench. Provado. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. not in flowers. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.020 to 0.03 lb 0. As a sidedress.6 F 21 16 to 24 fl oz 7 to 10.84 fl oz 2. MOA 3 (Mustang MAX) 0.45 to 0. and do not make applications closer than 14 days.84 oz 3 to 5. Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid insecticides (Actara.179 lb 0. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG buprofezin. Do not apply more than twice per crop cycle. INSECT CONTROL FOR TOMATO Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2.13 lb 0. as a side-dress after planting and incorporated 1 or more in.5 lb 0. On foliage as needed.025 lb 0. MOA 1B (Monitor) 4 E methomyl. Use sufficient water to ensure good coverage. Soil applications may be applied in a narrow band on the plant row in bedding operation. May also control stink bugs. Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid insecticides (Actara.56 to 3.054 to 0.045 to 0. MOA 7C (Knack) 0. Use only one application method. Residual activity will increase with increasing rates applied. Do not exceed 10 fl oz per season.0 oz 0.5 to 4 oz 9 to 13.5 EC lambda-cyhalothrin. Commodity TOMATO (continued) Insect Stink bug (continued) Insecticide and Formulation gamma-cyhalothrin. Broadcast before planting and incorporate.08 lb 0.015 lb 0. and allow 28 days between applications.9 lb 0. or Venom). MOA 23 (Movento) 2SC thiamethoxam. 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0.6 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. apply 2 to 4 in.226 to 0. or Venom). as a post-seeding or transplant drench.2 to 4.06 to 0. Use higher rate for late-season or continuous infestations. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Whitefly acetamiprid.226 to 0. or through drip irrigation.05 to 0.75 to 1 lb 0. corn.268 lb 0.5 fl oz 0.067 lb 0.01 to 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG 1. MOA 3 (Proaxis) 0.047 to 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG Check 24c label for state registration. or through a drip irrigation system.045 to 0. MOA 4A (various brands) 2 F (Admire Pro) 4.5 to 3 pt 6 to 10 oz 2. Do not follow soil applications with applications of other neonicotinoid insecticides (Actara. Will control thrips on foliage.086 lb 30 0 Wireworm diazinon. MOA 3 (Warrior) thiamethoxam. Wireworms may be a problem in fields previously in pasture.8 EC Thrips dimethoate 4 EC.5 oz 3.047 to 0. or Venom).5 to 1 pt 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) methamidophos. MOA 4A (Actara) 25 WDG zeta-cypermethrin.075 lb 0.375 lb 0.38 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 5 5 0 1 7 1 21 7 1 1 7 7 See comments under Whitefly for application instructions and restrictions. MOA 1A (Lannate) 2.086 lb 0. Apply through a drip irrigation system or as a transplant drench with sufficient water to reach root zone.

and lacewings Trichogramma wasps and Scelionidae Trichogramma wasps. Eulophidae. and soil drench with parastic nematodes. pyrethrins. predator mites. rotenone. neem. and BTK Flower bug. and BTK Trichogramma wasps Braconids. or insecticidal oil. and predatory mites Lacewings and Encarsia formosa Commodity TOMATO n Table 2-70. Drench soil with parasitic nematodes.n Table 2-69. lacewing. rotenone. BTT or insecticidal oil. Flower bug. Spray plants with neem. Pteromalidae. rotenone. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. Lacewing. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators. neem pyrethrins. lacewing and attract parasitic wasps. Use plastic lined trench as a trap or flamers. or spray with insecticidal soap. Lady beetle. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. Spray with insecticidal soap. Spray with insecticidal soap. Pteromalidae. Alternative Control Procedures – Tomato Insect Aphid Colorado potato beetle Cabbage looper Hornworm Cutworm Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. Encyrtidae. lacewings. lacewings. or insecticidal oil. Aphidiid wasps. midges. . Trichogramma wasps. BTK or insecticidal oil. spray with BTK. neem pyrethrins. rotenone. Ichneumonid wasp and BTT. Commodity TOMATO Flea beetle Leafminer Spider mite Tomato fruitworm Thrips Whitefly Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 173 . Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap. Handpick. Spray with insecticidal soap. neem pyrethrins. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars. lacewings. neem or insecticidal oil. Handpick and destroy mined leaves and remove egg clusters. or insecticidal oil. Spray with insecticidal soap. BTK or insecticidal oil. neem pyrethrins. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Tomato Insect Aphid Blister Beetle Cabbage looper Hornworm Flea beetle Leafminer Mite Spider mite Stink bug Tomato fruitworm Pinworm Whitefly Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. or insecticidal oil.

MOA 11B1 emamectin benzoate. rotenone or insecticidal oil.65 lb 0. Repeated use of pyrethroid insecticides often aggravate diamondback moth problems. and avoid the repeated use of the same materials for extended periods of time.5 lb 0. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Turnip Insect Aphid TURNIP Cabbage looper Diamondback moth Harlequin bug Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles.5 to 1 lb 2. BTK or insecticidal oil. 7 7 Provado is for foliar applications. MOA 1B imidacloprid. Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Encyritdae. Commodity Page 174 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .5 lb 8 oz 1 to 2 pt 0.01 lb 3. neem or insecticidal oil. 14 3 1 For turnip greens only. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG Cabbage looper.015 lb 0. Imidacloprid will not control Harlequin bug.025 to 0. On foliage every 7 days as needed. Diamondback moth 3. and BTK Braconids. INSECT CONTROL FOR TURNIP Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0. Vegetable weevil.2 fl oz 5. MOA 11B2 (Xentari) WDG. or through drop irrigation. neem. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC beta-cyfluthrin. For bedding operations.8 to 9. Flee beetle.5 oz 3 to 6 fl oz 0. MOA 11B2 (Dipel) 4 L. MOA 1B (Lorsban) 4 E (Lorsban) 75 WDG n Table 2-72. rotenone. MOA 3 (Tombstone) 2 EC esfenvalerate.1 to 1. and soil drench with parasitic nematodes.6 to 3.8 fl oz 2. lacewings. Handpick or spray with Insecticidal soap.0075 to 0. 1. MOA 3 (various) 25 WP (various) 3. Yellow margined leaf beetle Insecticide and Formulation dimethoate 4 EC. Root maggot chlorpyrifos.2 to 6. Pteromalidae.5 lb 0.2 EC 0 0.6 to 3. MOA 22 (Avaunt) 30 WDG spinetoram. BTK or insecticidal oil.03 to 0.5 fl oz 10 to 24 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Avaunt may be applied only to turnip greens. neem pyrethrins.05 to 0. may not be controlled with some registered insecticides. rotenone. apply in a narrow band spray directly below eventual seed row 14 or fewer days before planting.5 to 3. Alternative Control Procedures – Turnip Insect Aphid Cabbage looper TURNIP Diamondback moth Flea beetle Harlequin bug Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water.4 to 4. Drench soil with parastic nematodes.5 to 1.TABLE 2-71. Irrigation or rainfall after application will enhance activity.0475 lb 0. Do not apply the following pyrethroids if diamondback moth’s larvae are present.4 oz 2 to 4 oz 21 1 to 2 pt 1. Pteromalidae.158 to 0. neem pyrethrins.8 oz 2.4 to 10. MOA 11B2 (Dipel) 2 X. Harlequin bug. pyrethrins. midges.000 ft row 0. apply in a waterbased spray at planting or at emergence of plants. MOA 4A (Admire) 4. or spray with insecticidal soap.5 to 1 lb — 0.047 to 0.025 to 0. Commodity n Table 2-73.8 oz/1.5 lb 0. Handpick or spray with Insecticidal soap.6 F (various brands) 2 F (Provado) 1.377 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 14 21 Admire Pro is applied to the soil as an in-furrow spray directed at or below seed.75 oz 0. MOA 6 (Proclaim) 5 WDG indoxacarb. rotenone.5 pt 4. or insecticidal oil.5 lb 0.5 to 1.086 lb Insecticide-resistant populations. at planting as a post-seeding or transplant drench. and BTK Lacewing.5 to 1. Handpick or spray with Insecticidal soap. Will only control aphids. avoid transplants from Georgia and Florida. To manage resistance.05 lb 0. Bacillus thuringiensis (Crymax) WDG. lacewing. Commodity TURNIP Insect Aphid. not root turnips.2 fl oz 1. Do not allow populations to increase to large densities before treatments are initiated.25 lb 1.094 lb 0.045 to 0. MOA 3 (Asana) XL permethrin.6 F pymetrozine. Spray with insecticidal soap.0 lb — For direct-seeded crops. Imidacloprid will not control Harlequin bug. neem pyrethrins.6 fl oz 0 0 7 1 Do not use if diamondback moth’s larvae are present. MOA 3 (Baythroid) XL cyfluthrin.

5 to 1.8 0.065 lb 0.05 lb 0.3 oz 2.i.045 lb 0. Platinum may be applied to direct-seeded crops in-furrow seeding or transplant depth. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2SC 2.06 to 0.4 EC 2 to 3 oz 4 to 10 fl oz 0.2 EC 0. pymetrozine.04 to 0. MOA 3 (various) 25 W (various) 3. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2. MOA 18 (Intrepid) 2 F permethrin. Do not apply more than 0.4 to 12. MOA 3 (various) 25 W (various) 3. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops. Do not apply more than 0.1 lb 0. MOA 1B 2E 2. Actara is for foliar applications.1 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 0 3 Limit 19. transplant water drench.03 to 0.66 EC fenpropathrin. as a post-seeding drench.5 pt 2 to 2. INSECT CONTROL FOR WATERMELON Amount of Formulation Per Acre 2. Limit two applications postbloom. Apply before populations reach damaging levels.5 to 3 oz 0. Will also control aphids and whiteflies. Limit two applications post bloom. MOA 9B (Fulfill) 50 WDG thiamethoxam. MOA 9C (Beleaf) 50 SG imidacloprid. 4.08 to 0.25 to 0.045 to 0.047 lb 0.66 EC fenpropathrin. subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation.03 to 0.1 to 0.089 lb 0. MOA 28 (Synapse) 24% WG methoxyfenozide. May be applied preplant.67 SC spinetoram.5 fl oz 16 to 24 fl oz 3 0 21 Admire Pro must be applied to the soil.062 to 0.) per acre per season. Do not exceed 5.5 fl oz 0. at planting. or hill drench. MOA 11B2 (Dipel) DF.8 to 9.8 lb (a. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season of Platinum.05 lb 0.2 fl oz per acre per season. Allow 7 days between applications.5 oz per acre per season. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2. transplant water drench.3 lb 3 7 May improve insect control with NIS.6 to 6.2 to 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.8 oz 4 to 8 fl oz 3.6 to 16 oz 3 7 May improve insect control with NIS.5 to 5.047 to 0. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC dimethoate.6 oz 10. MOA 28 (Coragen) 1. Will also control cucumber beetles and whiteflies. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.6 oz 10. use the high rate. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG bifenthrin.i.16 lb 0.2 fl oz per acre per season.4 oz 4 fl oz 0 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 175 .67 E flonicamid.6 to 16 oz 0. Under severe pressure. On foliage as needed. imidacloprid. 5 to 10 oz 2.5 lb 0.8 to 9.5 lb 2 pt 1. See label for information on approved application method. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC esfenvalerate. at planting. or through drip irrigation.03 to 0.) per acre per season. flubendiamide.17 lb 14 30 (Actara) 25 WDG Armyworm. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG bifenthrin. post seeding or transplant as a drench. Commodity WATERMELON Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation acetamiprid.2 EC rynaxypyr.2 to 0.4 fl oz 3 0 3 Limit 19.5 lb 8 oz 4. as a post-seeding drench.TABLE 2-74. 6.4 EC 1.5 lb 0.6 F (various brands) 2 F 0.075 lb 0. Seel label for information on approved application method. subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation. Allow 7 days between applications.047 to 0.8 lb (a. Under severe pressure. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0.75 oz 5 to 11 oz 0. or hill drench.04 to 0. Drip chemigation must be applied uniformly to the root zone.5 to 1.6 to 6. See label for instructions. Admire Pro must be applied to the soil.086 lb 0.38 lb 7 to 10.04 to 0.3 lb 0 0 0. Cabbage looper Bacillus thuringiensis (Crymax) WDG. May apply preplant.08 lb 0.2 lb 1 3 0 Use higher rates against large larvae.5 to 5 fl oz 0.1 lb 1 Foliar or drip chemigation. use the high rate.4 fl oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.38 lb 21 permethrin.1 lb 6.25 to 0. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0. MOA 11B2 esfenvalerate.6 F 7 to 10.5 to 4 oz 2. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Cucumber beetle acetamiprid.023 to 0.

MOA 17 (Trigard) 75 WP spinetoram. MOA 3 (various) 25 W (various) 3.1 lb 3 1 3 7 0 3 7 3 3 7 7 7 0 3 Limit 19.5 to 1.0 lb 0. Not effective against leafhopper. Page 176 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .2 to 0.6 to 6.6 F 7 to 10.05 lb 0. Leaffooted bug acetamiprid. pond. Check label for plant-back restrictions for a number of crops.08 to 0.3 oz 2.4 EC spiromesifen. MOA 1B (various brands and formulations) dinotefuran. short-term suppression. MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0.5 lb 0.0018 oz 0. Do not make more than one application per season.25 to 0.3 oz 9 to 12.268 lb 0 7 1 21 Whitefly acetamiprid.13 lb 7 5 to 11 oz 0.2 fl oz per acre per season.38 lb 21 spiromesifen. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG Allow at least 7 days between applications. MOA 25 (Acramite) 50 WS bifenthrin. INSECT CONTROL FOR WATERMELON Amount of Formulation Per Acre 4.5 to 1. by a post-seeding or transplant drench with sufficient water to ensure incorporation into the soil. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC endosulfan. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acer per season using soil applications. subsurface sidedress or by chemigation using low-pressure drip or trickle irrigation.11 to 0.078 to 0. MOA 23 (Oberon) 70 SC thiamethoxam. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Leafminer abamectin.179 lb 0.6 to 16 fl oz 7 to 8.009 to 0.0 lb 5. MOA 10B (Zeal) 72 WSP fenpropathrin. Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 3 0 Commodity WATERMELON (continued) Insect Cutworm Insecticide and Formulation esfenvalerate. MOA 3 (Danitol) 2.25 to 0. transplant water drench.009 to 0.226 to 0.17 30 Apply Platinum to direct-seeded crops infurrow at seed or transplant depth.179 lb 0.1 to 6.5 to 5. Use only for late-season.33 qt 2. MOA 3 (various) 2 EC etoxazole. Limit two applications postbloom. MOA 3 (Asana XL) 0. MOA 4A (Platinum) 2 SC 7 to 8.66 EC permethrin. MOA 2A (Thionex) 50 WP (Thionex) 3 EC 2 1 to 2 lb 0.38 lb 0.04 to 0.047 to 0.2 lb 12.125 lb 0.15 EC bifenazate.75 to 1. Do not exceed 3 applications per season. as a post-seeding drench. Do not apply within 300 feet of lakes.8 oz 8 fl oz See label 1 to 4 oz 6 to 10 oz 8 to 16 oz 2.TABLE 2-74.03 to 0. Must be applied to the soil. short-term suppression. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG bifenthrin. or by drip irrigation. MOA 4A (Assail) 30 SG buprofezin. Do not use a foliar application of any neonicotinoid insecticide if using Admire.04 to 0.2 EC Thrips dimethoate. Do not feed or graze vines.4 fl oz 0.09 to 0.5 fl oz 1 to 4 oz (foliar) 5 to 6 oz (soil) 0. imidacloprid.5 fl oz 0.045 to 0. MOA 4A (Admire Pro) 4.0018 oz 0.8 to 9.1 lb 0. MOA 5 (Radiant) 1 SC Spider mite abamectin. Soil applications may be applied by a narrow band below or above the seed line at planting.135 0. MOA 16 (Courier) 40 SC dinotefuran. Will also control aphids and cucumber beetles.5 lb 0. MOA 6 (Agri-mek) 0. Do not exceed 11 oz per acre per season.13 lb 0. See label for information on approved application method. May apply preplant.5 fl oz 5. Use only for late-season.5 fl oz 0.047 to 0. or hill drench. Allow 7 days between applications.66 oz 8 oz 8 to 16 oz 0. streams. or estuaries. postseeding or transplant as a drench.0375 to 0.0 lb 0.3 lb 0. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticides.125 lb 0. Do not follow soil applications with foliar applications of any neonicotinoid insecticide.1 to 0. or through drip irrigation. at planting. Use only one application method.4 fl oz 2 to 3 oz 10.08 lb 0.1 lb 0.6 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. MOA 4A (Venom) 70 SG spinetoram. MOA 23 (Oberon) 2 SG Squash bug.1 lb 0.66 to 1.15 EC cyromazine.

Aphidiid wasps and stink bug predators Encyrtidae.086 lb Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest Precautions and Remarks 0 Actara is for foliar applications. Lady beetle. Alternative Control Procedures – Watermelon Insect Aphid Cabbage looper Alternative Control Procedures Wash with strong spray of water. and lacewings Commodity WATERMELON Leafhopper Thrips Leafminer Spider mite n Table 2-76. drench soil with parasitic nematodes weekly to control larvae. pyrethrins.5 oz Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. lacewings. neem or insecticidal oil. and parastic nematodes. braconid wasps. rotenone or insecticidal oil. midges. Spray with insecticidal soap. Handpick or spray with insecticidal soap.047 to 0.TABLE 2-74. predator mites. Spray with insecticidal soap. and predatory mites Eulophidae. Lacewing and flower bug Flower bug. rotenone. INSECT CONTROL FOR WATERMELON Amount of Formulation Per Acre 3 to 5. Commodity WATERMELON Cucumber beetle Cutworm Leafhoppers Thrips Leafminer Spider mite Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 177 . BTK or insecticidal oil Spray with insecticidal soap. Do not use a foliar application of any neonicotinoid insecticide if using Admire. lacewing. neem. Pick and destroy mined leaves and remove egg clusters. Pteromalidae Soldier beetle. Spray with insecticidal soap or insecticidal oil. Scatter bran mixed with BTK and molasses on bed surface or use protective collars. neem. Spray plants with neem. or spray with insecticidal soap. neem pyrethrins. Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms – Watermelon Insect Aphid Cabbage looper Cucumber beetle Naturally Occurring Biological Control Organisms Lady beetles. pyrethrins. sulfur or insecticidal oil. lacewing and attract parasitic wasps. Commodity WATERMELON (continued) Insect Whitefly (continued) Insecticide and Formulation (Actara) 25 WDG n Table 2-75. lacewings.

micro-irrigation.6 fl oz/1.6 fl oz/1.000 plants Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest 1 1 Precautions and Remarks Use lacewings or midges. ABNEY.000 cu ft 1 qt/100 gal water 4 lb/100 gal water 1 oz/3. DDVP)10 A insecticidal soap (M-Pede)49 EC 1 lb/50. the product can be used on those crops for which it is registered.25 lb/20 gal water 0 0 0 TABLE 2-78. Cabbage looper malathion (various) 10 A 57 EC 25 WP Bacillus thuringiensis (Javelin) WG dichlorvos (Vapona. May be used alone or in combination. G. DDVP)10 A insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC pyrellin EC Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP) Amount of Formulation 12 oz/20 gal water Precautions and Remarks May be used alone or tank mixed with a companion insecticide (see label for details). Use of Encarsia parasites for whitefly and other biological control agents in conjunction with use of pesticides is encouraged. Do not use endosulfan or naled on lettuce. Commodity CUCUMBER Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation dichlorvos (DDVP) 10 A malathion (various) 10 A 57 EC 25 WP nicotine sulfate (various) imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4. F.000 cu ft 2 tbsp/gal water 1 to 2 pt 0. 1 lb/50. Ventilate before reentry. help prevent insect establishment and subsequent damage. Keep ventilator closed for 2 hr or overnight.5 to 1 lb OR 3 pt/100 gal water 1 lb/50. 1 For details see CUCUMBER — Aphid 1 lb/50. Apply when whiteflies observed. INSECT CONTROL FOR GREENHOUSE CUCUMBER pesticide label specifically states that a prouct cannot be used in a greenhouse vegetable crop. WALGENBACH and M. Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches. Foliage sprays may be used.000 cu ft 1 qt/100 gal water 4 lb/100 gal water 0.25 lb/20 gal water 10 14 14 1 0 0 0 Use lacewings or midges. or drip irrigation.6 F Amount of Formulation Follow label directions 1 lb/50. G.000 cu ft 0. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur. such as sanitation and insect-free transplants. or drip irrigation. May be used alone or in combination. Repeat in 4.000 plants 0 Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches.INSECT CONTROL FOR GREENHOUSE VEGETABLES J. INSECT CONTROL FOR GREENHOUSE LETTUCE Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest 0 Commodity LETTUCE Insect Aphid.5 to 1. and for many products.to 5-day intervals.000 cu ft 1 qt/100 gal water 4 lb/100 gal water 0.5 oz/50.000 cu ft 2 tbsp/gal water 2 tsp/gal water 2 tbsp/gal water 0 — 7 Spider mite Whitefly. and timely sprays will help prevent whitefly buildup. Acts as an exciter. pesticides behave differently in the field and the greenhouse.6 F 2 tbsp/gal water 0. micro-irrigation. Leafminer. Entomology Extension. KENNEDY. use of yellow sticky traps. Apply as needed in the closed greenhouse in air above the plants. Apply when whiteflies observed. Hazardous to honey bees. Make only one application per crop per season. Entomology Research Sound cultural practices. Repeat in 4. information is not available on greenhouse crop phytotoxicity and residue retention. However. Leafminer Use predatory mites. Make only one application per crop per season.25/100 gal water 1 oz/3.000 cu ft 1 qt/100 gal water 4 lb/100 gal water 4. Acts as an exciter. Separate plant production houses. 1 0 insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC Cabbage looper Cucumber beetle Bacillus thuringiensis (various) methoxychlor (Marlate) 10 A 50 WP 25 EC soap (insecticidal) 49 EC malathion (various) 10 A 50 WP 25 WP imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4.000 cu ft 2 tbsp/gal water 10 14 14 0 1 0 Spider mite Page 178 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Spray when the temperature is 70 to 85°F. insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC pyrellin EC Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP) 2 tbsp/gal water 1 to 2 pt 0. Whitefly Insecticide and Formulation pyrethrins and PBO (Pyrenone) malathion (various) 10 A 57 EC 25 WP dichlorvos (Vapona. Unless a TABLE 2-77.to 5-day intervals. R. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur.

Foliage sprays may be used.000 cu ft 1 qt/100 gal water 4 lb/100 gal water 4.5 to 1 lb/100 gal water Follow label directions 5 fl oz/50. May be used alone or in combination. Apply as needed in the closed greenhouse in the air above the plants. Do not exceed five applications of endosulfan per year. Will also control whiteflies.C. Vapona) malathion (various) 10 A 57 EC 25 WP imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4.5 oz/50.000 cu ft 1 lb/100 gal water Precautions and Remarks Use lacewings or midges.5 lb/50. use of yellow sticky traps.to 5-day intervals.000 cu ft 4 to 8 oz/100 gal water 15 hr 2 2 15 hr 1 1 0 See instructions for Aphids (above).25 lb/100 gal water 1 to 2 lb 1 lb/50. Hazardous to honey bees. May be used alone or tank mixed with a companion insecticide. Spectracide) (AG 500) 50 WP Millipede. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur. Phaser) 10 A 50 WP Amount of Formulation Follow label directions 1 lb/50.000 cu ft 2 tbsp/gal water 1 to 2 pt 0. Do not contaminate fruit. Hazardous to honey bees.to 5-day intervals. 0 15 hr 3 See TOMATO—Aphid. Sprays every second day may be needed. Keep ventilators closed for 2 hr or overnight. Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches. Repeat in 4-to 5-day intervals. Apply in a minimum of 21 gal water using soil drenches. For use by members of N. Make only one application per crop per season.) Apply when whiteflies are observed. Read and follow label directions. Follow label directions 0.5 to 1. Ventilate before reentry. 3 EC imidacloprid (Admire Pro) 4. Repeat in 4. Plant injury may result if labeling directions are not followed.25 lb/ 20 gal water 0 0 0 0 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 179 . Acts as an exciter. INSECT CONTROL FOR GREENHOUSE TOMATO Minimum Interval (Days) Between Last Application and Harvest 1 15 hr 2 Commodity TOMATO Insect Aphid Insecticide and Formulation dichlorvos (DDVP)10A endosulfan (Thiodan.25 lb/100 gal water 1 to 2 lb 0.000 cu ft 1 qt/100 gal water 4 qt/100 gal water 0.000 cu ft 1 lb/50.6 F 1 qt/100 gal water 0. Do not apply to immature plants as phytotoxicity may occur. Sanitation. Cricket Pinworm Slug Spider mite malathion (various) 5 D Bacillus thuringiensis (Dipel) DF or (Javelin) WG metaldehyde (Metason) bait naled (Dibrom) 60 EC insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC Thrips Tomato fruitworm Whitefly methoxychlor (Marlate) 10 A Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP) See Armyworm dicholorovs (DDVP. Spray when the temperature is 70 to 80oF. Repeat in 4. Make sure the greenhouse is tightly closed. micro-irrigation. or drip irrigation. Use predatory mites.000 cu ft 1 qt/100 gal water 4 lb/100 gal water 0.000 cu ft OR 1 pt/100 gal water 2 tbsp/gal water 0. Keep greenhouse closed for at least 2 hr.000 cu ft 0. Make only one application per crop per season. rotenone and cube resin) pyrethrins and PBO (Pyrenone) Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP) 2 tbsp/gal water 2 tsp/gal water 12 oz/ 20 gal water 0. Do not contaminate fruit. 1 lb/50. Apply when whiteflies observed. Phaser) 10 A 50 WP 3 EC malathion (various) 10 A 57 EC 25 WP Bacillus thuringiensis (Javelin) WG (Agree) WP Cabbage looper Bacillus thuringiensis (various) (Javelin) WG (Dipel) DF Climbing cutworm Leafminer See Armyworm malathion (various) 10 A diazinon (Diazinon.000 plants 2 0 malathion (various) 10 A 57 EC 25 WP nicotine sulfate (various) insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC pyrellin EC Beauveria bassiana (Mycotrol WP) Armyworm endosulfan (Thiodan. then apply in the air above the plants.000 plants 15 hr 1 1 0 insecticidal soap (M-Pede) 49 EC pyrellin (pyrethrins.25 lb / 20 gal water Follow label directions 1 0 7 0 24 hr 0 Apply to soil surface around plants.6 fl oz/1.TABLE 2-79. Apply to soil at base of plants.5 lb to 1.6 F 1 lb/50. Do not exceed five applications of endosulfan per year. The optimum temperature for application is 70 to 80oF. Use screens on intake vents. (See label for details. and Encarsia parasites are encouraged. Will also control aphids. micro-irrigation.6 fl oz/1. Pyrellins may be used on many vegetables and herbs for a wide range of insect pests.000 cu ft 1 qt/100 gal water 1 lb/50. Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Association only.5 to 1 lb or 2 to 3 pt/100 gal water 0. Highly toxic—use with caution. See TOMATO — Aphid. or drip irrigation. Keep ventilator closed for 2 hr. 1 lb/50. See remarks under Aphids (above).25 lb/20 gal water 15 hr 1 1 1 0 0 0 Apply when whiteflies are observed.

For example.65 to 4 fl oz/10 gal 25 ppm 25 ppm 25 ppm 25 ppm 25 ppm 25 ppm 25 ppm 25 ppm 65 to 400 ppm Page 180 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Use as a vegetable wash. These tables are located at the end of each crop table.5%) (Agclor 310.) then rinse with tap or other potable water.4 gal 1 fl oz/16. seed treatment. and Remarks DANGER! Inhalation hazard. Seed are ordinarily treated by the commercial seed producer for the control of seed decay and damping-off. TABLE 3-1.5 fl oz/9 gal 8 oz/200 gal 8 oz/200 gal 1 oz/20 gal 5 oz/200 gal 5 fl. Schedule. many diseases are controlled by combining various practices—resistant varieties. brassica.5%) (Perasan ‘A’. _ Reentry _ Method. After treatment.2%) (Chemland Extract-2. Prepare activated solution in a well-ventilated area and avoid breathing fumes. etc.15%)(Pristine. Allow contact time of at least 45 sec. 27%) To sanitize wash water.25%) (JP Optimum CRS. labels change rapidly and errors are possible. aircraft. cultural practices. Do not reenter fields until sprays have dried. Submerge vegetables in sanitizing solution (2 min.25%) (Vegi Wash. 4%)(Clorox Commercial Solutions Clorox Ultra Germicidal Bleach. follow directions on label. and chemicals. Allow contact time of at least 30 sec for spray application and 1 min for submersion. See label for specific rates. Make up fresh solutions daily. To be used only by trained personnel. use 1. respectively.5 fl oz/16 gal 1 oz/20 gal 80 ppm + 59 ppm 80 ppm + 59 ppm 88 to 100 ppm peroxyacetic acid 25 ppm peroxyacetic acid available chlorine 25 ppm 25 ppm 25 ppm _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 oz/10 gal 4 oz/40 gal 0. 15% + 11%) (PAA Sanitizer FP. However. Allow a contact time of 2 to 3 min. deep-turn plowing.25 fl oz/gal _ _ peroxyacetic acid +hydrogen peroxide (VigorOx 15 F&V. 5%) 1/3 fl oz/10 gal 1/3 fl oz/25 gal Formulation Active Ingredient available chlorine 100 to 150 ppm Mininimum Days Harv. adjust pH of water if specified on label. 12. 4. 15% + 10%) (Tsunami 100.5%) _ _ 1 fl oz/16 gal 1 fl oz/16 gal 1 fl oz/16. Information in the following table must be used in the context of a total disease control program.5%)(Compressed Chlorine Gas. A posttreatment potable water rinse is not necessary.4 gal 85 ppm + 57 ppm 85 ppm + 57 ppm 80 ppm peroxyacetic acid _ _ _ _ Allow a contact time of at least 45 sec. 12. Change solution when visibly dirty.4%) (Maxxum 700. Nematode control chemicals and Greenhouse Diseases are given in separate tables following the crop tables.DISEASE CONTROL FOR COMMERCIAL VEGETABLES Caution: At the time this table was prepared. Available ClO2 5 ppm 5 ppm _ _ hydrogen dioxide (StorOx. Actual amount of product and water applied per acre will vary depending on plant size and row spacing.5%) sodium hypochlorite (Clean Force Fruit and Vegetable Wash. DISEASE CONTROL FOR ALL VEGETABLES Rate of Material to Use Commodity ALL VEGETABLES Disease Sanitize wash water and/or use as a vegetable wash Material chlorine (Chlorine Gas. use 0. Do not feed treated foliage to livestock unless stated on label.4%) (Dibac. 2%) (Anthium Dioxcide. vegetables must be rinsed with potable water. it is easy to apply too much product.5%)(Chlorine Liquid. 3.) rates are based on amount of product per acre.See label for commodity-specific recommendations. sanitation. 15% + 10%) (Zeprolong VF. For heavy use of rinse water or if bacterial buildup is extreme.4 gal 3 to 3. some fungicides may have a reentry requirement of one to several days.5%) chlorine dioxide (Oxine. Do not exceed maximum number of applications on label.2%) (Keystone Fruit and Vegetable Wash. Caution: With concentrate sprays.5%) (ChemStation 3030. 99. onion. Always use top-quality seed and plants obtained from reliable. 8. the entries were believed to be useful and accurate. cucurbit.6% + 26.2% + 11. See label for rotational crops. Some fungicides are adversely affected by pH of water. so the user must follow all directions on the pesticide label. commercial sources. crop rotation. 1 fl oz/16. Typically 25 to 75 gal per acre of finished spray are used.9% + 26. Adjust the solution as necessary to maintain a concentration of no more than 80 ppm. 99. oz/100 gal 5 oz/200 gal 5 oz/200 gal 0.75 oz/10 gal 0.5 to 1. Allow a contact time of at least 45 sec. 3. Do not allow available chlorine level to fall below 25 ppm. Relative efficacy tables will help you select the appropriate disease control materials for bean. In all cases. For example. Adjust the solution as necessary to maintain a concentration of no more than 25 ppm. To control buildup of bacteria in process water. oz/10 gal As a vegetable wash. Read the label. pepper.5%) (Dynachlor. and tomato diseases. Activate prior to use by the addition of activator crystals or a suitable acid (see label instructions). 12. 15. Rates: Some foliar rates given in the table are based on mixing a specified amount of product in 100 gal of water and applying the finished spray for complete coverage of foliage just to the point of run-off with high pressure (over 250 psi) drop nozzle sprayers. federal tolerances for fungicides may be canceled or changed at any time. Mix only with water. 12. 8. an activated solution may be used. 99. 6. 5. 15% + 11%) (Victory. Concentrate spray (air blast. 9. Works best in clean water with a pH of 7. Dilution rates vary based on method of application and use.5%) (Zep FS Formula 4665. Do not exceed maximum limit of fungicide per acre per application or per year as stated on the label.5 fl. 12. Plant beds are in the previous table.

Do not apply to harvestable spears. and plant. drain. Schedule.1 to 0. 15% + 10%) 3. No Non-chemical Controls Commodity ASPARAGUS Fusarium root rot Phytophthora crown/spear rot Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 181 .1 fl oz/50 gal 1 to 2. Apply to developing ferns at first sign of rust and repeat on a 14-day interval. — 1 Reentry — 2 Method.5 to 2 lb/acre 180 0 180 1 1 0. field equipment.4%) 87.to 10-day intervals. 1 to 1. 7.TABLE 3-1.7 fl oz/5 gal sodium hypochlorite (Clorox Commercial Solutions Clorox Ultra Germicidal Bleach. 5.5 to 1.5 fl oz/gal Active Ingredient _ Mininimum Days Harv. Apply over beds after seeding or covering crowns.5%) (SaniDate 5.3% + 23%) 1. 30 to 60 days before first cutting. Low tolerance in many cultivars to sulfur.8 lb/100 gal 0. 5 oz/10 gal 4 oz/13 gal 4 oz/13 gal 200 ppm 200 ppm 200 ppm See page 233 for footer descriptions. no more than 3 applications per season. Solarize soil before planting.7%) 1 to 1. TABLE 3-2. 5. DISEASE CONTROL FOR ALL VEGETABLES Rate of Material to Use Commodity ALL VEGETABLES (continued) Disease Sanitize conveyors.7 to 149 ppm + 373 to 635 ppm _ _ Allow a contact time of at least 1 min.6 lb/acre 180 1 azoxystrobin (Amistar) 80 DG 2 to 5 oz/acre 0.6 to 1. Follow treatment of any food contact surface with a potable water rinse. 6. 27%) Formulation For pre-cleaned surfaces: 0.15%)(Pristine. Allow to dry prior to use.7%) (VigorOx Liquid Sanitizer and Disinfectant. spear rot Rust 1 Material mancozeb 80W 4 mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL myclobutanil (Nova) 40 W sulfur 5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.6F Formulation 1 lb/100 gal 1 pt/acre Active Ingredient 0. 15% + 10%) (Perasan ‘A’. Schedule. Use disease-free crowns and plant in well drained soils.7 fl oz/5 gal (Divosan Activ.5 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. 8.25 lb/acre 100 4 hr See page 233 for footer descriptions. etc. and just before harvest.1% + 21.25 fl oz/gal For uncleaned surfaces: 2. Do not exceed 8 lb product per acre per crop. 5 oz/acre See label 4 to 6 fl oz/acre 2 oz/acre 1. 1 Cercospora leaf spot Stemphyllium purple spot mancozeb 80W 4 2 lb/acre 1.6% + 26. 5. packinghouses. DISEASE CONTROL FOR ASPARAGUS Rate of Material to Use Commodity ASPARAGUS Disease Crown rot Phytophthora crown rot.1% + 21. Allow to dry prior to use. no rinse is necessary. and Remarks Works best in clean water with a pH of 7.4 oz/6 gal 85 to 135 ppm + 57 to 90 ppm 85 ppm + 57 ppm 82 to 197 ppm peroxyacetic acid 145 to 154 ppm +631 to 670 ppm 87. peroxyacetic acid + hydrogen peroxide (VigorOx 15 F&V. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – ASPARAGUS Disease Rust Cercospora leafspot Resistant Varieties Varietal Tolerance Jersey Gem shows tolerance.7 to 149 ppm + 373 to 635 ppm available chlorine _ _ Allow a contact time of at least 1 min. Apply to ferns after harvest. Do not apply more than 1 foliar application of Amistar (or other group-11 fungicide) before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. no rinse is necessary.0. _ Reentry _ Method.1 to 5 fl oz/50 gal (Zeprolong VF.4%) (Maxxum 700. and Remarks Soak crowns 5 min in burlap bag with gentle agitation.7 fl oz/5 gal 3. Material hydrogen dioxide (StorOx.5 Rust. 8. n TABLE 3-3. 5. spray first appearance.

