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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT

(2008)

FOR

MADHUVAN CEMENT INDUSTRIES


Survey No. 24, Village Kansari
Taluka Una,
District Junagadh

PREPARED BY

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES


ENVIRONMENT DIVISION
VADODARA
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORT
(2008)

FOR

MADHUVAN CEMENT INDUSTRIES


Survey No. 24, Village Kansari
Taluka Una,
District Junagadh

PREPARED BY

INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES


Environment Division
VADODARA
INDEX
1. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………..1

2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION………………………………………………………4
2.1 Plant Location…………………………………………………………………..4
2.2 Process Description…………………………………………………………..4
2.2.1 Raw Materials…………………………………………………………………5
2.2.1.1 Raw Materials Consumption……………………………………….5
2.2.1.2 Raw Materials Handling………………………………………………5
2.2.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Raw Materials and
product………………….………………………………………………… ….6
2.2.3 Manufacturing Process………………………………………………...8
2.3 Employment……………………………………………………………………10
2.4 Electrical Energy Requirement……….……………………………..10

3. SOURCES OF POLLUTION AND CONTROL MEASURES…….11


3.1 Air Pollution…………………………………………………………………….11
3.1.1 Sources of Air Pollution……………………………………………….11
3.1.2 Emission of SO2, NOx and CO2 from Kiln.………….………12
3.1.3 Air Pollution Control Measures…………………………………….13
3.2 Water and Wastewater……………………………………………………15

4. ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS………………………………………………..16
4.1 Meteorology…………………………………………………………………….16
4.1.1 Temperature…………………………………………………………………17
4.1.2 Relative Humidity…………………………………………………………17
4.1.3 Wind Velocity and Wind Direction……………………………….17
4.2 Present Air Quality in the Study Area….………………….…….18
4.3 Land Use Pattern…………………………………………………..……… 22
4.4 Noise Levels……………………………………..….…………………….….24
4.5 Biological Environment….………………….……….……………….…26
4.5.1. Terrestrial Environment………………………………………………26
4.5.1.1 Period of the Study and study Area………………………...26
4.5.1.2. Methodological……………………………………………………….…26
4.5.1.3 Terrestrial Floral and Faunal Components
Of the Study Area……………………………..………………………27
4.5.1.4 Topography of the Study Area………………………………….28
4.5.1.5 Floral Diversity of the Study Area…………………………….28

5. IMPACT IDENTIFICATION…………………………………………………54
5.1 Aspects of the Environment…………………………………………..54
5.2 Activities………………………………………………………………………….54
6. PREDICTION AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT.. ….……………55
6.1 Impacts during Construction Phase……………………………….55
6.2 Impacts during Operation Phase……………………………………55
6.2.1 Impact on Air Quality……………………………………….…………55
6.2.2 Impacts on Soil……………………………………………………………57
6.2.3 Impacts on Noise Levels........................................57
6.2.4 Impacts on Ecology……………………………………………………..58
6.2.5. Impact on Water Environment…………………………………...61
6.2.5. Impact on Existing Landuse Pattern…………………………..61

7. ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN..………………………….….62


7.1 Air Pollution Control Management………………………………….62
7.2 Noise Control Management…………………………………………….62
7.3 Water Harvesting System……………………………………………….63
7.4 Greenbelt Development Plan……………………………………..….64
7.5 Solid Wastes Management………………………………………………70
7.6 Cleaner Production………………………………………………………….72
7.7 Socio-economic Development Activities…………………………72

8. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY….…………………………73


8.1 Hazard Identification………………………………………………………73
8.2 Exposure Limits.……………………………………………………………..74
8.3 First Air Measures…………………………………………………….…….74
8.4 Exposure Controls and Personal Protection………………….75
8.5 Other Safety Measures……………………………………………………76

9. RISK ASSESSMENT AND SAFETY MEASURES………………….77


9.1 Classification of the Hazards in the Cement Industry……77
9.2 Hazards, Risk and Safety Measures……………………………….78
9.2.1 Storage and Material Transportation Systems……………78
9.2.2 Crushing……………………………………………………………………….81
9.2.3 Milling Processes (Raw Mill and Cement Mill)…………….84
9.2.4 Kilns Operations…………………………………………………………..88
9.2.5 Silo Cleaning Operations……………………………………………..90
9.2.6 Operation and Maintenance of Bagfilters……………………95
9.2.7 Fuel Storage Area………………………………………………………..98
9.2.8 Environment, Work areas and
Passageways………………………………………………………..……101
LIST OF ANNEXURES

Annexure : 1 :
Wind Rose Diagram
Annexure : 2 :
The Gaussian Model
Annexure : 3 :
Compliance Status of TOR
Annexure : 4 :
Copy of Permission of Ground Water
Withdrawal
Annexure ; 5 : Letter from Atmiya Institute of Technology
& Science
Annexure : 6 : Copy of Terms of References
LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Raw Materials Consumption…………………………………..5

Table 3.1 Details of Air Pollution Control Equipments…......13


Table 3.2 Details of Stacks……………………………………………………14

Table 4.1 Meteorological Parameters…………………….............16


Table 4.2 Stability Classification…….……………………………….…..17
Table 4.3 Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations………………18
Table 4.4 Land use Pattern…………….…………………………………….23
Table 4.5 Noise Monitoring Results………………………………………25
Table 4.6 Noise Standards with Category of Area..…………….25
Table 4.7 List of Villages covered under the present baseline
Study……………………………………………………………….…...27
Table 4.8 Dominant Tree Species in the Study Area…………..29
Table 4.9 Dominant Shrubs in the Study Area…………………….31
Table 4.10 Herbaceous Species Observed in the Area………...33
Table 4.11 Dominant Climbers in the Study…………………………34
Table 4.12 Medicinal Plants in the Study area and their
medicinal uses……………………………………………………..37
Table 4.13 Threatened birds of the Study Area……………………44
Table 4.14 Systematic Lists of Birds in the Study Area with its
Distribution and Migratory Status………………..…….44
Table 4.15 Butterflies in the Study Area……………………………….47
Table 4.16 Reptiles in the Study Area…………………………………..48
Table 4.17 Mammals Observed in the Core Zone…………………48
Table 4.18 Mammals from the Buffer Zone…………………………..49

Table 7.1
Sensitive Plants to Cement Dust…………….…………….65
Table 7.2
Tolerant Species-Poor Dust Collector……..………….…65
Table 7.3
Tolerant Species-Dust Collector……………….……………65
Table 7.4
Tolerant Species-Best Dust Collector…………………….66
Table 7.5
Recommended Plant Species for Green Belt
Development…………………………………..…………………….68
Table 7.2 Details of Hazardous Wastes Generation and its
Management……………………………..........................71

Table 8.1 Exposure Limits………..….……………………………………….74


LIST OF DRAWINGS

Drg. No. 1 : Layout Plan of Proposed Unit


Drg. No. 2 : Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram
Drg. No. 3 : Distance between Monitoring Stations and Site
Drg. No. 4 : Land Use Pattern
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

1. INTRODUCTION

Madhuvan Cement Industries is planning to set up cement


plant at Village Kansari, Taluka Una, District Junagadh. The
industry is proposing VSK technology based cement plant
having capacity of 200 tones per day.

As the proposed cement manufacturing unit is covered under


new EIA notification September, 2006, the industry has to get
environmental clearance from Forests and Environment
Department, Gandhinagar. To obtain Environmental
Clearance, the industry has to submit the Environmental
Impact Assessment Report covering terms of reference issued
by the State Level Expert Appraisal Committee.

For preparing the Environmental Impact Assessment Report,


the industry has appointed Industrial Hygiene Services,
Baroda as their consultants. The accepted draft TOR and
additional TOR issued by the committee are as under :

ACCEPTED DRAFT TOR :

PROJECT DESCRIPTION :

1. Detailed description of the project site.


2. Raw materials requirement and manufacturing process
details.
3. Land use pattern within10 Km radius of the project site

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND CONTROL MEASURES :

Air Pollution :

1. Sources of fugitive dust emission and control measures.


2. Point sources of Air pollutants and control measures.

Water and Wastewater :

1. Water requirement and Source of water supply.


2. Domestic effluent generation, treatment and disposal.

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

Hazardous Wastes Management :

1. Sources and Quantities of Hazardous wastes.


2. Handling, storage and disposal of hazardous wastes.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACAT ASSESSMENT :

1. Ambient air quality monitoring


2. Modeling indicating the likely impact on ambient air
quality due to proposed activities.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN :

1. Air pollution control measures.


2. Water harvesting systems.
3. Risk assessment and detailed safety control measures
to mitigate the risk and hazards.
4. Occupation health and safety measures.
5. Socio economic development activities.
6. Green belt development plan.
7. Control measures for Noise pollution

ADDITIONAL TERMS OF REFERENCE :

1) The study area shall be 10 km radius from the project


site.
2) Air quality monitoring at least eight stations as per the
GPCB guidelines. The location shall be selected keeping
in view the nearby habitation as well as the
predominant wind direction.
3) All sources of the water and likely impact of the
proposed construction on the nearby surface and
groundwater sources shall be elaborated.
4) The wildlife parks or Sanctuaries and the wildlife
habitats and corridor (lion movement), if any, within the
10 km from the site in question.
5) Existing landuse pattern, likely changes, impacts on the
landuse of the nearby areas, etc.
6) Existing ecological system and the impacts on ecological
aspects due to the proposed project.

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

7) Likely generation of the all kind of wastes, its


management including handling and disposal.
8) The details Environmental Management Plan including
the Air Pollution Control Measures and vetting of the
design of the same through an institute of repute such
as the National Productivity Council, LD College of
Engineering, MS University, DDTI etc.

As per the above TOR, Environmental Impact Assessment


report has been prepared along with Environment
Management Plan (EMP).

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION :

2.1 Plant Location :

Madhuvan Cement Industries is planning to set up cement


plant at survey no. 24, Kansari Village, Taluka Una, Junagadh
District. The plot area for the proposed plant is 26305.0 sq.m.

The details of the project site are as given in the following


table.

Sr.No. Particulars Details


1 Location
a Site Kansari Village
c Taluka Una
d District Junagadh
e State Gujarat
f Latitude 20o 51’ 14.67” N
g Longitude 70 o 3’ 14.95” E
2 Nearest Railway Station Una (SSW, 2.5 km)
5 National Part Gir Reserved Forest (N, 12.0 Km)
5 Nearest City Una (SSW, 2.0 Km,)
6 Nearest village Kansari (1.24 Km, N)
7 Nearest River River Macchundari (1.05 Km, WSW)

The maps showing the location of the proposed unit are as


enclosed. The site lay-out plan is as shown in the Drg. No. 1.

2.2 Process Description :

The industry is planning to manufacture 200 Tones per day


ordinary Portland cement. Portland cement is a fine typically
gray powder comprised of dicalcium silicate, tricalsium
silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium aluminoferrite,
with the addition of forms of calcium sulfate. The proposed
plant is based on Saboo technology. The cement will be
manufactured from lime stone, clay, coke breeze, silica and
Gypsum. The raw materials requirement, physical and
chemical properties of raw materials and product and
manufacturing processes details are as given below :

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

2.2.1 Raw Materials

2.2.1.1 Raw Materials Consumption :

In the manufacturing of ordinary portland cement raw


materials lime stone, clay, coke breeze, silica and gypsum will
be required. To manufacture 200 Tones per day of ordinary
portland cement, the raw materials consumption per month
will be as under :

Table 2.1 Raw Materials Consumption

Sr. Raw Materials Consumptions Consumption


No. t/t of product Tones/day
1 Silica 0.048 9.6
2 Lime stone 1.19 238.0
3 Coke breeze 0.124 24.8
4 Clay 0.095 19.0
5 Gypsum 0.03 6.0

2.2.1.2 Raw Materials Handling :

The raw materials will be purchased from the external


sources. The raw materials will be transported to the site by
covered trucks. The unloading and storage of the raw
materials will be done in the covered raw yards.

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

2.2.2 Physical and Chemical Properties of Raw Materials and


product

Lime Stone (Raw Material) :

Lime stone contains Silicon dioxide ( SiO2), Aluminum Oxide


(Al2O3), Ferric Oxide (Fe2O3), Mangesium Oxide (MgO),
Calcium Oxide (CaO), Sodium Oxide (Na2O), Potassium Oxide
(K2O) and Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3).

Physical State : Solid


Appearance : Angular gray/white particles of
varying sizes
Odor : None
Vapor Pressure : Not applicable
Vapor Density : Not applicable
Evaporation rate : 0
Boiling point : Not applicable
Specific Gravity (H2O = 1) : 2.60 - 2.8
Solubility in Water : Negligible

Gypsum (Raw Material) :

The gypsum contains Hydrous calcium sulfate (CaSO4.2H2O),


Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), magnesium aluminum silicate
((Mg.Al) SiO3) and silicon dioxide (SiO2).

Physical State : Solid (powder)


Appearance : White or off-white
Odor : None
Vapor Pressure : Not applicable
Vapor Density : Not applicable
Evaporation rate : Not applicable
Melting point : Not applicable
Boiling point : > 1000 oC
pH (in water) : 5.0 - 8.0
Specific Gravity, g/cm3 : 2.3
Solubility in Water : Negligible

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

Silica (Raw Material) :

Physical State : Granular Solid


Appearance : Light buff to white sand
Odor : None
Vapor Pressure : Not applicable
Vapor Density : Not applicable
Evaporation rate : Not applicable
Melting point : Not applicable
Boiling point : > 1900 oC
pH (in water) : Not applicable
Specific Gravity, g/cm3 : 2.65 (quartz)
Solubility in Water : Insoluble

Coke Breeze (Raw Material) :

It contains carbon, quarts, sulphur, calcium oxide, magnesium


oxide, potassium oxide, alumina, iron oxide and manganese
oxide.

Physical State : Solid


Odor : None
Vapor Pressure : Not applicable
Evaporation rate : Not applicable
Melting point : Not applicable
Boiling point : Not applicable
pH (in water) : Not applicable
Specific Gravity, g/cm3 : 1.75 (water = 1)
Sulfur : < 1% by weight

Product Portland Cement :

Portland cement is essentially hydraulic calcium silicates


contained in a crystalline mass, not separable into individual
components. Major compounds are tricalcium silicate
(3CaO.SiO2), dicalcium Silicate (2CaO.SiO2), tricalcium
aluminate (3CaO.Al2O3), tetracalcium aluminoferrite
(4Cao.Al2O3.Fe2O3) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (Gypsum :
CaSO4.2H2O).

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

Physical State : Solid (powder)


Appearance : Gray or white
Odor : None
Vapor Pressure : Not applicable
Vapor Density : Not applicable
Evaporation rate : Not applicable
Melting point : Not applicable
Boiling point : > 1000 oC
pH (in water) : 12.0 - 13.0
Specific Gravity,(H2O = 1) : 3.15
Solubility in Water : slightly soluble (0.1 % to 1.0 %)

2.2.3 Manufacturing Process :

The plant will consists dump hopper, vibro feeder, jaw


crusher, belt conveyor, hammer mill, bucket elevators, lime
stone hopper, granulator, bucket elevator clay hopper, coke
hopper, additive hopper, mill feed hopper, clinker crusher,
vertical shaft kiln, kiln tower, screw conveyor, storage silos
and packing machines.

The cement will be manufactured by following steps :

1. Crushing
2. Grinding and milling
3. Pyroprocessing (vertical kiln technology)
4. Clinker crushing and storage
5. Finish milling
6. Packing and unloading

i. Crushing :

The lime stone will be added in to the dump hopper and then
taken in to the vibro feeder. Then lime stone will be crushed
in jaw crusher which is primary crusher. Then the lime stone
will be conveyed to hammer mill which is secondary crusher.
The primary crusher will reduce the lime stone size to 0.1 to
0.25 meter in diameter and the secondary crusher will reduce
the size to 0.01 to 0.05 meters in diameter. Then the crushed
lime stone will be lifted by bucket elevator and stored in the
lime stone hopper.

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

ii. Grinding and Milling :

The silica, coke breeze and clay will be added in to the


respective hoppers. All the raw materials will be weighed as
per the requirement and lifted by bucket elevator and added
in to the raw mill feed hoppers. Then the raw materials will be
fed into the raw mill and ground to a fine size range, and
blended to obtain the correct composition for kiln feed. This
material is commonly referred to as raw mix.

The raw mix will be conveyed through screw conveyor and


lifted by bucket elevator to add in the blending silos. The raw
mix will be charged in to kiln for further process.

iii. Pyroprocessing (Vertical Kiln Technology) :

The raw mix will be charged in to vertical kiln. The raw


materials will be fed from into the upper, cool end while fuels
are normally fed into the lower, hot counter flow in kilns.
Thus, the raw materials get progressively hotter as they travel
down the length of the kiln to become clinker at the low, hot
end. The chemical reaction inside the kiln leads to the fusion
of the raw materials to produce clinker.

iv. Clinker crushing and storage :

The clinker from the kiln out let will be transported to the
clinker crusher. The clinker will be crushed in the crusher. The
crushed clinker will be elevated to suitable height by bucket
elevator for cement mill operation.

The clinker and gypsum will be fed to the cement mill. The
gypsum serves to adjust the setting behaviour of the cement
in order to obtain optimum workability of the product during
concrete production. In the cement mill, the added materials
will be ground to a fine powder. Then the fine product will be
conveyed by screw conveyor elevated by bucket elevator and
blend in the cement silos.

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VENT

VENT

BAG FILTER

LIME STONE BAG FILTER

BUCKET ELEVATOR

DUMP HOPPER CLAY


RAW BREEZE COKE
MATERIALS SILICA
HAMMER MILL HOPPERS
VIBRO FEEDER
JAW CRUSHER VENT ELEVATOR GRANULATOR

BAG FILTER

VENT WEIGH BATCHER


VENT

BLENDING
WATER SILOS MILL FEED BAG FILTER
WATER TANK BUCKET ELEVATOR HOPPER

SCRUBBER CYCLONE
SEPARATOR

MATERIALS FEEDER SILO


RECYCLED RAW MILL
BUCKET ELEVATOR VENT
NODULIZER
STORAGE SILOS
BAG FILTER

CYCLONE
SEPARATOR VENT
VERTICAL SHAFT KILN CEMENT
BLENDING SILO
CEMENT MILL FEED HOPPER
VENT
GYPSUM

CLINKER CEMENT GRINDING MILL


BUCKET ELEVATOR SCREW
CONVEYOR
WEIGHING, PACKING
CLINER TO STORAGE YARD BUCKET ELEVATOR AND DISPATCHING

DRG. NO. 02
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

The manufactured cement from the silos will be conveyed to


the automatic electronic packers where it will be packed in
50 kg polythene bags and dispatched in trucks.

The manufacturing process flow diagram is as shown in


figure 2.

2.3 Employment :

The proposed cement plant will have great employment


potential providing employment to approximately 50 full time
persons.

2.4 Electrical Energy Requirement :

The estimated power requirement for the proposed project


will be 15000 units per day. Power supply to the proposed
project will be sourced from the Paschim Gujarat Vij Co. Ltd.

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

3. SOURCES OF POLLUTION AND CONTROL MEASURES

The particulate emissions are among the most significant


impacts of cement manufacturing.

3.1 Air Pollution

3.1.1 Sources of Air Pollution :

Particulate Matters :

There will be emission of particulate matter due to operation


of crusher, hammer mill, raw mill, kiln and cement mill. The
cement dusts are alkaline with size varying from 5 µm to
250 µm (Chemical Technology and Pollution Control by Martin
B. Hocking).

The fugitive dust emissions from the proposed plant would be


significant and the sources will be as under :

1. Raw materials handling


2. Materials transfer points (bucket elevators, conveyor
belts)
3. Loading of raw materials
4. Packing of cement
5. Unloading of cement bags
6. Transportation of vehicles

Dust Emission Load :

The exhaust gas volume, temperature of exhaust gases and


their burden for different processes of proposed plant are
taken from the IS : 12002 – 1987 “Code of Practice for
Control of air pollution in cement plants” and presented as
under :

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

1. Lime Stone Crushing :

a. Jaw Crusher :
Dust burden : 20 – 75 g/Nm3
b. Hammer Mill
Dust burden : 20 – 75 g/Nm3

2. Raw Mill :

Temperature of Exhaust gases : 90 to 100 oC


Dust burden : 130 – 300 g/Nm3

3. Vertical Shaft Kiln :

Exhaust gas volume : 2–3 Nm3/kg of product


Temperature of exhaust gases : 100 – 150 oC
Dust burden : 0.1 – 0.5 g/Nm3
Dust emission load : 12.5 kg/hour

4. Cement Mill :

Exhaust gas volume : 0.2 – 0.4 Nm3/kg of product


Temperature of exhaust gases : 100 oC
Dust burden : 200 – 400 g/Nm3
Dust emission load : 1334 Kg/hour

3.1.2 Emission of SO2, NOx and CO2 from Kiln :

Sulfur dioxide may generate due to the sulfur content in the


coke breeze. However, the alkaline nature of the materials
provides for direct absorption of SO2, thereby mitigating the
quantity of SO2 emissions in the exhaust stream.

Oxides of nitrogen are generated during fuel combustion by


oxidation of chemically bound nitrogen in the fuel and by
thermal fixation of nitrogen in the combustion air.

The will be generation of CO2 due to calcining of lime stone.


In the calcining process, CaCO2 thermally decomposes to CaO
and CO2.

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Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

3.1.3 Air Pollution Control Measures :

The major sources of pollution are particulate matter from the


proposed cement plant.

The unit will install cyclone separators, bag filters and wet
scrubber to control air pollutants. The details of proposed
control equipments are presented in the following table.

Table 3.1 : Details of Air Pollution Control Equipments :

Sr. Sections Dust Control Equipments


No.
1 Crushing and Cyclone Separator followed by
Raw Materials reverse pulse jet type bag filter
Silos
2 Raw Mill andCyclone Separator followed by
blending silo reverse pulse jet type bag filter
3 Noduliser Reverse Pulse Jet Type Bag filter
4 VSK Cyclone separator and Wet
Scrubber
5 Clinker Crusher Cyclone Separator followed by
and cement mill reverse pulse jet type bag filter
feed hopper
6 Cement mill Cyclone Separator followed by
reverse pulse jet type bag filter
7 Cement blending Reverse pulse jet type bag filter
silo and packing
section

The stacks will be attached to the air pollution control


equipments to disperse the air pollutants to the satisfactory
levels. The details of stacks are as under :

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

Table 3.2 : Details of Stacks :

Sr. Stacks attached Stack Stack Exit gas


No. to Height Diameter velocity
m m m/s
1 Crushing section 15 0.5 6
2 Raw Mill – 1 30 1.0 9
Raw Mill – 2
3 VSK – 1 30 1.0 9
VSK – 2
4 Clinker Crusher 15 0.5 6
section
5 Cement Mill – 1 30 1.0 9
Cement mill - 2

The emissions of particulate matters from all the stacks will be


limited to 50 mg/Nm3.

To control fugitive emissions, the following measures are


proposed.

™ Raw materials loading and unloading will be done in the


covered area.
™ Raw materials will be stored in the covered structure.
™ All the conveyors will be provided with conveyor cover.
™ The automatic bagging machine will be provided. The
suction of bag filter will be provided at the packing
section.
™ The sprinkling of water will be done along the internal
roads in the plant in order to control the dust.
™ All the workers and officers working inside the plant will
be provided with disposable dust masks.
™ Green belt will be developed around the plant to arrest
the fugitive emissions.
™ Bag filters will be cleaned regularly.
™ Maintenance of air pollution control equipments will be
done regularly.