Schedule.08 lb/100 linear ft row 1 — — 0 1 4 hr 2 1 4 hr 4 hr Spray first appearance. PCNB per acre per season.2 to 15.to 14-day intervals.10 to 0.08 F chlorothalonil 7 (Bravo Ultrex) 82.08 F azoxystrobin (Amistar. 10. Do not allow feeding of vines or grazing of foliage by livestock. 0. Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 14-day intervals. 15 to 25 oz 0.5 to 75 gal/trt acre 1.4 fl oz 2. All dry beans except soybeans. Spray first appearance. Rate is based on soil properties and depth of soil to be treated. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence. Many other dried and succulent beans on label.000 row feet 0.5 1 0. fava.6F Mininimum Days Harv. Sclerotinia azoxystrobin (Amistar.1 gal/acre 13 to 20. Do not exceed 4 lb product per season.013 lb 0.4 lb/acre 5. Spray in furrow and cover soil at seeding at the rate of 8. Quadris) 2. Rhizoctonia Powdery mildew Rhizoctonia root rot Root and stem rot (Rhizoctonia and Sclerotium) 3 boscalid (Endura) 70 WG fixed copper 6 azoxystrobin (Amistar. Quadris) 2.7 oz 1.09F pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38WG tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. Many other dried and succulent beans on label. chickpea. Dry (catjang.08 F boscalid (Endura) 70 WG pyraclostrobin (Headline) 2.4 fl oz Active Ingredient 0.5 BEAN. Botrytis gray mold.7 to 1. Pole.006 to 0.08 F and blight. See label for row rates. Botrytis.000 row feet 0. Do not exceed 10 lb a.006 to 0.08 F PCNB (Terraclor) 75 WP See label 0.5 to 2 lb/acre 21 — — 0 21 30 21 14 1 2 4 hr 4 hr 0.8 to 17.8 fl oz per 100 ft of row. For Rhizoctonia only. For Rhizoctonia only.5 Use 6-oz rate for chickpeas and lentils.006 to 0. garbanzo.7 to 9. azoxystrobin (Amistar.3 to 2 lb/acre row — 0.5 lb/acre row --- 45 0.i. direct spray to base of stem and soil. Avoid days over 90oF.5 to 2.013 lb 0.5 myclobutanil (Nova) 40 W dichoropropene (Telone) C-17 C-35 metam-sodium (Vapam) 42 HL 4 to 5 oz/acre 10. Ascochyta leaf and pod spot.08 F mefenoxam + PCNB (Ridomil Gold) PCGR sulfur 5 azoxystrobin (Amistar.4 to 0.8 fl oz/1.08 F azoxystrobin (Amistar.013 lb/1.006 to 0.000 row feet 1 to 1. lentil. white mold Bacterial blights2 Damping-off.5 Ascochyta blight.6 to 2 oz/acre 107 to 169 lb/acre 139 to 220 lb/acre 160 to 320 lb/trt acre 0 — — 1 5 — Page 182 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . For Rhizoctonia only. Quadris) 2. Alternaria leaf spot Quadris) 2. Use 6-oz rate for chickpeas and lentils.25 lb Anthracnose.10 to 0. Do not apply more that three sequential applications. Pythium.8 fl oz/1. may pea. Snap Anthracnose.4 to 0.8 fl oz/1. Preplant incorporate. After emergence.10 lb 5.5 lb/trt acre 0.8 fl oz/1.75 lb/ 100 linear ft row See label 0. repeat at full bloom. see label for in-row rates. lupine.25 to 4 lb/acre 1 to 2 lb/acre 8 to 11 oz 0.000 row feet 1. Rate is based on soil type. Spray at 25% bloom. and Remarks Do not apply more that three sequential applications.000 row feet 6. Based on 36-in. 10 G formulation available.013 lb/1. 10-day intervals. Not for Sclerotinia control. Make no more than 2 applications per season All dry beans except soybeans. For Sclerotinia only.5 1 0.7 to 3 lb/acre 0. 7-day intervals. All dry beans except soybeans.6 to 7.7 oz 21 0. apply 14 to 21 days before planting. 8 to 11 oz 5.2 to 15. Botrytis boscalid (Endura) 70 WG gray mold. 0 Reentry 4 hr Method.25 to 0.2 fl oz 8 to 11 oz 5. rows. For anthracnose only. Quadris) 2.25 lb 2. maximum 12 fl oz per season. white mold (Sclerotinia) pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG Pythium damping-off Rhizoctonia root rot Rust (Uromyces) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL azoxystrobin (Amistar.5 0.000 row feet 0. rust (Phakopsora) Anthracnose.2 lb/acre 1. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence.7 lb/acre 2. DISEASE CONTROL FOR BEAN Rate of Material to Use Commodity BEAN. Make no more than 2 applications per season. lima.5 to 1 pt/trt acre 0. Mix in 10 gal of water/acre. southern.7 oz 1. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence. soybean) Disease Material Formulation 6.TABLE 3-4.5 WDG dicloran (Botran) 75 W thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP 6. Apply in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence. Make no more than 2 applications per season.5 oz 0.5 gal/acre 37. 11 lb limit per acre per crop. Quadris) 2.6 to 7.6 to 7.8 to 5. Use low rate for bush varieties and high rate for pole varieties. Many other dried and succulent beans on label.4 lb 3.5 to 8 fl oz 10 to 15 oz 4 to 6 fl oz/acre 5.4 to 0.7 oz 0 7 2 14 7 4 hr 2 0. Do not apply more that three sequential applications. mung.4 to 0. Quadris) 2. Spray at first appearance.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 183 . 7-day intervals.6 to 2 oz/acre 2 to 4 lb/100 gal 1. Leaf spots only.4 to 0.25 to 0.10 to 0.25 to 2.5 lb/trt acre — — — 4 hr 2 2 Rhizoctonia only.05 to 1.5 to 2 pt/trt acre 0. Spray at first appearance. Damping-off.000 row feet 0. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence.5 to 4 lb/acre 1 to 2 lb/acre 6. Rhizoctonia Quadris) 2. leaf spots azoxystrobin (Amistar. Many other dried and succulent beans on label.25 lb/acre 1.013 lb/1.75 to 1 lb/acre 2 14 0 14 0 0.6F Formulation 6.2 to 15.to 10-day intervals. Spray at 7.5 Method. Soil incorporate.5 WDG myclobutanil (Nova) 40 W sulfur5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.9 to 3 lb/acre 0.08/100 linear ft row Gold) PCGR See page 233 for footer descriptions. maximum 24 fl oz per season. Sclerotinia.000 row feet 0. 11 lb limit per acre per crop.5 to 2 lb/acre 1. Quadris) 2.4 fl oz/acre 8 to 11 oz/acre 1.7 to 1. Lima Botrytis.7 oz/acre 1.2 to 15.5 to 2 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. 4 lb limit per acre per crop.1 to 2.7 lb/acre 4 to 5 oz/acre See label 4 to 6 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0. See label for row rates. Do not exceed 4 lb product per season. White mold (Sclerotinia) Botran 75 W thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP 2.6 to 7. Pythium. do not make more that three sequential applications. Schedule. Spray first appearance. and Remarks Make no more that three sequential applications.25 lb/acre 5.006 to 0. Spray at 25% bloom. Pole. (Snap) (continued) Disease Rust 1 (Uromyces) Material azoxystrobin (Amistar. azoxystrobin (Amistar. Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 14-day intervals. DISEASE CONTROL FOR BEAN Rate of Material to Use Commodity BEAN.5 1 4 hr 1 1 BEAN.10 to 0. Use proportionally less for band rates.5 to 2 lb/acre 1.5 to 2 pt/acre 0.5 2 1 1 0.08 F thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP iprodione (Rovral) 50 WP 4F 1.8 fl oz/1. Quadris) 2. repeat at full bloom.4 lb/acre 0.08 F mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL mefenoxam + PCNB (Ridomil 0.08 F boscalid (Endura) 70 WG chlorothalonil 7 (Bravo Ultrex) 82. For Pythium only.TABLE 3-4. 0 7 7 0 0 7 Reentry 4 hr 0.4 lb/acre 0.4 fl oz/acre 1.2 lb/acre 1.75 lb/100 linear ft row 0. Use low rate for bush varieties and high rate for pole varieties.

TABLE 3-5. Echo. Headline) sulfur thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 1 2 +++++ ? — + ? — + — ++ + ++++ — + ++++ ? — ++ ? + — — — — ++++ ++ +++ — — — — — — — — — — — — — +++++ ? — ++ ? + — — +++++ — +++++ +++ ? — — — — — ++ — — — — — — — ? ? — ++++ ? + — — +++ — ++++ ++ ++++ — — — — — ++ — — — — — — — +++++ ? — ++++ ? + — — +++++ — +++++ +++ ? ? — — ++ — +++ — ++++ — — ? + — — — — — — — — — — — — — + — — — — — ++ — — — — — — — Powdery Mildew Downy Mildew Common Rust Anthracnose Cercospora Halo Blight ? ? — ? ? + — — ++++ — ? +++ ? ++ — — — — — — +++ — — +++ — — ? — — — — — — ++++ — — ? — — ++++ ? — — ? — ++ — ? ++++ ++ — + +++++ +++ — +++++ — ++++ + — — — — ++ Products were rated at the 2007 Southeast Extension Vegetable Workshop in Fletcher. Equus) cyprodonil + fludioxonil (Switch) fixed copper 2 iprodione (Rovral) mefenoxam (Ridomil) myclobutanil (Nova) PCNB (Terraclor) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio. Fixed coppers include: Basicop. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS FOR FOLIAR DISEASE CONTROL IN BEANS 1 D. Nu-Cop. rolfsii) +++++ + — — + — — — — +++ +++ — — Common Bacterial Blight Pythium Cottony Leak Pythium Damping-off Fusarium Crown Rot Asian Soybean Rust Aerial Rhizoctonia Rhizoctonia Sore Shin Ashy Stem Blight Fungicide/Bactericide azoxystrobin (Amistar. RIDEOUT. LANGSTON. Super Cu. NC. Page 184 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Sclerotinia Blight — . Quadris) boscalid (Endura) chloronitrobenzene (Botran) chlorothalonil (Bravo. and Tri-basic copper sulfate. Tenn-Cop. Copper-Count-N. Kocide. +++++ = very effective. University of Georgia. Virginia Polytechnic Institute (— = ineffective. Extension Plant Pathology. Citcop. and S. Champ. Efficacy ratings do not necessarily indicate a labeled use. Champion. Top Cop with Sulfur. ? = unknown efficacy) Brown Spot (Pseudomonas) Southern Blight (S.

rotate.to 10-day intervals.J. Table Disease Downy mildew. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR DISEASE CONTROL IN BEANS Scale: (0 = not important/does not impact disease.Table 3-6.= not applicable. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – BEET Disease Pythium damping-off Resistant Varieties No No Tolerant varieties Non-chemical Controls Use raised beds to dry soil surface. Auburn University and S. 7. Remove and destroy severely infected plants. ** = tolerant E. n TABLE 3-8. destroy residue.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 2 to 4 lb/100 gal Mininimum Days Harv. Copper spray at first appearance. Plant Pathology. Schedule. . ? = unknown) Explanatory notes: * = plant earlier. leaf spots Pythium damping-off Rust Material fixed copper 6 mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL sulfur 5 Formulation See label 1 to 2 pt/trt acre See label Active Ingredient — 0. Table Downy mildew Leaf spots Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 185 White mold (Sclerotinia) 0 4 0 0 5 5 5 4 4 0 0 0 3 3 2 5 1 0 2 0 4 0 2 3 Cercospora Root knot . Virginia Polytechnic Institute Disease Rust (more on pole beans) Common bacterial blight and halo blight Pythium damping-off Rhizoctonia root rot Botrytis gray mold Southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) 0 0 0 0 2 5 4 0 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 1 Fusarium root rot Ashy stem blight Powdery mildew Mosaic viruses Anthracnose Management tactic Avoid field operations when leaves are wet Avoid overhead irrigation Change planting date Cover cropping with antagonist Crop rotation Deep plowing Destroy crop residue Encourage air movement Increase between-plant spacing Increase soil organic matter Insecticidal oils pH management Plant in well drained soil Plant on raised beds Plastic mulch bed covers Postharvest temperature control Reflective mulch Reduce mechanical injury Rogue diseased plants Row covers Soil solarization Pathogen-free planting material Resistant cultivars Weed control 5 5 2 0 4 5 5 5 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 2 0 0 2 ? 1 3 2 0 0 3 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 4 0 5 5 0 0 2 5 5 5 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 3 5 1 0 2 1 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 0 5 5 2 0 4 5 5 5 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 5 3 0 0 4 0 3 2 0 0 1 2 0 3 5 5 0 0 0 3 0 0 3 0 4 2 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 3 0 4 5 5 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 2 0 1 5 0 3 2 1 1 3 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 2 3 1 0 2 0 0 0 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 4 5 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 2 5 5 4* 0 0 0 3 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5** 2 TABLE 3-7. Destroy crop residue and rotate location. RIDEOUT. Soil incorporation. and Remarks Spray or dust at first appearance. DISEASE CONTROL FOR BEET Rate of Material to Use Commodity BEET. SIKORA. 5 = very important practice to implement/impacts disease greatly. See label for row rate. 1 — 0 Reentry 1 2 1 Method. Commodity BEET.

75 to 1.to 10-day interval. and Remarks Apply on 7.5 pt/acre 2.6 to 1.02 lb/gal water 0. mandipropamid (Revus) 2.5 pt/acre 1. BRUSSEL SPROUT. DISEASE CONTROL FOR BROCCOLI.6 to 4 lb/acre 3 — 0. CAULIFLOWER Disease Alternaria leaf spot. and rape).1 lb/acre 1. kale. and continue on a 7.5 pt/acre 6 to 9 oz/acre — 4. Some reddening on older broccoli leaves and flecking of cabbage wrapper leaves may occur. BRUSSEL SPROUT.5 0. Apply to transplants (3 pt of flowable or 2 lb of 75WP per 100 gal of water) or as a banded or broadcast treatment directly to soil prior to planting. Check label carefully for recommended rates for each disease on each crop.4 to 1. Under severe disease pressure use additional fungicides between 14-day intervals.2 to 1.3 pt/acre 1 to 2 lb/acre 0. Do not use as a soil drench.2 to 6.9 lb/gal water 1 lb/gal water 20 to 30 lb/acre 18. and mustard).08F Downy mildew.2 lb/acre 1.5 cyprodinil + fludioxonil Switch) 62. and continue on 7.1 to 0. cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.5 lb/acre 1.3 oz/acre 0 0. mustard. and continue on 7.9 lb/ gal water 1 lb/ gal water 0.to 14-day interval. rutabaga.5 (Terraclor) 75 WP Transplant: 2 lb/100 gal water Banded: 30 lb/25 gal water Broadcast: 40 lb/30 gal water (Terraclor) 10 G (Terraclor) 15 G Downy mildew fosetyl-AL (Aliette) 80 WDG 200 to 300 lb/acre 125 to 200 lb/acre 2 to 5 lb/acre 1 Apply when disease first appears.TABLE 3-9.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Ultrex) 82.to four-leaf stage. and continue on a 7. Alternaria leaf spot azoxystrobin (Quadris) 2.3 oz/acre 0 0 0.5 LF 101 2000 copper sulfate (Basicop) Formulation 1 to 2 lb/acre 0.2 to 1.2 to 15.to 14-day interval.13 lb/acre 1 0. maximum 32 fl oz per season. kale.2 lb/acre 1. CABBAGE.9 to 8. Schedule.6 lb/acre 0 1 Mininimum Days Harv. and turnip greens. then repeat as needed on 14-day intervals.5 lb/acre 1.75 to 1.7 lb/acre 0. Do not exceed 56 oz of product per acre per year. mustard.8 lb/acre 0. disease suppression only.5 Begin applications prior to disease development. Apply to base of plant at two.5 WDG (Bravo Weatherstik) 6 F (Bravo 500) (Bravo S) (Equus) DF (Equus) 720 maneb (Manex) 4 F mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo) 8 fl oz/acre 0. Do not tank mix with copper fungicides. 10G. See label for row spacing rates.5 to 1. then repeat on 7. CABBAGE.2 lb/acre 0. 1.to 10-day interval.6 lb/acre — 7 7 1 2 Spray on a 7. 0 Reentry 1 Method. Apply when disease first appears.7 oz/acre 7 0.to 10-day intervals after transplanting or shortly after seeds have emerged.0 to 3.8 to 1. Begin applications when conditions favor disease but prior to symptoms. Avoid applying on days over 90o F.5 3 to 10 lb/acre 2. CAULIFLOWER Rate of Material to Use Commodity BROCCOLI. Do not make more than four applications per crop.4 fl oz 0.5 lb/acre 0.4 to 0. and turnip.02 lb/gal water 0.4 pt/acre 1.2 to 1.to 10-day intervals.75 to 1.2 lb/acre 1.9 to 8. Make no more than 2 applications per season. Repeat as needed on a 7.to 10-day intervals.5 WG sulfur (Microthiol Disperss) 80 MWS 11 to 14 oz/acre 6.5 WG Black leg (for broccoli only) Clubroot iprodione (Rovral) 50 W 4F PCNB (Terraclor) FL 11 to 14 oz/acre 6.25 lb 0 7 4 hr 2 Apply after transplanting. black rot. copper salts of fatty and rosin acids (Tenn-Cop) 5 E Alternaria leaf spot boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 0. Apply prior to disease development and continue throughout season at 7. A second application may be made up to the harvest date.to 21-day intervals. kohlrabi.6 to 1.0 lb/acre Active Ingredient 0. Certain Kocide formulations are also registered for use on collard. Apply when disease first appears.25 lb/acre 4.8 to 30 lb/acre 1. Also for use on greens (collard. Make no more than 2 applications per season.6 qt/acre 1.8 lb/acre 0. seedling emergence.5 6.5 gal/30 gal water 1 lb/acre 1 lb/acre — 0. Begin applications prior to disease development.7 oz/acre 7 0.to 10-day intervals.6 to 1. A maximum of seven applications can be made per season.3 to 0. Apply when disease first appears.4 to 8 lb/acre 0 1 Page 186 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .6 gal/25 gal water Broadcast: 7. Also for loose-heading Chinese cabbage.5 lb/acre 0. Powdery mildew boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 6 to 9 oz/acre 4. downy mildew Material copper hydroxide (Kocide) DF 4.5 pt/acre 1. Do not exceed 56 oz of product per acre per year. or when conditions favor disease development. Terraclor FL.2 to 6.5 0 2 lb/acre 2 pt/acre Transplant: 3 pt/100 gal water Banded: 5.1 lb/acre 1. and 75WP formulations can also be used on Chinese broccoli and Chinese cabbage. and greens (collard.

and wirestem on broccoli. Pyraclostrobin is labled only on turnip tops.3 oz/acre 0 0. 9: anilonopyrimidines.2 to 0. +++++ = very effective. When used in combination with fosteyl-Al or maneb. 15: cinnamic acids. BRUSSEL SPROUT. CAULIFLOWER Rate of Material to Use Commodity BROCCOLI.3 lb/gal water 0.25 to 2 pt/acre Active Ingredient 0. — Reentry 2 Method. Extension Plant Pathology. BRUSSEL SPROUT. and mefenoxam + chlorothalonil. iprodione. CAULIFLOWER (continued) Disease Material Formulation 0. Sclerotinia. CABBAGE. See page 233 for footer descriptions. CABBAGE. DISEASE CONTROL FOR BROCCOLI. Begin applications prior to disease development. Manex) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold EC) pre-plant mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo) PCNB (Terraclor) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) sulfur 1 2 3 4 5 6 11 7 M 9+12 15 M 33 2 40 M 4 4+M 14 11 M — 0-14 7 7 0 0 3 — 1 7 NA 7 NA — 0 +++++ ++++ +++ +++ — + — —6 — ++ — +++ — +++++ + — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ++ — — — + — — — — — ? ++ — — — — — +++ 6 — — — — — ? — ? — + — — — — — — — — + + — — +++ — ++ ++ — + — — — ++ — ++ — +++++ + — — — — — — — — — — — — ++ — — +++ + +++ — ++ ++ +++ 5 — +++++ +++ 5 +++ +++ — +++ + +++ + ++ ++ — ++ — — — + — ++ — +++ +++ — — — — — — — — — — +++ — — — — Products were rated at the 2004 Southeast Extension Vegetable Workshop and are based on current field research.5 to 1 lb/acre 4. and G. mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) Phytophthora basal 4 SL stem rot Mininimum Days Harv. J. 12: phenylpyrroles. Rhizoctonia stem (wirestem) and root rot PCNB (Terraclor) FL — Broadcast drench: 2. metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E Rhizoctonia bottom rot boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 4 to 8 pt/ trt acre 6 to 9 oz/acre 0.TABLE 3-9.8 gal/35 gal water Broadcast drench: 15 to 20 lb/50 gal water 0. HOLMES. Always refer to product labels prior to use.3 oz/acre — 0 2 0. NC State University (— = ineffective. 14: aromatic hydrocarbons.2 to 6. Schedule. TABLE 3-10. preplant application to soil and incorporate in top 2 in. cauliflower. Make no more than 2 applications per season.0 lb/acre Pythium damping-off.8 gal/50 gal water Row drench: 1. Echo.25 to 0. disease suppression only. Apply to soil as a broadcast or row drench treatment at the time of or immediately after seeding. 11: quinone outside inhibitors. 4: phenylamides. Applications of iprodione made for black leg may suppress Alternaria.to 14-day interval. Quadris) boscalid (Endura) chlorothalonil (Bravo. Efficacy ratings do not necessarily indicate a labeled use.5 Begin applications prior to disease development.5 pt per acre. Plant Pathology Extension. Key to Fungicide Groups: 2: dicarboxamides. and continue on a 7.2 to 6. Fungicides registered specifically on cole crops (cabbage. use only 0. broccoli) include chlorothalonil. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS FOR BRASSICA DISEASE CONTROL 1 D. For Pythium control.to 14-day interval. Fosteyl-Al is not labled on turnips. maneb. of soil. LANGSTON.12 to 1. and continue on a 7. Make no more than 2 applications per season. ? = unknown efficacy) Relative Control Rating Pythium damping-off Alternaria Leaf Spot Preharvest Interval (Days) Fungicide Group 3 Bacterial Soft Rot Sclerotinia/Raisin Head — +++ — — — — — +6 — — — — — — — Powdery Mildew Downy Mildew Cercospora & Cercosporella Bottom Rot (Rhizoctonia) Fungicides 2 azoxystrobin (Amistar. M: multi-site activity Phytotoxicity is seen when fosteyl-Al is tank-mixed with copper. and Remarks Apply 1 to 2 pt per acre as a broadcast. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 187 Wirestem (Rhizoctonia) + ++ — — — — — +6 — — — — +++ — — Black Leg Black Rot Clubroot .5 (Terraclor) 75 WP (Terraclor) 10 G (Terraclor) 15 G Sclerotinia stem rot (white mold) boscalid (Endura) 70 WG Row drench: 10 to 15 lb/35 gal water 110 to 150 lb/acre 75 to 100 lb/acre 6 to 9 oz/acre 11 to 15 lb/acre 11 to 15 lb/acre 4. Equus) cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) dimethomorph (Forum) fixed copper 4 fosteyl-Al 4 (Aliette) iprodione (Rovral) 6 mandipropamid (Revus) maneb (Maneb. University of Georgia. 33: phosphonates.9 to 2.5 Preplant incorporated or surface application.8 to 3. See label for row spacing rates.

TABLE 3-11. SIKORA. 5 = very important practice to implement/impacts disease greatly) Disease Powdery mildew Bacterial soft rot Sclerotinia head rot/Raisen head 0 0 0 0 1 3 1 2 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 2 Downy mildew Alternaria leaf spot Cercospora/ Cercosporella Management tactic Avoid field operations when leaves are wet Avoid overhead irrigation Change planting date Cover cropping with antagonist Crop rotation Deep plowing Destroy crop residue Encourage air movement Increase between-plant spacing Increase soil organic matter Hot water seed treatment pH management Plant in well-drained soil Plant on raised beds Plastic mulch bed covers Postharvest temperature control Reflective mulch Reduce mechanical injury Rogue diseased plants Row covers Soil solarization Pathogen-free planting material Resistant cultivars Weed control 1 5 1 0 2 3 3 3 3 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 0 2 3 5 1 0 2 3 3 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 0 5 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 5 0 0 4 4 4 1 1 0 5 0 1 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 5 5 3 2 5 0 0 4 4 4 1 1 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 ? 5 0 2 2 3 1 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 0 0 4 4 2 0 0 0 1 0 3 3 0 0 1 5 0 0 3 3 3 3 3 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 5 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 2 1 4 0 0 3 3 3 3 2 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Page 188 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Wirestem (Rhizoctonia) 0 0 2 0 1 2 1 0 0 1 0 0 4 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 3 1 0 Bottom rot (Rhizoctonia) Pythium damping-off Black leg Black rot Clubroot . RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR DISEASE CONTROL IN BRASSICA CROPS E. Plant Pathology. Auburn University Scale (0 = not important/does not impact disease.J.

boscalid (Endura) 70WG 4.5 pt/acre 1 to 2 pt/acre 8 to 12 oz/acre 1.2/acre 0 0. Spray at first appearance.9 to 8.5 oz/acre 107 to 169 lb/acre 139 to 220 lb/acre 3 to 4 oz/acre 0 1 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 189 . Do not exceed 56 oz of product per acre per year.to 10-day intervals.2 to 15.4 fl oz/acre — — 0.7 oz/acre 0 7 1 0.15 to . Do not make more than two applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.5 lb/acre — 0. 7.5 WG 1. DISEASE CONTROL FOR CARROT Rate of Material to Use Commodity CARROT Disease Material Formulation 9.25 fl oz/acre 7 5 0 2 2 4 hr Powdery mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar. Make no more than 6 applications per season.5 oz/acre 11 to 14 oz/acre 3 to 4 oz/acre 6. Apply when disease first appears. pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG sulfur 5 Pythium damping-off Sclerotinia.5 chlorothalonil 7 (Bravo Ultrex) 82. Apply no more than 2. band to soil surface.2 to 20. Suppression only.1 to 1.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Preplant incorporate in top 2 in. Make no more than six applications per crop per acre per year.33 lb/acre Alternaria leaf blight.5 to 1 lb/acre 1.5 gal/acre 8 to 10. Avoid applying on days over 90oF. and cotinue on 7.6 to 2.08 F Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.8 lb/acre 3 to 4.to 10-day intervals if conditions remain favorable for disease development.4 oz/acre — 1 1 0 2 1 1 0.5 WDG fixed copper 6 iprodione (Rovral) 4F pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG Alternaria leaf blight cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.CANTALOUPE See MUSKMELON TABLE 3-12.3 F dichloropropene (Telone) C-17 C-35 pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG See page 233 for footer descriptions. Make no more than 6 applications per season.8 to 17.5 8 to 10.08 F Mininimum Days Harv.4 to 1. Rate is based on soil type.5 Do not make more than two applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.1 gal/acre 13 to 20. Schedule. Spray 2 to 4 times starting 40 to 50 days after applying Ridomil Gold EC at planting.15 to 0.5 oz/acre 3. Not for Cercospora. Make no more than 6 applications per season. Spray at first appearance. 8 to 12 oz/acre 1. 8 to 10.1 lb/100 gal/acre 0 1 1 — — — 2 — 5 10.5 Pythium cavity spot mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo) mefenoxam + copper hydroxide (Ridomil Gold/Copper) 1. azoxystrobin (Amistar. Dip harvested roots 5 to 10 seconds.6 to 2. Fumigate soil in-the-row 3 to 6 weeks before seeding. Cercospora leaf spot Quadris) 2.3 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0. Botrytis (postharvest) Southern blight 3 mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL thiabendazole (Mertect 340F) 43. and Remarks Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. of soil or apply in 7-in.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 1.4 oz/acre 0 0. Quadris) 2.5 to 2 lb/acre 2 lb/acre 9. 0 Reentry 4 hr Method. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or more than 5 applications per season.5 oz/acre 3 to 10 lb/acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 41 oz/100 gal/acre 3 to 4 oz/acre — 0. see label for in-row rates. Do not rinse.

5 = very important practice to implement/impacts disease greatly) Pythium damping off Botrytis postharvest Root-knot nematode 0 0 2 2 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Pythium cavity spot Rhizoct.TABLE 3-13. cavity spot Bacterial leaf blight 3 3 0 0 2 4 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 Cercospora blight Powdery mildew Management tactic Avoid field operations when leaves are wet Avoid overhead irrigation Change planting date Cover cropping with antagonist Crop rotation Deep plowing Destroy crop residue Encourage air movement Plant in well-drained soil Plant on raised beds Postharvest temperature control Reduce mechanical injury Destroy volunteer carrots Pathogen-free planting material Resistant cultivars * tolerance/resistance 1 3 1 0 2 4 5 2 0 0 0 0 2 5 4* 1 3 1 0 2 4 5 2 0 0 0 0 2 5 4* 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 Sclerotinia postharvest 0 2 0 0 1 2 0 2 2 1 5 2 0 0 0 Alternaria blight Southern blight 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 5 4 0 0 0 Page 190 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR CARROT DISEASE CONTROL Scale (0 = not important/does not impact disease.

Make no more than 2 applications per season.9 to 8.2 to 6.TABLE 3-14. and continue on 7.4-3.13 lb/acre 1 0. and continue on a 7.4 fl oz 0.5 boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 6 to 9 oz/acre 4. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval.2 oz/acre 3 0. Apply on 7.5 copper hydroxide (Kocide) DF 4.to 14-day interval. apply before infection on a 14-day interval. boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 6 to 9 oz/acre 4. Make no more than 2 applications per season.2 to 15.25 lb/acre 2. Do not make more than one application of Reason 500 SC before alternating with a fungicide from a different resistance management group.5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.4 fl oz/acre 12-16 oz/acre Active Ingredient 0.5 LF 101 2000 fosetyl-Al (Aliette) 80 WDG 1 to 2 lb/acre 0.6 F 3-4 oz/acre 1.013 lb/ acre -- 4 hr Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 191 . Apply in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence.08 F 8. Folicur 3.2 to 6. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval. Begin applications prior to disease development. Applications should be made on a 5-10 day interval. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. DISEASE CONTROL FOR COLLARD Rate of Material to Use Commodity COLLARD Disease Alternaria leaf spot Material azoxystrobin (Amistar.08 F pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG Formulation 6.7 oz/acre 7 0.8 to 1.5 lb/acre 0.08 F pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 6.5 cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.2 to 6.to 14-day interval.2 to 15.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5. Apply when disease first appears and continue on 7.6 to 4 lb/acre 0 1 3 1 Apply when disease first appears.8 oz/acre 7 0.5 3 to 10 lb/acre 6 to 9 oz/acre 2.75 to 1. A maximum of seven applications can be made per season.6 F 3-4 oz/acre 1.4-3. 0 3 Reentry 4 hr 0.5 Method. Apply when disease first appears. Begin applications prior to disease development.125 lb/ acre 4.to 14-day interval. Begin applications prior to disease development.8 lb/acre 1.1 to 0.5 WG sulfur (Microthiol Disperss) 80 MWS Rhizoctonia bottom rot Sclerotinia stem rot (white mold) Seedling root rot.5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. For optimum results use as a preventative treatment.000 row ft 0.2 oz/acre 3 0.6 to 1. and continue on a 7.0 fl oz/acre 0.5-8.6 F must have 2-4 hours of drying time on foliage for the active ingredient to move systemically into plant tissue before rain or irrigation occurs.9 to 8. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.2 oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Schedule. Do not tank mix with copper fungicides.8 oz/acre 7 0.3 oz/acre 0 0. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.08 F 0. Begin applications prior to disease development.5 Downy mildew azoxystrobin (Quadris) 2.to 10-day interval.2 to 6. Check label for recommended rate for each disease.2 oz/acre 0.2 to 1. Begin applications as soon as conditions become favorable for disease development. Do not exceed 56 oz of product per acre per year.1 to 0.5 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 12-16 oz/acre 2.6 F must have 2-4 hours of drying time on foliage for the active ingredient to move systemically into plant tissue before rain or irrigation occurs. Apply when disease first appears. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval.267 lb/acre 2 0.4 to 8 lb/acre 4.to 14-day interval. Quadris) 2. Do not apply without labeled tank mix partner.3 oz/acre 7 7 0 1 2 0. For optimum results use as a preventative treatment. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval. and continue on a 7.5 mandipropamid (Revus) 2. Do not exceed 56 oz of product per acre per year.3 to 0.178-0. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. disease suppression only.6 to 1.2 lb/acre 0.to 21-day intervals.5 azoxystrobin (Amistar. then repeat as needed on 14-day intervals. Spray on a 7. Make no more than 2 applications per season.to 10-day intervals.006 to 0.3 pt/acre 1 to 2 lb/acre 0. then repeat on 7.2 oz/acre 3 0. Make no more than 2 consecutive applications before switching to another effective non-group 40 fungicide.to 10-day intervals after transplanting or shortly after seeds have emerged.4 to 0. Quadris) 2.6 lb/acre 0.125 to 0. disease suppression only.3 oz/acre 0 0. maneb (Manex) 4 F mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL Powdery mildew boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 1. Avoid applying on days over 90oF.4-1.5 cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62. and Remarks Make no more that two sequential applications. and continue on a 7.5 lb/acre 2 to 5 lb/acre 0.4 to 0.6 qt/acre 0. basal stem rot (Rhizoctonia) boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 11 to 14 oz/acre 6. disease suppression only.7 lb/acre 0.4-3. Folicur 3. Make no more than 2 applications per season.7oz/acre 7 0.3 oz/acre 0 0 1 0.to 10-day intervals.4-1.4-3.25 pt/acre 6 to 9 oz/acre 1.063 to 0.8 fl oz/1.25 lb/acre 0 4 hr 12-16 oz/acre 2.5 12-16 oz/acre 2.5 WG pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 11 to 14 oz/acre 6.2 to 1.

TABLE 3-15. DISEASE CONTROL FOR CORN
Rate of Material to Use Commodity CORN, Sweet Disease Rust, blight Material azoxystrobin (Amistar, Quadris) 2.08 F Formulation 6.2 to 15.4 fl oz Active Ingredient 0.1 to 0.25 lb Mininimum Days Harv. 7 Reentry 4 hr Method, Schedule, and Remarks Use lower rate for rust. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Apply no more than 2.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Apply when disease first appears; continue to apply on a 14-day interval if favorable conditions persist. Spray at first appearance, 4- to 14-day intervals.

azoxystrobin + propiconazole (Quilt) 1.66 F chlorothalonil 7 (Bravo Ultrex) 82.5 WDG mancozeb 80W 4 maneb 80W 4 propiconazole (Tilt) tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.6 F

10.5 to 14 fl oz/acre

0.14 to 0.18 lb/acre

14

1

0.75 to 2 pt/acre 1 to 1.5 lb/acre 1.5 lb/acre 2 to 4 fl oz/acre 4-6 oz/acre

0.6 to 1.5 lb/acre 0.8 to 1.2 lb/acre 1.2 lb/acre — 1.5-2.3 oz/acre

14 7 7 14 7

2 1 1 1 19

16 fl oz per acre per crop maximum. For optimum results use as a preventative treatment. Folicur 3.6 F must have 2-4 hours of drying time on foliage for the active ingredient to move systemically into plant tissue before rain or irrigation occurs. Apply Stratego when disease first appears and continue on a 7-14 day interval. Alternate applications of Stratego with another product with a different mode of action than Group 11 fungicides.

propiconazole + trifloxystrobin (Stratego)

10 oz/acre

2.28 oz/acre

14

1

pyraclostrobin (Headline) 2.09 F See page 233 for footer descriptions.

6 to 9 fl oz/acre

0.1 to 0.15 lb/acre

7

0.5

n

TABLE 3-16. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – CORN (SWEET)
Disease Blights Resistant Varieties Yes Use raised beds to dry soil surface. Yes Non-chemical Controls

Commodity

CORN, Sweet

Pythium damping-off Rust

Page 192

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

TABLE 3-17. DISEASE CONTROL FOR CUCUMBER
Rate of Material to Use Commodity CUCUMBER Disease Angular leaf spot Bacterial fruit blotch Material fixed copper 6 fixed copper6 Formulation See label See label Active Ingredient — — Mininimum Days Harv. 0 0 Reentry 0 0 Method, Schedule, and Remarks Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Start applications at first bloom. Ineffective once fruit reach full size. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. See Insect Control section for Cucumber Beetles. Make first application at 1- to 3-leaf stage with a second application at vine tipover or 10 to 14 days later. Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface. Soil surface incorporated or surface application. Preplant incorporated (broadcast or band); soil spray (broadcast or band; or injection (drip irrigation). Preplant incorporate in top 2 in. of soil or apply in 7-in. band to soil surface. Preplant incorporated or surface application. Rates based on rock wool cube saturation in the greenhouse; see label for use in seed beds, drip system, and soil drench. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Apply no more than 2.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Spray at first appearance and then at 7- to 14-day intervals. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. Do not appy more than 6 sprays per crop. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group. Use only in combination with labeled rate of protectant fungicide (e.g., mancozeb or chlorothalonil). Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development and continue on 5- to 10-day interval. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group, and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Tank mix with another downy mildew fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not tank mix with copper-containing products. Mixing with surfactants or foliar fertilizers is not recommended. Apply no more than 24 lb per acre per season. For disease suppression only. Spray at first appearance and then at 7- to 10-day intervals. Spray at first appearance and repeat at 14-day intervals. Apply full rate of protectant fungicide between applications. Avoid late-season application, when plants reach full maturity. Begin applications before infection; continue on a 7- to 14-day interval. Do not apply more than 6 pt per growing season. Always tank mix with another downy mildew product. Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Make no more than 4 applications per season. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed alternating applications of Ridomil Gold Bravo on a 7- to 14-day interval. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage, and repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals.

Bacterial wilt Belly (fruit) rot, Rhizoctonia

— azoxystrobin (Amistar, Quadris) 2.08 F thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP

— 11 tp 15.4 fl oz/acre 0.5 lb/acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre

— 0.18 to 0.25 lb/acre 0.35 lb/acre 0.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.5 to 1 lb/acre

— 1 — — —

— 4 hr 0.5 2 2

Cottony leak (Pythium) Damping-off (Pythium)

metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultraflourish) 2 EC metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F

1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 12.8 fl oz/100 gal water 0.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.6 lb/100 gal — 2 2 0.5

Downy mildew

azoxystrobin (Amistar, Quadris) 2.08 F

11 to 15.4 fl oz/acre

0.18 to 0.25 lb/acre

1

4 hr

chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik, Echo, Equus) 6 F cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 CS

1.5 to 3 pt/acre

0.8 to 1.6 pt/acre

2

2.1 to 2.75 fl oz/acre

0.054 to 0.071 lb/acre

0

0.5

cymoxanil (Curzate ) 60 DF dimethomorph (Acrobat, Forum) 50 WP famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP

3.2 oz/acre 6.4 oz/acre

1.9 oz/acre 3.2 oz/acre

3 0

0.5 0.5

8 oz/acre

4 oz/acre

3

0.5

fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC

5.5 fl oz/acre

0.178 lb/acre

14

0.5

fixed copper6 fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F fosetyl-AL (Aliette) 80 WDG

See label 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 2 to 5 lb/acre

— 0.09 to 0.125 lb/acre 1.6 to 4 lb/acre

— 2 0.5

— 0.5 0.5

mancozeb 4 mandipropamid (Revus) 2.08F maneb (Maneb) 75 DF mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo, Flouronil) 76.5 WP propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F

2 to 3 lb/acre 8 fl oz/acre 1.5 to 2 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre

1.6 to 2.4 lb/acre 0.13 lb/acre 0.44 to .6 lb/acre 1.5 lb/acre

5 1 5 7

1 0.5 1 2

1.2 pt/acre

0.9 lb/acre

2

0.5

pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG

8 to 12 oz/acre 12.5 to 18.5 oz/acre 4 oz/acre

1.6 to 2.4 oz/acre 4.8 to 7 oz/acre 2 oz/acre

0 0 0

0.5 1 0.5

zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 75 DF

1.5 to 2 lb/acre

1.13 to 1.5 lb/acre

5

2

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

Page 193

TABLE 3-17. DISEASE CONTROL FOR CUCUMBER
Rate of Material to Use Commodity CUCUMBER (continued) Disease Leaf spots, Alternaria, anthracnose (Colletotrichum), Cercospora, gummy stem blight (Didymella), target spot (Corynespora) Material azoxystrobin (Amistar, Quadris) 2.08 F Formulation 11 to 15.4 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0.18 to 0.25 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. 1 Reentry 4 hr Method, Schedule, and Remarks Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Apply no more than 2.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Spray at first appearance and then at 7- to 14-day intervals. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. Only for Alternaria and anthracnose. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action. Only for Alternaria. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development, and continue on 5- to 10-day interval. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group, and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Apply no more than 24 lb per acre per season. Spray at first appearance and then at 7- to 10-day intervals. Do not use for gummy stem blight where resistance to group 11(QoI) fungicides exists. Make no more than 1 application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Not for target spot. Use highest rate for anthracnose. Make no more than 4 applications per season. Spray at first appearance and then at 7- to 10-day intervals. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage, and repeat at 7- to 10-day intervals. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop; make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against Phytophthora blight. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Tank mix with another Phytophthora fungicide with a different mode of action. For disease suppression only; apply as foliar spray with copper based fungicide. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Apply no more than 2.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Spray at first appearance and then at 7- to 14-day intervals. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Apply no more than 1.5 lb per acre per crop. Observe a 30-day plant-back interval. Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Make no more than 4 applications per season. Do not use when temperature is over 90°F or on sulfur-sensitive varieties. Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 10- to 14-day intervals; maximum 24 fl oz per season. Spray at first appearance and then at 7- to 10-day intervals. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed on 7- to 14-day intervals. Do not apply more than one application before alternating with a nonstrobilurin fungicide. Begin applications at vining or first sign of disease, and repeat at 7- to 14-day intervals. Spray at first appearance and then at 7- to 14-day intervals. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.

chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik, Echo, Equus) 6 F famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP

1.5 to 3 pt/acre

0.8 to 1.6 pt/acre

2

8 oz/acre

4 oz/acre

3

0.5

fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC

5.5 fl oz/acre

0.178 lb/acre

14

0.5

fixed copper6 mancozeb 4 maneb (Maneb) 75 DF pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG

See label 2 to 3 lb/acre 1.2 to 1.6 lb/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre

— 1.6 to 2.4 lb/acre 0.44 to 0.6 lb/acre 2.4 to 3.2 oz/acre

— 5 5 0

— 1 1 0.5

pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 75 DF Phytophthora blight cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC

12.5 to 18.5 oz/acre .5 lb/acre 1.5 to 2 lb/acre 2.75 fl oz/acre

4.8 to 7 oz/acre 0.35 lb/acre 1.13 to 1.5 lb/acre 0.071 lb/acre

0 — 5 0

1 0.5 2 0.5

dimethomorph (Acrobat, Forum) 50 WP fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F mandipropamid (Revus) 2.08F Powdery mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar, Quadris) 2.08 F

6.4 oz/acre

3.2 oz/acre

0

0.5

3 to 4 fl oz/acre 8 fl oz/acre 11 to 15.4 fl oz/acre

0.09 to 0.125 lb/acre 0.13 lb/acre 0.18 to 0.25 lb/acre

2 0 1

0.5 0.5 4 hr

chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik, Echo, Equus) 6 F fixed copper6 myclobutanil (Nova) 40 WP pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG sulfur 5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.6F

1.5 to 3 pt/acre

0.8 to 1.6 pt/acre

2

See label 2.5 to 5 oz/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre 12.5 to 18.5 oz/acre See label 4 to 6 fl oz/acre

— 1 to 2 oz/acre 2.4 to 3.2 oz/acre 4.8 to 7 oz/acre — 1.5 to 2 lb/acre

— 0 0 0 0 7

— 1 0.5 1 1 0.5

thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG

0.5 lb/acre 1.5 to 2 oz/acre

0.35 lb/acre 0.75 to 1 oz/acre

— 0

0.5 0.5

triflumizole (Procure) 50 WS Scab chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik, Echo, Equus) 6 F

4 to 8 oz/acre 1.5 to 3 pt/acre

2 to 4 oz/acre 0.8 to 1.6 pt/acre

0 —

0.5 2

See page 233 for footer descriptions.