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INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

3.2 Water and Wastewater :

Water will be required in the process of nodules preparation,


for domestic purpose, gardening and dust suppression. The
break of water consumption will be as under :

Sr. Water Use Water Consumption in


No. cu.m/day
1 Industrial Purpose 15 cu.m/day
2 Domestic purpose 5 cu.m/day
3 Gardening and 10 cu.m/day
others
TOTAL 30 cu.m/day

The total water consumption will be of 30 cu.m/day. The


industry will get required water from its own bore well.

The domestic wastewater will be generated of 3.0 cu.m/day.


It will be treated through septic tank, and disposed off
through Soak Well. There will be no any process wastewater
generation source in the proposed plant.

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4. ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS

This chapter described the environmental status in the


surrounding area. To represent the environmental setting,
10 km area around the site of the industry is considered as
the study area.

4.1 Meteorology

Meteorology of the area in which pollutants are generated and


discharged plays a pivotal role in determining their dispersion
and diffusion as well as transportation into the atmosphere.
The fate of pollutants once discharged into atmosphere is
governed by various meteorological factors like wind velocity,
temperature, humidity, rainfall, cloud cover and solar
radiation. The following table lists the meteorological data
required for the analysis of air pollution impacts in the vicinity
of the site.

The Veraval airport is the nearest IMD station (about 70 km)


to the project site. The meteorological data for the IMD
station is collected for October 2007 and November 2007 from
the Indian Meteorological Department, Ahmedabad.

Table 4.1 : Meteorological Parameters

Meteorological Importance
Parameter
Wind speed Determines initial dispersion of air pollution
Wind direction Determines downwind geometry
Atmospheric Determines plume spread associated with
Stability condition turbulent motions in the atmosphere
Relative humidity High humidity is associated with (I) Lowered
visibility for water vapor plumes (ii) Possible
acid mist formation in case of SO2 emissions.
Surface Influences stability conditions and extent of
temperature dispersion of pollutants.

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4.1.1 Temperature :

During the study period, the temperature is varying from


14.4 oC to 33.6 oC.

4.1.2 Relative Humidity :

Relative humidity indicates the amount of moisture in the air.


The presence of moisture in the atmosphere changes the
nature and characteristics of pollutants. Moisture provides
surface area for suspended particulate matter to coalesce and
grow in size and settle under the influence of gravity. It also
enhances chemical reactions of the gaseous pollutants by
providing them an aqueous medium. Relative humidity
observed during the study period is varying from 20% to 93
%.

4.1.3 Wind Velocity and Wind Direction :

Wind velocity is a measure of wind speed and direction. It is


one of the most important meteorological parameters and
governs dispersion, diffusion and transportation of pollutants
to the atmosphere. The wind rose diagrams are shown in
Annexure – I. A review of the wind rose diagram shows that
predominant winds are mostly from directions N, NNE and NE.
The average wind speed during the study periods is 2.72 m/s
in the study area.

Table 4.2 : Stability classification

Surface Day Night


wind speed Incoming solar radiation Thinly overcast < 3/8
(at 10 m) Strong Moderate Slight / >4/8 low cloud
m/sec cloud
<2 A A-B B
2–3 A–B B C E F
3–5 B B–C C D E
5–6 C C–D D D D
>6 C D D D D

The neutral class, D, should be assumed for overcast


conditions during day or night. Class A is the most unstable

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and class F is the most stable, with class B moderately


unstable and Class E slightly stable. During the study period
all the stability conditions were observed.

4.2 Present Air Quality in the Study Area :

The location of the proposed unit is in the Patapur village in


Junagadh. The ambient air quality monitoring was carried out
at 5 numbers of stations with in 10 km radius of the proposed
unit site. Each station was monitored for a period of 24 hours.
The ambient air quality monitoring was carried out over
duration of two months in the winter season of the year
2008.

The monitoring stations are as shown in the Map. No. 01. The
distance between the monitoring stations and the site of the
proposed unit are presented in the Drg. No. 3.

The details of the monitoring stations are presented in the


following table.

Table 4.3 : Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations

Station Monitoring Stations Distance from


No. the Proposed
Unit, Km
1 At Site of the Proposed Unit, Village Kansari 0.00
2 On the terrace of Mr. Balubhai Naranbhai 5.77
Vansh’s Home, Village Lamdhar
3 On the terrace of Mr. Kalubhai Kesubhai 4.0
Baraiya’s Home, Village Varvada
4 On the terrace of Mr. Ranabhai R. Mevada’s 7.14
Home, Village Ratad
5 On the terrace of Mr. Bhanubai Hamirbhai’s 3.4
Home, Village Umej
6 On the terrace of Mr. Jodhabhai Bhanubhai’s 6.8
Home, Village Siloj
7 On the terrace of Mr. Naranbhai Ramjibhai 2.44
Katariya’s Home, Village Una
8 On the terrace of Mr. Valjibhai Haribhai 1.32
Tavaliya’s Home, Village Kansari

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The ambient air quality monitoring results are as shown in the


following tables.

Location 1 : At Site of the Proposed Unit, Village Kansari

Sr. Date RSPM SPM SO2 NOx


No. µg/m3 µg/m µg/m µg/m3
3 3

CPCB standards, 100 200 80 80


Residential, rural and other
areas (24 hrs)
1 02.10.2008 60 160 8 15
2 08.10.2008 55 159 5 19
3 11.11.2008 53 150 10 17

Location 2 : On the terrace of Mr. Balubhai Naranbhai Vansh’s


Home, Village Lamdhar

Sr. Date RSPM SPM SO2 NOx


No. µg/m3 µg/m µg/m µg/m3
3 3

CPCB standards, 100 200 80 80


Residential, rural and other
areas (24 hrs)
1 05.10.2008 57 155 7 18
2 11.10.2008 68 165 11 13
3 14.11.2008 69 160 16 21

Location 3 : On the terrace of Mr. Kalubhai Kesubhai Baraiya’s


Home, Village Varvada

Sr. Date RSPM SPM SO2 NOx


No. µg/m3 µg/m µg/m µg/m3
3 3

CPCB standards, 100 200 80 80


Residential, rural and other
areas (24 hrs)
1 03.10.2008 50 151 6 17
2 09.10.2008 67 160 10 15
3 12.11.2008 63 155 7 20

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Location 4 : On the terrace of Mr. Ranabhai R. Mevada’s


Home, Village Ratad

Sr. Date RSPM SPM SO2 NOx


No. µg/m3 µg/m3 µg/m3 µg/m3
CPCB standards, 100 200 80 80
Residential, rural and other
areas (24 hrs)
1 03.10.2008 54 150 6 12
2 09.10.2008 63 162 8 15
3 12.11.2008 52 165 10 13

Location 5 : On the terrace of Mr. Bhanubai Hamirbhai’s


Home, Village Umej

Sr. Date RSPM SPM SO2 NOx


No. µg/m3 µg/m µg/m µg/m3
3 3

CPCB standards, 100 200 80 80


Residential, rural and other
areas (24 hrs)
1 04.10.2008 61 149 8 12
2 10.10.2008 69 164 9 15
3 13.11.2008 65 160 10 17

Location 6 : On the terrace of Mr. Jodhabhai Bhanubhai’s


Home, Village Siloj

Sr. Date RSPM SPM SO2 NOx


No. µg/m3 µg/m µg/m µg/m3
3 3

CPCB standards, 100 200 80 80


Residential, rural and other
areas (24 hrs)
1 04.10.2008 52 155 6 12
2 10.10.2008 49 150 9 14
3 13.11.2008 72 165 7 17

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Location 7 : On the terrace of Mr. Naranbhai Ramjibhai


Katariya’s Home, Village Una

Sr. Date RSPM SPM SO2 NOx


No. µg/m3 µg/m3 µg/m3 µg/m3
CPCB standards, 100 200 80 80
Residential, rural and other
areas (24 hrs)
1 05.10.2008 70 165 6 19
2 11.10.2008 66 170 9 15
3 14.11.2008 59 178 7 17

Location 8 : On the terrace of Mr. Valjibhai Haribhai


Tavaliya’s Home, Village Kansari

Sr. Date RSPM SPM SO2 NOx


No. µg/m3 µg/m3 µg/m3 µg/m3
CPCB standards, 100 200 80 80
Residential, rural and other
areas (24 hrs)
1 02.10.2008 54 155 5 20
2 08.10.2008 63 168 8 19
3 11.11.2008 59 160 9 12

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4.3 Land use Pattern :

The land use data have been presented from Census of India
2001, District Census Handbook (Junagadh district). The land
use classified into forest land, land irrigated by different
sources, unirrigated land, cultivable waste land including
Gauchar and Groves and area not available for cultivation.
The distribution of land in the study area (within 10 km radius
from the proposed project site) is as given below :

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Table 4.4 Land Use Pattern :

Land use in hectares

Cultivable Waste
Name of Village

Land (including
Gauchar and

TOTAL AREA
available for
Irrigated by

Unirrigated

cultivation
Area not
Groves)
Sr. No.

Source
Forest
1 Dhokadva 0 689.6 243.2 209.8 35.1 1177.7
2 Mota Samadhiyala 0 422.5 342.2 120.2 97.6 982.5
3 Mahobatpara 0 221 231.1 76.8 65.7 594.6
4 Ambada 0 366.1 237 21.3 78 702.4
5 Nava Ugla 0 180.6 319.4 61.9 0 561.9
6 Khilavad 0 323.1 903.4 84.1 29 1339.6
7 Fatsar 0 403.5 546.2 221.1 109 1279.8
8 Vadviyala 0 620 496.2 168.6 42 1326.8
9 Jhudvadli 0 280.5 235.2 129.2 5.2 650.1
10 Gundala 0 179.4 130 35.1 47 391.5
11 Ugla 0 210 397.5 85.4 0 692.9
12 Vajdi 0 221 144.4 60.5 30.8 456.7
13 Padapadar 0 391.6 422.4 64.3 40.5 918.8
14 Pankhan 0 299.8 208.2 56.9 6.7 571.6
15 Nandrakh 0 145.9 110.3 50.5 18.1 324.8
16 Kandhi 0 497.7 438.3 44 100.2 1080.2
17 Bhacha 0 432.4 381.6 49.9 65.8 929.7
18 Bhadiyadar 0 517.4 215.5 123.4 24 880.3
19 Men 0 174.8 110.2 57.3 37.4 379.7
20 Khapat 0 360.8 235.6 122.8 59.9 779.1
21 Undari 0 445 50.1 104.3 74.6 674
22 Ratad 0 181.5 87.4 76 84.7 429.6
23 Chanchakvad 0 249 74.3 55.2 13.4 391.9
24 Patapur 0 170 10 3.9 2.9 186.8
25 Nesda 0 150.7 13.6 38.3 13 215.6
26 Paswala 0 325 221.4 52.4 21.1 619.9
27 Umej 0 531.5 313.3 79.8 57.6 982.2
28 Vavarda 0 456 364 89.4 36 945.4
29 Kansari 0 287.6 252.6 63.8 2.1 606.1
30 Varsingpur 0 157.4 287.5 51.3 53.1 549.3
31 Elampur 38.1 247.1 320 159.8 229.8 994.8
32 Damasa 0 187.4 122.1 101.9 153.9 565.3
33 Yajpur 0 210 133.4 54.8 23 421.2
34 Nethej 0 195.1 144.2 51.7 37.7 428.7
35 Samter 0 190 211.4 101.6 48.2 551.2
36 Rameshvar 0 36.2 71.1 27.2 10.1 144.6
37 Kanakbarda 0 116.5 277.3 36.6 59.6 490
38 Sultanpur 0 90.1 41.5 52.7 59.4 243.7
39 Siloj 0 150.8 39.4 84.1 98.1 372.4
40 Nathal 0 345.2 234.3 52.3 42.7 674.5
41 Mota Desar 0 344.4 260.2 78 31.3 713.9
42 Lamdhar 0 130.2 97.9 78.6 83.9 390.6
43 Kothari 0 133.7 99.2 2.3 7.8 243
44 Amodra 0 424.4 722.3 187.8 107.5 1442
45 Garal 0 161 528.8 84.8 49.9 824.5
46 Motha 0 257.7 199.3 81 18.6 556.6

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Land use in hectares

Cultivable Waste
Name of Village

Land (including
Gauchar and

TOTAL AREA
available for
Irrigated by

Unirrigated

cultivation
Area not
Groves)
Sr. No.

Source
Forest
47 Sanjavapur 0 90.3 20.8 9.2 18.3 138.6
48 Anjar 0 170.7 112.5 60.4 2.3 345.9
49 Shahdesar 0 265.5 105.1 40.8 6.5 417.9
50 Delwada 0 730.7 329.2 145 357.2 1562.1
51 Khan 0 100.7 92.6 19.4 29.3 242
52 Dandi 30.5 19 266.4 84.8 56.3 457
53 Khajudra 16.8 249 112.6 104.6 202.7 685.7
54 Rajput 80.9 39 308 152 22.1 602
55 Kalapan 0 60.4 44.3 15.1 28.8 148.6
56 Rampara 18.3 184.5 28.1 64.5 28.1 323.5
TOTAL 184.6 15021 12944.1 4388.5 3063.6 35601.8

The majority of the land is used for agriculture purpose and


36.40 % of the land is agriculture land without irrigation
facility in the study area. About 42.19 % of the agricultural
land is irrigated by various means i.e. by government canal,
private canal, well with/without electricity, tube well with /
without electricity and by tank. Culturable waste (including
grazing land & groves) possesses about 12.33 % of study
area and area not available for cultivation possesses about
8.6 % of study area. There is forest land of 0.51 % in the
study area.

4.4 Noise Levels :

The noise levels were monitored at 5 locations in the study


area. The noise levels were recorded continuously for 24
hours at an interval of every 1 hour.

The noise results in the study area are shown in Table 4.5.

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AREA NOT AVAILABLE IRRIGATED BY SOURCE,
CULTIVABLE WASTE FOREST, 0.51%
FOR CULTIVATION, 8.60% 42.19%
LAND (INCLUDING
GAUCHAR AND GROVES),
12.33%

UNIRRIGATED, 36.40%

DRG.NO. 04
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Table 4.5 : Noise Monitoring Results

Date Source Average Average


Noise Noise
levels in levels in
dB dB
(Day) (Night)
05.10.2008 At Site of the Proposed 52.0 44.0
Unit, Village Kansari
27.10.2008 At Mr. Valjibhai Haribhai 51.0 43.0
Tavaliya’s Home, Village
Kansari
23.10.2008 At Mr.Naranbhai 54.5 45.0
RamjibhaiKatariya’s Home,
Village Una

The analysis results are compared with the noise level


standards as given in table no. 4.6.

Table 4.6 : Noise standards with category of area

Limits in dB
Noise Standards
Sr. Day Time Night Time
No. Category of Area 6.00 a.m.- 9.00 9.00 p.m.- 6.00
p.m. a.m.
1 Industrial Area 75 70
2 Commercial Area 65 55
3 Residential Area 55 45
4 Silence Zone 50 40

Noise levels at majority of the stations in the industrial and


residential areas are within their respective limits.

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4.5 BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT:

4.5.1 TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT:


Environmental impact assessments have become an integral part of development
projects to formulate policies and guidelines for environmentally sound economic
development. Proper assessment of biological environment and compilation of its
taxonomical data is essential for the impact prediction.
Biodiversity performs two very important functions. First, stability of the
biosphere depend on it , which in turn leads to the stability of climate and, water regime,
soil fertility, quality of air, and overall health of life support systems on earth. Second ,
biodiversity is the source, from which , the human race derives , food, fodder, fuel, fiber,
shelter, medicine, and raw materials for industry, for human kind’s ever changing, ever
increasing, needs and aspirations (Pushpangathan & Nair,(2006)
4.5.1.1 Period of the study and Study area:
The baseline study, for the evaluation of the floral and faunal biodiversity of the
terrestrial environment with in 10 km from the project site, located in Kansari village, in
Una Taluka of Junagadh District was conducted during November, 2008.
4.5.1.2 Methodology:
The methodology adopted for the evaluation of biodiversity status of the study
region is as given below. The sampling plots for the survey were selected randomly in the
suitable habitats with in the core zone and the buffer zone of the study area.
Tree 10 meter radius circular plot
Plants Shrubs 10 meter radius circular plot
Herbs 1meterx1meter square plot
Terrestrial Point centered quadrate in 10 meter radius
Birds Aquatic Total count and Folk count
Herpetofauna Terrestrial/ 10 meter radius circular plot
Aquatic
Indirect Survey in the villages with the help of pictorial
evidence representation
Direct count Line transect and Road transect/
Mammals Indirect Survey in the villages with the help of pictorial
evidence representation

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4.5.1.3 TERRESTRIAL FLORAL AND FAUNAL COMPONENTS OF THE


STUDY AREA:
The villages covered for the present baseline study are given in the table #1. All
together 31 villages were covered for the present biological baseline study. 6 villages
were selected in the core zone (project location and surrounding villages in 5km radius)
and 25 villages were selected in the buffer zone (villages located more than 5km radius
but with in 10 km radius of the project site).
Table 4.7 List of Villages covered under the present baseline study
# Village Name
Core zone
1-1 Project site
2-2 Kansari village
3-3 Vavarda village
4-4 Umej
5-5 Khanpat
6-6 Chachakvad
Buffer zone
7-1 Mahabatpara
8-2 Mota Samadhiyala
9-3 Padapadar
10-4 Nana samadhiyala
11-5 Kandhi
12-6 Patapur
13-7 Nandrakh
14-8 Nesda
15-9 Paswala
16-10 Samtel
17-11 Kanak barda
18-12 Sultanpur
19- 13 Nathel
20-14 Yajpur
21-15 Elampur
22-16 Varsingpur
23-17 Damasa
24-18 Ratad
25-19 Dron
26-20 Bhadiyadar
27-21 Men
28-22 Kodiya
29-23 Gundala
30-24 Ambada
31-25 Ugla

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4.5.1.4 TOPOGRAPHY OF THE STUDY AREA:


The area of the present investigation is located in the southern part of
Junagadh district of Gujarat state. Topography of the area is characterized by
dominating plain area and few hillocks. Two non perennial rivers; Machundari
River and Ravar River drain through the study area and join the Arabian Sea.
The large portion of the available landscape is devoted for the agricultural
practices are the striking feature of this area. Even though, the study area is
situated in the semi- arid region, almost entire area was characterized by large
tree population either planted or naturally growing. Shrubs and herb community
of this area is mainly consisting of either xerophytes or short-lived annuals.
No natural forest area as such was observed with in the 10 km radius from Kansari
village. While, Ugla village, Ambada, situated at the boundary of the study area (10 km
radius) was characterized by few hillocks, but with out much vegetation.
Topography of the project site:
Project site is located in out skirt of Kansari village. The project site is almost
barren with out any tree cover, few shrubs were observed in the project site which were
dominated by Zizyphus nummularia , Prosopis juliflora. , and Cassia auriculata (Plate #
1)
4.5.1.5 FLORAL DIVERSITY OF THE STUDY AREA:
The climatic, edaphic and biotic variations with their complex interrelationship
and composition of species, which are adapted to these variations, have resulted in
different vegetation cover, characteristic of each region. The following account of floral
diversity, based on the field survey conducted for a short duration in the November, 2008,
is not very comprehensive data and is aimed only to give a general pattern of vegetation
of this region during the study period as a baseline data. The vegetation of this area can be
classified on the basis of habitats as; open fallow lands, areas under cultivations, hedge
vegetation and ravines vegetation .The dominant tree species, herbs and shrubs and
major crops, were documented during this base line study. The list of floral species
documented in the study area is enlisted in table# 2-5
Vegetation of the area surveyed, (in the core zone and buffer zone) can be
classified as the deciduous and scrub type vegetation.. The dominant trees growing in this
area were Acacia nilotica, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica ,Hyphaene dichotoma,
Cocos nucifera, Cordia dichotoma, Azadirachta indica, Ficus benghalensis, and F. religiosa,.
The tree species observed in the study area is enlisted in the table #2

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Shrubs are the dominant perennials of this area, represented mainly by, Prosopis
juliflora, Calotropis procera, Calotropis gigantea, Zizyphus nummularia, Agave
Americana, Tecoma stans, Cassia auriculata, Ipomoea fistulosa and Capparis decidua.
The shrub species observed in the study area are documented in the table #3
Hedge vegetation was mainly consisted of various climbers and shrubs like Balanites
aegyptiaca, Lawsonia interims ,Abutilon indicum, Euphorbia nivulia, Aerva persica,
Zizyphus nummularia, Capparis decidua, Ipomoea obscura, and Prosopis juliflora and
Climbers like; Ipomea cairica, I. obscura, Pentatropis spiralis and Mucuna prurita. Few
trees like Acacia nilotica, Azadirachta indica were also observed as the hedge vegetation.
Road side ditches and other water logged region was occupied by Ipomea aquatica,
Ipomea fistulosa, and Hygrophila auriculata.

Trees:
Tree species enlisted from the study area is given in the table 4.8. 64 trees belong
to 25 families were enlisted from the study area.
TABLE 4.8 DOMINANT TREE SPECIES IN THE STUDY AREA
Family & Scientific name Vernacular Name
1 Alangiaceae
1/1 Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang Ankol
2 Anacardiaceae
2/1 Mangifera indica L. Ambo
3 Annonaceae
3/1 Polyalthia longifolia Asopalav
3 Apocynaceae
4/1 Plumeria obtuse L Chambo
5/2 Plumeria rubra --
4 Arecaceae
6/1 Borassus flabellifer L
7/2 Cocos nucifera L Narial
8/3 Hyphaene dichotoma Bece. Ravantad
9/4 Phoenix sylvertris (L.)Roxb Khajuri
5 Balanitaceae
10/1 Balanites aegyptiaca (L.)Del. Ingorio
6 Bignoniaceae
11/1 Tecomella undulata (Sm.) Roydo
12/2 Kigelia pinnata (Jacq.) Merr Tabudiyo
7 Caesalpiniaceae
13/1 Bauhinia purpurea L Kanchnar
14/2 Delonix regia(Boj) Gulmohar
15/3 Parkinsonia aculeata L Rambaval
16/4 Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer Sonmukhi

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ex Heyne
17/5 Cassia fistula L. Garmalo
18/6 Senna siamea Lam. Kasida
19/7 Tamarindus indicum L. Amali
8 Casuarinaceae
20/1 Casuarina equisetifolia L. Sharu
9 Caricaceae
21/1 Carica papaya L Papaya
10 Combretaceae
22/1 Terminalia catappa L. Badam
23/2 Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb.) Wall. Dhamado
11 Ebenaceae
24/1 Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. Dheki
12 Ehretiaceae
25/1 Cordia dichotoma Forst. Mota Gunda
26/2 Cordia gharaf (Forsk.) E. & A. Nani Gundi
13 Meliaceae
27/1 Azadirachta indica A.Juss Limbado
28/2 Melia azedarach Bakan limdo
14 Mimosaceae
29/1 Acacia auriculiformis L Austrialanbaval
30/2 Acacia nilotica (L.) Del.subsp.indica Baval
(Bth.) Brenan
31/3 Acacia senegal ( Willd.) Gobita
32/4 Acacia chundra (Roxb.ex.Rottl. Kair
33/5 Acacia leucophloea (Roxb) Hermobhaval
34/6 Albizia lebbeck L. Sirid
35/7 Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) De Pardesi Baval
36/8 Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce Khyigdo
37/9 Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC Gadobaval
38/10 Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Bth. Gorasmli
15 Moraceae
39/1 Ficus amplissima Sm Payer
40/2 Ficus bengalensis L Vad
41/3 Ficus benjamina L Krishnae Vad
42/4 Ficus drupacea Thunb. Var. pubescens Pipli
(Roth) Corner
43/5 Ficus hispida L.f. Dhedh Umardo
44/6 Ficus racemosa L. Umaro
45/7 Ficus religiosa L Piplo
16 Moringaceae
46/1 Moringa oleifera Lam Sargavo
17 Myrtaceae
47/1 Callistemon cistrinus L Bottle brush
48/2 Eucalyptus citriodora Hk. Nilgari
49/3 Syzygium cumini ( L) Jambu
18 Papilionaceae
50/1 Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub Khakaro
51/2 Dalbergia latifolia Roxb Sisam