Page 194

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

TABLE 3-18. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS FOR CUCURBIT DISEASE CONTROL*
G. J. HOLMES, Plant Pathology Extension Relative Control Rating (— = ineffective; +++++ = very effective; ? = lacking efficacy data) Preharvest Interval (Days)

Damping-off (Pythium)

Cercospora Leaf Spot

Bacterial Fruit Blotch

Plectosporium Blight

Phytophthora Blight

Gummy Stem Blight

Alternaria Leaf Spot

Fungicide Group 1

Angular Leafspot

Powdery Mildew

Bacterial Wilt 2

Downy Mildew

Cottony Leak

Anthracnose

Fungicide azoxystrobin 3 (Quadris) chlorothalonil (Bravo/Terranil/ Equus) cyazofamid (Ranman) cymoxanil (Curzate) dimethomorph (Acrobat, Forum) famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) fenamidone (Reason) fixed copper fluopicolide (Presidio) kresoxim-methyl (Sovran) mancozeb (Dithane, Manzate, Penncozeb, Manex) mancozeb + fixed copper (ManKocide) mandipropamid (Revus) maneb mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold EC, Ultra Flourish) mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo, Flouronil) mefenoxam + copper (Ridomil Gold/ Copper) mefenoxam + mancozeb (Ridomil Gold MZ ) myclobutanil (Nova) phosphonate (Aliette, Agri-Fos, Phostrol, ProPhyte) propamocarb (Previcur Flex) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) pyraclostrobin + boscalid quinoxyfen (Quintec) sulfur tebuconazole (Folicur) thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) trifloxystrobin (Flint) triflumizole (Procure) zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) Key to Fungicide Groups:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

11 M 21 27 15 11 + 27 11 M 43 11 M M+M 40 M 4 4+M 4+M 4+M 3 33 28 11 (Pristine) 11 + 7 13 M 3 1 11 3 22 + M

1 0 0 3 0 3 14 1 2 0 5 5 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 0.5 2 0 0 3 0 7 0 0 0 5

++++ ++++ — — — ? ++ + — ? +++ +++ — +++ — +++ + ++ — — — ++++ ++++ — — ? ++ ++++ — +++

— — — — — — — +++ — ? — ++ — — — — + — — — — — — — — — — — — —

++++ ++ — — — ? — + — ? +++ +++ — +++ — +++ — ++ — — — +++++ ++ — — ? ++ ++++ — ++

— — — — — — — +++ — ? — ++ — — — — + — — — — — — — — — — — — —

— — — — — — — ++ — ? — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —

+++ — — — — — — — ? — — — — — — — — — — — ? ? — — — ++ ? — —

++++ ++++ — — — ? — ++ — ? ++++ +++ — ++++ — ++ + ++ — — — ? ++++ — — ? ++ ? — +++

— — ? ? — — ? — — ? — — — — ++ + + + — — — — — — — — — — — —

— — — ? — — — — — ? — — — — ++++ — — — — — ? — — — — — — — — —

++ ++ ++++ +++ + ++++ ++++ + ++++ ? +++ +++ ++ +++ — ++++ ++ +++ — + ++++ ++++ +++ — — — — + — ++++

++++ ++++ — — — — + — ++++ +++ ++ — +++ — +++ + ++ — — — ++++ +++++ — — ++ ++ ++++ — ++

— — ++ ++ + ? ? ? +++ ? + + +++ + +++ ++ ++ ++ — — + + + — — — — — — +

++ +++ — — — — — ++ — ? +++ +++ — +++ — ++ + ++ — — — ++++ +++ — — — ? ++++ — ++

+++ ++ — — — — — + — +++ + + — + — ++ — — +++++ — — +++ +++ +++++ ++++ ++ +++ ++++ +++++ +

++++ ++++ — — — — — + — ? ++++ +++ — ++++ — ++ + ++ — — — ++++ ++++ — — — + ++++ — +++

1: methyl benzimidazole carbamates; 3: demethylation inhibitors; 4: phenylamides; 7: carboxamides, 11: quinone outside inhibitors; 15: cinnamic acids; 21: quinone inside inhibitors; 22: benzamides; 27: cyanoacetamide-oximes; 28: carbamates; 33: phosphonates; M: multi-site activity. See www.frac.info To prevent resistance in pathogens, alternate fungicides within a group with fungicides in another group. Fungicides in the “M” group are generally considered “low risk” with no signs of resistance developing to the majority of fungicides. Control cucumber beetle from emergence to fruit set; bactericidal sprays alone are not effective. Curative activity; locally systemic. Systemic. When used in combination with chlorothalonil or mancozeb, gives increased control. Contact control only; no systemic control. Bedtop spray no longer labeled; foliar application not effective. Fixed coppers include: Basicop, Champ, Champion, Citcop, Copper-Count-N, Kocide, Nu-Cop, Super Cu, Tenn-Cop, Top Cop with Sulfur, and Tri-basic copper sulfate. should begin at bloom; after symptoms are observed on watermelon fruit, it is too late to begin a copper spray program. Sulfur products include: Kumulus, Liquid Sulfur Six, Microthiol, Sulfur DF, Thiolux. Check manufacturer’s label for compatibility with other products. = pathogen resistance to this fungicide (or FRAC group) has been reported, greatly reducing its efficacy. Combine with a protectant fungicide like chlorothalonil to extend the usefulness of the product. = sulfur can be phytotoxic at temperatures above 90° F; read the label carefully.

9 Applications 10 11 R P

* Ratings are based on field research in the Southeastern United States. Consult product labels for manufacturers’ recommendations.

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

Page 195

Target Spot

Belly Rot

Table 3-19. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR DISEASE CONTROL IN CUCURBITS
Scale (0 = not important/does not impact disease, 5 = very important practice to implement/impacts disease greatly; - = not applicable; ? = unknown) G.J. HOLMES, Plant Pathology Extension, NC State University A.P. KEINATH, Plant Pathologist, Clemson University Disease Phytophthora blight Gummy stem blight Pythium dampingoff Angular leaf spot

Powdery mildew

Cercospora leaf spot

Downy mildew

Plectosporium blight

Alternaria leaf blight

Choanephora fruit rot

Bacterial fruit blotch

Bacterial wilt

Anthracnose

Mosaic virus

Cottony leak

Management tactic Avoid field operations when leaves are wet Avoid overhead irrigation Change planting date from Spring to Fall a Change planting date within a season Cover cropping with antagonist Crop rotation with non-host (2-3 years) Deep plowing Destroy crop residue immediately Encourage air movement b Soil organic amendments c Insecticidal/horticultural oils d pH management (soil) Plant in well-drained soil Plant on raised beds Plastic mulch bed covers Postharvest temperature control (fruit) Reflective mulch (additional effect over plastic mulch) Reduce mechanical injury Rogue diseased plants/fruit (home garden) Row covers (insect exclusion) Soil solarization (reduce soil inoculum) Pathogen-free planting material Resistant cultivars Destroy volunteer plants

1 1 4 2 1 2 2 ? 0 1 1 1 1 * 2

2 2 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 0 5 * 2

1 1 4 2 1 2 1 ? 0 2 1 1 1 2 ** 2

2 3 1 2 1 1 0 2 1 1 0 5 * 2

1 1 1 1 0 2 1 4 0 * 2

0 3 0 1 3 1 0 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 ** -

0 1 4 2 1 1 2 ? 0 1 1 1 * 2

1 2 3 0 0 1 1 1 3 1 1 0 * -

2 0 0 1 3 2 ? 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 * -

1 1 4 2 2 2 0 1 ** 3

1 1 4 3 2 2 1 ? 0 2 1 1 1 3 * 2

3 2 3 2 1 2 4 ** 3

2 3 0 1 1 1 0 1 ? 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 * 2

? 1 3 1 1 1 1 ? 0 1 2 1 1 * -

0 1 2 2 2 0 3 ** 3

4 a 0 1 1 2 ? 3 2 1 2 2 0 -

4 2 3 3 2 2 2 ? 1 1 0 3 1 0 1

2

a early planting reduces risk b air movement can be encouraged by increasing plant spacing, orienting beds with prevailing wind direction and increasing exposure of field to prevailing wind c soil organic amendments = cover crops; composted organic wastes d Insecticidal/Horicultural oil = Sunspray Ultra-Fine Spray Oil (Sun Company, Inc.), JMS Stylet oil; Safe-T-Side (Brandt Consolidated, Inc.); PCC 1223 (United Ag Products) * cucurbits differ in susceptibility; no resistance within cucurbit types ** cucurbits differ in susceptibility; resistance available within cucurbit types

Page 196

Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009

Target spot 1 4 2 1 1 2 ? 0 1 1 1 * 2

Root knot

Belly rot

fruit rots fixed copper 6 maneb 80W 4 Phytophthora blight dimethomorph (Acrobat. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to another effective fungicide with a different mode of action. 7. Do not make more than two applications before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.5 to 2 lb/acre 6.to 10-day intervals.5 and use all nitrate nitrogen.000 row feet 5 to 8 gal/acre 160 to 320 lb/acre 0 — 1 2 Pythium damping-off mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultra Flourish) 2 EC metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E 7 — — — — 2 4 hr — 2 5 Rhizoctonia seedling rot Verticillium wilt azoxystrobin (Amistar. Apply preplant and incorporate. Rate is based on soil properties and depth of soil to be treated. Based on 42-in. Prelant (soil incorporated). use 3 year rotation.5 to 1 lb/acre 0. Band over roots 30 and 60 days later. Do not make more than two sequential applications.5 gal/acre 10 gal/acre row 139 to 220 lb/acre See page 233 for footer descriptions.6 lb/acre 3. Schedule.013 lb/1.4 to 0.5 lb/trt acre 0.08 F chloropicrin 100% metam-sodium (Vapam) 42 HL dichloropropene (Telone) C-17 C-35 10 gal/acre row 13 to 20.2 to 1. 0 10 4 Reentry 0 1 0. mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultra Flourish) 2 EC metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E — 1 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 0. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence. adjust pH to 6.TABLE 3-20.000 row feet 5 to 8 gal/acre 32. must be tank-mixed with another fungicide active against Phytophthora blight. Quadris) 2. apply 14 to 21 days before planting.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0. See label for row rates. Do not exceed 12 pt/acre. then 10-day intervals.006 to 0. DISEASE CONTROL FOR EGGPLANT Rate of Material to Use Commodity EGGPLANT Disease Material Formulation See label 1.8 fl oz/1.5 Suppression only.10 to 0. Solarize soil before planting.5 See label 0. Solarize soil before planting. at planting (in water or liquid fertilizer) or as a basal-directed spray after planting. and Remarks Spray as fruit starts to form or earlier.25 lb/acre 1.4 oz/acre 0 0 4 hr 0. Non-chemical Controls Commodity EGGPLANT Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 197 . Method. Rate is based on soil type. Forum) 50 WP Mininimum Days Harv.2 oz/acre Active Ingredient Leaf blights. n TABLE 3-21.5 to 1 lb/acre 7 0. rows. at planting (in water or liquid fertilizer).4 oz/acre 1.08 F pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG sulfur 5 6. Apply to 18-in. Spray at first appearance.4 fl oz/acre 8 to 12 oz/acre 0. Fumigate soil in-the-row 3 to 6 weeks before planting. Quadris) 2.5 to 75 gal/acre 0.2 to 15.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 0.5 2 Powdery mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar. Prelant (soil incorporated). see label for in-row rates. Do not make more than 5 applications per season.6 to 2. high. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – EGGPLANT Disease Damping-off Fusarium wilt Powdery mildew Verticillium wilt Resistant Varieties No Yes No No Use raised beds to dry soil surface. See label for row rates. Begin applications when plants are 4 to 6 in. band at seeding. Do not apply to foliage. Spray with sulfur at first appearance of disease.

ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – ENDIVE Commodity Disease Leaf spots. Soil incorporate at planting.25 fl oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Use raised beds to dry soil surface.4 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0. See page 233 for footer descriptions. Spray with sulfur at first appearance of disease.5 0. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. foliar fertilizers.08F Leaf spots azoxystrobin (Amistar.2 to 1. Apply prior to disease development and continue throughout season at 7. preplant incorporated. Quadris) 2.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Apply no more than 2. Do not mix with surfactants. 0 Reentry 4 hr Method.25 fl oz 0 4 hr maneb 80W 4 Pythium damping-off mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold GR) (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultra Flourish) 2 EC metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E 1.2 to 0.5 to 1 lb/trt acre — — — — — 2 2 2 Banded over the row.08 F 6.5 6.5 to 2 lb/acre 1. Apply no more than 2. Apply preplant incorporated or surface application at planting.08 F Formulation 12.to 10-day intervals. Forum) 50 WP fosetyl-Al (Aliette) 80 WDG mandipropamid (Revus) 2.5 2 to 5 lb/acre 8 fl oz/acre 1.4 fl oz 0.4 oz/acre 3. Do not make more than two sequential applications.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0. Quadris) 2. Non-chemical Controls Page 198 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .1 to 0. n TABLE 3-23. Drop (Sclerotinia) Powdery mildew ENDIVE Rust Bottom rot (Rhizoctonia) Drop (Sclerotinia) Resistant Varieties No No No No No Use raised beds to dry soil surface. maximum 32 fl oz per season.13 lb/acre 3 1 0. dimethomorph (Acrobat. or injected with liquid fertilizer.3 to 15.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0. Spray at first appearance.to 10-day intervals. and Remarks Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Use proportionally less for band rate.TABLE 3-22.2 oz/acre 0 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season. DISEASE CONTROL FOR ENDIVE Rate of Material to Use Commodity ENDIVE Disease Downy mildew Material azoxystrobin (Amistar. or products containing copper. Schedule. 7.2 to 15.6 lb/acre 10 1 20 to 40 lb/acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 1 to 2 lb/acre 0. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew.6 to 4 lb/acre 0.

rotate and destroy residue.to 14-day intervals. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew.7 lb/acre 7 0.5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. and Remarks Use upper rate for downy mildew and Botrytis. Apply in 4 to 6 inch band over/into furrow. Only labeled for purple blotch. 10. Schedule.6F 4 to 6 fl oz/acre 1. Do not make more than two sequential applications. purple blotch. Forum) 50 WP 6. DISEASE CONTROL FOR GARLIC Rate of Material to Use Commodity GARLIC Disease Botrytis blight.5 WDG fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F mefenoxam + mancozeb (Ridomil Gold MZ) mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG pyrimethanil (Scala) 5 F 1.to 14-day intervals.to 40-in. Use highest rate for downy mildew. downy mildew Material azoxystrobin (Amistar.6F 37.10 to 0.1 to 2. maybe applied in chemigation. maximum 32. Make no more than 2 sequential applications and no more than 6 applications per season.2 lb/acre 0. Use lower rate in a tank mix with broad spectrum fungicide and higher rate when applied alone. Resistant Varieties No No Non-chemical Controls Spray with sulfur. Make no more than 6 applications per season.5 oz/acre 4 to 7 oz/acre 7 1 9 or 18 fl oz/acre 0.3 fl oz/acre 4 lb/acre/acre 0.to 14-day intervals.4 oz/acre 3.5 fl oz per season.20 lb/acre 2 lb/acre/acre 0 — 4 hr 1 metam-sodium (Vapam) 42 HL PCNB (Terraclor) tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. Remove and destroy severely infected plants. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 199 .125 lb/acre — — 1. Do not make more that two sequential applications.4 to 2. 7.5 lb/100 gal 20. Copper spray at first appearance.5 Downy mildew dimethomorph (Acrobat. Not for Botrytis. apply before disease appears when conditions favor purple blotch development and repeat at 10.08 F iprodione (Rovral) 50 WP 6.5 Method. Rate is based on soil properties and depth of soil to be treated. solarize soil 2 weeks prior to planting.2 to 15. Spray cloves as they are being covered by soil (38.5 n TABLE 3-25.5 to 18. Do not apply more than 54 fl oz per crop.25 lb/acre 4. Use highest rate for suppression only on downy mildew. One application per year. Quadris) 2.08 F boscalid (Endura) 70 WG Formulation 6.7 lb/acre 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 2.TABLE 3-24. Not for downy mildew. bed spacing). Not for downy mildew. 7. Use raised beds to dry soil surface.8 oz/acre Active Ingredient 0.10 to 0.5 0. Do not make more that two sequential applications. Apply as in-furrow spray at planting. tank mix with another fungicide with a different mode of action.2 to 12. Quadris) 2. chlorothalonil (Bravo Ultrex) 82.8 oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv.5 lb/acre 2 lb/acre 8 to 12 oz/acre 1.5 fl oz/acre 160 to 320 lb/acre 20.4 oz/acre 7 2 7 7 7 2 0.5 2 2 0. 0 7 Reentry 4 hr 0.5 to 2 lb/acre 7 0. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or more than 6 applications per season.35 or 0.6 lb/100 gal 8 lb/acre — — 7 2 0. Spray at first appearance. For Botrytis and downy mildew.5 White rot (Sclerotium) azoxystrobin (Amistar.5 Spray at first appearance.09 to 0.2 oz/acre 0 0. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – GARLIC Commodity Disease Purple blotch Downy mildew GARLIC White rot (Sclerotium) Powdery mildew Garlic (bulb & stem nematode) No Use raised beds to dry soil surface.6 to 2.4 fl oz/acre 6.5 to 75 gal/acre 27.

5 dimethomorph (Acrobat.2 oz/acre 3 0. Quadris) 2. disease suppression only. Spray with copper at first sign of disease. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide ith a different mode of action.5 cyprodonil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.5 mandipropamid (Revus) 2. Mustard.5 Sclerotinia stem rot (white mold) boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 6 to 9 oz/acre 4.to 10-day intervals. See label for complete list of greens.2 lb/acre 0.to 14-day interval. Forum) 50 WP 6. Make no more than 2 applications per season. Apply when disease first appears. Make no more than 2 consecutive applications before switching to another effective non-group 40 fungicide.2 to 6. Begin applications as soon as conditions become favorable for disease development.5 cyprodonil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.5 WG tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. Cercospora leaf spot azoxystrobin (Amistar. Commodity GREENS (Mustard) GREENS (Turnip) Page 200 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – GREENS (Mustard and Turnip) Disease Alternaria Black rot Anthracnose Resistant Varieties No No No Non-chemical Controls Spray with copper at first sign of disease. and continue on a 7.to 14-day interval.5 6. and continue on a 7.5 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 12-16 oz/acre 2.3 oz/acre 14 14 24 0.4 fl oz/acre 12-16 oz/acre 1.2 oz/acre 0.5 1. Make no more than 2 applications per season. Do not make more than one application of Reason 500 SC before alternating with a fungicide from a different resistance management group. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval. pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 12-16 oz/acre 2.2 oz/acre 0.5-8.TABLE 3-26. Folicur 3.7 oz/acre 7 0.4-3.9 to 8.4 fl oz/acre 0.267 lb/acre 2 0.5 Rhizoctonia bottom rot boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 6 to 9 oz/acre 4.5 WG maneb (Manex) 4 F Downy mildew azoxystrobin (Quadris) 2.2 to 6.25 lb/acre 0 4 hr n TABLE 3-27.08 F pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 11 to 14 oz/acre 6.5 3-4 oz/acre 1. Begin applications prior to disease development.178-0. Applications should be made on a 5-10 day interval.8 oz/acre 7 0.4-3.08 F 8.2 oz/acre 14 0 3 24 4 hr 0. Rape) Disease Alternaria leaf spot Material boscalid (Endura) 70 WG Formulation 6 to 9 oz/acre Active Ingredient 4. Make no more that two sequential applications. Make no more than 2 applications per season. Schedule. Apply when disease first appears. disease suppression only. 14 Reentry 0. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval.6 F must have 2-4 hours of drying time on foliage for the active ingredient to move systemically into plant tissue before rain or irrigation occurs.4-1. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to another effective fungicide with a different mode of action.8 oz/acre 7 0.2 lb/acre 4.13 lb/acre 1 0.7 oz/acre 7 0.5 Method. and Remarks Begin applications prior to disease development. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval.2 to 6.4-1. Leafy (Collard.6 F must have 2-4 hours of drying time on foliage for the active ingredient to move systemically into plant tissue before rain or irrigation occurs.3 oz/acre 14 0.2 qt/acre 6.to 10-day intervals. and continue on 7. Begin when disease threatens and apply on 14–day interval.to 14-day interval.3 oz/acre 14 0.1 to 0. Begin applications prior to disease development.2 qt/acre 6 to 9 oz/acre 1. Do not make more than 5 applications per season.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC White rust. and continue on a 7. Spray with copper at first sign of disease.5 maneb (Manex) 4 F Powdery mildew boscalid (Endura) 70 WG 1.to 14-day interval. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide ith a different mode of action. DISEASE CONTROL FOR GREENS Rate of Material to Use Commodity GREENS. For optimum results use as a preventative treatment. Kale.4-3.267 lb/acre 2 0.6 F 11 to 14 oz/acre 6. Begin when disease threatens and apply on 14-day interval.4 oz/acre 3.0 fl oz/acre 0.2 oz/acre 4 0.2 oz/acre 3 0.1 to 0. Folicur 3.25 lb/acre 2.08 F 8. Applications should be made on a 5-10 day interval. For optimum results use as a preventative treatment.9 to 8.5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. See label for complete list of greens. Begin applications prior to disease development.3 oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv. and continue on a 7.2 to 15.2 to 15. and continue on 7. Must be tank-mixed with another fungicide active against Phytophthora blight.2 to 6. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval. Begin applications as soon as conditions become favorable for disease development. Make no more than 2 applications per season. Alternaria leaf spot. Do not make more than one application of Reason 500 SC before alternating with a fungicide from a different resistance management group.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide ith a different mode of action.6 F 3-4 oz/acre 1.

5 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0. Apply no more than 2. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Tank mix with another fungicide with a different mode of action.08 F 8 fl oz/acre 0.6 to 7.2 oz/acre 0 0. Apply no more than 2. 7. Do not apply more than 24. 5.5 to 4 lb/acre 0.3 lb per crop per season maximum. drop (Sclerotinia) Material azoxystrobin (Amistar.1 to 0.6 fl oz per growing season. Leaf and Head Disease Bottom rot. Apply immediately after emergence or immediately after transplanting. Forum) 50 WP famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP 2 to 5.TABLE 3-28. See label for row rates.013 lb 5. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence.006 to 0. and continue on 5.4 to 0.6 lb/acre 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 1.5 0. 7.5 mandipropamid (Revus) 2. Apply preplant incorporated or surface application at planting.178 to 0. Quadris) 2.6 lb/acre 0.8 fl oz/100 gal water 0.267 lb/acre 2 0.08F propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F Downy mildew.25 fl oz/acre 7 4 hr fixed copper 6 fosetyl-Al (Aliette) 80 WDG maneb 80W 4 Powdery mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar. Commodity LETTUCE (HEAD) Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 201 . 5 to 6 lb/acre 2 to 4 lb/acre 0 1 n TABLE 3-30.6 lb/100 gal — — — — 2 2 0.5 2 pt/acre 1.125 lb/acre 14 14 14 14 2 0.8 fl oz/1.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.000 row feet 8 to 11 oz/acre Active Ingredient 0.5 to 1 lb/acre 0. Use highest rate for downy mildew.5 to 8.5 0.4 oz/acre 3.5 to 2 lb/acre 6.to 10-day intervals. Alternate with fungicide with different resistance management group.08 F 1.08 F boscalid (Endura) 70 WG Formulation 0. Spray at first appearance. Schedule. DISEASE CONTROL FOR JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE Rate of Material to Use Commodity JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE Disease Pythium damping-off Material mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL Formulation 1 to 2 pt/trt acre Active Ingredient 0.75 to 1 lb/acre 5.5 to 2.5 to 2 lb/acre 8 to 11 oz/acre 1.09 to 0.to 10-day interval.88 qt per crop per acre per season.5 lb/acre 2 0.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0. Rates based on rock wool cube saturation in the greenhouse. — Reentry 2 Method. Apply when disease is anticipated. See label for use in seed beds. Drop (Sclerothinia) Bottom rot (Rhizoctonia) No Resistant Varieties No Yes No Use raised beds to dry soil surface.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0. and soil drench.to 10-day intervals. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – LETTUCE Disease Damping-off LETTUCE Downy mildew Pythium Damping-off Leaf spots.3 lb/acre 1.1 to 2 lb/acre 0.6 to 7. Not for gummy stem blight or leaf lettuce.2 to 15. — 14 Reentry 4 hr 0.to 10-day intervals.13 lb/acre 1 0. maximum 32 fl oz per season.1 to 0.2 fl oz/acre 0. Do not apply more than 8 pt per growing season. Make no more than 2 applications per season. or injected with liquid fertilizer.88 qt per crop per acre per season.5 Method. Spray at first appearance. TABLE 3-29. Banded over the row. DISEASE CONTROL FOR LETTUCE Rate of Material to Use Commodity LETTUCE. Quadris) 2.5 to 1 lb/trt acre Mininimum Days Harv. dicloran (Botran) 75 W iprodione (Rovral) 50 WP Botrytis rot boscalid (Endura) 70 WG dicloran (Botran) 75 W fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F Damping-off (Pythium) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold GR) (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultra Flourish) 2 EC metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F Downy mildew dimethomorph (Acrobat. Copper spray at first appearance.5 2 0.2 to 15. Make no more than 2 applications per season.7 oz/acre 1.5 6. Suppression only on bottom rot. Schedule. Tank mix with another fungicide with a different mode of action.5 1 0. and continue on a 7.7 oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv.to 10-day interval. Rate depends on timing. preplant incorporated. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.6 to 4 lb/acre 1. Apply prior to disease development and continue throughout season at 7. leaf spots azoxystrobin (Amistar. drip system. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action.2 to 1. Preplant incorporated. begin applications before infection.5 6. Non-chemical controls Use raised beds to dry soil surface (plant bed).5 0. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. and Remarks Soil incorporation. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action.4 fl oz/acre — 1. (Rhizoctonia). rotate crops and destroy residue.4 fl oz/acre 0.25 fl oz/acre 1 3 4 7 1 1 1 4 hr sulfur 5 See page 233 for footer descriptions. Remove destroy severely infected plants.5 to 3 pt/acre 2 to 5 lb/acre 1. and Remarks Rhizoctonia only. Quadris) 2.5 20 to 40 lb/acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 12.

Quadris) 2.4 lb/acre 0. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik.5 to 2 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre 1. Do not tank mix with copper-containing products.4 fl oz/acre 0.5 cymoxanil (Curzate ) 60 DF dimethomorph (Acrobat. Quadris) 2. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. MUSKMELON Disease Angular leaf spot Bacterial fruit blotch Material fixed copper6 fixed copper6 Formulation See label See label Active Ingredient — — Mininimum Days Harv.to 14-day interval. no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group.09 to 0.g. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.5 to 3 pt/acre 0. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.5 lb/acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre — See label 0.5 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG 8 to 12 oz/acre 1. Begin applications before infection.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.6 pt/acre — 2 2. and Remarks Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Tank mix with another downy mildew fungicide with a different mode of action. Avoid late-season application.to 3-leaf stage with a second application at vine tipover or 10 to 14 days later.5 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0. Schedule.6 lb/100 gal — 2 2 0. Start applications at first bloom.5 to 2 lb/acre 1. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Equus) 6 F cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC 11 to 15.5 to 18.to 10-day intervals. Rates based on rock wool cube saturation in the greenhouse.5 2 0. Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface. of soil or apply in 7-in.5 fl oz/acre 0.4 oz/acre 1.1 to 2. when plants reach full maturity. Echo.to 10-day interval. Avoid late-season application..5 12. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed alternating applications of Ridomil Gold Bravo on a 7. band to soil surface.5 0. Forum) 50 WP famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP 3. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.5 oz/acre 4 oz/acre/acre 4.25 lb/acre 1 4 hr 1. Use only in combination with labeled rate of protectant fungicide (e. drip system. See Insect Control section for Cucumber Beetles. Make no more than 4 applications per season.9 oz/acre 3.08 F thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP — See label 0.6 to 2. Apply full rate of protectant fungicide between applications.5 — 0. continue on a 7. Do not apply more than 6 pt per growing season.5 fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F fixed copper6 fosetyl-AL (Aliette) 80 WDG 3 to 4 fl oz/acre See label 2 to 5 lb/acre 0. Preplant incorporated or surface application.5 1 2 1.18 to . DISEASE CONTROL FOR MELON MUSKMELON Rate of Material to Use Commodity MELON.to 14-day interval.to 10-day intervals. Flouronil) 76. and soil drench.6 to 2. Rhizoctonia — azoxystrobin (Amistar.6 to 4 lb/acre 2 — 0.5 zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 75 DF 1.125 lb/acre — 1.08F maneb (Maneb) 75 DF mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo. and continue on 5. Ineffective once fruit reach full size. Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.2 oz/acre 6.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.35 lb/acre 0.5 to 1 lb/trt acre — 1 — — — — 4 hr 0.8 fl oz/100 gal water 0.5 0. after plants have reached full maturity.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Soil surface application in 7-inch band.TABLE 3-31.8 to 1. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Preplant incorporate in top 2 in.9 lb/acre 2 0.to 14-day intervals. Do not tank mix with adjuvants.5 lb/acre 5 1 5 7 1 0. See label for use in seed beds.5 lb/acre 5 2 Page 202 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .13 lb/acre 0.4 oz/acre 0 0. Apply no more than 2. Do not make more than two sequential applications.071 lb/acre 0 0.6 lb/acre 1. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop.2 pt/acre 0. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action.75 fl oz/acre 0. 0 0 Reentry 0 0 Method.5 mancozeb 4 mandipropamid (Revus) 2.178 lb/acre 14 0. and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. Spray at first appearance and repeat at 14-day intervals.5 Cottony leak (Pythium) Damping-off (Pythium) metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultraflourish) 2 EC metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 12. mancozeb or chlorothalonil). Apply no more than 24 lb per acre per season.2 oz/acre 3 0 0.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5.5 Downy mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar. Make first application at 1. Mixing with surfactants or foliar fertilizers is not recommended.054 to 0.8 to 7 oz/acre 2 oz/acre/acre 0 0 1 0. Always tank mix with another downy mildew product. and repeat at 7.44 to 0. For disease suppression only.13 to 1.5 WP propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F 2 to 3 lb/acre 8 fl oz/acre 1. Bacterial wilt Belly (fruit) rot.

2 oz/acre — 0 0 — 1 0. Make no more than 4 applications per season. and continue on 5. Quadris) 2.5 2 0. Cercospora. Equus) 6F 4 to 8 oz/acre 1.08F Powdery mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar.8 to 1. Alternaria. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action.6 pt/acre — 2 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0.8 to 7 oz/acre 0. Make no more than 4 applications per season.6 pt/acre 0 — 0.5 lb/acre 0. Do not apply more than one application before alternating with a nonstrobilurin fungicide.13 lb/acre 0. 1. Tank mix with another Phytophthora fungicide with a different mode of action. and repeat at 7.6F 6. Observe a 30-day plant-back interval.to 14-day intervals. Forum) 50 WP fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F mandipropamid (Revus) 2.5 to 3 pt/acre 0.to 10-day intervals.5 to 18. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action. anthracnose (Colletotrichum). Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Only for Alternaria.25 lb/acre 2 0 1 0. after plants have reached full maturity. Do not use when temperature is over 90°F or on sulfur-sensitive varieties.18 to 0.4 oz/acre 3. Quadris) 2. and repeat at 7.2 oz/acre 0 0. Equus) 6 F fixed copper6 myclobutanil (Nova) 40 WP pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG sulfur 5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed on 7.88 qt per crop per acre per season.09 to 0. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Avoid late-season application.35 lb/acre 1. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. DISEASE CONTROL FOR MELON MUSKMELON Rate of Material to Use Commodity MELON. target spot (Corynespora) Material azoxystrobin (Amistar. Apply no more than 24 lb per acre per season.5 to 2 lb/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre — 1. Echo. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 203 . after plants have reached full maturity. Apply no more than 2. Avoid late-season application.18 to 0. 1 Reentry 4 hr Method.TABLE 3-31.5 1. Do not make more than two sequential applications.4 fl oz/acre 0. Do not apply more than one application before alternating with a nonstrobilurin fungicide.to 14-day intervals.6 to 2. Do not use for gummy stem blight where resistance to group 11(QoI) fungicides exists. Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.5 to 3 pt/acre 0. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.to 10-day intervals.071 lb/acre 0 — 5 0 1 0. Apply no more than 1.5 oz/acre 0.5 to 2 oz/acre 0.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik.5 to 2 lb/acre 2.5 pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38WG thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 75 DF Phytophthora blight cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC 12. Not for target spot.4 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against Phytophthora blight.4 to 3.5 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 8 fl oz/acre 11 to15. and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season.to 14-day intervals.6 lb/acre 2. Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 10. after plants have reached full maturity.5 oz/acre See label 4 to 6 fl oz/acre 4.75 to 1 oz/acre 0 0.4 to 3.6 pt/acre — 2 See label 2.5 triflumizole (Procure) 50 WS Scab chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik.4 lb/acre 0.5 0. Only for Alternaria and anthracnose. Apply no more than 2.to 10-day intervals.25 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv.5 fl oz/acre 0.to 10-day intervals.to 14-day intervals. and Remarks Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.to 10-day intervals. Use highest rate for anthracnose.5 dimethomorph (Acrobat. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Do not tank mix with adjuvants. no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group.to 14-day intervals.178 lb/acre 14 0.35 lb/acre — 0. Equus) 6F famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP Formulation 11 to 15. Schedule.5 fixed copper6 mancozeb 4 maneb (Maneb) 75 DF pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20WG See label 2 to 3 lb/acre 1.5 to 18. gummy stem blight (Didymella).13 to 1. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.5 lb/acre 1.5 4 hr 1.44 to 0. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. For disease suppression only. apply as foliar spray with copper based fungicide. Begin applications at vining or first sign of disease.5 2 See page 233 for footer descriptions.5 to 3 pt/acre 2 to 4 oz/acre 0. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage. maximum 24 fl oz per season.88 qt per crop per acre per season.5 lb/acre 0.5 lb per acre per crop.75 fl oz/acre 4.2 oz/acre — 5 5 0 — 1 1 0.125 lb/acre 0.5 to 2 lb/acre 0 0 7 1 1 0. Do not tank mix with adjuvants. Echo.8 to 1.8 to 7 oz/acre — 1.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5.5 to 5 oz/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre — 1 to 2 oz/acre 2. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Avoid late-season application.5 thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG 0. MUSKMELON (continued) Disease Leaf spots.to 10-day interval. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Echo. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.5 12.8 to 1.

5 maneb 80W 4 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG 2 to 3 lb/acre 8 to 12 oz/acre 10. and continue on 5.178 lb/acre 7 0. Apply no more than 2.08 F Formulation 0. and Remarks See label for low rates.5 oz/acre 9 or 18 fl oz/acre 1.5 lb/trt acre 0. Spray at first appearance.35 or 0. Make a maximum of 6 applications per season. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.4 lb/acre 1. Forum) 50 WP fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 6. Quadris) 2.6 to 2. Make a maximum of 6 applications per season. 0 — Reentry 4 4 hr Method.5 oz/acre 1.013 lb Mininimum Days Harv.5 0.8 oz/acre 7 0.25 to 0.5 1 Page 204 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .4 fl oz/acre — 1.5 1.25 lb/acre 0.8 oz/acre 0. Quadris) 2.5 pt/trt acre 0.5 to 2. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.8 oz/acre 6. TABLE 3-33.5 2 11 to 14 oz/acre 6.2 fl oz 0. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.5 2 lb/acre 8 to 12 oz/acre 18.9 to 8.2 oz/acre 0 0.5 to 1 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 9. and Remarks Do not make more that two sequential applications.5 5.2 to 15.4 oz/acre 4 to 7 oz/acre 0. — — 0 Reentry 2 2 4 hr Method.2 fl oz/acre 7 4 hr boscalid (Endura) 70WG cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.2 to 15.5 to 18.13 lb/acre 7 0. dimethomorph (Acrobat. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season.7 lb/acre 14.5 to 8.4 fl oz/acre 0.1 to 0.000 row feet Active Ingredient 0. DISEASE CONTROL FOR ONION Rate of Material to Use Commodity ONION (green) Disease Damping-off (Pythium) Downy mildew Material mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E azoxystrobin (Amistar.1 to 2 lb/acre 5.5 WG fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 6.4 to 0. Make a maximum of 6 applications per season.4 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0.54 to 1.178 lb/acre 7 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Quadris) 2. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance group. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or more than 6 applications per season.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Apply no more than 2.08 F azoxystrobin (Amistar.2 to 12. Equus) 6F cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62. Do not plant rotational crops other than onions or strawberries for 12 months following the last application.1 lb/acre 7 14 0. Quadris) 2.9 to 8. Schedule.3 fl oz/acre 0. Use lower rate in a tank mix with broad spectrum fungicide and higher rate when applied alone. Make no more than 2 sequential applications and no more than 6 applications per season. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew. Preplant incorporated or soil surface spray. DISEASE CONTROL FOR OKRA Rate of Material to Use Commodity OKRA Disease Powdery mildew Rhizoctonia seedling rot Material azoxystrobin (Amistar.25 fl oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Schedule.5 1 0. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or more than 6 applications per season.5 1 4 hr Make no more than 2 sequential applications and no more than 6 applications per season.08 F 6.5 to 7 oz/acre 0.25 to 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season.to 10-day interval.8 oz/acre 7 7 0.006 to 0. maximum 24 fl oz per season.TABLE 3-32. Do not make more than two sequential applications.5 mandipropamid (Revus) 2. Do not plant rotational crops other than onions or strawberries for 12 months following the last application.to 10-day intervals. Maximum of three sprays.25 fl oz/acre 21 7 7 7 2 0. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence. and continue on 5. Apply prior to disease development and continue throughout season at 7.08F mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38WG Leaf blight (Botrytis) azoxystrobin (Amistar. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.10 to 0.8 fl oz/1.4 oz/acre 3.6 to 2. Echo. Apply no more than 2. boscalid (Endura) 70 WG chlorothalonil 7 (Bravo Weather Stik.7 lb/acre 14 7 7 0.5 5.5 to 18.5 fl oz/acre 0.8 oz/acre 1 to 2 pt/acre 4.4 oz/acre 4 to 7 oz/acre 7 7 7 1 0.15 to 0.to 10-day interval.08 F Formulation 6.08 F 8 fl oz/acre 0.5 oz/acre 6.1 to 0.8 oz/acre 11 to 14 oz/acre 4.5 Purple blotch azoxystrobin (Amistar. For supression only. Quadris) 2.5 WG dicloran (Botran) 75 W pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG pyrimethanil (Scala) 5 F 6. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Also for dry onion.6 to 2. Do not apply more than 54 fl oz per crop.2 to 15.