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52/3 Dalbergia sissoo Roxb Motosisam


53/4 Pongamia pinnata (L.)Pierre Karanji
54/5 Sesbania sesban (L.)Merr. Shevari
19 Rhamnaceae
55/1 Zizyphus glabrata Heyne ex Roth Bor
56/2 Zizyphus mauritiana Lam Bordi
20 Rutaceae
57/1 Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr Bili
21 Salvadoraceae
58/1 Salvadora persica L. Piludo
59/2 Salvadora oleoides Decne Piludi
22 Sapotaceae
60/1 Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Rayan
61/2 Madhuca indica J.F. Gmel. Mahuvo
23 Simaroubaceae
62/1 Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. Aurdso
24 Ulmaceae
63/1 Haloptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) Planch. Kanjo
25 Verbenaceae
64/1 Tectona grandis L. Sag

Shrubs:
Shrubs encountered during the present survey are given in the Table#3.
34 shrubs belong to 23 families were enumerated from the study area, Most
dominant shrubs in the core zone and buffer zone were Prosopis juliflora,
Calotropis gigantea, Calotropis procera, Cassia auriculata and Balanites
aegyptiaca.
TABLE 4.9 : DOMINANT SHRUBS IN THE STUDY AREA
Family & Scientific name Vernacular name
1 Amaryllidaceae
1/1 Agave americana L
2/2 Yucca gloriosa
2 Apocynaceae
3/1 Thevetia peruviana Merr. Pili karan
4/2 Nerium indicum Mill Lalkaren
3 Asclepiadaceae
5/1 Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br Akado
6/2 Calotropis procera (Ait.) R.Br Akado
4
Asteraceae
5/1 Gokhru
Xanthium strumarium L.
5
Bignoniaceae
6/1 Tecoma stans (L.) H.B.& K. Peilafol
6 Balanitaceae
7/1 Balanites aegyptiaca L. Ingorio, Angario
7 Cactaceae
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8/1 Opuntia elatior Mill. Fafdo Thor


8 Caesalpiniaceae
9/1 Cassia auriculata L Aval
9 Capparaceae
10/1 Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew Kerdo
11/2 Capparis sepiaria L. Kanthar
10 Convolvulaceae
12/1 Ipomoea fistulosa Mart.ex Choisy Nasarmo
11 Compositae
13/1 Parthenium hysterophorus L Congrass grass
12 Ebenaceae
14/1 Diospyros cordifolia Roxb Dheki
13 Euphorbiaceae
15/1 Euphorbia nivulia Buch. – Ham. Thor
16/2 Jatropha curcas L. Ratanjot
17/3 Jatropha gossypifolia L. Paerdesi divalo
18/4 Ricinus communis L. Divel
14 Liliaceae
19/1 Aloe barbadensis Mill Kunvarppato
15 Lythraceae
20/1 Lawsonia inermis Mendhi
16 Malvaceae
21/1 Abelmoschus manihot L. Jungli Bindi
22/2 Gossypium herbaceum L. Kapas
23/3 Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Jasund
17 Mimosaceae
24/1 Prosopis juliflora DC Gando baval
18 Nyctaginaceae
25/1 Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. Bougainvel
19 Papilionaceae
26/1 Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. Shevari
20 Rhamnaceae
27/1 Zizyphus nummularia (Burm.f.) W. &. Chanibor
28/2 Zizyphus glabrata Heyne ex Ro Bor
21 Rubiaceae
29/1 Ixora brachiata (L) Garbale
22 Solanaceae
30/1 Solanum incanum L Ubhi ringan
31/2 Solanum melongena L. Ringana
32/3 Datura metel L Daturo
23 Verbenaceae
33/1 Clerodendrum multiflorum (Burm.f.) O.Ktze Arni
34/2 Lantana camara var. aculeata

Herbs:
The herbaceous cover observed in this region is given in the table#4. 61
herbaceous species belong to 22 families were recorded from the study area. In
this list of herbs, many other herbaceous species are not included which had

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been dried out and which were with out flowers during the monitoring time of
November 2008
Table 4.10 : HERBACEOUS SPECIES OBSERVED IN THE AREA
Family & Scientific name Vernacular name
1 Acanthaceae
1/1 Barleria sp. ---
2/2 Hygrophila auriculata (Schum.) Kanatashelio,Akaro
2 Amaranthaceae
3/1 Achyranthes aspera L. Anghedi, Anghedo
4/2 Aerva javanica (Burm.f.)Juss. Bur,Gorakhganjo
3 Asteraceae
5/1 Blumea eriantha DC. Kalhar
6/2 Echinops echinatus Roxb Shulio
7/3 Eclipta prostrata (L.) Bhangro
8/4 Lacunae procumbens (Roxb) .Moti Bhonpatri
9/5 Parthenium hysterophorus L --
10/6 Tridax procumbens L Pardesi Bhangro
11/7 Vernonia cinerea Less Sadedi
4 Asclepiadaceae
12/1 Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. Chamber Dudheli
5 Boraginaceae
13/1 Trichodesma indicum R. Br. Undha Fuli
6 Cucurbitaceae
14/1 Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt Ghiloda
15/2 Cucumis callosus Cogn Kothimdu
7 Convolvulaceae
16/1 Cressa cretica L. Palio, Rudanti
17/2 Ipomoea pes-caprae (L) Dariani vel
18/3 Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.. Nalini bhaji
19/4 Ipomoea obscura Ker Vad fudradi
8 Commelinaceae
20/1 Commelina sp --
9 Cyperaceae
21/1 Cyperus difformis L. --
22/2 Cyperus rotundus L. --
23/3 Cyperus sp. --
24/4 Fimbristylis dichotoma Vahl. --
25/5 Fimbristylis sp. --
10 Euphorbiaceae
26/1 Chrozophora rottleri (Geis.) Juss. --
27/2 Euphorbia hirta L. --
11 Gentianaceae
28/1 Nymphoides indicum (Roxb.) Kumudini
29/2 N. parvifolium (Griseb.) --
12 Liliaceae
30/1 Aloe barbadensis Mill. Kunvarpato
13 Lamiaceae
31/1 Leucas sps. --
32/2 Ocimum sanctum L. Tulsi

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33/3 O. canum Sims Ramtulsi


34/4 O .basilicum L. Damro
14 Malvaceae
35/1 Abutilon indicum L. Khapat,Dabaliar
36/2 Sida sp. --
15 Nyctaginaceae
37/1 Boerhavia diffusa L. Satodi
38/2 Boerhavia chinensis Druce --
16 Papilionaceae
39/1 Cajanus cajan (L) Tuvar
40/2 Crotalaria burhia Bach. – Ham. Kharshan
41/3 Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. --
42/4 Indigofera oblongifolia Forks. --
43/5 Tephrosia sps. --
17 Papaveraceae
44/1 Argemone mexicana L. Darudi
18 Poaceae
45/1 Aleuropus lagopoides (L) --
46/2 Aristida sp. --
47/3 Cynodon barberi Rang. --
48/4 Cynodon dactylon (L.) --
49/5 Oryza sativa L. Chokha
50/6 Phragmites kara (Retz.) --
51/7 Triticum aestivum L. Ghau
52/8 Sorghum bicolor (L.) Jowar
53/9 Zea mays Makai
19 Solanaceae
54/2 Solanum indicum L. Ringni
55/3 Solanum nigrum L. Piludi
56/4 Solanum surattense Brum. Bhoringni
57/5 Solanum trilobatum L.
20 Typhaceae
58/1 Typha angustata Bory & Chaub Ramban,Ghabajariu
21 Tiliaceae
59/1 Corchorus depressus Stocks --
22 Zygophyllaceae
60/1 Fagonia cretica L. --
61/2 Tribulus terrestris L. Mithu Gokhru

Climbers and Twiners:


The climbers and twiners observed along the agricultural hedges and road side
hedges of the study area is given in the table#5.17 climbers belongs to 6 families were
recorded from the area.
TABLE 4.11 : DOMINANT CLIMBERS IN THE STUDY AREA
Family & Scientific name Vernacular name
1 Asclepiadaceae
1/1 Pentatropis spiralis (Forsk.) Decne Shingroti
2/2 Pergularia daemia (Forsl.) Chiov. Chamar dudheli
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2 Convolvulaceae
3/1 Ipomea cairica (L.)
4/2 Ipomoea obscura L.
5/3 Ipomea pulchella Roth
6/4 Ipomea aquatica Forsk. Nadanivel
3 Cucurbitaceae
7/1 Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Indravarna
8/2 Coccinia grandis Ghiloda
9/3 Luffa cylindrica (L.) M.J.Roem Galku
10/4 L. acutangula (L) Jungli turia
11/5 Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C.jeffrey Shivelangi
12/6 Mukia maderaspatana (L.) M.Roem. Chanakchibhdi
4
Cuscutaceae
13/7 Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. Amarvel
5 Menispermaceae
14/1 Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels Vevdi
15/2 Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers Galo
6 Papilionaceae
16/1 Mucuna prurita Hk.f. Kavach, Koyli
17/2 Abrus precatorius L. Chanothi

CULTIVATED PLANTS IN THE STUDY AREA:

It was observed that, the different parts of the study area were practicing different
crop pattern based on the season and availability of irrigation facility. The major
agricultural crops, practiced in this area during November, 2008 were, Castor (Ricinus
communis), Sugar cane ((Saccharum officinarum) and Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum).
Agricultural practices in the study area commence with the early monsoon shower. Most
of the farmers prefer, Ground nut as their first crop. The second crop after the ground nut
harvesting, entirely depends up on the availability of the ground water. Bajra
(Pennisetum typhoides ) and Jowar (Sorghum vulgare) were also generally cultivated
immediately after monsoon.

Major Crops: Major crops in the study area during the study period (November) were
Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), Castor (Ricinus communis), and Sugar cane
((Saccharum officinarum) Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) was the other major crop of
this region.

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Minor crops:
Minor crops practiced in this region after monsoon were Jeeru ( Cuminum cyminum), and
Mirchi,(Capsicum annuum)

Pulses: The pulses cultivated in this region were Mag (Vigna aconitifolia ), Tuver
(Cajanus cajan)

Vegetables: Bhindi (Abelmoschus esculentus) Brinjal, Ringana (Solanum melongena),


are the vegetables reported to be grown in the study area during monsoon.

HORTICULTURAL PRACTICES AND FRUITS GROWN:

Many orchards of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) and Chikku (Achras zapota) were
observed in the study area. The “Kesar” variety of Mango from Junagadh region is highly
delicious and attracts a special attention in the national and international markets.
Coconut plantation is very popular in this area. Coconut farms were observed at few
places of the study area. While majority of the Coconut trees-Narial (Cocoas nucifera L)
were observed in between the agricultural fields and village surroundings.
Other fruit yielding varieties observed in the villages were Sitafal (Annona
squamosa L.), Tadfali (Borassus flabellifer L), papaya (Carica papaya L),. Gunda
(Cordia dichotoma Forst), Rayan (Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.)Dub), Khajoor (Phoenix
dactylifera L), Amala (Phyllantus embelica), Gorasamali (Pithelellobium dulce
(Roxb.)Bth), Jamfal (Psidium guajava L),Amali (Tamarindus indicum L), Bor ( Zizyphus
glabrata Heyne ex Roth)

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MEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE STUDY AREA:

Plants are known for their therapeutic value and uses since ancient period. The
reference of curative properties of the some herbs in “Rigveda” (3500-1800 BC) though
in brief, seems to be the earliest records of use of plants in medicine. With the time more
and more plants have been added to the native medicine. Out of the 17000 known
flowering plant species in India, about 7,500 wild plants species are reported to be used
for medicinal purpose. Some important work on Indian medicinal plants are from, Watt
(1889-1893), Ymoch et.al. (1890), Basu and Kirtikar (1918), Nandkarni (1954), Chopra
et.al. (1956) Jain and De Filipps (1991).
The medicinally important plants observed growing in the study area and their
usage is given in the table 4.12.
Table 4.12 : Medicinal plants in the study area and their medicinal uses

Scientific Name Vernacular Useful parts Medicinal uses


Name
leaves Antidote, cough, digestive disorder,
Abrus precatorius Chanothi rheumatism, swellings
Roots Asthma, Cough, analgesic, peptic ulcers
Abutilon indicum Dabali, Leaves Acne, antidote, boils, cough, rheumatism,
Kansaki ulcers
Seeds Antidote, boils, cough
Roots Antidote, cough, fever ,ulcers
Bark Astringent, biliousness, bronchitis,
cough, diarrhea, dysentery, lecuoderma,
piles, skin diseases
Flowers Astringent
Acacia nilotica Baval Fruits Backache, eye complaints
Gum Sexual disorder
Leaves Diarrhea, gonorrhea
Seeds Diarrhea, dysentery, ulcers
Whole plant Astringent, constipation,
Bark Asthma, astringent, bronchitis, diarrhea,
Ailanthus excelsa Aurdso dysentery, fever, skin disease
Leaves Tonic
Aloe vera Kumarpathu Leaves Boils and digestive disorder, and injury
Whole plant Constipation, fever, liver trouble, piles
Argemone mexicana Darudi Leaves Boils,
. Roots Coolant, jaundice,
Whole plant Inflammations, skin diseases
Bark Antiseptic, blood purifier, boils, fever,
tumors, ulcers, wounds.
Limdo Flowers Antiseptic, blood purifier, ulcers,
Azadirachta indica wounds
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Fruits Anthelmintic, antipyretic ,coolant,


malaria, urinary diseases
Leaves Anthelmintic antipyretic, antiseptic
Bark Anthelmintic, purgative, skin diseases,
Balanites Ingorio Fruits Anthelmintic , purgative,
aegyptiaca Seeds Blood purifier, coolant, cough, injury
Root barks Boils
seeds Dysentery, fracture, liver disorder, night
blindness, piles, ulcers
Flowers Analgesic, Anthelmintic, astringent,
expectorant
Leaves Malaria fever, wounds
Calotropis gigantea Akado Roots Dental problem, rheumatism, stomach
disorder
Root bark Asthma, diaphoretic, jaundice, syphilis
Whole plant Anthelmintic, joint pain, leprosy,
lecuoderma, piles, purgative, swelling,
tooth ache, tumors, ulcers
Flowers Analgesic, astringent, Anthelmintic,
digestive disorders, expectorant,
Latex Analgesic, gout, rheumatism, skin
diseases
Leaves Sun stroke, wounds
Calotropis procera Akado Roots Boils, piles
Root bark Antidote, asthma, diaphoretic, syphilis
Whole plant Anthelmintic, joint pain, leprosy,
lecuoderma, piles, purgative, swelling,
tooth ache, tumors, ulcers
Bark Asthma, Cough, inflammations, piles,
Capparis decidua Kerdo ulcers,
Flower Astringent, Kidney diseases
Wood Skin diseases
Carica papaya Papaya Fruit Abortifacient , bleeding piles, skin
diseases
Seeds Abortifacient , bleeding piles, skin
diseases
Leaves Asthma, fracture, swelling, leprosy,
Roots Asthma, fracture, swelling, leprosy,
urinary discharge
Cassia auriculata Aval Root bark Digestive disorder, intestinal diseases
Stem bark Asthma, astringent, leprosy
Whole plant Anemia, asthma, bronchitis, diabetes,
lecuoderma, purgative, rheumatism,
schizophrenic
Commelina --- Leaves Diarrhea , wounds
benghalensis Whole plant Leprosy
Cordia dichotoma Gunadamoto Fruits Coolant, urinary complaints
Cordia gharaf Nani Gundi Fruits Urinary complaints
Whole plant Cough, Diabetes, ulcers, wound
Cuscuta reflexa Akashvel Seeds Diuretic, fever, opthalmia, sedative
Whole plant Aphrodisiac, astringent , contraceptive ,
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eye diseases
Datura metel Dhatura Fruits Lung and chest diseases
Leaves Asthma, analgesic, swelling
Seeds Anthelmintic, asthma, bronchitis,
earache, jaundice, lecuoderma, tumors,
tonic
Dichrostachys Mordhundiyu Roots Astringent, rhematisum
cinerea Stem bark Digestive disorder
Euphorbia nivulia Thor Leaves Acidity, diuretic, joint pain,piles
Roots Gynecological complaints, sexual
disorder
Whole plant Antidote, carminative, skin diseases
syphilis
Aerial roots Aphrodisiac, appetizer
Bark Astringent, diarrhea, dysentery
Ficus bengalensis Vad Latex Coolant, sexual disorder
Leaves Abscesses
Roots Fracture, piles
Seeds Coolant
Bark Astringent, skin diseases
Flower Aphrodisiac, purgative, vomiting
Fruits Coolant and laxative
Ficus religiosa Paipal Leaves Purgative, antidote
Roots Jaundice
Root bark Aphrodisiac, lumbago
Hibiscus rosa Jasund Buds Cough, fever
sinensis Flowers Cough, fever, gonorrhea, gynecological
disorder
Leaves Hydrophobia
Indigofera tinctoria Gali Whole plant Cough, epilepsy, rheumatism
Ipomoea fistulosa Nasarmo Whole plant Anti fungal, antibiotic
Ipomea cairica -- Leaves Skin diseases
seeds Constipation, laxative, purgative
Ipomea. aquatica Nalini Bhaji Whole plant Bronchitis, fever, jaundice, liver
complaints
Ipomea. obscura Vad-Fudradi Fruits Skin diseases
Leaves Boils and ulcers
Roots Swelling
Lantana camara Gandhatata Leaves Skin diseases, fever, rheumatism
Whole plant Malaria, rheumatism
Mendhi Leaves Chest and Lung diseases
Lawsonia interims Whole plant Bronchitis, burns, growth of hair,
headache, jaundice, skin diseases
Bark Biliousness, coolant, diarrhea,
dysentery, leucorrhoea, ulcers.
Mangifera indica Am Flowers Cancer
Leaves
Gum Antidote
Leaves bronchitis, cathartic, expectorant, ring
worm, stimulant

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Ocimum sanctum Tulsi Roots Malaria.


Seeds Demulcent
Whole plant Bronchitis, cough, ear ache, flatulence
Stem Analgesic, boils and wounds
Opuntia eletior Katar Whole plant Asthma, cough, heart inflammation,
ophthalmia,
Fruits Ulcer in mouth
Salvadora oleoides Piludi Leaves Purgative
Roots Dental problem
Whole plant cough, bronchitis, piles, rheumatism
Roots Analgesic
Salvadora persica Pilu, Kharijal Whole plant Biliousness, inflammations,
lecuoderma, piles, skin diseases, tonic
to the liver
Fruits Dental problem
Solanum indicum Ubhairingni Roots Acidity, Anthelmintic, asthma,
bronchitis, carminative, cathartic,
cough, expectorant, fever
Stem Dental problem
Fruits Asthma, Diarrhea, dysentery, thirst,
Syzygium cumini Jambu tonic
Bark Asthma, dysentery, giddiness
Seeds Diabetes
Fruits Digestive disorder, inflammation,
Tamarindus indica Emli laxative.
Leaves Analgesic, fever, skin diseases
Seeds Antidote, intestinal diseases
Fruits Intestinal diseases , analgesic
Tribulus terrestris Nana gokhru roots Sex disorder, tonic, urinary complaints
Whole plant Asthma, blood purifies, cough, diuretic,
leprosy, tonic
Xanthium Gokhru Leaves Ear complaints , skin diseases
strumarium
Zizyphus glabrata -- Leaves Blood purifier
Zizyphus mauritiana Bor, Bordi Bark Asthma, astringent, blood purifier,
diarrhea, fever,
Fruits Asthma, blood purifier, dysentery,
fever, vomiting
Whole plant Tonic
Zizyphus Chanibor Fruits Astringent, joint pain
nummularia Leaves Boils, joint pain
Roots Intestinal diseases vomiting
Sources:
GEER foundation (2005) Medicinal plants of Gujarat
Ministry of Agriculture ( 2002) Inventory of traditional veterinary medicinal practices in India

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ETHANOBOTANICLAL IMPORTANT PLANTS AND PRACTICES,


PREVAILING IN THE AREA

Man depended on plants since time immemorial. Our knowledge of the intimate
relationship between early man and plants is mainly due to the surviving tradition. This
relation ship now forms the base of the interdisciplinary science known as Ethanobotany.
J.W. Harshberger coned the term “Ethanobotany“ first in 1895. Plotkin (1995) defined
Ethanobotany as the study of tribal people and their utilization of plants.

Abutilon indicum L. Sw. (Malvaceae) Dabali, Kansaki

Bark of this tree is used in vomiting, urinary complaints; decoction of the leaves is used
in bronchitis and fever

Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. subsp. indica (Bth.) Brenan (Mimosaceae) – Desibaval.

Gum of this tree is edible and considered to be the energetic, bark decoction is given
orally for bone fracture healing. Gum is also used in pharmaceutical industry, the seeds
yield fatty oil which can be used in soap industry. Seeds and pods are used as cattle
fodder. Wood is used as timber and for manufacturing agricultural implements.
Ailanthus excelsa ( Simaroubaceae) Arduso
Used in skin diseases, wood is used for preparing small boats, knife handle, toys, and
match sticks.. Leaves and shoots are used as fodder
Albizia lebbeck (Mimosaceae) Onkla, shirish
Used as a timber in construction, manufacturing agricultural implements. Bark is used
for tanning fishing nets
Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Liliaceae) - Satavari
Roots are crushed and juice is given to lactating mothers for inducing a flow of milk.
Dried roots are also occasionally sold but do not seem to be regular practice. Roots paste
is applied on maggot wounds, used as veterinary medicine.
Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae) - Limdo
Rural people use leaves of this plant to fumigate the surroundings as an insects and
mosquitoes repellent. Leaf extract in water is sprinkled on crops to kill pests. Leaves are
spread on the beds of child suffering with viral infections like chicken pox, etc.
Balanites aegyptiaca (L) Del. (Balanitaceae ) - Ingorio

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Fruits are used as soap to wash clothes. Seeds levitated with water and applied on
skin. Seed’s fatty oil is used in soap making. Wood is used as walking stick and shoe
maker’s boards.
Butea monosperma (Lam.) Kuntz. Syn.: B: Frondosa ( Papilionaceae) Khakara
Dried leaves are used in bidi and for making plates and cups. These are widely used in
the village functions. Seeds exudates are used in herbal medicine.
Calotropis gigantia (L.) R. Br. & C. procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae ) - Akado
For local people, both the species are Akdo. Leaves are smeared with castor oil and
mildly roasted on burning cinders. The lukewarm castor smear is applied on the abdomen
of a child for relief against pain due to constipation. Used extensively in the herbal
medicine.
Capparis decidua (Forsk.)Edgew. (Capparaceae) Kerdo, Kari,
Fruits are used for making pickle.
Cassia auriculata L. (Caesalpiniaceae ) – Aval
Leaves crushed, boiled and used as poultice on painful joints, barks are used in tanneries
Ficus religiosa L. (Moraceae) - Piplo
Young buds and leaves are dried, powdered and given 1 gm twice a day with
water as tonic. Leaves make fodder of choice for camels. Fruits are eaten by birds
Solanum surattense Burm. f. (Solanaceae ) - Bhoyrigini
Whole plant is dried, powdered and stored. About 1 gm of powder mixed in equal
quantity of black pepper powder is given with sugar or honey to relieve asthma.
Typha angustata Bory &Chaub (Typhaceae) - Ghabajariu
Leaves are used to thatch huts. Dried inflorescence is used as wound dressing to
stop bleeding. The Typha cotton may be used directly or burnt and ashes are applied over
the wound.