08 F dimethomorph (Acrobat. Spray at first appearance. 7. Do not apply to exposed bulbs. maximum 32 fl oz per season.9 to 8.5 pt/trt acre 0.1 to 0.5 1 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 205 .5 8 fl oz/acre 0.9 to 8.25 to 0. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides with a different mode of action.35 or 0. 7 Reentry 0.7 lb/acre 1. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew.5 1.5 to 18.4 fl oz/acre — 2. Apply prior to disease development and continue throughout season at 7.5 oz/acre 6.5 Make no more than 6 applications per season.2 oz/acre 0 0. DISEASE CONTROL FOR ONION Rate of Material to Use Commodity ONION (green) (continued) Disease Purple blotch (continued) Material pyrimethanil (Scala) 5 F Formulation 9 or 18 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0.4 oz/acre 4 to 7 oz/acre 0. Leaf blight.2 to 15.4 fl oz/acre 0. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides with a different mode of action.75 lb/acre 50 to 100 gal/acre 1.4 oz/acre 3. Schedule. Damping-off (Pythium) pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E 10. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or more than 6 applications per season.5 to 2 lb/acre 7 0. Make no more than 2 sequential applications and no more than 6 applications per season.5 oz/acre 9 or 18 fl oz/acre 5.5 to 18.08 F 6. Two treatments minimum. Do not plant rotational crops other than onions or strawberries for 12 months following the last application.5 fixed copper 6 pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG pyrimethanil (Scala) 5 F See label 14.25 fl oz/acre 7 4 hr cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62. tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.1 to 0.7 lb/acre 7 7 1 0. Also for green onion.8 oz/acre 6. Apply no more than 2.2 to 15. Apply no more than 2. and Remarks Use lower rate in a tank mix with broad spectrum fungicide and higher rate when applied alone.5 lb/trt acre 12 oz/acre 18. Quadris) 2. Do not apply more than 54 fl oz per crop.8 oz/acre 7 0.1 to 2 lb/acre 14 0.5WG dicloran (Botran) 75 W 6. Quadris) 2.4 oz/acre 7 7 18 0 0.5 1 4 hr Make no more than 2 sequential applications and no more than 6 applications per season.25 fl oz/acre — 0 2 4 hr Preplant incorporated or soil surface spray.8 oz/acre 11 to 14 oz/acre 4.5 Method.35 or 0.5 lb/trt acre 7 — 1 2 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 9.5 to 1 pt/trt acre 4 to 7 oz/acre 0. Suppression only. Apply no more than 2.5WG iprodione (Rovral) 50 WP pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG vinclozolin (Ronilan) 50 DF 11 to 14 oz/acre 6. Do not apply more than 54 fl oz per crop. Use lower rate in a tank mix with broad spectrum fungicide and higher rate when applied alone.88 qt per crop per acre per season.88 qt per crop per acre per season. purple blotch azoxystrobin (Amistar.08 F 6. Forum) 50 WP mandipropamid (Revus) 2.5 to 7 oz/acre 0. Apply before disease appears when conditions favor purple blotch development and repeat at 10to 14-day intervals.5 2.5 lb/acre 50 to 100 gal/acre 8 to 12 oz/acre See label 0.13 lb/acre 1 0.to 10-day intervals. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Quadris) 2.5 oz/acre 0.15 to 0.5 to 2.6 to 2.4 fl oz/acre 0.5 0.25 fl oz/acre 7 7 7 7 2 0.to 10-day intervals.5 Stemphylium leaf blight ONION (dry) See page 233 for footer descriptions. Effective on purple leaf blotch when disease pressure is low. Use lower rate in a tank mix with broad spectrum fungicide and higher rate when applied alone. Downy mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar.08F mefenoxam + mancozeb (Ridomil Gold MZ) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG Leaf blight (Botrytis) azoxystrobin (Amistar.2 to 15. boscalid (Endura) 70 WG cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.8 oz/acre 7 7 0. See label for row rates.5 1.TABLE 3-33. Make no more than 6 applications per season. Make no more than 6 applications per season.6F 4 to 6 fl oz/acre 1. Start 7-day foliar sprays at first appearance of favorable conditions. Do not plant rotational crops other than onions or strawberries for 12 months following the last application.25 to 0. Do not apply more than 54 fl oz per crop. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.88 qt per crop per acre per season. maximum 24 fl oz per season.7??/acre Mininimum Days Harv.

5 gal/acre See label See label 107 to 169 lb/acre 139 to 220 lb/acre — 18 5 — 0.5 to 3 in. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications or more than 6 applications per season. Use in 75 to 125 gal water as a furrow drench at planting on 18-in. Rate is based on soil type.6 to 2.8 oz/acre 0.5 to 18.000 ft row 3 lb/29.5 to 75 gal/trt acre 0.5 lb/acre — 1. Spray into open furrow at time of seeding or planting in row. see label for in-row rates.5 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre 2 lb/acre See label 37. 1 to 2 weeks before seeding. 14-day intervals. rows.000 ft row 4 to 7 oz/acre 4 lb/acre — — 7 14 — — 1 0. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. 10.5 Stemphylium leaf blight pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG White rot (Sclerotium) dicloran (Botran) 75 W dichloropropene (Telone) C-17 C-35 thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP vinclozolin (Ronilan) 50 DF See page 233 for footer descriptions.8 to 17. downy mildew Material chlorothalonil 7 (Bravo Ultrex) 82.5 oz/acre 5.4 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Make no more than 6 applications per season. or products containing copper.8 to 17.35 or 0.4 lb/acre 1. band over seed row and incorporate in top 1.178 lb/acre 7 7 0. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance group.000 ft row 3 lb/29. Rovral is not for downy mildew.to 10-day interval. and continue on 5.75 to 1 lb/acre 160 to 320 lb/acre 7 7 7 7 18 — — 0. Do not apply more than 54 fl oz per crop.6 to 2. foliar fertilizers. will not control neck rot.5 1 0. 7. Apply when conditions are favorable.5 Page 206 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Make no more than 2 sequential applications and no more than 6 applications per season. Do not exceed 30 lb per acre per crop. Three treatments minimum. Rate is based on soil properties and depth of soil to be treated. iprodione (Rovral) 50 WP mancozeb 80W 4 maneb 80W 4 mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo) vinclozolin (Ronilan) 50 DF Pink rot metam-sodium (Vapam) 42 HL dichloropropene (Telone) C-17 C-35 Purple blotch boscalid (Endura) 70 WG fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 1. Do not apply to exposed bulbs. 7 1 7 Reentry 2 1 0.3 lb/acre 3 lb/29.5 WDG fixed copper 6 fosetyl-Al (Aliette) 80 WDG Formulation 0. and Remarks Will only suppress neck rot and downy mildew.6 to 2. purple blotch (Alternaria). May reduce bacterial rots.1 gal/acre 13 to 20. Spray at first appearance.5 0. Make no more than 6 applications per season.000 ft row 10.75 lb/acre 1.5 gal/acre 6.5 Smut mancozeb 80W 4 maneb 80W 4 3 lb/29. Schedule.9 to 1 lb/acre See label 2 to 3 lb/acre Active Ingredient 0.4 oz/acre 4 to 7 oz/acre 0.TABLE 3-33. — 10. Use lower rate in a tank mix with broad spectrum fungicide and higher rate when applied alone.1 gal/acre 13 to 20.75 to 1.8 oz/acre 5.6 to 2.5 Method. Do not mix with surfactants. Apply 5-in. see label for in-row rates.5 to 18. Rate is based on soil type.5 oz/acre 9 or 18 fl oz/acre 1.7 lb/acre 7 7 7 0.4 lb/acre — 0. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.to 10-day intervals.5 1 1 2 1 2 5 Three treatments minimum. DISEASE CONTROL FOR ONION Rate of Material to Use Commodity ONION (dry) (continued) Disease Neck rot (Botrytis).5 fl oz/acre 107 to 169 lb/acre 139 to 220 lb/acre 4.5 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38WG pyrimethanil (Scala) 5 F 8 to 12 oz/acre 10. of soil.

Spray with sulfur at first appearance of disease.) Downy Mildew (B. Super Cu. Copper-Count-N. Manzate. Echo. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 207 (Sclerotium cepivorum) Blight and Stalk Rot Fusarium Basal Rot Botrytis Leaf Blight (Urocystis colchici) Preharvest Interval (Pantoea ananatis) Fungicide Group 1 (Aspergillus niger) Botrytis Neck Rot (Phoma terrestris) Stemphylium Leaf (Alternaria porri) Bacterial Streak (F. 11: quinone outside inhibitors.. oxysporum) (Pythium spp.C.n TABLE 3-34. Non-chemical Controls Remove infected leaves and encourage air movement. M: multi-site activity 2 C V R Fixed coppers include: Basicop. ? = unknown efficacy) (Pseudomones viridiflava) Fungicide or Fumigant azoxystrobin (Quadris) chlorothalonil (Bravo. squamosa) (P. State University Information in this table was derived from ratings given at the IR-4 Bulb Vegetable Crop Workshop held during the 1999 American Phytopathological Society annual meeting in Montreal. Extension Plant Pathology. Drench roots with fish emulsion to supply nitrogen. Solarization Solarize soil two weeks prior to planting. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS FOR ONION DISEASE CONTROL D. Commodity ONION (green) ONION (dry) TABLE 3-35. Disease (— = ineffective. Champ. rotate and destroy residue. 12: phenylpyrroles. fumigant (Telone C-17) dimethomorph (Forum) fixed copper fluopicolide (Presidio) fosetyl-Al (Aliette) iprodione (Rovral) mancozeb + maneb (Dithane. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – ONION Disease Leaf blast (Botrytis) Purple blotch Downy mildew Fusarium basal rot Leaf blast (Botrytis) Neck rot Purple blotch (Alternaria) Downy mildew Pythium damping-off Powdery mildew Pink root White rot (Sclerotium) Smut Resistant Varieties No No Yes No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No Copper spray at first appearance. Kocide. 3: demethylation inhibitors. Manex. 33: phosphonates. Use raised beds to dry soil surface. solarize soil two weeks prior to planting and long rotations. Citcop. Canada. and Tri-basic copper sulfate. fumigant (Vapam) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) pyrimethanil (Scala) tebuconazole (Folicur) 1 11 M 9 + 12 — 15 M 43 33 2 M+M M+M 40 4 4+M 4+M 4+M — 11 11 + 7 9 3 7 14 7 — 0 1 2 7 7 7 7 7 7 14 7 7 — 7 7 7 7 — — — — — ++ — — — — ++ — — — ++ — — — — — — ? — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ? ? ? ? +++ +++ ++++ — — ++ — — +++++ ++ ++ — — +++ — ++ — +++ ++++ +++ — — — ? — — — — — + — — — — — — — — — ++ — — — — — + — — ? — — — — ? +++ + + + +++ — — — — +++++ ++ — — ++ ++ +++ +++ — +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ — +++++ ++++ — — — — — ++ — — — — — — — — — — — — ++ — — — ? ? — — — — — — — — +++++ +++ — — — — +++ — ? ? ? ? — — — — — ++ — — — — ++ — — — ++ — — — — — — — — — ++ — — — — — — — — — — — — +++++ — — — ? ++++ +++ +++ — — ++ — — +++++ +++ +++ — — +++ — +++ — ++++ +++++ +++ ++ ++++ ++ +++ — — — — — +++ ++ ++ — — ++ — ++ — ++++ +++++ +++ ++ ? — — ++ — — — — +++ — — — — — — — ++ ? ? — ++ Key to Fungicide Groups: 1: methyl benzimidazole carbamates. Variable levels of control. and G. Copper spray at first appearance. When used in combination with mancozeb or maneb. Nu-Cop. allii) . Remove infected leaves and encourage ventilation. 4: phenylamides. 9: anilonopyrimidines. Remove and destroy severely infected plants. Solarize soil two weeks prior to planting. University of Ga. destructor) Purple Blotch Damping-Off Onion Smut Black Mold Center Rot Pink Root White Rot (B. Tenn-Cop. LANGSTON. Penncozeb) mancozeb + copper (ManKocide) mandipropamid (Revus) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold EC) mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo) mefenoxam + copper (Ridomil Gold/Copper) mefenoxam + mancozeb (Ridomil Gold MZ) metam sodium. rotate and destroy residue. Ratings for products do not necessarily indicate a labeled use. HOLMES. 22: benzamides. 2: dicarboxamides. Spray with sulfur. Remove and destroy severely infected plants. N. Extension Plant Pathology. Equus) cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) dichloropropene + chloropicrin. 15: cinnamic acids. Sulfur Good curing practices. 7: carboxamides. Top Cop with Sulfur. Champion. +++++ = very effective. J. Pathogen resistance (insensitivity) may be present at some locations. Always follow all directions on the pesticide label.

and Remarks Apply preplant incorporated or surface application at planting.25 fl oz/acre 0 0 0 0 0. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a non-group 11 fungicide. Quadris) 2.1 to 0.6 to 2. or products containing copper. Increase aeration. Do not mix with surfactants. or injected with liquid fertilizer. Increase aeration.TABLE 3-36. Banded over the row. Apply no more than 2. fosetyl-Al (Aliette) 80 WDG Leaf spots azoxystrobin (Amistar.88 qt per crop per acre per season.25 fl oz/acre 3 7 0.5 Method. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – PARSLEY Disease Leaf spots Resistant Varieties No Non-chemical controls Copper spray at first appearance.2 to 15. n TABLE 3-37. Apply no more than 2. Apply no more than 2. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.to 10-day intervals. and Remarks Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.5 4 hr chlorothalonil 7 (Bravo Ultrex) 82.5 lb/acre 10 2 n TABLE 3-39. DISEASE CONTROL FOR PARSLEY Rate of Material to Use Commodity PARSLEY Disease Damping-off (Pythium) Material mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultra Flourish) 2 EC metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E Downy mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar.2 to . preplant incorporated. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Quadris) 2. 7.6 to 4 lb/acre 0. Schedule. Apply no more than 2. Rotate crop land. 7 Reentry 4 hr Method.to 10-day intervals. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. foliar fertilizers.3 to 15. 1. Schedule. Bravo: four sprays maximum.4 to 1.4 fl oz/acre 1.25 fl oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv.08 F See label 8 to 12 oz/acre 9. 7.08 F Formulation 6. Commodity Page 208 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .08 F 2 to 5 lb/acre 6.8 lb/acre 1.1 to 0. Spray at first disease appearance. Spray at first disease appearance.08 F Formulation 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 2 to 8 pt/trt acre 12.4 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0.5 4 hr fixed copper 6 See label See label 0 0 See page 233 for footer descriptions. Quadris) 2. DISEASE CONTROL FOR PARSNIP Rate of Material to Use Commodity PARSNIP Disease Leaf spots Material azoxystrobin (Amistar.25 fl oz/acre — 0 2 4 hr Active Ingredient 0.2 to 15.4 fl oz/acre See label 1. fixed copper 6 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 EG Rhizoctonia root canker azoxystrobin (Amistar. Non-chemical controls Copper spray at first appearance.4 fl oz/acre 0. PARSLEY Commodity TABLE 3-38. Quadris) 2.1 to 1.5 WDG See page 233 for footer descriptions.2 to 15.88 qt per crop per acre per season.88 qt per crop per acre per season.4 oz/acre 15 to .5 to 1 lb/trt acre Mininimum Days Harv. — Reentry 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season.5 to 1 lb/trt acre . ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – PARSNIP Disease Leaf spot Root canker PARSNIP Sclerotinia Botrytis neck rot Alternaria Resistant Varieties No Rotate crop land.

rust Powdery mildew Pythium damping-off Rhizoctonia root rot mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 EC azoxystrobin (Amistar.4 to 2 pt/acre 0. Spray at first appearance. Remove and destroy severely infected plants. for dry beans only. Do not make more that two sequential applications.013 lb/1.006 to 0.8 fl oz/1. See label for row rates. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence. and blight Powdery mildew Material azoxystrobin (Amistar. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after plant emergence.000 row feet 2 to 4 lb/100 gal 0.to 10-day intervals. Non-chemical controls Use raised beds to dry soil surface. Quadris) 2. 0 Reentry 4 hr Method.1 to 1. repeat at 7.08 F sulfur 5 Formulation 6.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0.000 sq ft 0.08 F 0. Commodity PEA (Southern) Cercospora Anthracnose Powdery mildew Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 209 . Incorporate in soil.5 WDG sulfur 5 mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL azoxystrobin (Amistar. Spray with sulfur at first appearance of disease. Quadris) 2. Spray at first appearance.08 F azoxystrobin (Amistar.13 lb/1. Do not handle when leaves are wet.4 to 0.2 to 15.25 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Do not use sulfur on wet plants or on hot days (in excess of 90oF).0006 to 0. and Remarks Do not make more that two sequential applications.2 fl oz/acre 1. Commodity PEA (English) n TABLE 3-42.4 to 0.000 sq ft 6.25 to 0.5 4 hr See page 233 for footer descriptions.to 10-day intervals. Incorporate in soil.4 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0. Schedule.8 fl oz/1.5 to 1 pt/trt acre 0. anthracnose.10 to 0.000 sq ft 0 — — 1 0. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – PEA (ENGLISH) Disease Pythium Damping-off Powdery mildew No Resistant Varieties Non-chemical controls Use raised beds to dry soil surface.5 lb/acre — — 0 14 2 4 hr 4 hr 2 See label 0. Cercospora. Spray with sulfur at first appearance of disease. Quadris) 2. Spray early bloom.5 lb/trt acre 0. Ascochyta leaf spot. Quadris) 2.5 lb/trt acre 0.25 to 0. n TABLE 3-41.to 14-day intervals.08 F chlorothalonil 7 (Bravo Ultrex) 82.TABLE 3-40. DISEASE CONTROL FOR PEA Rate of Material to Use Commodity PEA (English) Disease Anthracnose. See label 2 to 4 lb/100 gal 0 1 Pythium damping-off Rhizoctonia root rot Rust (Uromyces) PEA (Southern) Downy mildew. rotate and destroy residue. 10. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – PEA (SOUTHERN) Disease Pythium Damping-off Downy mildew Resistant Varieties Non-chemical controls No Yes No No Spray with copper or bordeaux mix. See label for row rates. Copper spray at first appearance.10 lb/acre 1. 7.

5 lb/acre 1.i. Schedule. WMV. Use in dump-tank water or as a spray. Applying maneb with copper significantly enhances bacterial spot control.2 oz/acre 8 to 12 oz/acre 1.i. There may be specific regulations as to disposal of used dump-tank water. Do not exceed 14. Monitor chlorine concentration and dump-tank water pH. and Remarks Dry Spray weekly when winged aphids first appear.5 pt/acre 1. Anthracnose fruit rot azoxystrobin (Amistar) (Quadris) flowable 2.000 gal (53 ppm sodium hypochlorite) — — Bacterial spot (field) copper (Kocide) 101 or DF (Copper-Count) N (Kocide) 606 (Champ Flowable) or basic copper sulfate PLUS maneb 4F 80WP maneb 75DF 0 2.4 lb a.08F pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) EG 20% 0 4 hr Begin when disease threatens.1 lb/acre 2 2 2 2 1 1 Page 210 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . CMV Material JMS Stylet-Oil Formulation 3 qt/100 gal water Use in 50 to 200 gal per acre depending on plant size 0. A new disease complex. Quadris.1 to 0.25%) 1 gal/1. may require initiation of applications at fruit set. 0 Reentry Method. Make no more than two sequential applications and no more than four applications per crop year.to 10-day intervals.TABLE 3-43.25 lb/acre 2 to 5 oz/acre 6.6 to 2.5 lb/acre 1.4 oz/acre 0 4 hr Active Ingredient Mininimum Days Harv.25 lb/acre 1. make additional applications at 5. Consider Amistar. TEV. Carefully examine field for disease to determine need for additional applications.5 lb/acre 3 qt/acre 2 qt/acre 2 qt/acre 3 lb/acre 7 2. If disease is present. Bacterial and other postharvest rots sodium hypochlorite (Clorox 5. Do not exceed 14. DISEASE CONTROL FOR PEPPER Rate of Material to Use Commodity PEPPER Disease Aphid-transmitted viruses: PVY.2 lb/acre 1. Make first application 7 to 10 days after transplanting. per acre per season. and Cabrio as the same chemistry for resistance management.4 lb a. Anthracnose green fruit rot. of maneb per acre per season. Foliar applications of a copper fungicide 1 to 3 days before harvest and immediately after first harvest may reduce bacterial soft rot.

Kocide. Ultra Flourish) mefenoxam + copper (Ridomil Gold/Copper) PCNB (Terrachlor) propamocarb (Prevacur Flex) streptomycin sulfate (Agri-mycin. 9: anilonopyrimidines. Phytophthora (late blight) resistant strains predominate.J. ? = activity unknown. 28: carbamates. Tenn-Cop. and D. Streptol) sulfur 1 Fungicide Group1 11 11 + 27 11 11 15 M 43 40 M 4 4+M 14 28 25 M Preharvest Interval (Days) 0 3 3 0 4 0 2 1 5 0 14 NA 5 0 0 +++ + +++ ++++ — + — — + — + — — — — — — — — — +++ — — — — ++ — — +++ — — — — — — — ++ + — +++++ NA — — — — — + — — + ++ ++++ ++++ — NA ++++ — — — — — — — — — — — — — ++++ — — — — +++ — — — Key to Fungicide Groups: 4: phenylamides. Exention Plant Pathology.L. 40: carboxylic acid amine. 25: glucopyranosyl antibiotic. not registered for field use. 43: acylpicolides. Quadris) femoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) fluoxastrobin (Evito) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) dimethomorph (Acrobat. 14: aromatic hydrocarbons. IVORS.TABLE 3-44. Forum) fixed copper fluopicolide (Presidio) mandipropamid (Revus) maneb (Manex. Nu-Cop. Extension Plant Pathology. In the case of mefenoxam. Citcop. M: multi-site activity. LOUWS and K. +++++ = very effective. NA: not applicable Fixed coppers include: Basicop. Champion. Streptomycin may only be used on transplants. Resistance to this pesticide has been detected in the pathogen population. Super Cu. 15: cinnamic acids. Copper tank mixed with maneb enhances efficacy to ++++ against bacterial spot. Copper-Count-N. 2 3 4 R Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 211 Southern Blight — — ? — — — — — — — — Bacterial Spot . 11: quinone outside inhibitors. Top Cop with Sulfur. LANGSTON. 7: carboxamides. Champ. Maneb) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold EC. NA = not applicable Relative Control Rating Phytophthora Blight (fruit and foliage) Phytophthora Blight (root and crown) Anthracnose (immature fruit rot) Pythium Damping off Pesticide Strobilurins : azoxystrobin (Amistar. 27: cyanoacetamide-oximes. University of Georgia — = ineffective. and Tri-basic copper sulfate. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS FOR PEPPER DISEASE CONTROL F. NC State University.

PVY) Phytophthora blight (fruit and foliage) Phytophthora blight (root and crown) Anthracnose (immature fruit) Practice Avoid field operations when foliage is wet Avoid overhead irrigation Change planting date within a season Cover cropping with antagonist Rotation with non-host (2-3 years) Deep plowing Prompt destruction of crop residue Promote air movement Use of soil organic amendments Application of insecticidal/horticultural oils pH management (soil) Plant in well-drained soil / raised beds Eliminate standing water / saturated areas Postharvest temp control (fruit) Use of reflective mulch Reduce mechanical injury Rogue diseased plants / fruit Soil solarization Use of pathogen-free planting stock Use of resistant cultivars Weed management +++ ++++ ++++ ++ ++ + +++ + ++ ++++ - ++++ ++++ ++E ++ +++++ ++++ +++ +++ - ++ ++++ + + + +V ++ +++ + + ++++ + + + +V ++++ +++++ ++ +++ + + +L +V ++++ ++++ - ++E +++ +++ + ++ ++ ++ ++ ++++ ++ +E + +++ + +V - ++E ++ ++ +++ ++ ++++ ++++ + Page 212 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus V - Bacterial soft rot of fruit Pythium damping-off Root-knot nematode Blossom-end rot Southern blight Bacterial spot . -. E = early planting date is most effective. Extension Plant Pathology. AMV. RELATIVE CONTROL RATING Aphid-transmitted viruses (PVX. NC State University Key to efficacy ratings based on observations and reports ++++ Excellent. and F. . University of Kentucky.Not applicable. SEEBOLD. L = late planting date is most effective. LOUWS.TABLE 3-45. TEV. Extension Plant Pathology. V = efficacy variable by region. ++ Fair.Not effective. + Poor. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR DISEASE CONTROL ON PEPPER K.J. +++ Good. CMV.

5 to 5 lb/acre 3 pt/acre 0.25 lb/50 gal water 0.5 pt/acre 0. increase the rate to 8 fl oz.75 to 1.000 ft of row Mininimum Days Harv.1 lb/acre 1.75 to 1. Also manages black dot and powdery mildew.000 ft of row Active Ingredient 0. For control of Sclertotinia white mold.5 to 4. thiophanate-methyl + man.16 4 hr chlorothalonil (Bravo Ultrex) 82.08 F + 4 F canker. then treat (dust or dip) with fungicide prior to planting. *Bravo S is not labeled for control of Botrytis vine rot.000 sq ft 0.4 lb/acre 0. For early blight control. When conditions favor moderate to high white mold pressure.5 1 1 Apply at 7.125 lb/acre acre 0.4 pt/acre 0.2 to 15. DO NOT apply more than 20.44 lb/acre 30 0.75 lb/100 lb seed cozeb + cymoxanil (Evolve) Early blight.4 oz/acre 0.1 lb/acre 0. Fusarium seedpiece azoxystrobin + mefenoxam decay.8 F 6. Amistar) 0.01 lb/1. Not for Fusarium or Scab.6 to 1.000 sq ft 0.5 WDG (Bravo Weather Stik) 6F (Bravo Weather Stik Zn) (Bravo 500) (Bravo S)* (Bravo Zn) (Equus) 720 (Equus) DF copper hydroxide (Champ 2) copper hydroxide (Kocide) DF 4. Early blight.1 to 0.6 to 1.1 to 0. Make a second application 14 days later if conditions continue to favor disease development.2 to 2. Use higher rates when disease pressure is high. make a maximum of four applications. dust or dip with fungicides and allow to dry in a cool place before planting.5 to 4.3 to 1 lb/acre 0.125 to 0.5 oz of product per acre per season.6 pt/acre 1 to 4 lb/acre 0. DISEASE CONTROL FOR POTATO. apply again 14 to 28 days later.6 lb/acre — — 14 0 1 0. Streptomyces common scab fludioxonil (Maxim) (Maxim) 4FS (Maxim) MZ mancozeb (Dithane Rainshield NT) DF (Dithane F-45 Rainshield) 4F (Dithane M-45) 80 WP (Manex II) 4F (Manzate) 75 DF or 80 WP (Penncozeb) 75 DF or 80 WP maneb (Manex) 4F thiophanate-methyl + mancozeb (Tops MZ) — 0.75 to 1. DO NOT apply more than 1.TABLE 3-46.006 to 0.012 lb/1.75 lb/100 lb seed 0.5 lb/100 lb seed 0. Apply as an in-furrow spray in 3 to 5 gal of water per acre at planting. DO NOT apply more than 3.5 2 2 2 2 2 2 0. Do not use treated seedpieces for feed or food. If conditions favor disease development.4 to 1.25 lb/50 gal water 1.5 0.75 to 3 lb/acre 1. tall or when conditions favor disease development. — — — 14 — — — 1 For white mold control. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 213 .5 pt/acre 0. Irish Disease Black and silver scurf Material azoxystrobin (Amistar.8 F Formulation 0.8 to 3 lb/acre 0.2 lb/acre 0. DO NOT apply more than 1. IRISH Rate of Material to Use Commodity POTATO. use 5.5 LF 101 2000 copper hydroxide + manzate (ManKocide) copper salts of fatty and rosin acids (Tenn-Cop) 5E 7 0.to 14-day intervals or as required.25 lb/50 gal water 1 qt/50 gal water 1.to 10-day intervals.02 lb/gal water — — 0. When white mold pressure is low to moderate.to 10-day intervals. wound-heal for 2 to 3 days at 55o to 65o F at high relative humidity.8 qt/10 gal water 0.5 oz rate.5 pt per acre during each growing season. Rhizoctonia stem 2.82 fl oz/1.5 fl oz.25 oz/1. apply at first sign of disease or immediately before row closure. white mold iprodione (Rovral) 50 WP 4F boscalid (Endura) 2. use 5.11 to 0.1 lb/acre 0.6 to 1.08 to 0. late blight azoxystrobin (Quadris) 2.88 lb per acre per season.16 to 0.6 to 1.5 to 1 lb/acre 1 to 2 lb/acre 1 to 2 pt/acre — — 0.5 to 1.5 lb/100 lb seed 0.5 pt/acre 0. Check label for rates and application schedules. 0.5 to 10 oz rate and begin applications prior to row closure or at the onset of disease.6 to 2.88 lb per acre per season.6 to 1. use 2. For early blight.25 pt/acre — 1.2 lb/acre 0.25 pt/ 0. and Remarks 4 hr 0 Apply in furrow at planting according to label directions. white mold fluazinam (Omega) 500 F 5.02 lb/gal water 1.36 lb/acre 0.7 to 1.16 oz/100 lb seed 0.25 lb/acre 0.6 to 1.5 Late blight. beginning when disease first appears and then on 10.2 lb/acre 2.0.25 lb/acre 14 4 hr 2 to 5 oz/acre 0.5 1 — — If possible.5 to 10 oz/acre 0.16 — Reentry Method.6 to 2.5 to 8 oz/acre 0.5 lb/acre 0.08 F (Amistar) 0. Schedule.25 lb/50 gal water 1 qt/50 gal water 1.25 to 2. Repeat applications at 7. If cut seedpieces are not wound-healed. Alternate with protectant fungicide (chlorothalonil or mancozeb). cut seed pieces.6 to 2.7 to 1.6 pt/acre — 0 — 1 to 4 lb/acre 0.26 oz/ acre 14 1 Begin applications when plants are 6 to 8 in.

depending on weather conditions and disease pressure.25 lb/acre — 14 1 6 to 8 oz/acre 3 to 4 oz/acre 14 1 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5.4 to 2.5 lb/acre 0.5 Page 214 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .7 to 1.27 lb/acre 7 0.6 fl oz per growing season.5 dimethomorph (9%) + mancozeb (60%) (Acrobat 50 MZ) famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 2. Do not apply more than once before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.to 12-oz rate. Use in combination with a protectant fungicide.to 10-day schedule depending on disease pressure. DO NOT apply more than 48 oz per acre per season.5 mancozeb (Dithane DF Rainshield NT) (Dithane F-45 Rainshield 4F) (Dithane M-45) 80 WP (Manex II 4F) (Manzate) 75 DF (Manzate) 80 WP (Penncozeb) 75WP (Penncozeb) 80DF 14 0. Do not apply more than 24.2 oz/acre 0. or triphenyltin hydroxide).75 fl oz/ acre Active Ingredient 1. use 6.267 lb/acre 14 0.036 to 0. on 7.5 lb/acre 0. DO NOT make more than five applications per season.8 to 1.5 to 2 lb/acre 0. Fungicides should be used as part of an integrated pest management program.5 lb/acre 1. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications from a different resistance management group.08 F 6 to 12 oz/acre 1.8 to 1.6 lb/acre 0.4 to 1. pyraclostrobin (Headline) 2.6 qt/acre 2 lb/acre 0. mancozeb.to 10-day schedule depending on disease pressure.6 lb/acre 0.6 qt/acre 0. Apply on a 5. maneb (Manex) 4F mefenoxam+chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo. for late blight. Should be tank mixed with a protectant fungicide (chlorothalonil or mancozeb). Early blight only. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development or when disease is present in area.5 to 2 lb/acre 0.4 to 1. Under high disease pressure. Do not apply more than twice before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. — 7 Reentry Method.5 to 2 lb/acre 0. Do not exceed more than three to four foliar applications. Apply on a 5. on 7.2 pt/acre — 1.7 to 1.12 lb/acre 7 0.6 lb/acre 0. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.071 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv.to 10-day interval.2 to 1.TABLE 3-46.5 fluoxastrobin (Evito) 480 SC 3.9 lb/acre 14 14 14 2 1 0. Forum) 50 WP 4 to 6. late blight (continued) Material copper sulfate (Basicop) cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC Formulation 3 to 6 lb/acre 1. Schedule.2 lb/acre 0.5 lb/acre 0.8 oz/acre 3 1 pyrimethanil (Scala) 5 F 7 fl oz/acre 0. Irish (continued) Disease Early blight.2 fl oz/acre 0.to 10-day schedule depending on disease pressure. use 6.5 to 0.8 fl oz per acre per season. See label for more details.to 9-oz rate.8 fl oz/acre 0.6 lb/acre — 14 14 1 2 2 lb/acre — 14 2 2.4 oz/acre 2 to 3. Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season.375 to 1. cymoxanil (Curzate) 60 DF 3. Do not apply more than 35 fl oz per crop.6 lb/acre 0.5 to 2 lb/acre 0.4 to 1.5 Do not apply more than 6 pt per growing season. Continue applications on a 5. For early blight. Check label for rotational crop guidelines. metiram. Use Curzate or Acrobat in combination with a protectant fungicide (chlorothalonil. NO NOT exceed more than 32 oz per acre per season. Increase rate as risk of disease development increases. Do not apply more than 10 sprays per crop.8 to 1.8 to 1. shorten spray interval and use maximum rate.5 to 2 lb/acre 0.to 10-day intervals. and continue on 5. DO NOT exceed more than six foliar applications or 72 total oz of product per acre per season. Flouronil) 76.4 to 1.6 qt/acre 1 to 2 lb/acre 1 to 2 lb/acre 0.2 oz/acre 4 0.to 10-day intervals. DISEASE CONTROL FOR POTATO.5 to 7 oz/acre 12 hr Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Use lower rates when conditions favor disease but disease is not present.4 to 1.5 Late blight only. Use only in a tank mix with another early blight fungicide.6 to 3.5 WP mefenoxam+ copper hydroxide (Ridomil Gold/ Copper) mefenoxam+ mancozeb (Ridomil Gold MZ) metiram (Polyram) 80 DF propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F 0. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. DO NOT tank mix with metalaxyl or mefenoxam.5 to 8. Do not apply more than 22. IRISH Rate of Material to Use Commodity POTATO.6 lb/acre 0.4 to 2.8 to 1. Apply when conditions favor disease but before symptoms appear.1 lb/acre 14 1 dimethomorph (Acrobat. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.6 lb/acre 1 1 mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top) 5. and Remarks 1 0.178 to 0.

036 to 0. There are a few resistance cultivars.2 oz/100 lb seed 1.82 fl oz/1.75 fl oz/ acre 0.TABLE 3-46. DISEASE CONTROL FOR POTATO.5 WP mefenoxam + copper hydroxide (Ridomil Gold/ Copper) mefenoxam + mancozeb (Ridomil Gold MZ) metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E 0.5 to 3. Flouronil) 76. Tubers may be treated again after storage and before shipping if needed. Do not exceed more than 15 oz of product per acre per season. Commodity POTATO.3 lb/acre 21 1 1.5 to 1 lb/acre — 14 7 7 2 2 2 Preplant incorporated or soil surface spray Apply when disease first appears.3 pt/acre — 0.000 ft of row — — 0 14 2 2 lb/acre — 14 2 2. Pythium leak.5 Pink rot.5 to 2 oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Do not apply to cut seed. Irish (continued) Disease Early blight. There are a few resistance cultivars. IRISH Rate of Material to Use Commodity POTATO. Some isolates of Fusarium are resistant to Mertect.2 to 0. and Remarks 0. then repeat as needed. tuber rot azoxystrobin + mefenoxam (Quadris Ridomil Gold) 2.4 to 2. Spray with copper or bordeaux mix and keep plants actively growing. late blight (continued) Material trifloxystrobin (Gem) Formulation 6 to 8 oz/acre Active Ingredient 1.5 lb/acre — 14 — 2 — Mist whole. Alternate every other application with a protectant fungicide.01 lb/1. 7 Reentry Method. unwashed tubers with fungicide solution to ensure proper coverage. Spray with copper or bordeaux mix and keep plants actively growing. Resistant cultivars and solarize soil before planting. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applilcaitons of fungicides from a different resistance management group. Late blight cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC 1. Irish Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 215 .5 to 2 lb/acre 0.13 to 1.75 oz/acre 0.08 F+4F mefenoxam+chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold/Bravo. Add to 3 to 15 gal of water depending on method of application. Do not apply more than 10 sprays per crop.to 10-day schedule.5 Begin applications preventively and continue as needed on a 7. Do not exceed more than four applications per crop. DO NOT apply more than 48 oz per acre per season.071 lb/acre 7 0.pieces. Late blight only. Apply as an in-furrow spray in 3 to 15 gal of water per acre at planting. triphenyltin hydroxide (Super Tin) 80 WP zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 75DF Fusarium tuber rot thiabendazole (Mertect340F) 2. Apply at flowering and then continue on a 14-day interval. Schedule. Powdery mildew chlorothalonil + sulfur (Bravo S) sulfur (Microthiol Disperss) 80 MWS 5 lb/acre 4 lb/acre 0 2 n TABLE 3-47 ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – POTATO Disease Seed piece decay Early blight Late blight Verticillium wilt Resistant Varieties No Yes Tolerant varieties Tolerant varieties Non-chemical Controls Use fir bark to keep cut surface dry. Avoid applying sulfur on days over 90oF. Check label for application intervals. use 3 year rotation.5 lb/acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 4.000 fl of row 2 lb/acre 0.

to 10-day intervals.to 14-day interval.4 pt/acre 0. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew.5 oz/ acre 4 oz/acre 1.8 fl oz/100 gal 11 to 15.2 pt/acre 0. Apply full rate of protectant fungicide between applications.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.09 to 0. Make banded application to soil surface or in-furrow application just before seed are covered. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group. Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. WINTER SQUASH Rate of Material to Use Commodity PUMPKIN.to 14-day intervals. WINTER SQUASH Disease Angular leaf spot Bacterial fruit blotch Bacterial wilt Belly (fruit) rot.5 fl oz/acre 0. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group.9 oz/acre 3. Tank mix with another downy mildew fungicide with a different mode of action.6 pt/acre — 2 2. Quadris) 2. Echo. Avoid late-season application.25 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Apply no more than 2. and soil drench.5 1 0.4 oz/acre 4.5 2 2 0. 0 0 — 1 — — — — 2 1 Reentry Method. Make no more than 4 applications per season. Forum) 50 WP famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP 3.054 to 0. soil spray (broadcast or band). Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.g.5 fixed copper6 fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F fosetyl-AL (Aliette) 80 WDG mandipropamid (Revus) 2.75 fl oz/ acre 0. Begin applications before infection.8 to 7 oz/acre 2 oz/acre 0 0 0 0.5 to 3 pt/acre Active Ingredient — — — See label 4. Rhizoctonia Material fixed copper6 fixed copper6 — azoxystrobin (Amistar.6 to 4 lb/acre 0.25 pt/acre 0.5 lb/acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 12. and continue on 5. Preplant incorporated (broadcast or band).5 0. Schedule.5 1 2 1.5 lb/acre — 2 0. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. Equus) 6F cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC Formulation See label See label — See label 8.TABLE 3-48.. Use only in combination with labeled rate of protectant fungicide (e.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.071 lb/acre 0 0.5 to 2 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre — 0. when plants reach full maturity. Do not tank mix with copper-containing products. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.08F maneb (Maneb) 75 DF mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Make single application when vines begin to run. Spray at first appearance and repeat at 14-day intervals.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik.2 oz/acre 6. Rates based on rock wool cube saturation in the greenhouse. 0.1 to 2.13 lb/acre 0.5 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0.5 Page 216 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . and Remarks 0 0 — 4 hr 2 0. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. For disease suppression only.18 to 0.6 lb/acre 1. Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface. Flouronil) 76.88 qt per crop per acre per season.6 to 2.178 lb/acre 14 0.5 4 hr Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. DISEASE CONTROL FOR PUMPKIN. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop.2 oz/acre 3 0 0.5 WP propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F See label 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 2 to 5 lb/acre 8 fl oz/acre 1. drip system. See label for use in seed beds.5 0. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed alternating applications of Ridomil Gold Bravo on a 7.35 lb/acre 0. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season.5 0. Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface.6 lb/100 gal 0.8 to 1.4 oz/acre 1. Do not apply more than 6 pt per growing season. Start applications at first bloom. See Insect Control section for Cucumber Beetles. continue on a 7.to 14-day interval.9 lb/acre 2 0.5 cymoxanil (Curzate ) 60 DF dimethomorph (Acrobat.5 1 5 7 — 0. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. ineffective once fruit reaches full size.to 10-day interval. or injection (drip irrigation). Spray at first appearance and then at 7.125 lb/ acre 1. Always tank mix with another downy mildew product. and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season. Quadris) 2.4 fl oz/ acre 1. mancozeb or chlorothalonil).44 to 0.5 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG 8 to 12 oz/acre 12.5 to 18.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik) 6 F thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP Damping-off (Pythium) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F Downy mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar. Preplant incorporated or surface application. Mixing with surfactants or foliar fertilizers is not recommended.