RARE AND ENDANGERED FLORA IN THE STUDY AREA

The IUCN Red List is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global
conservation status of plant and animal species. It uses a set of criteria to evaluate the
extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all

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species and all regions of the world. With its strong scientific base, the IUCN Red List is
recognized as the most authoritative guide to the status of biological diversity.

Out of 17000 species of higher plants known to occur in India, nearly 614 higher
plant species were evaluated by IUCN. Among them 247 species are under threatened
category (IUCN, 2007).
Hyphaene dichotoma were reported to be rare in Gujarat. IUCN (2008) had
assigned Low risk / near threatened (ver 2.3 ) status to Hyphaene dichotoma.

ENDEMIC PLANTS OF THE STUDY AREA:

De Candolle (1855) first used the concept of “Endemic”, which is defined as an


area of a taxonomic unit, especially a species which has a restricted distribution or
habitat, isolated from its surrounding region through geographical, ecological or temporal
barriers.
Out of 17000 species of known flowering plants of India nearly 5000 species are
said to be endemic. Nearly 58 genera and 1932 taxa are found to be endemic to peninsular
India (Ahmedulla & Nayar, 1987).
Among recorded plant species only Hyphaene dichotoma can be assigned the
status of endemic plant of this region. But this palm is quite common in the coastal belt of
Gujarat especially at Diu, Una, in Saurashtra and Ubharat in South Gujarat.

FAUNAL BIODIVERSITY OF THE STUDY AREA

For the documentation of the faunal biodiversity of the study area with respect to
birds, reptiles, amphibians, and butterfly species, a baseline survey had been conducted.
All together 31 villages were covered for the present biological baseline study. 6 villages
were selected in the core zone (project location and surrounding villages in 5km radius)
and 25 villages were selected in the buffer zone (villages located more than 5km radius
but with in 10 km radius of the project site). This report is based on a short duration
study. The following lists are obviously incomplete. It does not include many other
species which might occur in this part of Ahmedabad District, either as resident or as

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migrant in the other seasons of the year. This data is based on the survey conducted
during November, 2008.

Birds of the study area:

List of threatened species (IUCN evaluated) is given in the Table#7. Systematic


account of the birds in the study area with the status of occurrence is given in the table
4.13.
TABLE 4.13 : THREATENED BIRDS OF THE STUDY AREA
Zone Species Habitat Threat status
IUCN
Core Painted stork Shallow water bodies Near threatened
zone Mycteria leucocephala B-11
Painted stork Shallow water bodies Near threatened
Mycteria leucocephala B-11
Buffer Black headed ibis Near
Threskiornis Near water bodies and Threatened
Zone melanocephalus agriculture fields B10/8
Oriental Darter Shallow Near threatened
Anhinga melanogaster Water Bodies B-13

Source: IUCN Red list 2007 and Bird life international

TABLE 4.14 : SYSTEMATIC LISTS OF BIRDS IN THE STUDY AREA WITH ITS
DISTRIBUTION AND MIGRATORY STATUS
I ORDER: APODIFORMES
Family: Apodidae (swifts)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Common Swift Common Swift Apus apus R
House swift Little Swift Apus affinis R
II ORDER: CICONIFORMES
Family: Accipitridae (vulture, Sparrow hawk, Eagle, Harrier, Kite and Vulture)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Shikra Shikra Accipiter badius R
Black-winged Kite Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus R
Sparrow-hawk Eurasian Sparrow-hawk Accipiter nisus R
Family: Anhingidae
Anhinga melanogaster
Darter or Snake Birds Oriental Darter R
A.rufa
Family: Ardeidae (heron, Egret, Bittern)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Cattle Egret Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis R
Mesophoyx intermedia
Median or Smaller Egret Intermediate Egret R
Egretta intermedia
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Little Egret Little Egret Egretta garzetta R


Pond Heron Indian Pond-Heron Ardeola grayii R
Family: Charadriidae (Plover, Stilt, Oystercatcher, Lapwing, Avocet )
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Black-winged Stilt Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus R
Red-wattled Lapwing Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus R
Family: Ciconiidae (Open bill, stork, Adjutant)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Painted Stork Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala R
Family: Laridae (Tern, Gull, Jaeger, Skua , Skimmer and Noody)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
River Tern River Tern Sterna aurantia R
Family: Phalacrocoracidae ( Cormorant)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Indian Shag Indian CormoraWnt Phalacrocorax fuscicollis R
Little Cormorant Little Cormorant Phalacrocorax niger R
Family: Pteroclidae (Sandgrouse)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Chestnut-bellied Pterocles exustus
Indian Sandgrouse
sandgrouse
R
Family: Threskiornithidae (Spoonbill and Ibis)
Black Ibis Red-naped Ibis Pseudibis papillosa R
III ORDER: COLUMBIFORMES
Family: Columbidae (Pigeon, Dove)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Blue Rock Pigeon Rock Pigeon Columba livia R
Ring Dove Eurasian Collared-Dove Streptopelia decaocto R
Rufous Turtle Dove Oriental Turtle-Dove Streptopelia orientalis R
I V : ORDER: CORACIFORMES
Family: Alcedinidae (King fisher)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Small Blue King Fisher Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis R
Family: Dacelonidae (King fishers)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
White breasted Kingfisher White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis R
Family: Coraciidae (Roller)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Blue Jay or Roller Indian Roller Coracias benghalensis R
Family: Meropidae (Bee Eater)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Chestnut-headed Bee-eater Chestnut-headed Bee-eater Merops leschenaulti R
Merops persicus
Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Blue-cheeked Bee-eater
Merops superciliosus
R
Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus
Blue-tailed Bee-eater R
Note: R = Widespread Resident, r = Very Local Resident, W = Widespread Winter Visitor, w =
Sparse Winter Visitor, RW =Resident and winter visitor, M= Migrant

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V. ORDER: CUCULIFORMES
Family: Centropodidae (Cocucal)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Crow-Pheasant or Coucal Greater Coucal Centropus sinensis R
Family: Cuculidae (cuckoo, Koel)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Koel Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopacea R
Indian Drongo Cuckoo Drongo Cuckoo Surniculus lugubris R
Cuckoo Common Cuckoo Cuculus canorus R
VI. ORDER: GALLIFORMES
Family: Phasianidae (Peafowl , Partridge, Quail, francolin, spur fowl, jungle fowl, Monal, )
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Common Peafowl Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus R
ORDER: GRUIFORMES
Family: Rallidae ( Waterhen, coot, crake water cock, Moorhen, Rail,)
White-breasted Waterhen White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus R
Coot Common Coot Fulica atra RW
VII. ORDER: PASSERIFORMES
Family: Paridae (Tit )
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Grey Tit Great Tit Parus major R
Family: Corvidae
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Coracina macei
Large Cuckoo-shrike Large Cuckoo-shrike
Coracina novaehollandiae
R
Raven Common Raven Corvus corax R
House Crow House Crow Corvus splendens R
Dicrurus macrocercus
Black drongo- King Crow Black Drongo
Dicrurus adsimilis
R
Family: Laniidae (shrike)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Rufous backed Shrike Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach R
Grey Shrike Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor R
Family: Muscicapidae ( Short wing, Chat, Robin, Shama
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Indian Robin Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata R
Pied Bushchat Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata R
Family: Nectariniidae ( Sun Birds, Flower pecker, Spider hunter )
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Purple Sunbird Purple Sunbird Nectarinia asiatica R
Small Sunbird Crimson-backed Sunbird Nectarinia minima R
Note: R = Widespread Resident, r = Very Local Resident, W = Widespread Winter Visitor, w =
Sparse Winter Visitor, RW =Resident and winter visitor, M= Migrant

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Family: Passeridae ( Avadavat,Pipit, Wagtail, Munia, Snowfinch, sparrow, weaver


,Accentor)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
House Sparrow House Sparrow Passer domesticus R
Grey Tit Great Tit Parus major R
Family: Pycnonotidae (Bulbul, )
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Red-whiskered Bulbul Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus R
Red-vented Bulbul Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer R
Family: Sturnidae (Myna, Starling)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name
Bank Myna Bank Myna Acridotheres ginginianus R
Indian Myna Common Myna Acridotheres tristis R
Family: Sylviidae ( Warbler, Browning, Fulvetta ,Babbler, Laughing thrash, Tailor birds,
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Common Babbler Common Babbler Turdoides caudatus R
Jungle Babbler Jungle Babbler Turdoides striatus R
Tailorbird Common Tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius R
VIII. ORDER: PSITTACIFORMES
Family: Psittacidae (Parrot and Parakeet)
Old Common name New Common Name Scientific Name Dist.
Rose-ringed Parakeet Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri R
Note: R = Widespread Resident, r = Very Local Resident, W = Widespread Winter Visitor, w =
Sparse Winter Visitor, RW =Resident and winter visitor, M= Migrant

Butterflies from the study area:


Butterflies in the study area (Core zone and Buffer zone) are restricted to few
places where Lantana camara and Calotropis procera were growing. Butterflies
observed during the present study are documented in the Table 4.15.
TABLE 4.15. BUTTERFLIES IN THE STUDY AREA
Scientific name & family Common name
Family Papilionidae
Papilio polytes Linnaeus Common Mormon
Family Pieridae
Eurema hecabe Linnaeus Common Grass yellow
Catopsilia pomona Fabricius Common Emigrant
Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus Mottled Emigrant
Delias eucharis Drury Common Jezebel
Cerpora nerissa Fabricius Common Gull
Family: Nymphalidae
Melanitis leda Linnaeus Common evening Brown
Danaus chrysippus Plain Tiger
Danaus genutia Cramer Stripped Tiger
Hypolimanas misippus Danaid egg fly
Mycalesis perseus Common bush brown

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Herpetofauna :
. Reptiles observed in the study area are given in the table 4.16.

TABLE 4.16 : REPTILES IN THE STUDY AREA


Sr. No Common Name Scientific name
1 Common garden lizard Calotes versicolor (Daudin)
2 Indian Cobra Naja naja (Linn.)
3 Russell’s Viper Daboia russelii ( Shaw and Nodder)
4 Common Indian Krait Bungarus caeruleus ( Schneider)
5 Common rat snake Ptyas mucosus (Linn.)
6 Common Indian monitor Varanus bengalensis ( Schneider)
7 Brahminy skink Mabuya carinata (Schneider)
8 House Gecko Hemidactylus flaviviridis (Ruppell)
Not sighted but included as per the information provided by villagers ,during the
interaction with them with pictorial presentation.
Mammals:
Core zone:
The wild mammals observed other than the domesticated ones in the core zone is
given in the table 4.17.
TABLE 4.17 : MAMMALS OBSERVED IN THE CORE ZONE
Sr. No. Common Name Scientific name
1 Three striped Palm squirrel Funambulus palmarum
(Linnaeus)
2 Common House Rat Rattus rattus (Linnaeus)
3 Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsi (Geoffroy)

Buffer Zone
The wild mammals observed other than domesticated ones from the
buffer zone of the study area is documented in the table#12, The cattle kill by
the Lions straying out from the Gir WLS were reported from the villages located
at boundary of the study area ( 10km radius) especially in Ambada village, Ugla
village.