5 to 3 pt/acre 0. 0.18 to 0. Cercospora.to 14-day intervals.2 oz/acre 4.125 lb/ acre 0. and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.5 0. DISEASE CONTROL FOR PUMPKIN.5 1 1 0.75 lf oz/acre 4.09 to 0. anthracnose (Colletotrichum).2 oz/acre 0.to 10-day intervals.35 lb/acre 0. and continue on 5. Quadris) 2. must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Make no more than 4 applications per season. Do not apply more than one application before alternating with a nonstrobilurin fungicide.5 to 5 oz/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre 12.5 lb per acre per crop. Make no more than 4 applications per season.6 pt/acre — 2 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0. Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 10. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against Phytophthora blight.25 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Echo. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop. Echo.5 thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG 0.44 to 0.4 to 3.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik.4 fl oz/ acre 1. max 24 fl oz per season. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group.to 10-day intervals. Use highest rate for anthracnose.08F Plectosporium blight Powdery mildew pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20WG azoxystrobin (Amistar.8 to 1.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5. Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.5 0. Tank mix with another Phytophthora fungicide with a different mode of action.5 4 hr 0.8 to 7 oz/acre 0.5 to 18.6 pt/acre — 2 See label 2. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.to 10-day interval.to 14-day intervals. Quadris) 2.071 lb/acre 0 — 0 1 0.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik. For disease suppression only.6 lb/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre — 0.5 lb/acre 2.5 to 2 oz/acre 0. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.5 to 18. gummy stem blight (Didymella).4 fl oz/ acre 1.5 lb/acre 1. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.5 dimethomorph (Acrobat. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.to 14-day intervals.2 to 1.5 to 2 lb/acre — 0 0 0 0 7 — 1 0. Apply no more than 1. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. Preplant incorporate in top 2 in. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. Make no more than 1 application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. WINTER SQUASH (continued) Disease Leaf spots. Make no more than two sequential applications. Apply no more than 2.to 10-day intervals. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. and repeat at 7.88 qt per crop per acre per season.2 oz/acre — 5 0 — 1 0. Equus) 6F 4 to 8 oz/acre 2 to 4 oz/acre 0.TABLE 3-48.5 0.5 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 8 fl oz/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre 11 to 15. Do not use for gummy stem blight where resistance to group 11(QoI) fungicides exists. target spot (Corynespora) Material azoxystrobin (Amistar.5 triflumizole (Procure) 50 WS Pythium damping-off and fruit rot Scab mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultraflourish) 2 EC chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik. Echo. 1 Reentry Method.18 to 0.4 to 3.5 to 3 pt/acre 0.to 14-day intervals.5 fl oz/acre 0. Do not use when temperature is over 90°F or on sulfursensitive varieties. and Remarks 4 hr Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. apply as foliar spray with copper based fungicide.8 to 7 oz/acre — 1. Begin applications at vining or first sign of disease. Make no more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.8 to 1. of soil or apply in 7-in.4 to 3. Equus) 6F famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP Formulation 11 to 15.6 lb/acre 2. Observe a 30-day plant-back interval.13 lb/acre 2. Forum) 50WP fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F mandipropamid (Revus) 2.5 2 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre 1.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0 — 0. WINTER SQUASH Rate of Material to Use Commodity PUMPKIN.5 to 3 pt/acre Active Ingredient 0.25 lb/acre 2 0 0 1 0. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. band to soil surface. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed on 7.2 oz/acre 0 0. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.to 14-day intervals.5 oz/ acre See label 4 to 6 fl oz/acre — 1 to 2 oz/acre 2. Only for Alternaria and anthracnose. Apply no more than 2. Schedule.to 10-day intervals.5 pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP Phytophthora blight cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC 12.4 oz/acre 3.5 0. Equus) 6F fixed copper6 myclobutanil (Nova) 40 WP pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG sulfur 5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action.35 lb/acre 0.5 fixed copper6 maneb (Maneb) 75 DF pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG See label 1.5 oz/ acre 0.178 lb/acre 14 0.75 to 1 oz/acre — 0 0. Not for target spot.6F 6.88 qt per crop per acre per season.6 pt/acre — 2 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 217 .8 to 1. Alternaria.

dry Page 218 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .88 qt per crop per acre per season.4 fl oz 0. green 2 lb/acre 7 1 SHALLOT See ONION. Spray leaves. Pythium damping-off White rust Material See BROCCOLI Formulation Active Ingredient Mininimum Days Harv. Apply no more than 2. mefenoxam + copper hydroxide (Ridomil Gold/ Copper) See page 233 for footer descriptions. Make two to four applications if needed on 14-day intervals. Reentry Method.2 to 15. and Remarks azoxystrobin (Amistar. Quadris) 2. Use with preplant Ridomil 2E soil application. Schedule.1 to .25 fl oz 7 4 hr Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.08 F 6. SCALLION See ONION.TABLE 3-49. DISEASE CONTROL FOR RADISH Rate of Material to Use Commodity RADISH Disease Phytophthora basal stem rot.

— 21 Reentry Method. Use lower rate for rust. 3 to 4 pt/acre — 0 0 n TABLE 3-51. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.125 lb/ acre 1.to 10-day intervals. maximum 32 fl oz per season.TABLE 3-50.5 2. or injected with liquid fertilizer. Spray as needed.75 oz/acre 0. Use with preplant Ridomil Gold EC soil application.5 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season. DISEASE CONTROL FOR SPINACH Rate of Material to Use Commodity SPINACH Disease Damping-off (Pythium) Damping-off (Pythium). no more than 2 shanked applications on 21-day interval. preplant incorporated. Spray with sulfur at first appearance of disease. rotate and destroy residue. apply prior to disease development and continue throughout season at 7.08 F 6. or injected with liquid fertilizer.5 6. Quadris) 2. Tank mix with another downy mildew fungicide with a different mode of action.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre Mininimum Days Harv. preplant incorporated. Spray to foliage. Apply no more than 2. Only for downy mildew.25 fl oz/ acre — 21 7 2 2 4 hr Leaf spot azoxystrobin (Amistar.5 to 1 lb/acre 0. Non-chemical Controls Use raised beds to dry soil surface. Apply at seeding or transplanting in 20 to 50 gal water. Downy mildew. The risk of the white rust fungus developing resistance is high.1 to 0.08F mefenoxam + copper hydroxide (Ridomil Gold/ Copper) metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 2 to 5 lb/acre 8 fl oz/acre 0. white rust acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) 50 WG azoxystrobin (Amistar. Quadris) 2. Remove and destroy severely infected plants.1 to . cold weather. or products containing copper.13 lb/acre 2 3 1 0.4 fl oz/ acre 0. Do not mix with surfactants. Use proportionally less for band rates. Commodity Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 219 . Do not apply to young seedlings or plants stressed due to drought.4 fl oz/ acre fixed copper 6 See page 233 for footer descriptions. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. make second application by shanking in 1/4 pt per acre after 40 to 50 days and after first and second cuttings.25 fl oz/acre 7 4 hr fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F fosetyl-Al (Aliette) 80 WDG mandipropamid (Revus) 2. Shank in 21 days after planting.2 to 15. Schedule. For white rust. and Remarks 2 2 Banded over the row. Banded over the row. Do not use postemergence if preplant application was not made or if white rust is established.09 to 0.5 lb/acre — 21 2 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 1 pt/trt acre 0. Copper spray at first appearance. Apply no more than 2. foliar fertilizers.5 0. excessive moisture.2 to 15. or herbicide injury.08 F 0.37 oz/acre 7 0. white rust Material metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultra Flourish) 2 EC Formulation 4 to 8 pt/trt acre Active Ingredient 0.6 to 4 lb/acre 0.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season. ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS – SPINACH Disease Pythium damping-off White rust SPINACH Downy mildew Powdery mildew Leaf spots Resistant Varieties No Yes No No No Copper spray at first appearance.125 lb/acre 0.

and continue on 5.5 lb/acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 12. 0 0 — 1 — — — — — 2 Reentry Method. and Remarks 0 0 — 4 hr 2 0.5 5 1 5 7 — 0.13 lb/acre 0.2 oz/acre 6. ineffective once fruit reaches full size.5 zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 75 DF 1.5 fl oz/acre 0.5 0. Preplant incorporated (broadcast or band. drip system.5 lb/acre — 2 0. Preplant incorporated or surface application. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.5 1 0. Start applications at first bloom. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed alternating applications of Ridomil Gold Bravo on a 7. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group. soil spray (broadcast or band. Soil surface application in 7-in.18 to 0. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Quadris) 2. Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface.13 to 1.054 to 0. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.8 to 7 oz 2 oz/acre 0 0 0 0. Begin applications before infection.to 10-day interval. Spray at first appearance and repeat at 14-day intervals.9 lb/acre 2 0. Always tank mix with another downy mildew product.44 to .5 Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. and repeat at 7.08F maneb (Maneb) 75 DF mefenoxam+chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo.9 oz/acre 3.35 lb/acre 0.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0. Avoid late-season application.5 1 0. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.5 1 2 1. Apply no more than 2.to 14-day interval. Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface. Do not apply more than 6 pt per growing season. Mixing with surfactants or foliar fertilizers is not recommended.25 pt/acre 0.5 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season.6 lb/100 gal Mininimum Days Harv. Make no more than 4 applications per season. 0. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. See Insect Control section for Cucumber Beetles.178 lb/acre 14 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season.5 cymoxanil (Curzate ) 60 DF dimethomorph (Acrobat.6 to 2. Use only in combination with labeled rate of protectant fungicide (e.5 lb 5 2 Page 220 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew.6 to 4 lb/acre 1.g.4 lb/acre 0.6 lb/acre 1. Equus) 6F cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC Formulation See label See label — See label 8.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0. Forum) 50 WP famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP 3. Rates based on rock wool cube saturation in the greenhouse.to 14-day interval. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action.75 fl oz/ acre 0. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.to 10-day intervals.5 0. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.5 oz 4 oz/acre 1. continue on a 7.25 lb/acre 1 4 hr 0. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. or injection (drip irrigation). Make banded application to soil surface or in-furrow application just before seed are covered.4 oz 4.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0.6 to 2.6 pt/acre — 2 2. and soil drench. Do not make more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Make single application when vines begin to run. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action. Apply no more than 24 lb per acre per season.5 to 18.5 fixed copper6 fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F fosetyl-AL (Aliette) 80 WDG mancozeb 4 mandipropamid (Revus) 2.09 to 0.5 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG 8 to 12 oz 12. when plants reach full maturity.TABLE 3-52.2 oz/acre 3 0 0.to 14-day intervals.4 oz/acre 1.5 2 2 2 0. Schedule.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik.to 10-day intervals. Tank mix with another downy mildew fungicide with a different mode of action.071 lb/acre 0 0. Quadris) 2.8 fl oz/100 gal water 11 to 15. DISEASE CONTROL FOR SQUASH Rate of Material to Use Commodity SQUASH.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik) 6 F thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP Cottony leak (Pythium) Damping-off (Pythium) metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F Downy mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar. For disease suppression only.5 to 2 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre — 0.2 pt/acre 0. See label for use in seed beds. Do not apply more than one application before alternating with a nonstrobilurin fungicide. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop.5 to 2 lb 1.1 to 2.8 to 1. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage.4 fl oz/ acre 1.125 lb/ acre 1. Flouronil) 76. band..4 pt /acre 0. Do not tank mix with copper-containing products. and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5. mancozeb or chlorothalonil). Summer Disease Angular leaf spot Bacterial fruit blotch Bacterial wilt Belly (fruit) rot.5 to 3 pt/acre Active Ingredient — — — See label 4.5 WP propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F See label 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 2 to 5 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre 8 fl oz/acre 1. Apply full rate of protectant fungicide between applications. Echo. Rhizoctonia Material fixed copper6 fixed copper6 — azoxystrobin (Amistar.

6 pt/acre — 2 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop.5 to 3 pt/acre Active Ingredient 0.5 to 1 lb/trt acre — 0 0 — 0. Make no more than 4 applications per season.6 pt/acre — 2 See label 2.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Apply no more than 2.5 lb/acre 1.5 0. Make no more than 4 applications per season.6 lb/acre 2. Quadris) 2.4 fl oz/ acre 1.5 to 18.5 Leaf spots.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik. Do not make more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.5 lb per acre per crop.75 fl oz/acre 4. target spot (Corynespora) Material azoxystrobin (Amistar. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group. and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season.6 lb/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre — 0.5 thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG triflumizole (Procure) 50 WS Pythium damping-off. Use highest rate for anthracnose.25 lb/acre 2 0 0 1 0. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Equus) 6F fixed copper6 myclobutanil (Nova) 40 WP pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG sulfur 5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.to 10-day intervals.5 oz/ acre 0.5 oz/ acre See label 4 to 6 fl oz/acre — 1 to 2 oz/acre 2.5 to 2 lb/acre — 0 0 0 0 7 — 1 0. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Cercospora. band to soil surface. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage.to 10-day intervals.5 4 hr 0.5 0.6F 6.88 qt per crop per acre per season.5 to 2 oz/acre 4 to 8 oz/acre 0.to 14-day intervals. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. and repeat at 7. Observe a 30-day plant-back interval. Preplant incorporate in top 2 in. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Do not use for gummy stem blight where resistance to group 11(QoI) fungicides exists.35 lb/acre 1. Alternaria. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.to 10-day interval. Do not make more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against Phythophthora blight.5 0. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.TABLE 3-52.2 oz/acre 4.5 fl oz/acre 0.75 to 1 oz/acre 2 to 4 oz/acre 0. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.4 to 3. Tank mix with another Phytophthora fungicide with a different mode of action. Do not make more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.5 lb/acre 0.to 10-day intervals.5 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 2 to 4 pt/trt acre Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 221 .5 0. fruit rot mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultraflourish) 2 EC 0.25 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. gummy stem blight (Didymella). Forum) 50 WP fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F mandipropamid (Revus) 2.44 to . Summer (continued) Disease Leaf spots. 1 Reentry Method. Apply no more than 1. Begin applications at vining or first sign of disease. fenamidone (Reason) anthracnose 500 SC (Colletotrichum). Echo. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.2 oz/acre 0 0. target spot (Corynespora) (continued) fixed copper6 maneb (Maneb) 75 DF pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 5.5 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 8 fl oz/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre 11 to 15.5 0. and continue on 5. pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 75 DF Phytophthora blight cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC 12.2 oz/acre — 5 0 — 1 0.09 to 0.2 to 1. of soil or apply in 7-in.5 to 18.4 oz/acre 3.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik) 6 F famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP Formulation 11 to 15.5 2 0. Cercospora.5 Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.5 See label 1.2 oz/acre 0.13 to 1.18 to .5 to 3 pt/acre 0. max 24 fl oz per season Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed on a 7. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Quadris) 2.13 lb/acre 2.5 to 2 lb/acre 2. and repeat at 7. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action. gummy stem blight (Didymella).8 to 7 oz/acre 0. Apply no more than 2.to 14-day intervals. 0. anthracnose (Colletotrichum).5 dimethomorph (Acrobat. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.4 to 3.to 10-day intervals.125 lb/ acre 0.4 to 3. DISEASE CONTROL FOR SQUASH Rate of Material to Use Commodity SQUASH. Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 10.8 to 7 oz/acre — 1. For disease suppression only. Do not use when temperature is over 90°F or on sulfursensitive varieties.to 14-day intervals.5 1 1 0.5 lb/acre 1.to 14-day interval.5 to 5 oz/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre 12. apply as foliar spray with copper based fungicide. Only for Alternaria and anthracnose.8 to 1. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action.18 to .178 lb/acre 14 0.to 14-day intervals. Not for target spot.071 lb/acre 0 — 5 0 1 0. and Remarks 4 hr Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.8 to 1.4 fl oz/ acre 1. Schedule.08F Plectosporium blight Powdery mildew pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG azoxystrobin (Amistar.35 lb/acre 0. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. Alternaria.

Schedule. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Equus) 6 F Formulation 1.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Dip for 5 to 10 seconds in well-agitated suspension.5 gal/acre 1. — — — Reentry Method. 340-F) sclerotial blight dicloran (Botran) 75 W Circular spot. Make in-furrow or banded applications shortly after transplanting.9F 16 to 32 fl oz/100 gal 0. Add 1/2 lb Clortran to 100 gal of treating suspension after 500 bu treated. blight.1 gal/ acre 13 to 20.5 to 1 lb/gal — — Streptomyces soil rot (pox)1 dichloropropene (Telone) C-17 C-35 chloropicrin — 10. foot rot.6 pt/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Do not rinse.178 to 0. wax/emulsion. Monitor chlorine concentration and add chlorine or change solution as needed.TABLE 3-52.8 fl oz/1. Do not apply more than 16.8 to 17.08 F canker.4 fl oz/ acre 107 to 169 lb/acre 139 to 220 lb/acre — 0.267 lb/acre 14 0.1 to 0. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS FOR CUCURBIT DISEASE CONTROL (see Table 3-18) RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR DISEASE CONTROL IN CUCURBITS (see Table 3-19) TABLE 3-53. Apply no more than 2. Rate is based on soil type. Quadris) 2. Can be used as a seed root dip or as a plantbed spray. Page 222 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Incorporate in soil. not for sclerotial blight.5 to 3 pt/acre Active Ingredient 0. Dip or spray 2 to 5 minutes.2 to 15. Add 8 fl oz to 100 gals after 500 bushels are treated.000 row feet 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 3 to 10 oz/100 gal 1 lb/100 gal Active Ingredient 4 lb/100 gal 10 lb/100 gal 0.75 lb/100 gal — 7 — — 2 2 — — fludioxonil (Scholar) 1.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0.5 See page 233 for footer descriptions. 0. and Remarks 2 Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Rhizoctonia stem Quadris) 2. Dip for approximately 30 seconds and allow sweetpotatoes to drain. See label for row rate. DISEASE CONTROL FOR SWEETPOTATO Rate of Material to Use Commodity Disease Material Formulation 107 oz/100 gal 13. Pythium root rot Damping-off (Pythium) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E Postharvest sanitation Postharvest Rhizopus soft rot calcium hypochlorite 65% dicloran (Botran) 75 W Mininimum Days Harv. Preplant incorporated or soil surface spray. and continue on 5.5 to 1 lb/acre 150 to 500 ppm 0.3 lb/100 gal 0. White rust azoxystrobin (Amistar. DISEASE CONTROL FOR SQUASH Rate of Material to Use Commodity SQUASH.4 to 0. Schedule.2 fl oz/acre 0. black rot. and Remarks — — 4 hr Dip seed roots 1 to 2 minutes and plant immediately.25 fl oz/ acre — 7 5 — 4 hr Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.8 gal/acre 6.5 to 8.8 to 1.006 to 0.08 F fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5. Southern azoxystrobin (Amistar. — Reentry Method. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. see label for in-row rates. Echo. See page 233 for footer descriptions.to 10-day interval. Summer (continued) Disease Scab Material chlorothalonil (Bravo WeatherStick.to 14-day intervals.013 lb SWEETPOTATO Bedding root decay: thiabendazole (Mertect scurf. or aqueous dilution of wax/oil emulsion. Spray or dip.4 fl oz per growing season. OR mix 16 fl oz in 7 to 25 gal of water.

HOLMES. ? Unknown. batatas) Bacterial stem and root rot (E.SWEETPOTATO STORAGE HOUSE SANITATION G. See remarks under sanitizing greenhouses.5 lb 140oF 4 to 8 hr/day for 7 days OR 180oF for 30 min Methods and Remarks Use higher rate if absorbent material is present. . Caution: rot-causing organisms inside a drain will probably not be exposed to a lethal temperature. then infect the new crop.5% (Chlor-O-Pic 100) heat Rate per 1. cleaning the house and surroundings thoroughly by sweeping and rinsing with water to remove all rotted sweetpotatoes. fimbriata) Soil rot/pox (S. TABLE 3-55. Exention Plant Pathology Key to efficacy ratings: ++++ Excellent. Plant Pathology Follow manufacturer’s label in all cases. destruens) Black rot (C. The storage house.) Fusarium root rot and stem canker (F. After treatment. Fumigation should never be done by one person. NA = Not applicable Root-knot and reniform nematodes (Meloidogyne & Rotylenchus spp. F F N F N F N F NA NA +++ NA NA NA NA NA - NA NA +++ + ? NA ? + NA NA ++ NA NA + + NA ? + +++ NA NA NA ++ NA NA ? ++ NA + + NA NA NA + ++ NA ? + NA + + NA NA NA ++ NA NA ? ++ NA + NA NA NA + ++ + NA ? NA NA NA ++ ++++ NA NA ++ NA + +++ ++ ++++ NA NA + NA NA +++ NA +++ NA NA NA - NA NA NA ++ + NA NA NA NA ++ NA NA + NA ++ NA ? NA NA NA + NA NA + +++ NA NA NA NA - Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 223 Sweetpotato feathery mottle virus NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Sclerotial blight/circular spot (S. Great care should be taken to ensure that nobody is in the room during treatment. Read label carefully. stolonifer) Java black rot (D.J. gossypina) Scurf (M. ventilate the area thoroughly for at least one day or until all traces of the fumigant are gone. Scurf and rot-producing organisms may survive over summer on crates and the walls and floors of the storage house. Usually. +++ Good. TABLE 3-54. oxysporum f. or by improper ventilation and temperature control.000 Cubic Feet of Space 1 to 1. SWEETPOTATO STORAGE HOUSE SANITATION Material chloropicrin 96. infuscans) Foot rot (P.Not effective. Most rot problems in storage are caused by storing sweetpotatoes injured in the field or in harvesting. The treated room must be airtight and moistened thoroughly with water one or two days in advance of treatment. J. ++ Fair. + Poor. and other trash is adequate to avoid contamination from carry-over sources. HOLMES. ventilation system. dirt. rolfsii) Fusarium wilt (F. and equipment must be very clean and moist. oxysporum) Rhizopus soft rot (R. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF PRODUCTS FOR SWEETPOTATO DISEASE CONTROL G. Check local regulations. sp. ipomoea) . chrysanthemi) Fusarium surface rot (F. Do not fumigate facilities that are near inhabited areas. Start treating in rear and move toward the exit. solani) Nematicide (N) or Fungicide (F) Product aldicarb (Temik) Pseudomonas syringae (BioSave) chlorine chloropicrin dicloran (Botran 75W) ethoprop (Mocap) fludioxonil (Scholar) metam sodium (Vapam) oxamyl (Vydate) dicloropropene (Telone II) thiabendazole (Mertect 340-F) N F F N.

rolfsii) Bacterial stem & root rot (E. Batatas) Sclerotial blight/circular spot (S. destruens) Black rot (C. NC State University Root-knot & Reniform nematodes) (Meloidogyne & Rotylenchus) Sweepotato Feathery Mottle Virus + ++++ +++ +++ +++ + + +++ ++ ++ ++++ ++ ++ +++ ? + +++ ++ + - Fusarium root rot & stem canker (F. RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR SWEETPOTATO DISEASE CONTROL Key to efficacy ratings based on observations and reports ++++ Excellent. Plant Pathology Extension. infuscans) + ++++ + ++++ + Foot rot* (P. — Not applicable G. HOLMES. ipomoea) +++ ++++ ++++ +++ . solani) Fusarium wilt (F. +++ Good. fields. oxysporum f.TABLE 3-56. sp. oxysporum) Rhizopus soft rot (R. gossypina) Scurf (M. storage houses) Manage insects that transmit pathogens Sulfur added to soil to reduce pH Prompt curing and proper storage conditions Site selection (drainage) Manage insects that cause feeding injuries to roots * Rare disease in NC ** Avoid harvesting when soils are wet + ++++ +++ + ? +++ ++ ++++ + +++ ++++ +++ + ++++ + ++++ ++ ++ ++++ + ++ +++ + + + + ++++ + +++ ++++ ++++ +++ ++ ++++ ++ ++ +++ +++ ++ ++ +++ +++ ++ + + ++++ +++ + +++ Page 224 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Soil rot/Pox (S. ? Not known. J. stolonifer) Java black rot (D. fimbriata) Crop rotation (3-4 years) Disease-free planting stock Resistant cultivars Careful handling to reduce mechanical injury Cutting plants (in beds) above soil line Soil sample for nematode analysis Sanitation (equipment. + Poor.Not effective. ++ Fair. chrysanthemi) Fusarium sufrace rot** (F. .

Manzate) 75 W.to 14-day intervals. Use chlorothalonil for plantbeds only.1 to 2.6 to 3. 1 lb/100 gal 0 0 3 to 8 oz/9. 0 Reentry Method. Works best if applied during or after last watering of the day.5 fl oz/acre Active Ingredient 0.2 oz/acre 0 1 4 hr 12 hr TABLE 3-58. on 7.375 oz/ acre various 14 0 0 2 Bacterial speck.3 to 1. zinc dimethyldithio-carbamate (Ziram) 76 DF 3 to 4 lb/acre 2.75 to 1.3 lb/acre 14 2 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 225 .6 to 2 oz/acre 5 to 8. Quadris. Make four applications.8 lb a.to 10-day intervals for up to six applications.5 5 0 1 4 hr 1.35 to 3 lb/acre 1. Schedule. DO NOT use on cherry tomatoes.i.75 oz/acre 0. pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20% EG mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top) 8 to 16 oz/acre 5.27 lb/acre — — 0 1 — — 0. Begin spray when seedlings emerge. do not use in the greenhouse. Bacterial 5.to 14-day intervals.5 oz/acre 7 fl oz/acre 6.35 to 2 pt/acre 1. Begin within one week of transplanting. Use 1 gal of solution per 1 lb seed. see above.3 to 8.1 lb/acre 0.75 oz/ acre See label 0.375 to 2 pt/acre 1. 0 Reentry Method. and Remarks 0 Wash seed for 40 min in solution with continuous agitation. A fixed copper spray can suppress spot and canker. Make no more than 2 sequential applications and no more than 2 per crop year.3 to 3 lb/acre 7 2 Blossom end rot calcium chloride calcium nitrate 4 lb/100 gal 4 lb/100 gal 9 to 12. Spray weekly after first appearance of disease or when second bloom cluster begins to form. Bacterial spot acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) 50 WG 0.1 lb/acre 3 to 4 oz/acre 1.75 to 1. Spot control benefits with tank mixes of mancozeb + fixed copper.375 to 2 pt/acre 1.5 Botrytis (gray mold) boscalid (Endura) 70% pyrimethanil (Scala) SC Bacterial speck. Ziram can be mixed with copper to enhance bacterial disease control. Begin applications at first sign of infection and continue at 7.08 to 0. Most speck strains are copper resistant.2 fl oz/acre 6 to 8 oz/acre 8 to 12 oz/acre 5. spray at 7. Tank mix with 0. Tanos.5 lb/acre 1 to 1. fixed copper products (variBacterial spot.08 to 0. Bacterial bacteriophage (AgriPhage) speck Early blight. Applications should be made on 7.TABLE 3-57.5 lb/acre 0.8 lb/acre 1. Check soil pH and irrigation schedule. Begin application at first true leaf stage.6 to 3. Schedule.to 10-day intervals.5 WDG (Bravo Weather Stik) 6F (Echo 702) 54% (Equus 720) 54% mancozeb (Dithane DF. (Streptrol) 21.25%) speck streptomycin sulfate (Agri-Mycin) 17 WP.2 oz/acre 0 3 1 4 hr 4 hr 12 hr Amistar. of either maneb or mancozeb.1 to 0. and Cabrio are strobulurin funigicides. Make no more than 5 applications of strobulurin fungicide per crop year.1 to 1.3% Bacterial spot.5 0. Do not apply more than twice before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.5 to 7 oz/acre 0.33 to 0. DISEASE CONTROL FOR TOMATO Rate of Material to Use Commodity TOMATO (transplants) Disease Material Formulation 1 qt + 4 qt water Active Ingredient same Bacterial canker.600 sq ft 1.165 to 0. and Remarks 4 hr Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. air dry promptly. repeat weekly until transplanting. For plant bed use only.25 fl oz/ acre Mininimum Days Harv.5 to 7 oz/acre 1. Begin Revus Top applications when conditions favor disease development. Do not apply more than 35 fl oz per acre per season.8 F (Quadris) 2. Apply no more than 2.08 F famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20% EG mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top) Mininimum Days Harv. 80 W TOMATO (field) ) Anthracnose azoxystrobin (Amistar) 0. Use only in a tank mix with another fungicide recommended for gray mold.10 lb/acre 0. sodium hypochlorite (Clorox Bacterial spot. Integrate them in a rotation fungicide program.4 lb/acre 0 0 0 2 2 0. Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season.88 qt per crop per acre per season.1 lb/acre 1.08 F Formulation 6 to 15. Apply in sufficient water to obtain good coverage. Repeat every 5 to 7 days. Late blight chlorothalonil (Bravo Ultrex) 82. DISEASE CONTROL FOR TOMATILLO Rate of Material to Use Commodity TOMATILLO (Physalis ixocarpa) Disease Powdery mildew Material azoxystrobin (Quadris) 2.5 0. DO NOT apply more than 24 lb per acre per season. Bacterial ous formulations) canker Buckeye rot mefenoxam + copper hydroxide (Ridomil Gold/ Copper) 2 lb/acre 1.

and Remarks 1 Spray weekly beginning at first sign of disease.5 to 4 oz/acre 2. Tank mix Bravo MZ58 with 0.6 lb/acre 0.5 to 8. Apply every 5 to 7 days.5 to 3 lb/acre 1 to 2. Page 226 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .10 lb/acre 0.5 to 3. Ziram can be mixed with copper to enhance bacterial disease control. 80 W 4 mancozeb + zoximide (Gavel) 75 DF maneb (Manex) 4 F mefenoxam+chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo) mefenoxam + mancozeb (Ridomil Gold MZ) Early blight.1 lb/acre 1.45 lb mancozeb 80W.2 to 2. Only chlorothalonil has Rhizoctonia fruit rot on label.5 lb/trt acre 0. A second application may be made up to 4 weeks before harvest. Do not exceed 3 pt of Ridomil Gold EC or 40 lb of Ridomil Gold GR per acre.5 WDG (Echo 720) 54% (Equus 720) 54% mancozeb (Dithane DF.to 10-day intervals.6 lb/acre 1.to 4-leaf stage or at transplanting on a 7. Do not apply more than 1.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 0.6 fl oz per acre per season.5 0.2 fl oz/acre 5.3 to 2. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Septoria (Tanos) leaf spot.13 to 1.5 0.6 to 2 oz/acre 8. Septoria (Bravo Weather Stik) 6 F leaf spot.2 lb/acre 0 2 2 0. Early blight. DO NOT apply more than 24 lb per acre per season. Bacterial canker 6 mancozeb or chlorothalonil + copper hydroxide (Kocide) 101 or DF or 606 or chlorothalonil + fixed copper 1. Not for Phytophthora fruit rot.08 to 0. DISEASE CONTROL FOR TOMATO Rate of Material to Use Commodity TOMATO. Incorporate mechanically if rainfall is not expected before seeds germinate. Apply specified dosage in adequate water to ensure thorough coverage of foliage and fruit. Use shorter intervals in mountains and longer intervals in the piedmont and coastal areas. Use higher rates following fruit set. 1 14 Reentry Method.3 to 3 lb/acre 7 2 DO NOT use on cherry tomatoes. on 5. Do not apply more than twice before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. 2 20 lb/trt acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 1 to 2 qt/trt acre 2. Rhizoctonia fruit rot (Bravo Ultrex) 82.375 to 3 pt/acre 1.TABLE 3-58. Do not apply more than once before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. field (continued) Disease Cristulariella leaf spot. Make no more than 2 sequential applications and no more than 6 per crop year.2 to 2.5 to 7 oz/acre 1 12 hr pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20% EG zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (Ziram) 76 DF 8 to 12 oz/acre Late blight: 8 to 16 oz/acre 3 to 4 lb/acre 1.75 to 1. Do not make more than 3 applications of Ridomil Gold/ Bravo or Ridomil Gold MZ per crop. Schedule.88 pt/ acre 1.1 to 2. Powdery mildew Damping-off (Pythium).5 to 5 lb/acre Active Ingredient 1 to 1.12 to 0. Must be tank mixed with a protectant fungicide (chlorothalonil or mancozeb) appropriate for targeted disease(s). Do not use with Copper-Count N in concentrated spray suspensions.3 pt/acre See above rates (according to manufacturer’s label) 0 0 — — 1 1 1 — Spray weekly. Bacterial spot. Septoria leaf spot azoxystrobin (Amistar) 0.7 to 5. Initiate applications within 3 days of transplanting or at first sign of disease and repeat every 5 to 10 days.5 oz/acre 0.5 to 2.75 to 1.5 Apply uniformly to soil at time of planting. but do not exceed 175 gal per acre.2 lb/acre 0. Apply in sufficient water to obtain adequate coverage. chlorothalonil Gray leaf spot. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.6 lb/acre 1.8 to 7. DO NOT apply more than 72 oz per acre per season.35 to 2. mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold GR) (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL (Ultra Flourish) 2 EC Early blight boscalid (Endura) 70% fluoxastrobin (Evito) 480 SC 3. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development or when disease is present in area.to 10-day intervals.5 lb/acre 1. Begin applications at first sign of infection and continue at 7. Tanos does not list Botrytis gray mold or bacterial canker on label.8 fl oz per acre per season. Late blight. See Gavel label for use restrictions and use of surfactant to improve performance.8 F (Quadris) fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 1.5 to 3 lb/acre 1. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.2 oz/acre 0 4 hr 2.5 to 1 lb/trt acre 1.7 lb/acre 5 2 6 to 8 oz/acre 3 to 4 oz/acre 3 4 hr See above rates 5 0 1 2 2 to 4 lb/acre 2.6 to 3. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Do not apply more than 22. Do not use in Granville or Johnston counties.4 lb/acre 1.45 oz/ acre 7 28 28 0 3 0.5 lb/acre 1.75 pt/ acre 1. famoxadone + cymoxanil Gray leaf spot. Late blight.75 to 2.1 to 2. on 7. Root and fruit rots (Phytophthora) Material myclobutanil (Nova) 40 W fosetyl-Al (Aliette) 80 WDG Formulation 2. on 7.4 qt/acre 2.6 oz/acre 2 to 4 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Botrytis gray mold.7 fl oz/acre 0.1 lb/acre 0.45 lb mancozeb 80W.4 lb/acre 1.267 fl oz/acre 1 4 hr 14 4 hr mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top) 5.2 fl oz/acre 0.25 lb/acre.5 5 3 5 14 1 2 1 2 Do not make more than 3 applications of Ridomil Gold/ Bravo or Ridomil Gold MZ per crop. Do not apply more than once before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Start sprays at 2. Bacterial speck. Do not apply more than 28 fl oz per acre per season. Late blight. Chlorothalonil may be combined in the spray tank with EPA-registered pesticide products that claim copper as the active ingredient and are labeled for bacterial diseases of tomatoes. 2.to 10-day intervals. Do not apply more than once before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Do not apply more than 24.to 14-day intervals.375 to 2.to 14-day schedule.5 to 2 lb/acre 1.18 lb/acre Early blight. Tank mix Bravo MZ58 with 0.178 to 0. Manzate) 75 W.

L. and Remarks 1 Apply at 7.1 to 2.5 to 1. field (continued) Disease Late blight Material mancozeb + copper hydroxide (ManKocide) 61 DF mancozeb (Dithane DF.18 lb/acre TABLE 3-59. on 7.18 lb/acre 2 3 0. 0 1.18 F fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F fluoxastrobin (Evito) 480 SC 3.4 oz/acre 6 oz/acre 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 5.0710 lb/acre 0 1.J. use only in combination with a labeled rate of a protectant fungicide.5 0. Follow label restrictions carefully. Schedule. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.05 to 0.7 to 1. ++ Fair.5 0. Do not mix with other fungicide products. on 7-day intervals.5 0. For Curzol or Previcur.7 fl oz/acre 3. 80 W + fixed copper 6 cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC Formulation 2.4 lb/acre 5 1 1 Apply in 100 to 150 gal water per acre.5 to 5 lb/acre Active Ingredient 1.125 lb/ acre 0. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR FOLIAR DISEASE CONTROL ON TOMATO K. Extension Plant Pathology. Must be tank mixed with an organosilicate surfactant.0 Southern blight 0. Do not apply more than 22. Do not apply more than once before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. LOUWS.8 fl oz per acre per season. and D. ? Not known. IVORS and F.75 fl oz/ acre 0. DO NOT apply more than 6 sprays of Ranman 400 SC per crop. 5 Reentry Method.2 to 5 oz/acre 1.8 to 7. Repeat every 5 to 10 days. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide with a different mode of action.0 pt/acre 5 3 0.7 fl oz/acre 0.6 oz/acre 0. Extension Plant Pathology. Do not apply more than 22.0 oz 3 4 0. Do not apply more than once before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.to 10-day intervals. DISEASE CONTROL FOR TOMATO Rate of Material to Use Commodity TOMATO. cymoxanil (Curzate 60 DF) dimethomorph (Acrobat) 50 WP (Forum) 4. -.12 to 0. +++ Good. Begin when seedlings emerge. Manzate) 75 W.9 to 3. INGRAM.2 oz/acre 2. Use only in combination with a labeled rate of another fungicide product with a different mode of action.5 pt/acre 0. 0 Alternate sprays with a fungicide with a different mode of action.Not applicable RELATIVE CONTROL RATING Bacterial canker Bacterial speck Bacterial spot Buckeye rot Early blight Late blight Practice Use of resistant cultivars Crop rotation (3-4 years) Fertility Use of cover crops Destroy crop residue Rogue plants Promote air movement Use of disease free seed / treatment Use of plastic mulches Do not handle plants when wet Use of drip irrigation Biological control Application of fungicides Fumigation ++ + ++ ++++ ++++ +++ + ++ - ++ + ++ ++++ +++ +++ + + - ++ + ++ ++++ +++ +++ ++ + - +++ +++ ++ + +++ - ++ ++ + +++ + +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + + + + ++ + ++++ - ++ + ++ + ++++ - ++++ - Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 227 Septoria ++ ++ + ++ - Botrytis . NC State University.5 propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6. use only in combination with a labeled rate of a protectant fungicide.5 fluoxastrobin (Evito) 480 SC 3. + Poor.5 to 3 lb/acre + See label 2.TABLE 3-58. .1 to 2.5 to 3 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. MS State University Key to efficacy ratings based on observations and reports ++++ Excellent.to 10-day intervals. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.09 to 0.5 6. For Curzol or Previcur.Not effective.8 fl oz per acre per season.

Flouronil) mefenoxam + copper (Ridomil Gold/Copper) mefenoxam + mancozeb (Ridomil Gold MZ ) myclobutanil (Nova) propamocarb (Previcur Flex) pyrimethalnil (Scala) streptomycin (Agri-Mycin. Plant Pathology Extension Relative Control Rating (— = ineffective. 22: benzamides.TABLE 3-60. 33: phosphonates. Champ. 11: quinone outside inhibitors. Maneb) mefenoxam + chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo. 2: dicarboxamides. Tenn-Cop. M: multi-site activity. Forum) fenamidone (Reason) fixed copper fluopicolide (Presidio) mancozeb (Dithane M-45. Copper-Count-N. follow label carefully. 7: carboxamides. 9 Systemic activated resistance. 21: quinone inside inhibitors. 6 Sulfur may be phytotoxic. Super Cu. In the case of mefenoxam. 9: anilonopyrimidines. IVORS and F. 27: cyanoacetamideoximes. Champion. not systemic. 10 Do not use on cherry tomatoes. 12: phenylpyrroles. Penncozeb. Nu-Cop. J. and Tri-basic copper sulfate. 28: carbamates. see femoxadone/cymoxanil above) dimethomorph (Acrobat. Phytophthora (late blight) resistant strains predominate. not registered for field use. Top Cop with Sulfur. Streptrol) sulfur zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate (Ziram) 1 11 NA 21 7 M 21 27 11 + 27 15 11 M 43 M M+M M + 22 40 + 3 M 4+M 4+M 4+M 3 28 9 25 M M 0 0 14 0 0 0 3 3 4 14 0 2 5 5 3 1 5 14 14 5 1 5 1 0 0 7 — — ? — — — — — — — +++ — — +++ — — — — ++ — — — — +++ — — — + +++ — — — — — — — +++ — — +++ — — — — ++ — + +++ — — — — — — — +++ — — +++ — — — — ++ — — — — +++ ++ — — — — — — — — — — — — + — — — — ++ — — — ? — — — + — +? + +++ ++ + + + + + + + +++++ +++++ +++++ — + — — — — ? — — ? — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — ++++ — — — — — +++++ — — ++++ ++ ++ — +++ — +++ ++ — ++++ +++ +++ +++ ++++ + ++ +++ — — ++ — — ++ +++ — — — ++++ +++ ++++ ++++ +++ +++ +++ ++++ +++ +++ ++ ++++ +++ +++++ +++++ +++++ — +++ — — — ? +++++ — — ? + — — ? — ? + — — + — — — — + — ++++ — ? — +++ ? ++++ — — ? ++++ — ? +++ — + +++ — +++ +++ ++ ? +++ ++ ++ ++ — — ? — — ++ — — — +++ — — — — — +++ — — Key to Fungicide Groups: 1: methyl benzimidazole carbamates. 7 Curative activity. 8 Curative activity. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS CHEMICALS FOR TOMATO FOLIAR DISEASE CONTROL K. Manzate 200. Kocide. 4 Fixed coppers include: Basicop. 40: carboxylic acid amines. 43: acylpicolides. DF. Equus. LOUWS. 3: demethylation inhibitors. 4: phenylamides. 3 Biological control product consisting of a virus that attacks pathogenic bacteria. 5 Streptomycin may only be used on transplants. Citcop. ? = activity unknown) Preharvest Interval (Days) Crystulariella Leaf Spot Fungicide Group1 Pesticide Strobilurins : azoxystrobin (Amistar. Quadris) femoxadone/cymoxanil (Tanos) fluoxastrobin (Evito) 11 11 + 27 11 1 3 3 — — — — — — — — — — — — ? + — ? — — +++++ +++ +++ +++ +++ — +++++ ? +++++ ++++ +++ +++ pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) bacteriophage (AgriPhage) acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) boscalid (Endura) chlorothalonil (Bravo. Manex II) mancozeb + fixed copper (ManKocide) mancozeb + zoxamide (Gavel) mandipropamid + difenoconazole (Revus Top) maneb (Manex. systemic. 15: cinnamic acids. 25: glucopyranosyl antibiotic. R Resistance to this pesticide has been detected in the pathogen population. Echo) cyazofamid (Ranman) cymoxanil (Curzate) (Tanos. Page 228 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Septoria Leaf Spot Botrytis Graymold Bacterial Canker Powdery Mildew Bacterial Speck Bacterial Spot Buckeye Rot Early Blight Late Blight . not systemic. NA: not applicable 2 Contact control only. +++++ = very effective.

THEIR RESISTANCE TO SPECIFIC DISEASES. Causal agents of each disease listed above: Alternaria stem canker = Alternaria alternata f. Extension Plant Pathology. Ivors. M. COMMERCIAL TOMATO VARIETIES. lycopersici Bacterial speck = Pseudomonas syringae pv. K. tomato Gray leaf spot = Stemphylium solani Fusarium wilt = Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. AND RECOMMENDED LOCATION FOR CULTIVATION. M.TABLE 3-61.L. javanica.sp. NC State University Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Recommended location (state)* AGLMNS AG AGN N AGNS AGMNS AGLNS GLMS ANS AGLNS N ANS AGLMNS N AGM N N LMS L AGLNS NS M AGS X X X X X X X X X X X AGLMNS N X X AGNS AMN N GNS AGMNS M AGMNS AN AGNS AGMN ANS AN X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X AGNS N N AGN N GNS N Alternaria stem canker Tomato variety Amelia Bella Rose BHN 444 Biltmore Carolina Gold Crista Florida 47 Florida 91 Floralina Mountain Crest Mountain Glory Mountain Fresh Plus Mountain Spring Phoenix Quincy Red defender Scarlet red Solar set (FALL ONLY) Sun Chaser Sun Leaper Sunbeam Sunrise Talladega Cherry Grande Marcelino Mountain Belle Sun Gold Brixmore Elfin Jolly Elf Mini Charm Navidad Rosa Santa Claus Saint Nick Smarty Snapy BHN 410 Mariana Picus Plum Crimson Plum Dandy Spectrum Sunoma type round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round round cherry cherry cherry cherry grape grape grape grape grape grape grape grape grape grape roma roma roma roma roma roma roma X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X ? X X X X X X X X X X X X X An ‘X’ indicates the variety is considered ‘resistant’ to that particular disease. lycopersici Root knot nematodes = Meloidogyne incognita. hapla Verticillium wilt = Verticillium dahliae race 1 (no known commercial resistance to race 2) *Recommended states: Alabama (A) Georgia (G) Louisiana (L) Mississippi (M) North Carolina (N) South Carolina (S) Verticillium wilt race 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Tobacco Mosaic Virus Root knot nematodes Fusarium wilt race 1 Fusarium wilt race 2 Fusarium wilt race 3 Bacterial speck Gray leaf spot Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 229 .

Actigard. Endura. J.08F) (Tanos) 1 Amount per 100 gal 1 0.75 fl oz 3 lb 2 oz 8 oz 6. 1. LOUWS. Penncozeb) strobilurin (Amistar) (Cabrio EG) (Quadris 2. cyazofamid. copper. chlorothalonil. *Total number of applications per season is restricted by label. Products and schedules may be different for other regions of North Carolina depending upon the disease involved and the amount of disease pressure. and strobilurin are common names for products sold under various trade names. RATES FOR FOLIAR DISEASE CONTROL IN FRESH-MARKET TOMATOES AT FULL PLANT GROWTH K. *** Tank mix cyazofamid with an organosilicone surfactant. Actigard. 2 strobilurin. Plant Pathology Extension TABLE 3-63. 5Finish season with chlorothalonil.6 lb 2. SUGGESTED WEEKLY SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR FOLIAR DISEASE CONTROL IN FRESH-MARKET TOMATO PRODUCTION Week Chemical BEFORE HARVEST 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 mancozeb* + copper + Actigard* mancozeb* + copper strobilurin* + Actigard mancozeb* + copper mancozeb* + copper + Actigard strobilurin* mancozeb* + copper + Actigard mancozeb* + copper + Endura** mancozeb. Plant Pathology Extension The following schedule is based on research conducted at the Mountain Horticulure Research Station. 3 chlorothalonil. 1 mancozeb. 5. Actigard and Endura are trade names of products manufactured by Syngenta and BASF Corporation. 4. following the manufacturer’s label recommendations.8 pt 4 lb 1. 3 mancozeb. 1 Number of Applications of Chemical Per Season DURING HARVEST 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 cyazofamid*** + strobilurin* chlorothalonil + Endura** cyazofamid*** chlorothalonil + strobilurin* chlorothalonil chlorothalonil strobilurin*chlorothalonil cyazofamid. Mancozeb. TABLE 3-62. 2 cyazofamid. 4 mancozeb. 1. 2 mancozeb. IVORS and F.0 oz 2.C. Manzate 75DF/80WP. 4 strobilurin. ** Endura applications are only necessary if conditions are conductive for gray mold (wet and cool shortly before and during harvest). N. Page 230 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Refer to labels and Table 3-58 for rates to use in volume-based spraying. 3 strobilurin.75 oz 9. others) (Kocide 3000) cyazofamid (Ranman 400 SC) mancozeb (Dithane Rainshield NT. RATES FOR FOLIAR DISEASE CONTROL IN FRESH-MARKET TOMATOES AT FULL PLANT GROWTH Product acibenzolar S-methyl (Actigard) boscalid (Endura) chlorothalonil (Bravo Ultrex. others) (Kocide 2000. 2. 3 chlorothalonil.75 lb 2. IVORS and F. strobilurin. Actigard. 4 chlorothalonil. 2 chlorothalonil. Equus DF) (Equus 720) copper (Cuprofix Disperss.2 fl oz 8 oz Assumes a maximum of 100 gal spray per acre. Fletcher. respectively. 1. J. 2 mancozeb.75 to 1.5 to 3 lb 0. 5.SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR FOLIAR DISEASE CONTROL IN FRESH-MARKET TOMATO PRODUCTION K. Endura. strobilurin. 1. LOUWS. 6. Actigard.

Not for use on turnips grown for roots. Apply no more than 2. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik) 6 F thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP Damping-off (Pythium) mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) 4 SL metalaxyl (MetaStar) 2 E propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F — 1 — — — — 2 — 4 hr 2 0. For optimum results use as a preventative treatment. Quadris) 2. See label for use in seed beds.4 fl oz/ acre 0. Make no more than two sequential applications before alternating with fungicides that have a different mode of action. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval.9-8.25 fl oz/ acre Anthracnose.2 to 15. Cabrio can not be used on turnip grown for roots. ineffective once fruit reaches full size.4-1.2 to 0.8 oz/acre 7 0.6 F must have 2-4 hours of drying time on foliage for the active ingredient to move systemically into plant tissue before rain or irrigation occurs. Apply when disease first appears.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Not for use on turnips grown for roots. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.4 pt/acre 0.25 pt/acre 0. Apply no more than 2.8 oz/acre 7 0.to 10-day intervals.4-1. Bacterial bacteriophage (AgriPhage) spot Bacterial wilt Belly (fruit) rot. drip system.5 2 2 0.5 sulfur (Microthiol Disperss) 80 MWS Phytophthora basal stem rot.to 10-day intervals. and Remarks 4 hr Use lower rate for rust. Rates based on rock wool cube saturation in the greenhouse. 0 Reentry Method. Folicur 3. NEVER apply with copper-based products. DISEASE CONTROL FOR WATERMELON Rate of Material to Use Commodity WATERMELON Disease Angular leaf spot Bacterial fruit blotch Material fixed copper6 fixed copper6 Formulation See label See label 1 to 2 pt/100 gal/ acre — See label 8.25 fl oz/ acre 0 4 hr 1 pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 8-12 oz/acre 1. See Insect Control section for Cucumber Beetles.6-2.6 lb/100 gal Active Ingredient — — Mininimum Days Harv. Rhizoctonia — azoxystrobin (Amistar. Begin applications prior to disease development and continue on a 7-10 day interval. soil spray (broadcast or band). Cabrio can only be used on turnip harvested for leaves. and continue on 7. For use on turnip varieties where leaves only will be harvested. Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface.08 F 12. Folicur 3. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide ith a different mode of action. Pythium damping-off See BROCCOLI 3 to 10 lb/acre 0 TABLE 3-65.5 to 1 lb/acre 0.TABLE 3-64.8 oz/acre 7 0. Woks best if applied in late afternoon or evening with 2 lb/acre powdered milk.9-8.5 to 1 lb/acre 0. See label for complete list of greens.4 oz/acre 3 0.5 cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. and Remarks 0 0 12 hr Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing.5 WG 11-14 oz/acre 6. Preplant incorporated (broadcast or band).35 lb/acre 0. Make single application when vines begin to run. pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG 8-12 oz/acre 1. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating to a fungicide ith a different mode of action.8 fl oz/100 gal — See label 4. 0 0 0 Reentry Method. Quadris) 2. leaf spots azoxystrobin (Amistar.08 F Mininimum Days Harv. Quadris) 2. Cabrio can not be used on turnip grown for roots. See label for complete list of greens.6-2. Start applications at first bloom.5 tebuconazole (Folicur) 3.6 F 3-4 oz/acre 1. Bacterial spec. Provides suppression of Cercospora leaf Spot.5 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 231 . or injection (drip irrigation).3 to 15. Make banded application to soil surface or in-furrow application just before seed are covered. For use on turnip varieties where leaves only will be harvested. Schedule. Apply when disease first appears.4 fl oz/ acre Active Ingredient 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Apply in sufficient water to obtain runoff to soil surface.1 to 0. Schedule.5 lb/acre 1 to 2 pt/trt acre 4 to 8 pt/trt acre 12. Cabrio can only be used on turnip harvested for leaves.5 Powdery mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar.6 F must have 2-4 hours of drying time on foliage for the active ingredient to move systemically into plant tissue before rain or irrigation occurs.8 oz/acre 7 0.5 cyprodinil + fludioxonil (Switch) 62.6 F 3-4 oz/acre 1. DISEASE CONTROL FOR TURNIP Rate of Material to Use Commodity TURNIP Disease Material Formulation 6.4 oz/acre 3 0. Preplant incorporated or surface application. For optimum results use as a preventative treatment.5 WG 11-14 oz/acre 6. and soil drench. and continue on 7.

4 lb/acre 0.to 10-day intervals.6 lb/acre 2.5 oz/ acre 0.09 to 0. gummy stem blight (Didymella). Do not apply more than 6 pt per growing season. Apply no more than 24 lb per acre per season.5 lb/acre — 2 0.25 lb/acre Mininimum Days Harv. Equus) 6 F cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 CS cymoxanil (Curzate ) 60 DF dimethomorph (Acrobat. Equus) 6 F famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP Formulation 11 to 15. Use only in combination with labeled rate of protectant fungicide (e.TABLE 3-65.125 lb/ acre 1.5 fl oz/acre 0. continue on a 7. Use highest rate for anthracnose..to 10-day intervals. when plants reach full maturity.5 3 0 0. Apply full rate of protectant fungicide between applications. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action.to 14-day intervals.9 lb/acre 2 0.to 10-day intervals.4 to 3. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.1 to 2. and continue on 5. Apply no more than 24 lb per acre per season. and continue on 5.6 lb/acre 1. Apply no more than 2.2 oz/acre 0 0. Cercospora.6 pt/acre — 2 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0.2 oz/acre — 5 5 0 — 1 1 0.5 to 18.44 to 0. Echo.4 fl oz/ acre 1. Do not make more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Must be tank-mixed with contact fungicide with a different mode of action. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group. Always tank mix with another downy mildew product. gummy stem blight (Didymella). Spray at first appearance and then at 7.5 to 2 lb/acre 11 to 15.88 qt per crop per acre per season.5 lb/acre/acre 1. Make no more than 4 applications per season.18 to 0. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop. Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season. target spot (Corynespora) Material azoxystrobin (Amistar. Apply no more than 2. Alternate with fungicide from different resistance management group.5 fl oz/acre 0. Spray at first appearance and then at 7. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development.5 Leaf spots.4 fl oz/ acre 1.4 lb/acre 0.88 qt per crop per acre per season. target spot (Corynespora) (confixed copper6 tinued) mancozeb 4 5. and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season.6 to 2. For disease suppression only.071 lb/acre 1.6 pt/acre — 2 2.8 to 7 oz/acre 0.4 oz/acre 0.178 lb/acre 14 0.5 fenamidone (Reason) 500 SC 5. Quadris) 2. 1 Reentry Method. Do not tank mix with copper-containing products. Forum) 50 WP famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) 50WP 12.to 14-day intervals. Begin applications before infection. Begin applications when conditions favor disease development. Do not use for gummy stem blight where resistance to group 11(QoI) fungicides exists.178 lb/acre 14 0.18 to 0. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik.8 to 1. Cercospora. fenamidone (Reason) anthracnose 500 SC Colletotrichum). Do not apply more than 22 fl oz per growing season.5 See label 2 to 3 lb/acre 1. and make no more than 4 total applications of Group 11 fungicides per season.5 to 2 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre — 0. Schedule.5 WP propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 6 F See label 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 2 to 5 lb/acre 2 to 3 lb/acre 8 fl oz/acre 1.08F maneb (Maneb) 75 DF mefenoxam+chlorothalonil (Ridomil Gold Bravo.to 10-day interval. Tank mix with another downy mildew fungicide with a different mode of action.6 lb/acre 12 to 16 oz/acre — 1. Alternaria. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.g. and Remarks 4 hr Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action.5 0.2 oz/acre 6.5 maneb (Maneb) 75 DF pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38WG thiophanate-methyl (Topsin M) 70 WP zoxamide + mancozeb Gavel) 75 DF Downy mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar.9 oz/acre 3.2 to 1. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.to 14-day interval.5 1 0. Avoid late-season application.5 fixed copper6 fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F fosetyl-AL (Aliette) 80 WDG mancozeb 4 mandipropamid (Revus) 2.75 fl oz/ acre 3.5 1 2 1.35 lb/acre 1.5 Page 232 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .5 0. anthracnose Colletotrichum).6 to 4 lb/acre 1. Spray at first appearance and repeat at 14-day intervals.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage.054 to 0. Echo.5 8 oz/acre 4 oz/acre 3 0.5 2 4 hr 0. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. DISEASE CONTROL FOR WATERMELON Rate of Material to Use Commodity WATERMELON (continued) Disease Leaf spots. Alternaria.5 5 1 5 7 — 0. Flouronil) 76. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. 0.44 to 0.5 to 3 pt/acre 4. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.5 to 3 pt/acre Active Ingredient 0.13 to 1.to 10-day interval.13 lb/acre 0. mancozeb or chlorothalonil). Quadris) 2. Only for Alternaria and anthracnose.to 10-day intervals. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.5 lb/acre 0.6 to 2. Not for target spot.2 pt/acre 0. Do not make more than one application before alternating with a fungicide that has a different mode of action. and repeat at 7.25 lb/acre 0 — 5 1 1 0. Mixing with surfactants or foliar fertilizers is not recommended.8 to 1.

5 to 5 oz/acre 12 to 16 oz 12.5 4 to 8 oz 1. Bravo Weather Stik. 1. max 24 fl oz per season. Echo 500.5 0. Tenn-Cop. Echo. Quadris) 2.5 1 1 0. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity.18 to 0.75 to 1 oz/acre 0 0. Avoid late-season application after plants have reached full maturity. 3 Use crop rotation. Tank mix with another Phytophthora fungicide with a different mode of action. and Equus DF.5 lb/acre 0. Bravo S.5 1. Observe a 30-day plant-back interval.4 oz 3.TABLE 3-65. Apply no more than 1.5 to 2 lb/acre — 0 0 0 0 7 — 1 0.4 oz/acre 4.5 to 3 pt 0.4 fl oz/ acre 1. Super Cu.09 to 0.5 to 2 oz/acre 0. Dithane M-45.071 lb/acre 5 0 2 0.8 to 1.to 10-day intervals. Equus) 6 F Formulation 8 to 12 oz/acre 12. and Thiolux.5 3 to 4 fl oz/acre 8 fl oz/acre 11 to 15. Make no more than 4 applications per season. Apply no more than 2. 2 Use sanitation.4 to 3. 7 Chlorothalonil products include Bravo 500. Apply before disease appears when conditions favor rust development and repeat at 10. Citcop. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed alternating applications of Ridomil Gold Bravo on a 7. Nu-Cop.75 fl oz/acre 1.25 lb/acre 2 0 1 0. and Penncozeb 75 DF.to 14-day intervals. Kocide. Equus 720. Champ. Do not apply more than one application before alternating with a nonstrobilurin fungicide. DISEASE CONTROL FOR WATERMELON Rate of Material to Use Commodity WATERMELON (continued) Disease Downy mildew (continued) Material pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG zoxamide + mancozeb (Gavel) 75 DF Phytophthora blight cyazofamid (Ranman) 400 SC dimethomorph (Acrobat) 50 WP fluopicolide (Presidio) 4F mandipropamid (Revus) 2. Top Cop with sulfur. Do not make more than two sequential applications. Must be applied as a tank mix with another fungicide active against Phytophthora blight.6F trifloxystrobin (Flint) 50 WDG triflumizole (Procure) 50 WS Scab chlorothalonil (Bravo WeatherStick.to 14-day intervals. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.5 to 18.5 to 2 lb/acre 2. For disease suppression only.08F Powdery mildew azoxystrobin (Amistar. apply as foliar spray with copper based fungicide.5 oz/ acre 4 oz/acre Active Ingredient 1. Manex 4 F. Echo 90 DF. Spray at first appearance and then at 7.5 1 0. and repeat at 7.2 oz 0 0. COPPER-COUNT-N.6 pt — 2 See label 2. Manzate 75 DF. Schedule. Begin applications when plants are in 2-leaf stage.5 lb per acre per crop.8 to 7 oz/acre 2 oz/acre Mininimum Days Harv.125 lb/ acre 0.08 F chlorothalonil (Bravo Weather Stik. Liquid Sulfur Six. Manex II. Sulfur DF.5 6.2 oz 4.5 2 1 Resistant cultivars available.13 lb/acre 0. 6 Fixed copper products include Basicop. Echo 720. Do not make more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action. Bravo Zn. Kumulus. Bravo Weather Stik Zn.to 14-day intervals.5 to 3 pt 2 to 4 oz 0. Echo. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 233 . 4 Mancozeb products include Dithane DF Rainshield NT Fungicide. and Remarks 0.5 4 hr 0. and Tri-Basic Copper Sulfate. Manzate 80 WP.to 14-day interval. Do not apply more than 6 sprays per crop.8 to 7 oz — 1.6 to 2.5 to 18.to 14-day intervals. Make no more than one application before alternating with a fungicide with a different mode of action. 5 Sulfur products include Microthiol Disperss 80 MWS. Echo 75 WDG. Echo Zn. Equus) 6 F fixed copper6 myclobutanil (Nova) 40 WP pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) 20 WG pyraclostrobin + boscalid (Pristine) 38 WG sulfur 5 Powdery mildew tebuconazole (Folicur) 3. Champion. and repeat at 7.6 pt 0 — 0. 0 0 0 Reentry Method. Dithane F-45.5 oz See label 4 to 6 fl oz/acre — 1 to 2 oz/acre 2.to 14-day intervals.5 Do not make more than one application before alternating to a fungicide with a different mode of action.8 to 1. Penncozeb 80 WP. Do not use when temperature is over 90°F or on sulfursensitive varieties. Make no more than 3 consecutive applications followed by 3 applications of fungicides from a different resistance management group. Begin applications at vining or first sign of disease. Make no more than 4 applications per season. Bravo Ultrex.88 qt per crop per acre per season. Repeated use may cause leaf yellowing. Begin applications preventatively and continue as needed on 7.13 to 1. seed treatment.

Use nematode-free planting material. FedEx. For example.5 to 75 gal 10. BROCCOLI. mineral soil Formulated Rate per Acre 9 to 12 gal 25 gal Formulated Rate Per 100 Sq Ft Or 100 Ft Row 2. all products are more effective. Your Row Spacing (inches) Conversion Factor 1.556 0. (Soil should be warm. and lower rates can be used. muck or peat soil soil Telone C-35 Inline (drip application only) Broadcast.0 fl oz 8. Fall application is often preferred to spring application.6 to 10. Sectagon 42. Plant Pathology Crop losses due to nematodes can be avoided or reduced by using the following management tactics. Follow manufacturer’s label in all cases. NEMATODE CONTROL IN VEGETABLE CROPS Commodity MOST VEGETABLES Material dichloropropene (Telone II) Application Method for Given Soils Broadcast.6 to 3. Ship sample via DHL.5 gal 33 to 36 gal 11 to 22 fl oz 3. For other row spacings. CAULIFLOWER. or if odor persists. longer if soil is cold or very wet.54 1.952 0. LOUWS and G.6 fl oz ASPARAGUS.833 0.25 1.43 1.8 fl oz 0. wet soil. For broadcast treatments. fumigate or use other nematicides according to guidelines listed on the label.67 1. CANTALOUPE. or muck soil MOST VEGETABLES (MULTI-PURPOSE FUMIGANTS) Vapam HL. well worked.5 fl oz 7.1 to 8. J.8 to 17. and free from undecomposed plant debris and have adequate moisture for seed germination.00 0. Some products have restrictive crop rotations.667 0. LETTUCE. do not rework rows after fumigating. For in-row application. labels change rapidly and errors are possible. and special uses. There is a fee for each sample.8 to 6 fl oz 9. Metam sodium can also be used with overhead and drip irrigation.1 gallons to treat an acre.2 to 5. if 10 gallons per acre are used on 40-inch rows. insert chisel 6 to 8 inches deep and throw a high.4 to 30. This will be a guide to the amount of material to purchase for the acreage you want to treat. chisel depth and spacing. EGGPLANT. for 36-inch rows. use 5-inch spacing for Vapam. Row rates in this section are stated for rows on 40-inch spacing. exact rates.) 7. 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 5 ft 6 ft 7 ft 8 ft 1. and Terr-O-Gas) for soilborne bacterial diseases.11 1. mineral soil CLR Telone C-17 Broadcast. mineral soil Broadcast. the entries were believed to be useful and accurate.4 fl oz Schedule and Remarks Fall application usually preferred to spring application. and space chisels 12 inches apart for most fumigants.18 1. preferably in the fall. DRY ONION. 3. Plow or disk the field two to four times before planting. FUMIGANTS 37. When used with plastic covers. 2. Plow out and expose roots immediately after the last harvest.909 0. Use products with 15% or more chloropicrin (Telone C-17.33 1. CAUtION: Read labels carefully.476 0. MUSKMELON. NC 27607-6465 6.5 to 1. peat. 9.417 Sample soil and have it assayed for nematodes. mineral soil Broadcast.1 gal 27. J. or UPS to: Nematode Assay Section NCDA&CS Agronomic Division 4300 Reedy Creek Road Raleigh. 4. Telone C-35.0 gal 13 to 20. wide bed up over it. Metam Broadcast. PEPPER. Wait 3 weeks before planting. muck or peat soil Broadcast. Wait 3 weeks before planting or longer in cold. 5. Practice crop rotation.0 lb Page 234 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . multiply the stated acre rate by the appropriate conversion factor to determine the amount of material applied per acre (Do not alter stated amount per 100-foot row). insert chisels 6 to 8 inches deep.6 to 0. Read label for row application use in organic soils. 8. it will take 11. Methyl bromide may have use restrictions associated with Critical Use Exemptions.05 1. TOMATO methyl bromide 67%chloropicrin 33%(Terr-O-Gas 67) methyl bromide 98% 270 to 360 lb 215 to 430 lb 0.870 0. so the user must follow all directions on the container of the pesticide. Where warranted.NEMATODE CONTROL IN VEGETABLE CROPS F.8 fl oz 3. NEMATODE CONTROL IN VEGETABLE CROPS CAUTION: At the time this table was prepared. HOLMES. mineral soil Broadcast. However. TABLE 3-66.

to 2-week intervals 2 to 4 weeks after the second soil treatments. deep.to 15-inch band over row.000-ft row 2 to 4 pt 2 to 8 pt See label — — See label 0. Incorporate 3 in. deep. Incorporate 2 to 4 in. See label.9 fl oz water See label — 0. See label. into soil.to 2-week intervals. Apply in a 12. NEMATODE CONTROL IN VEGETABLE CROPS Commodity BEAN (snap and lima) BRUSSELS SPROUT (transp lants)CABBAGE(transplants and direct seed) CABBAGE CARROT Material ethoprop (Mocap) various formulations fenamiphos (Nemacur) 15G Application Method for Given Soils Broadcast or banded Row Formulated Rate per Acre See label — Formulated Rate Per 100 Sq Ft Or 100 Ft Row See label 0. See label. deep. Incorporate 2 to 4 in. Apply in 6. pumpkin) EGGPLANT ethoprop (Mocap G) various formulations oxamyl (Vydate) 2L Banded only Preplant broadcast Foliar spray Incorporate 2 to 4 in.TABLE 3-66.3 oz 1 gal — GARLIC (bulb and stem nematode) OKRA fenamiphos (Nemacur) 15G fenamiphos (Nemacur) 15G 40-in.07 to 0. watermelon. Repeat 1. deep. Foliar Drip irrigation Incorporate 2 to 4 in. deep and plant. See label. rows Transplant water Drip irrigation 15 to 30 lb — 0. plant. deep. increase dosage progressively to 8 pt.6 fl oz in 5.8 oz — — SWEET CORN SWEET CORN. Place granules directly in the seed furrow behind planter shoe. Use as a supplement to transplant treatment 14 days after transplanting.to 15-in. squash.3 to 0. NOTE: Follow manufacturer’s label in all cases. Apply (in furrow) within 1 wk of planting. deep. repeat 14 to 21 days later. fenamiphos (Nemacur) 15G oxamyl (Vydate) 2L Apply in 12-in. Apply at first irrigation to field.9 to 1. 30-in. Do not harvest within 120 days of treatment. do not treat more than 50% of total field area. POTATO ethoprop (Mocap) various formulations oxamyl (Vydate) 2L Broadcast or banded Furrow Foliar See label — — 0. begin foliar sprays when early season control has diminished.7 lb/acre. Spray when plants are established. and incorporate mechanically or with overhead irrigation. Do not treat within 1 day of harvest. incorporate. On narrow rows do not let bands overlap. honeydew. Thoroughly incorporate into soil 4 to 6 in. min.4 to 0. beds with two seed lines At planting incorporate in a 12. As plants enlarge.8 oz Schedule and Remarks Incorporate 2 to 4 in. cantaloupe. deep. Apply twice by ground equipment at 1.7 to 1.to 15-in.7 oz PEPPER (bell) oxamyl (Vydate) 2L 2 pt in 200 gal water 2 to 4 pt in 40 to 200 gal water See label 1 to 2 gal in 20 gal water 2 to 4 pt 10 to 20 lb — — Do not treat within 7 days of harvest. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 235 . First application 2 to 4 weeks after planting. Do not use vines.7 oz SWEETPOTATO aldicarb (Temik) 15 G 40-in. band. band on 36-in. See label. deep. repeat at 1. do not let bands overlap. Apply to seed furrow at planting. band and incorporate 4 to 8 in. NONFUMIGANTS ethoprop (Mocap) various formulations oxamyl (Vydate) 2L Broadcast or banded Preplant broadcast At planting seed furrow See label 2 to 4 galin 20 gal water 1 to 2 galin 20 gal water See label 1 to 2 gal 2 to 4 ptUse enough water for uniform coverage of foliage — — 4 pt See label 1 to 2 gal in 20 gal water 0. POPCORN TOMATO ethoprop (Mocap) various formulations terbufos (Counter) 15G oxamyl (Vydate) 2L Banded only Row.to 6-in. Maximum 8.15 fl oz CUCUMBER CUCURBITS (cucumber. See label. rows ethoprop (Mocap) various formulations oxamyl (Vydate) 2L Broadcast or banded Preplant broadcast Transplant water See label 2 to 3 galin 20 gal water 1 to 2 gal in 200 gal water See label 8 oz/1. On narrow rows.3 to 1. Incorporate 2 to 4 in. Repeat every 1 to 2 weeks while plants are small.to 2-week intervals.8 oz 1. plan Banded on soil Foliar 1. On narrow rows do not let bands overlap. and thoroughly incorporate into soil 4.

Not effective against powdery mildew. For preparing small quantities. moisten interior. Spray at first appearance of leaf spot or downy mildew. Remove all debris and heat-sensitive materials. and cultural practices.3 lb/43. However.5 For transplant production only. close tightly.5 30 7 1 1 7 5 5 10 10 5 2 to 3 lb/43. Prepare stock solution and apply 3.900 plants respectively. white mold Botrytis Botrytis Pythium. For example. LETTUCE (leaf) RHUBARB TOMATO. F. tAbLE 3-67. IVORS. Preplant soil treatment.560 sq ft 7 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Apply when disease first appears to diseased areas of plants. PEPPERS. Phytophthora Botran 75W 1.3 lb/43. Greenhouse must reach at least 140ºF each day. so the user must follow all directions on the pesticide container. CAULIFLOWER. 100 gal will treat 3. 4 to 8 hr for 7 days Rate of Active Ingredient — Minimum Days Harvest — Reentry — Schedule and Remarks Close up greenhouse during hottest and sunniest part of summer for at least 1 week. Information in the following table must be used in the context of a total disease control program. crop rotation. or chloropicrin 180ºF for 30 min 3 lb/1. CABBAGE. by keeping the air circulating in the house with a large overhead polytube. Added heat methyl bromide 98% SOIL Soilborne diseases Steam. many diseases are controlled by the use of resistant varieties. J. Southern stem blight. Phytophthora root rot Steptomycin sulfate (Agri-mycin) 17 WP propamocarb hydrochloride (previcur Flex) 16 oz/100 gal 12. Page 236 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . 1. damping off 75 WP (Rhizoctonia solani) mancozeb 80 W Leaf spots 4 to 8 oz/100 gal 1.8 grams/gal. KOHLRABI CUCURBITS EGGPLANT KALE LETTUCE. Ventilate during application and use appropriate respirator. BRUSSELS SPROUT. treat for 24 hr at 65ºF or higher. See table on sanitizing greenhouses and plant beds.5 Spray 7 days after transplanting and when half mature. NC State University Note: Follow manufacturer’s directions on label in all cases. PEPPERS TOMATO 1 Seedling and Pretransplant Botran 75W Botran 75W propamocarb (Previcur Flex) 2. labels change rapidly and errors are possible. BROCCOLI.560 sq ft — 0.5 lb/acre = 6.7 oz/100 gal 0 5 0.5 to 2 lb/43. INGRAM. Clean out greenhouse.5 in. and canker Pythium. Start weekly sprays at bud emergence. Plant Pathology.560 sq ft 1:1. speck. Repeat weekly until transplanting. Seeds are ordinarily treated by the seed producer for the control of seed decay and damping-off. the entries were believed to be useful and accurate. ENDIVE MELON ONION CUCUMBER Root and stem PCNB (Terraclor) rot.000 cu ft — — — — — — — 7 to 21 VEGETABLE BEDDING PLANTS (in beds or container grown): BEANS (excluding cowpeas). Bacterial spot.8 fl oz/100 gal water 2. sanitation. and ventilate. Mississippi State University. Keep house and contents warm.5 0.5 tsp/gal. LEAF LETTUCE. See label for guidelines to achieve penetration to different depths. CAULIFLOWER CABBAGE. will not control pests 0. sclerotinia. see Tables 2-7 and 2-8. LOUWS and K. BRUSSEL SPROUTS. Approximate equivalencies: 1. Most foliar diseases can be reduced or controlled by maintaining relative humidity under 90 percent.6 lb/43.5 lb/acre = 2.000 14 3 2 1 1 0. CUCURBIT. Caution: At the time this table was prepared. not effective against TMV. Always use top-quality seed or plants obtained from reliable sources. Caution: The risk of pesticide exposure in the greenhouse is high.560 sq ft Sclerotiorum. Begin applications at the first true leaf stage.560 sq ft 1. See label instructions for use before and after transplanting. metam sodium. Remove debris and heat sensitive materials and keep greenhouse and contents moist. seed treatment.M. TOMATOES BEAN (dry) BROCCOLI. or deeper in soil. Chapter II.800 plants for phythium and 1.4 to 6. GREENHOUSE DISEASE CONtROL FOR tOMAtO AND OtHER VEGEtAbLE CROPS 1 Commodity GREENHOUSE Disease Sanitation Material 4 Solarization Rate of Formulation 140ºF. and by avoiding water on the leaves. Use protective clothing laundered daily or after each exposure.GREENHOUSE VEGETABLE CROP DISEASE CONTROL SCHEDULE D.8 fl oz per cube as a drench to pre-wet cubes.

Do not apply more than 72 oz per crop cycle.7 to 3.to 10-day intervals as needed. speck. Do not apply if temperatures will exceed 90 F for 2 days following application or plant injury may occur.2 to 2. Milk (skim) TMV) Dip hands before handling plants. dicloram (Botran) Sclerotinia stem rot 75W or 75 WSB 1 lb/acre 0. White greenhouse after mold (Sclerotinia) transplanting coniothyrium minitans 0. GREENHOUSE DISEASE CONtROL FOR tOMAtO AND OtHER VEGEtAbLE CROPS 1 Commodity TOMATO After transplanting in greenhouse Disease Material 4 Rate of Formulation 6 to 8 oz/acre Rate of Active Ingredient 3 to 3 oz/acre Minimum Days Harvest 3 Reentry 4 hr Schedule and Remarks Tank mixing Tanos with a contact fungicide appropriate for the targeted disease is required. Leaf maneb mold. Prepare stock solution. Milk (skim) TMV TOMATO in Timber rot. (Maneb) 75 DF Late blight.4 fl oz per cube through drop irrigation for first 2 weeks. and spot Bacterial spot and speck fixed copper products (various formulations bacteriophage (AgriPhage) 1.5 oz/acre 0 0. OMRI-approved. Phytophthora suppression 1 to 2 g/100 sq ft 0. and apply 3. Botrytis (gray mold). and repeat at 5. 0 0 1 0.800 plants in the first 2 weeks and 1.000 (contans WG) sq ft applied to growing medium 0 4 hr Dip hands before handling plants.000 sq ft growing medium 0 4 hr OMRI-approved. and apply through drip irrigation no sooner than 3 weeks after transplanting. Mix a o. Suppression of Bacterial spot and speck Anthracnose. Can be used as a drench in the irrigation water or as a foliar spray.tAbLE 3-67.5 etridiazole (Terramaster 6 to 7 oz/acre 2.25 lb/acre 1. 100 gal will treat 3. OMRI-approved.8 fl oz/100 gal water 8. pyrimethanil (Scala) Early blight SC 7 fl oz/acre 1 0. OMRI-approved. Do not make more than 4 applications per crop cycle. Do not apply more than 35 fl oz per crop cycle.000 0. The pH of water should be above 5. Viruses (e.5 Botrytis (gray mold). Early bacillus subtilis blight. Early famoxadone + blight. Make no more than 4 applications per crop cycle.04 to 0. Potential phytotoxicity if not mixed and applied properly. After first 2 weeks.5 oz/100 gal water 5 0. Use 0.9 qt/acre various naturally occurring bacteriophage 3. Apply preventively 2 to 3 times per week. ORMIapproved. Bacterial spot (Serenade) and speck..75 to 1. Use only in a tank mix with suitable fungicide labeled for these diseases. Anthracnose. Septoria leaf spot. Botrytis (gray mold) Timber rot or White mold (Sclerotinia) Coniothyrium minitans (Contans WG) 0 0 Suspend in 100 gal water.08 of area enough to oz/1. Do not apply more than 27. Boscalid is not labeled for this use in North Carolina.4 lb/acre 0.5 oz/1. ToMV. as injury may occur.5 to 3 lb/acre 1.5 oz/1. Viruses (e.4 qt/acre See label 1 to 2 pt/acre 1.5 Some products are OMRI-approved.5 to 1 oz per gal water for Botrytis as a foliar spray.01% solution (6.4 oz per acre per cropping season.900 plants after the first 2 weeks.3 to 0. OMRI-approved. Powdery mildew.5 1:200 up to 1:100 solution 5 to 10 lb/acre 4 to 8 lb/acre 0 Until spray Apply to just before runoff.08 sq ft applied to oz/1.8 fl oz stock solution per cube through drip irrigation.g. Powdery cymoxanil (Tanos) mildew.4 to 0. Trichoderma Botrytis (gray mold) harzianum (Plant Shield) Target spot.g. Begin applications prior to disease development. apply 3.75 to 1. 1 Do not apply if temperatures will exceed 90F for 3 days following application as plant injury may occur. Gray leaf (Maneb) 80 spot (Manex) 4 F Bacterial soft rot. Spray stems of plants from the ground to a height of 18 to 24 in. Ventilate greenhouse for 2 hours after application as vapors may injure crop. Botrytis (gray mold Powdery mildew sulfur (Microthiol Disperss) Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop) 3/5 oz/acre 2. Powdery Neem oil mildew.1 fl oz/acre 3 0 Target spot and boscalid (Endura) Botrytis (gray mold) suppression BIORATIONALS AND BIOLOGICALS Leaf mold. Target spot. Terramaster is not labeled for this use in North Carolina.5 to 3 lb/acre 1.000 sq ft water to cover root zone See Remarks See Remarks 0 4 hr Phythium root rot. See product label for complete application instructions. 2 to 6 qt/acre 0. ToMV.8 qt Manex per acre per crop cycle. Apply 50 to 100 gal per 800 square-foot area as a drench for Pythium. Do not apply more than 16.8 qt/acre 0 4 hr 0. Early blight.2 to 2. Toxic to dries bees. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 237 . Do not mix AgriPhage with copper-based fungicides.1 to 2.8 fl oz/acre 5 1 Do not apply more than 21 lb Maneb per acre per crop cycle.4 to 6. Rhizoctonia.04 to 0.5 Powdery mildew sulfur (Microthiol Disperss) propamocarb hydrochloride (Previcur Flex) 5 to 10 lb/acre 0 1 Pythium and Phytophthora root rot 12. Do not treat seedlings or new transplants.75 lb/acre 10 0.5 oz/500 gal water). 0 Pythium.

28: carbamates. Kocide. 4 Sulfur may be phytotoxic. Tenn-Cop. ? = unknown efficacy Bacterial Canker (Clavibacter michiganense) Phytophthora Root Rot (Phytophthora sp. +++++ = very effective. Cit-Cop. Top-Cop with Sulfur.) Rhizoctonia Root Rot (Rhizoctonia solani) Septoria Leaf Spot (Septoria lycopersici) Pythium Root Rot (Pythium myriotylum) Bacterial Soft Rot (Erwinia carotovora) Anthracnose (Colletotricum coccodes) Botrytis Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) Target Spot (Corynespora cassicola) Fungicide acibenzolar-S-methyl (Actigard) bacteriophage (AgriPhage) Bacillus subtilis (Rhapsody) boscalid (Endura) Coniothyrium minitans (Contans WG) dicloran (Botran 75 WP) famoxadone + cymoxanil (Tanos) fenhexamide (Decree 50 WDG) fixed copper2 maneb (Maneb. 25: glucopyranosil antibiotic. Champ. M: multi-site. J.= ineffective. Nu-Cop. Mississippi State University. Champion.TABLE 3-68. Super Cu. RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF VARIOUS PRODUCTS FOR GREENHOUSE TOMATO DISEASE CONTROL DAVID INGRAM. Tri-basic copper sulfate 3 For use on transplants only. LOUWS. 14: aromatic hydrocarbons. 11: quinine outside inhibitors. and F. 17: hydroxyanalides. Manex) neem oil (Trilogy. Plant Pathology Extension. Triact 70) propamocarb hydrochloride (Previcur Flex) pyrimethanil (Scala) Streptomyces griseoviridis (Mycostop) streptomycin sulfate (Agri-Mycin 17)3 sulfur4 (Microthiol Disperss) Trichoderma harzianum (Plant Shield) hydrogen dioxide (Oxidate) Fungicide Group 1 P NC NC 7 NC 14 11 + 27 17 M M NC 28 9 NC 18 M NC NC 14 0 0 0 0 10 3 1 0 5 0 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 ? ? +++ + ++++ ? + ? ++ + ? ? +++ ? +++ ? ++ ++ + ++ ? ++ ? + +++ ++++ ? +++++ + + ? +++R ? + +++ +++ ++ ++++ ? ? ? ? ++ + +++ ? ? + + + ? ? +++ + ? +++ + ? +++ ++ + + ? ++ ++ ? ? ? ++ + +++ ? ? + ++++ ++ + +++ ? ? 1 Key to fungicide groups: 9:anilinopyrimidines. NC: not classified and P: host plant defense induction 2 Fixed coppers include: Basicop. NC State University KEY: . Copper-Count-N. follow label carefully Page 238 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Timber Rot (White Mold) (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) ? +++ + ++ ? ? ? ? Powdery Mildew (Leveillula taurica) Early Blight (Alternaria solani) Preharvest Interval (days) Leaf Mold (Fulvia fulva) . 27: cyanoacetamide-oximes.

POTS. 11 to 22 oz/100 sq ft (37. structures fair good good good good good good good good good poor poor All transplant crops. For picking containers. Dip 1 to 10 seconds.SANITIZING GREENHOUSES AND PLANT BEDS F.5 to Dilute with sufficient water and 75 gal/acre) sprinkle uniformly to penetrate 2 in. good good Relative Effectiveness Weeds Nematodes Insects good Bacteria good Fungi good Viruses Use and Remarks poor Metam sodium (Metam CLR. Cover or otherwise seal. space chisels 8 in. Excellent steam good good good good good poor NOTE: Follow manufacturer’s label in all cases. J. A hose proportioner may be used. Greenhouse must reach 140oF or higher each day. space chisels 12 in. fungi. Place cleaned items on sunny driveway. deep. methyl bromide/ 450 to 600 lb/acre 33:67 chloropicrin mixtures 300 to 400 lb/acre 67:33 140o F. insects. poor fair poor good good poor Items that are being treated should be clean and moist and temperature should be above 60oF. Plant Pathology HORTICULTURAL CROPS Follow manufacturer’s label in all cases. benches. sunny days in summer for at least 1 week. All crops. Follow general procedures for successful soil fumigation as outlined in commercial literature. The objective of treating soil in greenhouses and plant beds is to reduce to acceptable levels weeds. Aerate 2 to 4 weeks. (70% to 100%) FLATS deccosol-122 7 to 16 oz/100 sq ft (25 to 54 gal/acre) See label for herbicide rates Full strength good good fair poor poor poor Not for greenhouse use. LOUWS. Inject 4 to 6 in. all pests. or dip. Do not overtreat soil. Cover items under airtight plastic. Always follow directions on the label on the pesticide containers. Release fumigant in dish. alcohol (grain. shallow soil.5 in. or covering with plastic mulch. wetting. and bacteria in the soil that cause damage and disease in plants. Caution: use outside.5 to Inject 4 to 6 in. most pests. nematodes. solarization good fair good fair good poor steam Telone C-17 + herbicide Heat soil from 180o to 200o F (30 min) 6 in. deep 10. let drain. spray. use black canister gas mask or selfcontained breathing apparatus. or deeper in soil. Long waiting period in cold soils. Remove debris and heat-sensitive materials and keep greenhouse and contents moist. Pots. This is critical for the successful production of greenhouse crops and healthy plants for field use. EQUIPrubbing.000 cu ft sodium hypochlorite 5. Cover 1 week. fair good good fair good poor All crops. Will not control TMV or pests 0. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 239 . Treated soils might develop nutrient imbalance and be especially susceptible to secondary infestation of disease-causing agents.1 gal/acre See label for herbicide rates Perforated pipes on or in soil. apart. apart. Close greenhouse during hot.21% SOPP) Brush. into soil. Long waiting period after fumigating in cold soil (under 60oF). Vapam) 11 to 22 oz/100 sq ft (37. do not rinse. deep with chisels spaced 12 in. Dip or swab. Cover with plastic 7 to 15 days. deep. wood) MENT. apart. cover with plastic 7 to 15 days. Sectagon. Do not rinse. aerate 3 weeks. SANITIZING GREENHOUSES AND PLANT BEDS Rate to Use Site SOILS and BEDS Material dry heat Formulation 180o F for 30 min Application Place small quantities in oven. space 75 gal/acre) chisels 6 in. Caution: For greenhouse use. Aerate 2 to 4 weeks.5 to 4 lb/1. Aerate 2 to 4 weeks. brush. TABLE 3-69. apart. spray.25% (Clorox) solarization 6 gal/100 gal poor poor poor good good good 140o F. Seal the soil by packing. poor good poor good poor good good good good good poor poor methyl bromide 1. Cover with plastic 7 to 15 days. 1 gal in 6 gal water (0. 4 to 8 hr/day for 7 days Inject 4 to 6 in. CAUTION: Some products or treatments cannot be used for crops. good good good good good fair good fair good good fair poor Telone II + herbicide TOOLS. 4 to 8 hr/ day for 7 days heat object 180o F good fair good fair good poor See comments for solarization on previous page.3 to 17. See label for organic soils. Use higher rates for heavy soils. deep. do not rinse. all pests. tools. cover tightly with clear plastic. cover with tarp Inject 10 to 12 in.

Wilbur-Ellis) Integro Magnetic Sulfur Dust (InteGro) Kolodust (Loveland Products) Kolospray (Loveland Products) Kumulus DF (Micro Flo (Arysta)) Liquid Sulfur Six (Helena) Micro Sulf (Nufarm) Microthiol Disperss (Cerexagri-Nisso) Pronatural Micronized Sulfur (Wilbur-Ellis) Special Electric Sulfur Spray Sulfur (Wilbur-Ellis) Sulfur 6L (Micro Flo (Arysta)) Sulfur 90W (Drexel) Sulfur DF (Wilbur-Ellis) Super-Six (Plant Health Technologies) That Flowable Sulfur (Stoller Enterprises) Thioben 90 (Continental Sulfur Co.5F (Etigra) T-Methyl E-AG 70 WSB (Etigra) Topsin 4. and D. Loveland Products. IAP. Griffin) Kocide LF (Griffin) KOP-Hydroxide 50W (Drexel) Nu Cop 3L (Albaugh) Nu Cop 50DF (Albaugh) NU Cop 50WP (Albaugh) Nu Cop HB (Albaugh) Stretch (EDM Industries) Basicop (Griffin) Basic Copper 53 (Albaugh) Copper Z 4/4 (Helena) Cuprofix Mz Disperss (Cerexagri-Nisso) Cuprofix Ultra 40 Disperss (UPI) Iprodione 4L AG (Arysta) Nevado 4F (Makhteshim Agan) Rovral Brand 4 Flowable (Bayer) Rovral Brand 75WG (Bayer) Dithane DF Rainshield (Dow) Dithane F-45 Rainshield (Dow) Dithane M-45 (Dow) Manzate 75DF (DuPont) Manzate Flowable (Griffin) Manzate Pro-Stick (DuPont) Penncozeb 4FL (Cerexagri-Nisso) Penncozeb 75DF (UPI (Cerexagri-Nisso)) Penncozeb 80WP (Cerexagri-Nisso) Maneb 75DF (UPI (Cerexagri-Nisso)) Maneb 80WP (UPI (Cerexagri-Nisso)) DuPont Manex (DuPont) Manex Fungicide (Griffin) Ridomil Gold EC (Syngenta) Ridomil Gold GR (Syngenta) Ridomil Gold SL (Syngenta) Ultra Flourish (Nufarm) Nova 40W (Dow) Rally 40W (Dow) Rally 40WSP (Dow) Sonoma 40WSP (Albaugh) Blocker 4F (Amvac) Terraclor 15G (Chemtura) Terraclor 2 Lb. generics are in plain type. manufacturer/supplier is in italics within parentheses. Griffin) Kocide 2000 (DuPont.and dibasic salts) phosphorous acid (mono. Loveland Products) Yellow Jacket Dusting Sulfur (Georgia Gulf Sulfur) Yellow Jacket Wettable Sulfur (Georgia Gulf Sulfur) Thiophanate Methyl 85 WDG (Makhteshim Agan) T-Methyl 70W WSB (Arysta) T-Methyl E-AG 4. Extension Plant Pathology.TABLE 3-70. Griffin) Kocide 3000 (DuPont) Kocide 4.5FL (Cerexagri-Nisso) Topsin M 70 WDG (Cerexagri-Nisso) Topsin M 70WP (Cerexagri-Nisso) Topsin M WSB (Cerexagri-Nisso) propiconazole sulfur copper hydroxide copper sulfate (basic) iprodione thiophanate-methyl mancozeb * Brand names are in bold. potassium Page 240 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Griffin) Kocide DF (DuPont. FERRIN. Emulsifiable(Chemtura) Terraclor 75% Wettable Powder (Chemtura) Terraclor Flowable Fungicide (Chemtura) Helena Prophyt (Helena) Common Name phosphite (mono.5 LF (DuPont.. maneb mefenoxam myclobutanil pentachloronitro-benzene (PCNB) phosphite. Extension Plant Pathology.) Wettable Sulfur (Contintental Sulfur Co. Louisiana State University AgCenter. Mississippi State University Common Name aluminum tris chlorothalonil Trade Name* (Manufacturer/Supplier) Aliette WDG (Bayer) Linebacker WDG (Tessenerlo Kerley) Applause 720 (Loveland Products) Bravo Ultrex (Syngenta) Bravo Weather Stik (Syngenta) Bravo Zn (Syngenta) Chloronil 720 (Syngenta) Chlorothalonil 720 SC (Arysta) Echo 720 (Sipcam Agro) Echo 90DF (Sipcam Agro) Echo Zn (Sipcam Agro) Equus 500 Zn (Makhteshim Agan) Equus 720 SST (Makhteshim Agan) Equus DF (Makhteshim Agan) Initiate 720 (Loveland Products) 3 lb.. INGRAM.and dipotassium salts) Trade Name* (Manufacturer/Supplier) Phostrol (Nufarm) Exel LG (Organic Laboratories) Fosphite Fungicide (JK Biotech) Fungi-Phite (Plant Protectants) Kphite 7LP Systemic Fungicide (Plant Food Systems) Rampart (Loveland Products) Topaz (Winfield Solutions) Bumper 41.8 EC (Makhteshim Agan) Tilt (Syngenta) Ben-Sul Spray (Wilbur-Ellis) Britz Magic Sulfur Dust (InteGro) Dusting Sulfur (Contintental Sulfur Co. Copper Flowable (Helena) Champ DP (Nufarm) Champ Formula 2 Flowable (Nufarm) Champion WG (Nufarm) Champion Wettable Powder (Nufarm) Kentan DF (Isagro USA) Kocide 101 (DuPont.) Thiolux Jet (Syngenta) Thiosperse 80% (Continental Sulfur Co. GENERIC FUNGICIDES FOR USE ON VEGETABLE CROPS D.

3 to 0.7 pt 2. Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds before crop emergence as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row.CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN VEGETABLE CROPS K.5 EC 0. Stale bed application. Row should be formed several days ahead of planting and treating to allow maximum weed emergence.4 pt 11 to 32 oz 9 to 16 oz 6 to 16 oz 1. as injury will occur.7 to 2. Apply in spring before spear emergence but no earlier than 4 weeks before spear emergence.8 to 3. For the majority of N. linuron. Row should be formed several days ahead of planting and treating to allow maxmum weed emergence. Plant with a minimum of soil movement for best results. Plant seed 0.5 0. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5.7 pt 2. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. Lorox will also control emerged annual broadleaf weeds up to 3 in.5 to 1.4 pt 11 to 32 oz 9 to 16 oz 6 to 16 oz 1. 1 to 2 lb 0. as injury will occur. MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 0. MOA 1 (Fusilade DX) 2 EC sethoxydim.8 to 2. napropamide. MOA 7 (Karmex) 80 DF 8 lb 1 to 4 lb 4 0. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds. Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures. With sethoxydim.1 to 0. Do not use surfactant or oil.5 pt 1 to 2 lb 0.7 to 2.5 to 2.6 to 1 1. See label for further instruction. Karmex also controls small emerged weeds but less effectively. MOA 7 (Lorox DF) 50 WDG Apply before cutting season or immediately after a cutting. deep in coarse soils. but do not exceed 2 lb active ingredient total per acre. With fluazifop. MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 0. Lorox can also be applied as a directed spray to the base of the ferns. MOA 1 (Fusilade DX) 2 EC sethoxydim.5 to 1. tall. Do not use oil or surfactant. Apply when ferns are 6 to 18 in. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. Horticultural Science Department NOTE: A mode of action code (MOA) has been added to the Herbicide and Formulation column in this table. E. MOA 7 (Lorox) 50 WDG paraquat. add 1 qt of nonionic surfactant or 1 gal crop oil concentrate per 100 gal of spray mix.07 to 0. plantings. add 1 qt nonionic surfactant or 1 gal crop oil concentrate per 100 gal of spray mix. Stale bed application. Certain glyphosate formulations may require the addition of a surfactant.5 to 1 Contact kill of all green foliage. paraquat. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN ASPARAGUS Amount of Formulation Herbicide and Formulation Per Acre linuron. Make one or two applications. add 1 qt crop oil concentrate per acre.5 0.8 to 2. Stale bed application. add 1 qt crop oil concentrate per acre. Apply to emerged weeds before crop emergence.5 L clethodim. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control.25 0. Postemergence application.5 EC 0. Apply to emerged grasses. MOA 1 (Poast) 1. With sethoxydim. Use MOA codes for herbicide resistance. Consult the manufacturer’s label for best times to treat specific grasses.5 1 to 3 pt 0. MOA 15 (Devrinol) 50 DF Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds diuron. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. add 2 pt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray mixture.07 to 0. MITCHEM.5 in.5 to 4 pt Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds.6 to 1 1. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate.1 to 0. Apply to emerged weeds before crop emergence.5 to 2. Apply to emerged grasses. Apply when ferns are 6 to 18 in.5 to 4 pt Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. For Select Max.5 to 1 Annual and perennial grasses only ASPARAGUS Annual broadleaf and some (new crown plantings) grass weeds Contact kill of all green foliage. a 1 to 2 lb per acre dosage of 80 DF should be used.125 lb 0.5 pt 1 to 2 lb 0. MOA 1 (Select Max) 1 EC fluazifop. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control. in height or spread. Apply to emerged weeds in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre before crop emergence as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row. Make one application of 2 lb active ingredient per acre. JENNINGS and W.2 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 241 .5 1 to 3 pt 0. Apply to soil surface. MOA 7 (Lorox DF) 50 WDG 2 lb Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 1 Crop ASPARAGUS (seeded) Weed Annual broadleaf and some grass weeds Precautions and Remarks Preemergence application. TABLE 4-1. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds. glyphosate. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate.125 lb 0.C. add 2 pt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray mixture. From one to three applications can be made per year but do not exceed 4 lb active ingredient total per year.5 to 1 Annual and perennial grasses only ASPARAGUS (established) Preemergence Annual broadleaf and some grass weeds linuron. A second application may be made immediately after last harvest. Consult the manufacturer’s label for best times to treat specific grasses. glyphosate.25 0. MOA 1 (Poast) 1. but do not exceed 2 lb active ingredient total per acre. tall. Certain glyphosate formulations may require the addition of a surfactant. Make one or two applications.5 L clethodim. M. With fluazifop. For Select Max.3 to 0. Stale bed application. MOA 1 (Select Max) 1 EC fluazifop. Apply to the soil surface in spring before weed and spear emergence. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest.

CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN ASPARAGUS Amount of Formulation Herbicide and Formulation Per Acre flumioxazin (Chateau) 51 WDG 6 oz Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 0.25 0. Provides good contact control of volunteer ferns if applied immediately after last harvest.5 to 2 Contact kill of emerged annual weeds.4 ASPARAGUS (established) Postemergence Broadleaf weeds including trumpetcreeper 2. For spot treatment. Do not apply within 6 days of harvest. plantings. add 1 qt nonionic surfactant or 1 gal crop oil concentrate per 100 gal of spray mix. in height or spread.67 lb 2 to 4 pt 0. Consult the manufacturer’s label for best times to treat specific grasses. Sencor) 4 F terbacil. Postharvest.024 to 0. Apply after final harvest with drop nozzles to limit contact with crop. DO NOT USE FLUAZIFOP OR SETHOXYDIM WITHIN 1 DAY OF HARVEST. Postemergence and Post-transplant. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 DF 0. Add a nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal of spray mixture. Do not apply within 1 day of harvest. Apply in a minimum of 15-gal spray mix per acre.07 to 0.5 Yellow and purple nutsedge. Provides residual weed control. Apply to emerged weeds up to 1 week before spear emergence or immediately after last cutting has removed all above-ground parts or as a directed spray under mature fern. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest or after spear emergence.7 pt 2. Do not exceed 2 oz per acre per year. Certain glyphosate formulations may require the addition of a surfactant.5 lb 0. glyphosate. add 2 pt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray mixture. Apply to emerged grasses. A split application can be used.6 to 1 1. Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperature.grade nitrogen source (either ammonium sulfate at 2 to 2.5 L 2 lb 1 0.5 EC 9 to 16 oz 6 to 16 oz 1. Apply in spring before spear emergence or immediately after last clean-cut harvest.125 lb 0.188 Crop ASPARAGUS (established) Preemergence (continued) Weed Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds (continued) Precautions and Remarks Apply only to dormant asparagus no sooner than 14 days before spears emerge or after the last harvest.5 to 4 pt Volunteer ferns (seedling) and linuron.1 to 0. For Select Max.5 to 2. Apply before or during the harvesting season. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. MOA 7 certain broadleaf weeds (Lorox DF) 50 WDG Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. For the majority of N.5 pt 0. the low rate should be used. Do not harvest within 5 days after application. Do not use a nonionic surfactant or crop oil or unacceptable crop injury may occur. Without the addition of a nonionic surfactant. A spray. Make no more than two applications during the harvest season and these should be spaced at least 1 month apart. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. MOA 1 (Poast) 1. suppression of emerged perennial weeds. add 1 qt crop oil concentrate per acre.4 pt 11 to 32 oz Annual and perennial grasses only clethodim. Can be tank mixed with paraquat for control of emerged weeds. or emerging spears. postemergence weed control may be reduced. Do not exceed 2 oz per acre per year. Under heavy nutsedge pressure. Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to control emerged weeds before spears emerge or after last harvest. With sethoxydim. Contact with the fern may result in temporary yellowing. split applications will be more effective. DO NOT USE CLETHODIM WITHIN 1 DAY OF HARVEST. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control.5 lb per acre or 28 to 32 percent nitrogen solutions at 1 to 2 qt per acre) may be added to increase herbicidal activity.3 to 2.TABLE 4-1. Apply in spring before spear emergence or immediately following a clean cutting. see label for details. Sencor DF) 75 WDG (Metri. Postharvest sprays should be directed under ferns.3 to 0. Add a nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal of spray mix.7 to 2. Do not make postharvest applications until after the last harvest of spears. Do not use on soils containing less than 1% organic matter nor on gravelly soils or eroded areas where subsoil or roots are exposed. MOA 1 (Fusilade DX) 2 EC sethoxydim. Add a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 1 qt per 100 gal spray mix. Lorox will also control emerged annual broadleaf weeds that are less than 3 in.072 Page 242 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 .C.5 to 1.8 to 2. MOA 4 (Amine 4 and various other brands) 4 SL 1. Apply before cutting season or immediately after cutting.25 to 0. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate.5 1 to 3 pt 0.2 to 0. Apply to asparagus at least 2 years old. Established volunteer ferns. apply immediately after cutting but prior to emergence of new spears.5 to 2 qt 1. Do not harvest within 1 day of application.5 oz 0. MOA 5 (Sinbar) 80 WP 1 to 2 1. and contact kill of volunteer ferns paraquat. stems. See label for rates.5 to 1. MOA 5 (Metri DF. Use the lower rate on sandy soils and the higher rate on silty or clay soils. With fluazifop. MOA 1 (Select Max) 1 EC fluazifop. Make a single application to small emerged weeds and the soil surface in early spring before spear emergence. Do not apply more than 6 oz per acre during a single growing season. avoiding contact with ferns. several broadleaf weeds halosulfuron. metribuzin. Avoid contact with the stem to reduce risk of injury.4-D.

Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 2 to 3 in.5 to 2. Row should be formed several days ahead of planting and treating to allow maximum weed emergence.9 EW or 2 EC up to 2 oz up to 0. Coverage is essential for good weed control. Sonalan may be tankmixed with Eptam or Dual. or snap beans only. Apply preplant surface and preemergence. cautions.25 to 3. Plant with a minimum of soil movement for best results. or early postemergence (first to third trifoliate stage). See label for rate.5 0. MOA 2 morningglory. Apply to emerged weeds before crop emergence. Dry. and limitations before use. Stale bed application. apply within 1 week of planting. lima. Can be tank mixed with other registered burndown herbicides. using a power-driven rototiller or by cross disking. Dry or snap beans only. or may be applied at lay-by as a directed application before bean pods start to form to control late season weeds.5 1 to 3 pt 0. Most broadleaf weeds carfentrazone-ethyl. Dry beans only. For broader spectrum control. MOA 8 (Eptam) 7 EC 1 to 1.6 to 1 Crop BEANS Preplant and Preemergence Weed Contact kill of all green foliage.6 to 1. bush-type snap beans only. Apply preemergence or preplant incor0. Certain glyphosate formulations may require the addition of a surfactant.75 1. Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 2 to 3 in. Apply preemergence or preplant incorporated.5 to 3 pt 0. Incorporate with a power-driven rototiller or by cross disking.5 to 0.5 pt 0. MOA 3 (Prowl H20) 3. See label for further instructions. across.25 2. lima. lima.018 Snap beans only. MOA 15 (Outlook) 6. Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 2 to 3 in. glyphosate. Offers weak control of pigweed. Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds before crop emergence as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row.15 to 0. For preplant incorporated application.95 to 1. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. quality. MOA 14 (Aim) 1. Dry beans only.031 Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. the rate range can be increased to 3 to 4.TABLE 4-2. 0. or snap beans only.67 pt 0.5 to 3 pt 1 to 2 pt 0.5 pt per acre. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate.67 oz product per acre to dry bean.5 pt 2 to 3 fomesafen. See label for further instructions and precautions.4 to 0.91 Dry. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 243 .5 to 1.5 pt per acre. MOA 15 (Dual Magnum) 7. Herbicide and Formulation paraquat. or snap beans only. Dry beans. MOA 13 (Command) 3ME EPTC. Does not control grasses. grasses and some smallseeded broadleaf weeds Many broadleaf weeds clomazone. Use sufficient water to give thorough coverage.032 to 0. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. Data is lacking on runner-type snap beans. MOA 14 (Reflex 2 EC) halosulfuron-methyl.08 oz 1. Various beans are covered. Apply prior to planting or emergence of crop for control of emerged weeds less than 4 in. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds.8 to 2. Reduced crop growth. See label for other instructions. DO NOT APPLY AFTER SEEDING. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN BEANS Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1.(Pursuit) 70 DG weed. See label for further instructions including those for tank mixtures. May be tank mixed with Prowl. MOA 3 (Treflan HFP) 4 EC (Trifluralin) 4 EC (Trifluralin HF) 4 EC (Trilin) 4 EC pendimethalin. Succulent beans only. See label for instructions on incorporation. lima beans.75 to 1. pigweed. Pursuit should be applied with a registered preemergence grass herbicide. Dry bean and snap beans only. common cocklebur. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control. 0. and/or delayed crop maturation may result. Apply after seeding but prior to cracking. Apply preplant incorporated or preemergence to the soil surface after planting. yield. Use a nonionic surfactant or crop oil with Aim. Apply preplant and incorporate immediately to a depth of 3 in. and other broadleaf weeds 0. MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL Precautions and Remarks Lima or snap beans only. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 DG See label See label Yellow and purple nutsedge.0 EC See label See label trifluralin. If groundcherry or nightshade is a problem. Total use per year cannot exceed 1.62 EC (Dual II Magnum) 7. Apply to the soil surface immediately after seeding. deep using a rototiller or tandem disk.4 pt 11 to 32 oz Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds 1.5 L ethalfluralin.04 porated. Apply preplant incorporated. Do not apply more than 0. smart.72 to 1. Limited research has been done on this product in this crop in North Carolina.5 oz Dry beans and lima beans only. May be used with a registered grass herbicide. deep within 8 hr.5 to 0. Dry.024 to 0. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. and purslane (Pursuit) 2 EC 0.7 pt 2 to 4 pt Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Dry beans may be harvested 70 or more days after Outlook application.64 EC Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds Yellow and purple nutsedge. Stale bed application. Read the combination product label for directions.8 AS S-metolachlor.036 Broadleaf weeds including imazethapyr. preemergence to the soil surface after planting.1 dimethenamid. MOA 3 (Sonalan HFP) 3 EC 0.75 oz 0.

Sethoxydim is also labeled for limabean. or snap beans only. smartweed. Apply postemergence for emerged grasses in 0.018 to 0. Many broadleaf weeds fomesafen. respectively. For Arrow.to 4-trifoliate leaf stage but prior to flowering. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 DG 3. add 1 qal oil concentrate or 1 qt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray. Apply and incorporate at last cultivation as a directed spray to soil at the base of crop plants before pods start to form. Can be tank mixed with other registered herbicides. Do not apply more than 2 qt per season or within 30 days of harvest. See label for further precautions. mung beans. Do not apply within 30 days of dry bean harvest (cutting or pulling plants from ground). green shoots. For succulent lima beans. Row middles only. MOA 2 (Pursuit) 70 DG (Pursuit) 2.047 0.94 Annual and perennial grasses sethoxydim. Dry or snap beans only. and purslane imazethapyr. as wiper applications in row middles. pigweed. Postemergence application may cause significant but temporary stunting and may delay maturation of crop. common cocklebur. Do not use on lima bean or pea. See label regarding crop oil concentrate use in other crops. Dry or snap beans only.125 Most broadleaf weeds carfentrazone-ethyl. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Clethodim.031 Annual broadleaf weeds. MOA 14 (Reflex 2 EC) 0. and green beens only. See label for instructions on use. If crop is contacted. For Select Max. or Select) 2 EC (Select Max) 1 EC 6 to 16 oz 9 to 16 oz Dry beans. waxbeans. exposed. Use only 1. Do not add crop oil concentrate with applications to snapbean or polebean. Add nonionic surfactant at 2 pt per 100 gal of spray mixture with all postemergence applications. quizalofop is not. Most effective on weeds less than 4 in. Apply as a hooded spray in row middles. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. burning of contacted area will occur. Consult manufacturer’s label for specific rates and best times to treat. Coverage is essential for good weed control.EC 0.036 Most emerged weeds glyphosate. as shielded spray in row middles.5 L 11 to 22 oz 0. See label for rate. snap beans.125 acre. Include a nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal spray mixture.08 oz 1.5 to 0. Total use per year cannot exceed 1.094 to 0. lima beans. including morningglory. Green or dry beans only. weeds (one to four leaves) when dry beans have at least one fully expanded trifoliate leaf. do not apply within 60 days of harvest. add a crop oil concentrate at 1 qt per 0. With sethoxydim. Data is lacking on runner-type snap beans. do not allow herbicide to contact foliage. Do not apply on days that are unusually hot and humid. Apply after crop has reached the 2. Clethodim. lupins. Do not apply within 15 days and 30 days of harvest for succulent and dry beans.031 Yellow and purple nutsedge EPTC. or fruit of crop. MOA 8 (Eptam) 7 EC halosulfuron-methyl. Apply postemergence to dry beans or snap beans that have at least one expanded trifoliate leaf. Dry beans and snap beans only. MOA 1 (Assure II or Targa) 0. MOA 1 (Poast) 1.07 to 0. MOA 6 (Basagran) 4 SL Precautions and Remarks Dry. Use a nonionic surfactant or crop oil with Aim.2 to 0. add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. lima. For dry bean. do not apply within 30 days of harvest. add 2 pt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray mixture.66 oz 0.5 to 3 oz 0.75 to 1 pt 0. Apply overtop of beans and weeds when beans have one to two expanded trifoliate leaves. Lima or bush-type snap bean. Apply postemergence to 1. Apply to emerged grasses. Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures.5 pt per acre. Apply post-directed using hooded sprayers for control of emerged weeds. across. Apply to actively growing grasses not under drought stress. To avoid severe injury to crop. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN BEANS Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1 to 2 pt Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.5 pt 3 Yellow and purple nutsedge. Very effective in controlling annual bluegrass. Two applications spaced 7 to 10 days apart may be made for nutsedge control. Do not apply within 45 days of dry bean harvest or 30 days of snap bean harvest. MOA 9 (Roundup WeatherMax) 5.3 0.25 dry beans.032 to 0.88 EC 1 to 1.5 to 0.5 EC quizalofop p-ethyl. or Select.0625 to 0. See label for further information. MOA 1 (Arrow.5 pt 6 to 12 oz 0. broadbeans.9 EW or 2 EC up to 2 oz up to 0. Does not control grass weeds. Page 244 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . or post harvest.08 clethodim. Pursuit DG formulation is registered for dry beans only.024 to 0.5 oz EC formulation on snap bean and up to 3 oz on dry beans. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. With quizalofop. stems. and other broadleaf weeds 0.5 to 1 Crop BEANS Postemergence Weed Annual broadleaf weeds and yellow nutsedge Herbicide and Formulation bentazon. roots. DO NOT use DG formulation on snap beans. Adding crop oil may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures. MOA 14 (Aim) 1.TABLE 4-2.72 to 1.to 3-in.04 to 0.

031 Most broadleaf weeds carfentrazone-ethyl. beets should be irrigated.2 to 0. exposed.094 to add a crop oil concentrate at 1 gal per acre. Clethodim. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. Apply to actively growing grasses not under drought stress. MOA 1 (Poast) 1. Do not use on light sandy soils. Row middles only. Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures. If crop is contacted. Apply to beets having 2 to 8 leaves when weeds are small and actively growing. do not allow herbicide to contact foliage. MOA 6 (Spin-aid) 1.125 hood of crop injury at high air temperatures.94 Annual and perennial grasses sethoxydim. See label for directions. 3. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN BEET Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1 to 3 pt 0. add 2 pt nonionic 0. Can be tank mixed with other registered herbicides. stems.5 pt 0.25 to 0. 0. Does not control grass weeds. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. Add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. or fruit of crop. Stale bed application.6 to 5. Select) 2 EC (Select Max) 1 EC 6 to 8 oz 9 to 16 oz Apply postemergence for annual grasses at 6 to 8 oz per acre or bermudagrass and johnsongrass at 8 oz per acre. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. MOA 6 (Pyramin) 65 DF 3 to 6 pt 0.125 surfactant per 100 gal spray mixture. and ragweed Broadleaf weeds only phenmedipham. To avoid severe injury to crop. MOA 4 (Clopyr AG. smartweed. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.5 EC 1 to 1. Adding crop oil may increase the likli0. For Arrow. green shoots.5 to 1. cocklebur. across.7 4.07 to 0. Broadleaf weeds only including common ragweed.187 lb Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.3 EC pyrazon. Stinger) 3 EC Precautions and Remarks Garden beets only. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control. Apply to emerged grasses. Apply to emerged weeds before seeding or after seeding but before crop emergence. MOA 6 (Pyramin) 65 DF clopyralid. burning of contacted area will occur.5 to 0.5 to 1 Apply postemergence when beets are past the six true leaf stage and when weeds are in cotyledon to four-leaf stage. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest. Do not use on light sandy soils. Use a crop oil concentrate or a nonionic surfactant with Aim. Apply post-directed using hooded sprayers for control of emerged weeds. MOA 9 (Roundup WeatherMax) 5.093 to 0. Clethodim. roots.4 lb up to 2 oz up to 0.5 L pyrazon. Coverage is essential for good weed control. Apply as a hooded spray in row middles. or post harvest.4 pt 11 to 32 oz 3. Do not apply Poast on days that are unusually hot and humid.5 Crop BEETS (Garden or Table) Preplant and Preemergence Weed Annual and perennial grasses and broadleaf weeds. jimsonweed. as wiper applications in row middles. MOA 1 (Arrow.TABLE 4-3.5 pt 0. as shielded spray in row middles. Most effective on weeds less than 4 in. Consult manufacturer’s label for specific rates and best times to treat. Certain glyphosate formulations may require the addition of a surfactant.5 L 11 to 22 oz 0. Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 245 . If rain does not occur within 5 to 10 days after application.4 lb 0. MOA 14 (Aim) 1. Apply to the soil surface immediately after planting.8 to 2.7 5. Apply postemergence after beets have two expanded true leaves and before weeds have more than two true leaves.9 EW or 2 EC Most emerged weeds glyphosate.1 to 3. For Select Max. or Select. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Herbicide and Formulation glyphosate. Very effective in controlling annual bluegrass.3 clethodim. Will control most legumes. and wild mustard BEETS (Garden or Table) Postemergence Broadleaf weeds including sowthistle clover.

care must be taken to remove residues of this product from the plastic prior to transplanting.187 Labeled for broccoli. add 2 pt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal of spray mixture. green shoots. Offers weak control of pigweed. Certain glyphosate formulations may require the addition of a surfactant. MOA 1 (Poast) 1. tall or rosettes less than 3 in.5 to 1. MOA 4 (Stinger) 3 EC 0. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds. To avoid severe injury to crop.5 pt 0. For Arrow. reduced stands and stunting may occur. See label for further instructions. Plant with a minimum of soil movement for best results. irrigate immediately after application.67 pt 0. roots. Oxyfluorfen is weak on grasses. or Select) 2 EC (Select Max) 1 EC 1 to 1. Apply to weed-free soil just after seeding or transplanting as a surface application. Chinese cabbage (bok choy). brussel sprouts. MOA 15 (Devrinol) 50 DF 2 to 4 lb 1 to 2 Many broadleaf weeds.5 EC clethodim. Can be tank mixed with other registered herbicides. Also labeled for Chinese broccoli.25 to 0. or fruit of crop. 6 to 7.5 pt 0. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. and ragweed clopyralid.084 to increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperature. Clethodim. If crop is contacted. Apply to emerged weeds before crop emergence or before transplanting. Coverage is essential for good weed control. cocklebur. MOA 3 (Treflan HFP) 4 EC (Trifluralin) 4 EC (Trifluralin HF) 4 EC (Trilin) 4 EC DCPA. MOA 8 (Prefar) 4 EC 5 to 6 qt 5 to 6 trifluralin. jimsonweed. glyphosate. natural rainfall or by applying water via a sprinkler system.5 pt 6 to 8 oz 9 to 16 oz Apply to emerged grasses.3 pt 0. residues can be removed by 0. See label for further instructions.125 Poast or Select plus crop oil on days that are unusually hot and humid. and Chinese cabbage (Napa). Most effective on weeds less than 4 in. and smartweed (Galigan) 2 E (GoalTender) 4 E COLE CROPS BROCCOLI CABBAGE CAULIFLOWER Postemergence Most broadleaf weeds carfentrazone-ethyl. Light cultivations. cabbage. MOA 3 (Dacthal) W-75 (Dacthal) 6 F Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds clomazone. Perennial weeds may required higher rates of glyphosate. Limited research has been done on this product in this crop in North Carolina. CABBAGE. add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. MOA 13 (Command) 3ME 1 to 1.8 to 2. MOA 14 ing galinsoga. Offers weak control of pigweed.5 to 0. add crop oil concentrate at 1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution. Direct seeded cabbage only. Apply to the soil surface immediately after seeding.75 Transplants.25 to 0.07 to 0.5 1 to 2 pt 1 to 2 pt 0. Chinese cabbage (bok choy. Most emerged weeds glyphosate.09 to 0. Herbicide and Formulation paraquat. 0. clover.9 EW or 2 EC 0. as wiper applications in row middles. Limited research has been conducted with this product on this crop in North Carolina.5 L 0. Expect to see some temporary crop injury. MOA 1 (Arrow. Will control most legumes. common rag(Goal 2 XL) 2 EC weed. For Select Max. Row should be formed several days ahead of planting and treating to allow maximum weed emergence. Adding crop oil to Poast or Select may 0. See label for more directions. 0.5 in. includ. or post harvest.5 to 1 pt up to 2 oz up to 0. burning of contacted area will occur. Stale bed application.3 Page 246 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . or Select. rainfall. Apply post-directed using hooded sprayers for control of emerged weeds. or irrigation will be necessary within 24 hr to activate this chemical.3 to 2. When applying Roundup before transplanting crops into plastic mulch. MOA 14 (Aim) 1.94 Row middles only.25 Also labeled for rape greens and mustard spinach. MOA 9 (Roundup WeatherMax) 5.oxyfluorfen.5 8 to 10 lb 8 to 10 pt 0. Apply as a hooded spray in row middles.031 Broadleaf weeds including sowthistle. May also be incorporated.5 to 0. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. including galinsoga. Chinese mustard. Consult manufacturer’s label for specific rates and best times to treat. Napa). cauliflower. Do not apply 0. Apply preplant or preemergence after planting. Transplanted cabbage only.5 L 11 to 22 oz Annual and perennial grasses only sethoxydim.67 to 1. within 8 hr. Do not spray over the top of transplants.4 pt 11 to 32 oz COLE CROPS: BROCCOLI CABBAGE CAULIFLOWER Preplant and Preemergence (continued) Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds bensulide. as shielded spray in row middles.25 to 0. Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 2 to 3 in. broccoli raab. To prevent crop injury. do not allow herbicide to contact foliage. Chinese broccoli. Do not incorporate or knock the bed off after application.125 not apply within 30 days of harvest. Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. into the seed bed within 8 hr.7 pt 2 to 4 pt Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Apply preplant and incorporate 2 to 3 in.5 1 to 3 pt 0. CAULIFLOWER Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1.50 Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds. cavalo broccolo. Does not control grass weeds. and smartweed napropamide. Surface apply before transplanting. Use crop oil concentrate at up to 1 gal per 100 gal solution or a nonionic surfactant at 2 pt per 100 gal of spray solution. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control. 0. Caution: If soil conditions are cool and wet. across. broccoli raab. and kohlrabi. Stale bed application. Clethodim. Direct Seeded. exposed.5 to 1 Crop COLE CROPS: BROCCOLI CABBAGE CAULIFLOWER Preplant and Preemergence Weed Contact kill of all green foliage.2 to 0. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Transplants only. MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL Precautions and Remarks Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds before crop emergence or transplanting as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row. Apply broadcast to the soil prior to transplanting cabbage. Do 0. With preemergence application. stems. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. common ragweed. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN COLE CROPS: BROCCOLI. Chinese mustard cabbage (gai choy). Use sufficient water to give thorough coverage. For sethoxydim. Apply immediately after seeding or transplanting.TABLE 4-4. Apply to crop when weeds are small and actively growing.

MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 0. Crop injury can occur if seeding depth is too shallow.TABLE 4-5. To improve preemergence control of late emerging weeds. MOA 3 (Dacthal) W-75 (Dacthal) 6 F 6 to 7. Coverage is essential for good weed control. (1 in. Apply as postemergence spray immediately after transplanting. Apply postemergence before crop is ready to vine for pre-emergence control of late emerging weeds and suppression of pigweed and common lambsquarters 1 to 2 in.9 EW or 2 EC Precautions and Remarks Not registered for seeded crops. ragweed. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control. Stale bed application. and velvetleaf) Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds (including cocklebur. MOA 13 (Command) 3 ME 0. Do not mix with crop oil. Do not apply over or under plastic mulch. MOA 8 (Prefar) 4 EC + naptalam.67 pt 0.024 to 0.4 pt 11 to 32 oz 0. Check replant restrictions for small grains on label. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 DG 2 to 6 pt 0. Under conditions of unusually cold or wet soil and air temperatures.75 oz CANTALOUPES (MUSKMELONS) Postemergence Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds DCPA. Apply after seeding or prior to transplanting crop.036 Yellow and purple nutsedge and broadleaf weeds 0. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. and growing conditions are favorable.7 pt 2 to 4 pt Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. MOA 8 (Prefar) 4 EC 5 to 6 qt 5 to 6 Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds clomazone. Apply to the soil surface immediately after seeding. Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds before crop emerges or before transplanting as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row. tall.5 in. row covers. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds. Will not control emerged weeds. To prevent crop injury.25 Broadleaf weeds (including cocklebur. Use a crop oil at up to 1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution or a nonionic surfactant at 2 pt per 100 gal of spray solution. or just prior to transplanting with transplanted crop. Apply prior to transplanting of crop for control of emerged weeds less than 4 in. smartweed.4 to 0. ragweed.375 0. Irrigation or rainfall within 5 days will greatly improve control.2 + 0. For transplanted crop.5 pt 4 to 6 + 2 to 4 1. Certain glyphosate formulations may require the addition of a surfactant.15 to 0. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix.1 to 1. Apply as a directed spray to soil between the rows.5 to 1. Will not control emerged weeds. or apply preemergence after seeding and follow with irrigation. jimsonweed.5 to 0. DO NOT APPLY PRIOR TO PLANTING CROP. MOA 14 (Aim) 1.5 L 1 to 3 pt 0. MOA 13 (Strategy) 2. Apply after emergence when crop plants have reached the three to four true leaf stage of growth. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN CANTALOUPES Amount of Formulation Per Acre up to 2 oz Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre up to 0. Do not use under mulches. Can be tank mixed with other registered burndown herbicides. is well-established. glyphosate.3 to 2. Rate can be increased to 1 ounce of product per acre to middles between rows. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. carefully remove residues of this product from the plastic prior to transplanting. crop stunting and injury may occur. DO NOT SOIL INCORPORATE. Transplanted crop.031 Crop CANTALOUPES (MUSKMELONS) Preplant and Preemergence Weed Most broadleaf weeds Herbicide and Formulation carfentrazone-ethyl. and velvetleaf) naptalam. Deep incorporation will lead to reduced weed control. smartweed. Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 0. Contact kill of all green foliage.75 Broadleaf weeds naptalam. Incorporation not recommended. Apply to emerged weeds at least 3 days before seeding or transplanting. Row middles only. Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 1 to 2 in. Apply to the soil surface immediately after seeding crop for preemergence control of weeds. incorporation is optimum) with a rototiller or tandem disk. Apply only when crop has four to five true leaves. across. May also be used as a BANDED spray BETWEEN rows of plastic mulch. Will not control emerged weeds. paraquat. Stale bed application.5 to 0. or hot caps. do not transplant until 7 days after application. Seeded crop. Shallow cultivation. Set incorporation equipment to move treated soil around base of crop plants. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate.125 to 0. before planting. Apply immediately after seeding. To improve preemergence control of late emerging weeds. MOA 3 (Treflan HFP) 4EC (Trifluralin) 4EC (Trifluralin HF) 4EC 1 to 2 pt 0.7 Annual grasses and some ethalfluralin.8 to 2. See label for further instruction. jimsonweed.5 8 to 10 lb 8 to 10 pt trifluralin.4 to 1. Avoid contacting foliage as slight crop injury may occur. Apply to the soil surface immediately after seeding. natural rainfall or by applying water via a sprinkler system. irrigation. MOA 3 + clomazone.5 to 1 in. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. or rainfall within 5 days is needed for good weed control. Check replant restrictions for small grains on Prefar label. Does not control grasses. Row should be formed several days ahead of planting and treating to allow maximum weed emergence. See label for timing. MOA 19 (Alanap) 2 EC 4 to 8 qt 2 to 4 bensulide. Roots of transplants must be below the chemical barrier when planting. Plant with a minimum of soil movement for best results.5 Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds bensulide. MOA 19 (Alanap) 2 EC 4 to 8 qt 2 to 4 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 247 .5 to 1 1. MOA 19 (Alanap) 2 EC 4 to 6 qt + 4 to 8 qt 3 to 4.1 L halosulfuron-methyl. Do not apply within 57 days of harvest. DO NOT SOIL INCORPORATE. residues can be removed by 0. Not labeled for transplanted crop. When applying Roundup before transplanting crops into plastic mulch. MOA 3 (Curbit) small-seeded broadleaf weeds 3 EC Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds ethalfuralin. Offers weak control of pigweed. May also be used as a banded treatment between rows after crop emergence or transplanting. Control will not be good if rainfall or irrigation does not occur within 5 days.

5 to 0. Page 248 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures.125 mixture. add 2 pt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray 0. Apply post-directed using hooded sprayers for control of emerged weeds. stems. Very effective in controlling annual bluegrass. To avoid severe injury to crop. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest. exposed. MOA 1 (Poast) 1. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. Can be tank mixed with other registered herbicides.5 to 1. do not allow herbicide to contact foliage. green shoots. Apply to emerged grasses. Clethodim. Does not control grass weeds. or post harvest. Do not apply within 3 days of harvest. Add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. MOA 1 (Arrow. or fruit of crop. For Arrow. Clethodim. Coverage is essential for good weed control. For Select Max. MOA 14 (Aim) 1. ragweed.9 EW or 2 EC up to 2 oz up to 0.5 1 to 3 pt 0. Use nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal of spray solution with all postemergence applications.125 air temperatures. If crop is contacted. galinsoga. as wiper applications in row middles. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. add 1 gal crop oil concentrate per 100 gal 0. Avoid over-the-top applications during late summer when temperature and humidity are high. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 DG Precautions and Remarks Apply postemergence only after the crop has reached 3 to 5 true leaves but before first female flowers appear. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. Consult manufacturer’s label for specific rates and best times to treat. Use a crop oil concentrate or a nonionic surfactant with Aim. across.3 Annual and perennial grasses only clethodim.5 EC 0. as shielded spray in row middles.5 pt 0. See label for directions.024 to 0. roots.2 to 0.07 to 0.TABLE 4-5.031 Most emerged weeds glyphosate.094 to spray mix.8 to 2. Do not apply Poast on days that are unusually hot and humid. Controls many broadleaf weeds postemergence including cocklebur. Adding crop oil may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high 0.4 pt 11 to 32 oz 1 to 1. or Select. Most effective on weeds less than 4 in. and pigweed. wild radish.036 Crop CANTALOUPES (MUSKMELONS) Postemergence (continued) Weed Yellow and purple nutsedge and broadleaf weeds Herbicide and Formulation halosulfuron-methyl. Apply as a hooded spray in row middles. Select) 2 EC (Select Max) 1 EC 6 to 8 oz 9 to 16 oz Apply postemergence for control of grass in cantaloupes (muskmelons). CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN CANTALOUPES Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0.5 L sethoxydim. Apply to actively growing grasses not under drought stress. smartweed.75 oz Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. burning of contacted area will occur. Most broadleaf weeds carfentrazone-ethyl. Do not apply sooner than 14 days after transplanting. Do not apply within 57 days of harvest.

5 to 1 Crop CARROTS Preemergence Weed Contact kill of all green foliage.4 pt 0. Sencor DF) 75 WDG (Metri. To avoid severe injury to crop.75 to 1. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN CARROT Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1.125 effective in controlling annual bluegrass. as shielded spray in row middles.5 L clethodim. Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures. Do not apply more than 2 pt per acre per season. Trilin) 4 EC CARROTS Postemergence Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds linuron. MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL Precautions and Remarks Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds before crop emergence as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Use sufficient water to give thorough coverage. Apply as a hooded spray in row middles. Emerged weeds will not be controlled. Use a crop oil concentrate or a nonionic surfactant with Aim.5 pt up to 2 oz up to 0. Clethodim.5 to 0. within 8 hr with a power-driven rototiller or tandem disk. Row middles only.5 Annual broadleaf weeds and some grasses metribuzin.8 1 to 3 pt 0.9 EW or 2 EC 0. Apply post-directed using hooded sprayers for control of emerged weeds.094 to Max. Plant with a minimum of soil movement for best results. With Arrow. MOA 1 (Arrow. See label for rates for specific weeds. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate. With Select 0. See label for further instructions and precautions.031 Most broadleaf weeds Most emerged weeds glyphosate. Herbicide and Formulation paraquat. Apply as a broadcast spray after carrots are at least 3 in. See label for directions.5 EC 1 to 1. Repeat applications may be made. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control. Add 1 gal crop oil concentrate or 1 qt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray mix.TABLE 4-6. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. or post harvest. tall and annual broadleaf weeds should be less than 6 in. or fruit of crop.125 oil may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. Does not control grass weeds.2 to 0. Do not allow spray to contact carrot plants or injury may occur. Can be tank mixed with other registered herbicides.07 to 0. Up to 48 oz of Fusilade DX may be applied per year.8 to 2. Apply as a broadcast spray overtop of carrots when weeds are less than 1 in. high. Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 2 to 3 in. MOA 3 (Prowl H2O) 3.5 to 1 1. If crop is contacted. Apply to emerged grasses. Row should be formed several days ahead of planting and treating to allow maximum weed emergence. sethoxydim.25 0. Apply as a directed spray to the soil between rows. MOA 14 (Aim) 1. 0. Sencor) 4 F carfentrazone-ethyl.3 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 249 . Apply as a preemergence treatment within 2 days after planting. green shoots or stems. Row Middle. as wiper applications in row middles. add 2 pt nonionic surfactant per 100 gal of spray mixture. exposed roots. high and carrots have formed five to six true leaves. Most effective on weeds less than 4 in. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. do not allow herbicide to contact foliage. Clethodim.1 to 0. Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. Trifluralin.33 lb 0. Apply to emerged weeds before crop emergence. Select) 2 EC (Select Max) 1 EC fluazifop. Do not apply unless 3 sunny days precede application. Do not apply within 45 days of harvest. Very 0. MOA 3 (Treflan. MOA 7 (Lorox DF) 50 WDG 1 to 2 pt 0.5 pt 0. Treflan HFP.5 L pendimethalin. Coverage is essential for good weed control. but do not exceed 4 lb of Lorox DF per acre per season.5 to 3 lb 0. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5.5 11 to 32 oz 2 pt 1 Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds trifluralin.94 Emerged annual and perennial grasses 6 to 8 oz 9 to 16 oz 6 to 16 oz Apply postemergence for control of grasses. No research has been conducted in North Carolina evaluating carrot tolerance to Prowl H2O. MOA 1 (Fusilade DX) 2 EC 11 to 22 oz 0. A second application may be made in 3 weeks. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Consult manufacturer’s label for specific rate and best times to treat. add 1 gal crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix.5 to 1. Stale bed application. Annual grasses should be less than 2 in. Adding crop 0. actively growing grasses. MOA 5 (Metri DF. Avoid spraying after three or more cloudy days. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest.3 to 2. burning of contacted area will occur. Row. glyphosate. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Certain glyphosate formulations require the addition of surfactant. Apply to actively growing grasses not under drought stress. Stale bed application. May be applied as a single broadcast application as a post-lant treatment prior to the emergence of the crop and before weed emergence.7 pt 2 to 4 pt Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Do not apply within 60 days of harvest. MOA 9 (various brands) 4SL (various brands) 5SL (Roundup Weathermax) 5. across. MOA 1 (Poast) 1.25 Apply to emerged. Do not use a surfactant or crop oil. or Select. Do not apply Poast on days that are unusually hot and humid. high.

MOA 9 (various brands) 4SL (various brands) 5SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. or post harvest.5 to 3 lb 0. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control.125 tive in controlling annual bluegrass. add 2 pt of nonionic surfactant per 100 gal spray mixture. exposed. Apply as a hooded spray in row middles. Does not control grass weeds. With Select 0. Consult manufacturer’s label for specific rates and best times to treat. Apply after celery is transplanted and established but before celery is 8 in.5 pt Apply postemergence for control of grasses. Certain glyphosate formulations require the addition of surfactant. Most effective on weeds less than 4 in. Select) 2 EC (Select Max) 1 EC sethoxydim. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds.5 EC 11 to 22 oz 0. at planting. MOA 7 (Lorox DF) 50 WDG carfentrazone-ethyl.2 to 0.5 up to 2 oz up to 0. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. and broadleaf weeds should be less than 6 in. Clethodim. Stale bed application. Grasses should be less than 2 in. Apply post-directed using hooded sprayers for control of emerged weeds. Treflan HFP. add 1 gal crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. across. Use a crop oil concentrate or a nonionic surfactant with Aim.5 L trifluralin. Add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. in height. burning of contacted area will occur. tall. See label for directions.094 to Max.94 Annual and perennial grasses only 6 to 8 oz 9 to 16 oz 1 to 1. With Arrow. in height. or Select. Trilin) 4 EC linuron.5 to 1 lb Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Row middles only.75 to 1. green shoots. Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds CELERY Postemergence Annual broadleaf and grass weeds Most broadleaf weeds 1. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.5 L clethodim. Adding crop oil may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperature. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate. Apply to actively growing grasses not 0. Coverage is essential for good weed control.8 to 2. roots. 0. Can be tank mixed with other registered herbicides. Apply incorporated to direct seeded or transplant celery before planting. or fruit of crop. MOA 1 (Poast) 1. stems. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN CELERY Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1 to 3 pt 0. Do not apply Poast on days that are unusually hot and humid.4 pt 11 to 32 oz 1 to 2 pt 0.5 Crop CELERY Preplant and Preemergence Weed Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds.5 to .5 to 1. Do not use a surfactant or crop oil. do not allow herbicide to contact foliage. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. MOA 3 (Treflan. as shielded spray in row middles.125 under drought stress. or immediately after planting. MOA 14 (Aim) 1. If crop is contacted.9 EW or 2 EC Precautions and Remarks Apply to emerged weeds before crop emergence. Herbicide and Formulation glyphosate. Page 250 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . MOA 1 (Arrow. Trifluralin. Clethodim.3 Apply to emerged grasses.031 Most emerged weeds glyphosate.TABLE 4-7. To avoid severe injury to crop. Very effec0.07 to 0. as wiper applications in row middles. Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures.

May be tank mixed with atrazine or simazine. Use nonionic surfactant at 2 pt per 100 gal of spray solution.0 EC + atrazine. or paraquat. or less) before weeds exceed the two-leaf stage. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. and morningglory Many broadleaf weeds bentazon.7 pt 2. Apply overtop corn (8 in. MOA 15 + atrazine. paraquat.5 in. 0. MOA 15 + atrazine. MOA 5 (AAtrex) 4 F or 90 WDG S-metolachlor.64 EC Most annual broadleaf and grass weeds atrazine. MOA 4 (various brands) alachlor.6 0. Higher rates will improve control of ragweed and lambsquarter.56 to 1. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL 0. Apply to soil surface immediately after planting. alachlor. MOA 15 (Dual II Magnum) 7.7 1 to 2 + 0.73 to 1.4 pt Broadleaf weeds CORN (sweet) Preemergence Most annual grass weeds. MOA 5 (various brands) 4 F (various brands) 90 WDG 12 to 21 oz 1 to 2 pt 0. See label for additional information in controlling larger weeds. Various other brands are available.56 to 2. Use a crop oil at a rate of 1 qt per acre.TABLE 4-8. Check label for directions. May be tank mixed with atrazine. Row should be formed several days ahead of planting and treating to allow maximum weed emergence. See label for directions.67 pt + 1 to 2 qt 1. MOA 15 (Micro-Tech) 4 FME 1 to 3 pt 2 to 4 qt 0. Pennsylvania smartweed. or simazine.7 + 0.5 to 1 2 to 4 dimethenamid.75 to 1 qt 0. Larger weeds will not be controlled. Check label for directions and specific rates.95 to 1. May be tank mixed with metolachlor. See label for planting restrictions if applied prior to planting. May be tank mixed with glyphosate for broad spectrum weed control. or less or 8 leaves or less to control emerged broadleaf weeds. Contact kill of all green foliage.1 to 2. Also available as the commercial products Guardsman or LeadOff. See label for further information.5 1 to 3 pt 0. CORN (sweet) Postemergence Most annual broadleaf and grass weeds atrazine. glyphosate. Parazone) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 0. MOA 5 (AAtrex) 4 F (AAtrex) 90 WDG Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds Cocklebur. Apply overtop corn (5 in. Apply to soil surface immediately after planting. DO NOT add VAN or AMS when making post application in sweetcorn or severe injury will occur. Shallow cultivations will improve control. Larger weeds will not be controlled. MOA 14 (Aim) 2 EC Precautions and Remarks Apply prior to planting or emergence of crop for control of emerged weeds less than 4 in.025 Crop CORN (sweet) Pre-plant Burndown Weed Most broadleaf weeds Herbicide and Formulation carfentrazone-ethyl.6 pt 1. glyphosate.75 to 1 Apply early postemergence overtop when weeds are small and corn has one to five leaves. Good residual control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds. Apply to soil surface immediately after planting. Does not control fall panicum or smooth crabgrass. Apply to soil surface immediately after planting. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100-gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix.0 EC S-metolachlor. See label for reduced rate if soil coverage with plant residue is less than 30% at planting.5 + 0.2 lb 0.8 to 1. See label for amount of oil concentrate to add to spray mix.094 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 251 .64 EC + atrazine. See label for further instruction. Do not apply within 45 days of harvest. Check label for directions.83 to 1. Rate is soiltexture and organic-matter dependent. Stale bed application. MOA 6 (Basagran) 4 SL mesotrione. paraquat. MOA 15 + atrazine. Apply to soil surface immediately after planting.5 to 2. velvetleaf. glyphosate. Check label for restrictions on rotational crops. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control.5 to 4.6 qt 2 2 qt 2.4 to 4 pt Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds. MOA 15 (Outlook) 6. Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds before crop emergence as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row.8 to 2. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds. in height.5 to 1. jimsonweed.375 to 1 + See label for rate 0.2 lb 8 to 21 oz + See label for rate 1 to 1. glyphosate.25 qt 1. Stale bed and minimum tillage application. Also available as Bicep II or Bicep II Magnum. See label for rates according to weed size and special directions for annual morningglory and yellow nutsedge control.0 0.008 to 0. Coverage is essential for good weed control. MOA 5 (Bullet or Lariat) 4 F dimethenamid. however. common ragweed. across. Use a crop oil concentrate or a nonionic surfactant with Aim. if weeds are greater than 5 in.3 to 2. or for improved control of certain weeds. including fall panicum. See label for details. MOA 5 (various brands) 4 L (various brands) 90 WDG dimethenamid. Good residual control of annual grass and broadleaf weeds. Check label for directions. Soil texture and organic matter influence application rate. Check label for directions. MOA 27 (Callisto) 4 EC 3 oz 0. May be tank mixed with atrazine.5 F 2.5 to 4. Can be tank mixed with other registered burndown herbicides.5 oz Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Apply to emerged weeds before crop emergence. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN CORN Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0. MOA 15 (Dual II Magnum) 7. MOA 5 (Bicep II Magnum) 5.91 1 to 2 1 to 2 qt 1. or less) before weeds exceed the two-leaf stage. MOA 15 (Outlook) 6. or simazine.2 lb CORN (sweet) Preemergence (continued) Most annual broadleaf and grass weeds (continued) alachlor. bentazon. May be tank mixed with atrazine.78 to 1.6 to 1 1.58 + 1 to 2 Apply overtop before weeds exceed 1.56 2.95 to 1. Certain glyphosate formulations require the addition of surfactant. MOA 22 (Firestorm. yellow nutsedge. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate. broadleaf signalgrass. certain atrazine formulations may be mixed with this herbicide. or simazine. Does not control grasses. glyphosate. Most effective on small weeds.3 to 2. MOA 5 (Guardsman Max) 5 F S-metolachlor. and smallseeded broadleaf weeds 2.94 to 1.4-D amine 4. Do not feed crop residue to livestock for 8 weeks following treatment. Apply overtop corn 30 in. Plant with a minimum of soil movement for best results.

For corn 12 to 18 in. pokeweed. Will control most legumes. common 14 lambsquarters (Aim) 2. pigweed.5 lb as corn reaches 8 in. See label for information on use of adjuvants. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. and thistle Cocklebur. Contact company representative for information on other local hybrids that have been evaluated with Accent. including nicosulfuron. sicklepod. Limited information is available concerning the use of this product in sweetcorn. Add nonionic surfactant at 1 to 2 qt per 100 gal of spray solution. MOA 2 barnyardgrass. 2.047 Apply over the top or with drop nozzles to sweet corn from spike to lay-by for control of emerged weeds. add a nonionic surfactant when using a directed spray at a rate of 1 qt per 100 gal spray solution. and johnsongrass.016 Crop CORN (sweet) Postemergence (continued) Weed Herbicide and Formulation Precautions and Remarks Apply postemergence to actively growing weeds less than 4 in. DO NOT SPRAY OVERTOP OF CORN OR SEVERE INJURY WILL OCCUR. Jerusalem artichoke. MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL 0. nightcarfentrazone-ethyl. tall. tall. Accent may be applied to corn previously treated with Fortress.25 to 0. Lorsban.032 to 0. Mix with atrazine to improve control of many broadleaf weeds. or non-organophosphate soil insecticides regardless of soil type. Do not apply to Merit sweet corn.48 Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds paraquat. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN CORN Amount of Formulation Per Acre 0. tall or up to and including 5 leaf collars. passionflower (maypop). morningglory. Use 0. Sweet corn hybrids vary in their sensitivity to Accent. Reduce rate of 2. Stinger) 3 EC 0.25 Apply to sweet corn when weeds are small (less than 5-leaf stage) and actively growing. tall. Label prohibits applicaiton of Accent to corn previously treated with Counter insecticide. high (rosettes less than 3 in. including burcucumber.4-D if extremely hot and soil is wet.095 to 0. apply only with drop nozzles. smartweed (Pennsylvania). pigweed.7 to 1.5 0. Use of a hooded or shielded sprayer will reduce crop injury. ragweed. Make a postdirected application in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds when the smallest corn is at least 10 in. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 WDG 0. Do not apply more than 2 oz per acre per season. jimsonweed. Use drop nozzles and direct spray toward base if corn is over 8 in.5 to 1 pt 0. pigweed. foxtails. MOA 4 (Clopyr AG. and smartweeds 0. MOA 4 (various brands) 3.67 pt 0. and broadleaf weeds. lambsquarters. clover.031 Page 252 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . Under dry conditions. Use nonionic surfactant (2 pt per 100 gal of spray) with all applications. tall and weeds are small.25 to 0.24 to 0. Aztec.25 lb of 2. pigweed.67 oz 0. Coverage of weeds is essential for control. or Thimet may result in unacceptable crop injury. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. MOA shade. Use nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. cocklebur. Texas (Accent) 75 WDG panicum. the use of crop oil concentrate may improve weed control. See label for all instructions and restrictions. For better sicklepod and horsenettle control.4-D amine.TABLE 4-8.0 EC Broadleaf weeds including sowthistle. morningglory. jimsonweed. tall. Increase rate to 0. See label for more information on use of soil insecticides with Accent.67 to 1 oz 0. across) up to the eight-leaf collar stage of corn. pokeweed.8 SL 0. velvetleaf Cocklebur.4-D overtop when corn is 4 to 5 in.5 to 1 oz Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0. Do not cultivate for about 10 days after spraying as corn may be brittle. especially on soils with less than 4% organic matter. ragweed. Apply to sweet corn up to 12 in. Directed sprays will lessen the chance of crop injury. Velvetleaf. Do not apply to sweet corn over 18 in. halosulfuron. and many other annual broadleaf weeds clopyralid.3 pt 1 to 2 pt Certain grasses.008 to 0. and also indicates that applying Accent to corn previously treated with Counter 20 CR. or Force.

To improve preemergence control of late emerging weeds. Apply to the soil surface immediately after crop seeding for preemergence control of weeds. Avoid contacting foliage as slight crop injury may occur. Will not control emerged weeds. MOA 9 (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL (Roundup WeatherMax) 5.5 to 0. Deep incorporation will lead to reduced weed control. Do not apply within 30 days of harvesting. Crop injury can occur if seeding depth is too shallow. galinsoga.5 0.5 to 1. Apply only when crop has four to five true leaves. Set incorporation equipment to move treated soil around base of crop plants. ragweed. or hot caps. Do not apply over or under plastic mulch. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 DG 2 to 6 pt 0. Plant with a minimum of soil movement for best results. do not plant within 7 days of Sandea application. Apply postemergence before crop is ready to vine for preemergence control of late emerging weeds and suppression of pigweed and common lambsquarters 1 to 2 in. Shallow cultivation. DO NOT SOIL INCORPORATE. Incorporation not recommended. When applying Roundup before transplanting crops into plastic mulch. Not labeled for transplanted crop. smartweed. Apply as a directed spray to soil between the rows. MOA 19 (Alanap) 2 EC 4 to 8 qt 2 to 4 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 Page 253 . For transplanting.5 pt 4 to 6 + 2 to 4 Annual grasses and some clomazone. Row should be formed several days ahead of planting and treating to allow maximum weed emergence.2 + 0. Offers weak control of pigweed.7 Apply to the soil surface immediately after seeding. MOA 13 small-seeded broadleaf weeds (Command) 3 ME ethalfluralin. and pigweed. MOA 8 (Prefar) 4 EC + naptalam.5 to 0. Apply after emergence when crop plants have reached the three to four true leaf stage of growth.5 0. Apply postemergence only after the crop has reached 3 to 5 true leaves but before first female flowers appear. MOA 19 (Alanap) 2 EC 4 to 8 qt 2 to 4 4 to 6 qt + 4 to 8 qt 0. To prevent crop injury. Use nonionic surfactant at 1 qt per 100 gal of spray solution with all postemergnce applications. Use a nonionic surfactant at a rate of 16 to 32 oz per 100 gal spray mix or 1 gal approved crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix. MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL Precautions and Remarks Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds before crop emergence as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row. MOA 3 (Dacthal) W-75 (Dacthal) 6 F 6 to 7. Irrigation or rainfall within 5 days will greatly improve control.024 to 0. Controls many broadleaf weeds postemergence including cocklebur. Herbicide and Formulation paraquat. Use sufficient water to give thorough coverage. 1. Annual and perennial grass and broadleaf weeds.5 to 1 in. MOA 19 (Alanap) lebur. glyphosate. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 DG 0.75 oz 0. May also be used as a BANDED spray BETWEEN rows of plastic mulch.5 to 1. or apply to the soil surface after seeding and follow with irrigation.036 Yellow and purple nutsedge and broadleaf weeds 0.5 L 1 to 3 pt 0. wild radish. or rainfall within 5 days is needed for good weed control. is well-established. MOA 8 (Prefar) 4 EC 5 to 6 qt 5 to 6 Broadleaf weeds (including cock. Under conditions of unusually cold or wet soil and air temperatures.5 in. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN CUCUMBERS Amount of Formulation Per Acre 1. 2 EC smartweed and velvetleaf) Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds (listed above for naptalam) bensulide. Adding nonionic surfactant to glyphosate formulated with nonionic surfactant may result in reduced weed control. row covers. tall. Check replant restrictions for small grains on label.5 8 to 10 lb 8 to 10 pt trifluralin. Do not use under mulches. MOA 3 (Curbit) 3 EC 0. Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 0. Stale bed application. Check replant restrictions for small grains on Prefar label.4 to 1 pt 3 to 4.375 0. ragweed. Annual grasses and broadleaf weeds ethalfuralin.5 to 0.TABLE 4-9. Seeded crop.1 L halosulfuron-methyl. do not transplant until 7 days after application.75 oz CUCUMBERS Postemergence Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds DCPA. (1 in. jimsonweed. Stale bed application.7 pt 2 to 4 pt Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre 0.125 to 0.75 Yellow and purple nutsedge and broadleaf weeds halosulfuron-methyl.3 to 2. See label for further information.4 Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds bensulide. natural rainfall or by applying water via a sprinkler system.8 to 2. Will not control emerged weeds. DO NOT SOIL INCORPORATE. incorporation is optimum) with a rototiller or tandem disk.5 to 1 Crop CUCUMBERS Preplant and Preemergence Weed Contact kill of all green foliage. To improve preemergence control of late emerging weeds. MOA 3 + clomazone. irrigation.naptalam. Apply after seeding or prior to transplanting crop. Apply to emerged weeds at least 3 days before seeding or transplanting. Control will not be good if rainfall or irrigation does not occur within 5 days. MOA 3 (Treflan HFP) 4EC (Trifluralin) 4EC (Trifluralin HF) 4EC 1 to 2 pt 0.036 Broadleaf weeds naptalam. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. crop stunting or injury may occur.375 Apply immediately after seeding.1 to 1.024 to 0.4 to 1. Certain glyphosate formulations require the addition of surfactant.4 pt 11 to 32 oz 0. care must be taken to remove residues of this product from the plastic prior to transplanting. For seeded or transplanting cucumbers in plasticulture. Will not control emerged weeds. Apply preplant and incorporate into the soil 1 to 2 in. DO NOT APPLY PRIOR TO PLANTING CROP. residues can be removed by 0. Consult the manufacturer’s label for rates for specific weeds. Do not mix with crop oil. Will not control emerged weeds.5 to 1. Perennial weeds may require higher rates of glyphosate. and growing conditions are favorable.15 to 0. May also be used as a banded treatment between rows after crop emergence or transplanting. before planting. Row middles only. Do not apply sooner than 14 days after transplanting. Apply to the soil surface immediately after planting. Rate can be increased to 1 ounce of product per acre to middles between rows. See label for timing. MOA 13 (Strategy) 2.

Very effective in 0. and Select. Most effective on weeds less than 4 in.5 0. For Arrow. CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN CUCUMBERS Amount of Formulation Per Acre up to 2 oz Pounds Active Ingredient Per Acre up to 0.8 to 2.031 Crop CUCUMBERS Postemergence (continued) Weed Most broadleaf weeds Herbicide and Formulation carfentrazone-ethyl. Use crop oil concentrate at up to 1 gal per 100 gal solution or a nonionic surfactant at 2 pt per 100 gal of spray solution. For Select Max. MOA 14 (Aim) 1. Apply to actively growing grasses not under drought stress. tall or rosettes less than 3 in.4 pt 1 to 1. stems.2 to 0. Coverage is essential for good weed control. add 2 pt non0. across.3 Annual and perennial grasses only clethodim.TABLE 4-9. Apply to emerged grasses. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.125 controlling annual bluegrass. To avoid severe injury to crop. as wiper applications in row middles. Clethodim.07 to 0. or post harvest. MOA 1 (Poast) 1. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest. Row middles only. Add 1 qt of crop oil concentrate per acre. burning of contacted area will occur. Adding crop oil may increase 0.094 to ionic surfactant per 100 gal spray mixture.5 pt 0.4 0. If crop is contacted. Apply as a hooded spray in row middles. Clethodim.5 0. Does not control grass weeds. Most emerged weeds glyphosate. Do not apply within 14 days of harvest.5 to 1.9 EW or 2 EC Precautions and Remarks Apply post-directed using hooded sprayers for control of emerged weeds. Select) 2 EC (Select Max) 1 EC 6 to 8 oz 9 to 16 oz Control of emerged grasses.5 to 1. MOA 9 (Roundup WeatherMax) 5. Consult manufacturer’s label for specific rates and best times to treat. Can be tank mixed with other registered herbicides. green shoots. Do not apply Poast on days that are unusually hot and humid. roots. MOA 1 (Arrow. or fruit of crop. Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures. add 1 gal crop oil concentrate per 100 gal spray mix.5 EC 11 to 32 oz 1 to 3 pt 0. as shielded spray in row middles.5 L (various brands) 4 SL (various brands) 5 SL sethoxydim.125 the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures. Page 254 Vegetable Crop Handbook for Southeastern United States — 2009 . exposed.5 to 1. do not allow herbicide to contact foliage.

Will not control emerged weeds. Can be tank mixed with other registered herbicides. common ragweed. tall or rosettes less than 3 in. Herbicide and Formulation paraquat. Adding crop oil to Poast may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperatures. irrigate immediately after application. Apply post-directed using hooded sprayers for control of emerged weeds. Can also be applied after direct seeded plants are 4 to 6 in. Stale bed application. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. With Select 0. When applying Roundup before transplanting crops into plastic mulch. residues can be removed by 0. Coverage is essential for good weed control. and smartweed Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds Yellow and purple nutsedge and broadleaf weeds bensulide. To avoid severe injury to crop.5 to 1. incorporation is optimum) or preemergence after planting.125 crop oil may increase the likelihood of crop injury at high air temperature. If crop is contacted. Do not apply Poast on days that are unusually hot and humid. Early season application will give postemergence and preemergence control. Do not apply within 20 days of harvest. See label for replanting restrictions for small grains. Eggplant tolerance to herbicide may be marginal.5 to . MOA 22 (Firestorm) 3 SL (Gramoxone Inteon) 2 SL Precautions and Remarks Apply in a minimum of 20 gal spray mix per acre to emerged weeds before transplanting as a broadcast or band treatment over a preformed row. Row middles only. MOA 14 (Aim) 1. To prevent crop injury.5 L 1 to 3 pt 0.5 pt 0. MOA 15 (Devrinol) 50 DF 5 to 6 qt 5 to 6 2 to 4 lb 1 to 2 trifluralin. Use a crop oil at up to 1 gal per 100 gal of spray solution or a nonionic surfactant at 2 pt per 100 gal of spray solution. Apply as a hooded spray in row middles. Apply to row middles as a postemergence spray. Use sufficient water to give thorough coverage. Apply over the top of transplants only between 4 and 6 wk after transplanting.5 in. Consult manufacturer’s label for specific rates and best times to treat. across. Apply in 20 gal spray mix as a shielded spray to emerged weeds between rows of eggplant. Certain glyphosate formulations require the addition of surfactant. Does not control grasses. natural rainfall or by applying water via a sprinkler system.048 EGGPLANT Postemergence Annual grasses and smallseeded broadleaf weeds DCPA. Can be tank mixed with other registered burndown herbicides.5 0.3 to 2. Most broadleaf weeds carfentrazone-ethyl. Coverage is essential for good weed control. Do not apply within 30 days of harvest. MOA 2 (Sandea) 75 DG 1 pt 0. 0. Clethodim. See label for more directions. tall.094 to Max.5 to 1 oz 0. MOA 3 (Dacthal) W-75 (Dacthal) 6 F carfentrazone-ethyl. MOA 9 (Roundup WeatherMax) 5.5