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TABLE 4.18 : MAMMALS FROM THE BUFFER ZONE


Sr. No Common Name Scientific name
1. Three striped Palm squirrel Funambulus palmarum
(Linnaeus)
2. Common House Rat Rattus rattus (Linnaeus)

3. Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsi (Geoffroy)

4. Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus


(Pallas)
5. Hare Lepus nigricollis F. Cuvier

6. Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus

7. Indian Fox Vulpes bengalensis (Shaw)

8. Indian Lion Panthera leo persica ( Linnaeus)

9. Leopard Panthera pardus ( Linnaeus)

Not sighted in the study area, but included as per the information provided by the villagers

RARE AND ENDANGERED FAUNA OF THE STUDY AREA

The IUCN Red List is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global
conservation status of plant and animal species. It uses a set of criteria to evaluate the
extinction risk of thousands of species and subspecies. These criteria are relevant to all
species and all regions of the world. With its strong scientific base, the IUCN Red List is
recognized as the most authoritative guide to the status of biological diversity. IUCN,
(2007) has evaluated 1976 animal species from India, among them 313 have in
recognized as threatened species.. Among them one species is considered as extinct
,while 44 species are in critically endangered( CR) catogery,88 is in endangered
category(EN), while 181 is considered as vulnerable (VU).

Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, amended on 17th January 2003, is an Act
to provide for the protection of wild animals, birds and plants and for matters
connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto with a view to ensuring the
ecological and environmental security of the country..
Some of the sighted fauna was given protection by the Indian Wild Life
(Protection)Act,1972 by including them in different schedules .Among the birds in the

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study area, Pea fowl (Pavo cristatus), is included in schedule I .of Wild life protection
Act (1972), while many other birds are included in schedule IV.
Among the reptiles, Common Indian monitor (Varanus bengalensis), Indian Cobra
(Naja naja), and Common rat snake (Ptyas mucosus) were provided protection as per
Schedule-II of Wild life protection act, (1972)
Among mammals; Leopard (Panthera pardus) and Lion (Panthera leo persica )are
included in schedule-I of the Wild life Protection act -1972. Common Mongoose
(Herpestes edwardsi) and Indian Fox (Vulpes bengalensis) are a schedule –II animals
Nilghai (Boselaphus tragocamelus) is protected as Schedule-III animal and all Hares are
included in schedule IV of Wild Life Protection act 1972.

ENDEMIC FAUNA OF THE STUDY AREA


None of the sighted animal species can be assigned endemic species category of the study
area.

MIGRATORY BIRDS & WINTER VISITORS IN THE STUDY AREA:


No migratory birds were observed in the study area during the survey conducted during
November,2008.

STATUS OF THE FOREST, THEIR CATEGORY IN THE STUDY AREA :


No natural forest area was observed in the core zone and in the buffer zone , except .

WX

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Plate#1 The project site


Plate #2 Machundari River in the study area during the survey period

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Plate # 3 Ravar river he study area during study period


Plate# 4 Cotton major crop in the study area

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5. Rare palm Hyphaene Dichotoma growing in large number in


the study area

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5. IMPACT IDENTIFICATION

The environmental consequences are identified in this


chapter. Due to the proposed project various environmental
aspects may damage or disturbed. All environmental aspects,
which are likely to be affected due to various activities during
construction phase and operational phase, are identified and
short-listed.

5.1 Aspects of the Environment

The environmental factors which may be affected due to the


proposed project are as given below:

1. Noise levels
2. Air pollution levels
3. Soil environment
4. Socio-economic environment

5.2 Activities

The activities and their potential environmental impacts are as


under :

CONSTRUCTION PHASE
Type of activity Potential Environmental Impacts
Construction ™ Noise levels
Activities ™ Dust emissions
™ Socio-economic

OPERATION PHASE
Type of activity Potential Environmental Impacts
Operation of the ™ Increase in noise levels
proposed plant ™ Impact on air quality due to dust
emissions
™ New employment
™ Soil Environment

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6. PREDICTION AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT

6.1 Impacts during construction phase

Impacts on Air Quality :

During construction phase, dust will be the main pollutant,


which would be generated due to construction activities and
vehicular movement on the road. The impact of such activities
would be confined within the project boundary and restricted
to the construction phase. To mitigate these impacts, regular
sprinkling of water will be done at the construction site.

6.2 Impacts during operational phase

6.2.1 Impact on Air Quality

The Gaussian model is used to predict the centerline ground


level concentrations of suspended particulate matter in the
study area. The details of the Gaussian model are as
presented in Annexure – II. The prediction is done in relation
to the source strength and meteorological conditions for the
study period.

The input data for the prediction of centerline ground level


concentrations are as given below :

Raw Mill Stack :

Input Data :

Vent Height : 30.0 m


Vent Diameter : 1.0 m
Particulate Matter Concentration : 50 mg/Nm3
Exit stack gas velocity : 9.0 m/s
Exit gas temperature : 50 oC
Ambient temperature : 27 oC
PM emission load : 1.27 kg/h

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VSK stack :

Input Data :

Vent Height : 30.0 m


Vent Diameter : 1.0 m
Particulate Matter Concentration : 50 mg/Nm3
Exit stack gas velocity : 9.0 m/s
Exit gas temperature : 80 oC
Ambient temperature : 27 oC
PM emission load : 1.27 kg/h

Cement Mill Stack :

Input Data :

Vent Height : 30.0 m


Vent Diameter : 1.0 m
Particulate Matter Concentration : 50 mg/Nm3
Exit stack gas velocity : 9.0 m/s
Exit gas temperature : 50 oC
Ambient temperature : 27 oC
PM emission load : 1.27 kg/h

The centerline ground level concentrations of SPM due to all


the stacks for all the stability conditions are calculated for the
maximum particulate matter emission loads. For, the
calculations, average wind speed during the study period is
considered. The isopleths for all the stability conditions are
presented. The predicted maximum centerline ground level
concentration of SPM is 19.8 µg/cu.m @ 200 m from the unit
during condition A. After implementation of the proposed
project, these concentrations are found to be well below the
permissible NAAQS norms for rural/residential zone and
Industrial zone. Therefore, the proposed activity is not likely
to have any significant adverse impact on the air
environment.

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CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF SPM IN SURROUNDING AREA DURING CONDITION - A

WIND DIRECTION SE E ENE ESE NE NNE NNW N NW S SSE SSW SW W WNW WSW
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
NW W WSW WNW SW SSW SSE S SE N NNW NNE NE E ESE ENE
WIND VELOCITY, ‘m/s’ 4.44 2.08 3.67 4.7 2.9 2.5 2.75 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.53 2.93 2.13 3.46 4.77 2.38
DISTANCE, ‘m’ CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION IN µg/cu.m (as 24 hours average)
100 5.1 4.8 5.3 5.0 5.4 5.2 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.4 4.9 5.3 4.9 5.1
200 11.4 19.8 13.3 10.9 15.9 17.6 16.5 17.6 16.3 15.1 13.7 15.7 19.5 14.0 10.7 18.2
300 7.2 14.4 8.6 6.8 10.7 12.2 11.2 12.2 11.0 10.0 8.9 10.5 14.1 9.1 6.7 12.8
400 3.9 8.2 4.7 3.7 6.0 6.9 6.3 6.9 6.1 5.6 4.9 5.9 8.0 5.0 3.7 7.2
500 2.3 4.8 2.7 2.2 3.5 4.0 3.6 4.0 3.6 3.2 2.9 3.4 4.7 2.9 2.1 4.2
600 1.4 3.0 1.7 1.3 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.0 1.8 2.1 2.9 1.8 1.3 2.6
700 0.9 2.0 1.1 0.9 1.4 1.7 1.5 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.4 1.9 1.2 0.9 1.7
800 0.6 1.4 0.8 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.3 0.8 0.6 1.2
900 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.9
1000 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.7
1500 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2
2000 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1
2500 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
3500 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4500 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
7000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
9000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
10000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

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CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF SPM IN SURROUNDING AREA DURING CONDITION - B

WIND DIRECTION SE E ENE ESE NE NNE NNW N NW S SSE SSW SW W WNW WSW
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
NW W WSW WNW SW SSW SSE S SE N NNW NNE NE E ESE ENE
WIND VELOCITY, ‘m/s’ 4.44 2.08 3.67 4.7 2.9 2.5 2.75 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.53 2.93 2.13 3.46 4.77 2.38
DISTANCE, ‘m’ CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION IN µg/cu.m (as 24 hours average)
100 1.1 0.7 1.1 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.0 1.0 0.7 1.1 1.1 0.8
200 10.3 14.8 11.6 9.9 13.2 14.0 13.5 14.0 13.4 12.7 0.0 13.1 14.7 12.0 9.8 14.3
300 10.5 18.8 12.3 10.0 14.9 16.6 15.4 16.6 15.2 14.1 0.0 14.7 18.5 13.0 9.9 17.2
400 8.0 15.5 9.6 7.6 11.8 13.4 12.3 13.3 12.1 11.1 0.0 11.6 15.2 10.1 7.5 13.9
500 5.9 11.9 7.1 5.6 8.9 10.1 9.3 10.1 9.1 8.3 0.0 8.7 11.6 7.5 5.5 10.6
600 4.4 9.1 5.3 4.2 6.7 7.7 7.0 7.7 6.9 6.2 0.0 6.6 8.9 5.7 4.1 8.0
700 3.4 7.1 4.1 3.2 5.2 5.9 5.4 5.9 5.3 4.8 0.0 5.1 6.9 4.4 3.2 6.2
800 2.7 5.6 3.2 2.5 4.1 4.7 4.3 4.7 4.2 3.8 0.0 4.0 5.5 3.4 2.5 4.9
900 2.2 4.5 2.6 2.0 3.3 3.8 3.4 3.8 3.4 3.1 0.0 3.2 4.4 2.8 2.0 4.0
1000 1.8 3.7 2.1 1.7 2.7 3.1 2.8 3.1 2.8 2.5 0.0 2.6 3.6 2.3 1.6 3.3
1500 0.8 1.7 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.2 0.0 1.2 1.7 1.0 0.8 1.5
2000 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.7 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.9
2500 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.6
3000 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4
3500 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.3
4000 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2
4500 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2
5000 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1
6000 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1
7000 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1
8000 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1
9000 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
10000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

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CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF SPM IN SURROUNDING AREA DURING CONDITION - C

WIND DIRECTION SE E ENE ESE NE NNE NNW N NW S SSE SSW SW W WNW WSW
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
NW W WSW WNW SW SSW SSE S SE N NNW NNE NE E ESE ENE
WIND VELOCITY, ‘m/s’ 4.44 2.08 3.67 4.7 2.9 2.5 2.75 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.53 2.93 2.13 3.46 4.77 2.38
DISTANCE, ‘m’ CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION IN µg/cu.m (as 24 hours average)
100 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
200 5.1 5.4 5.4 5.0 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.5 0.0 5.6 5.4 5.5 4.9 5.6
300 10.7 16.3 12.2 10.3 14.1 15.2 14.5 15.1 14.3 15.0 0.0 14.0 16.2 12.7 10.2 15.5
400 11.1 19.3 13.0 10.6 15.5 17.2 16.1 17.2 15.9 17.3 0.0 15.3 19.1 13.6 10.4 17.8
500 9.7 18.1 11.5 9.2 14.0 15.7 14.6 15.7 14.4 15.9 0.0 13.8 17.8 12.1 9.1 16.4
600 8.1 15.7 9.7 7.7 11.9 13.5 12.4 13.5 12.2 13.7 0.0 11.7 15.4 10.2 7.6 14.1
700 6.7 13.4 8.1 6.4 10.0 11.4 10.5 11.4 10.3 11.6 0.0 9.9 13.1 8.6 6.3 11.9
800 5.6 11.4 6.8 5.4 8.5 9.7 8.8 9.6 8.7 9.8 0.0 8.3 11.1 7.2 5.3 10.1
900 4.8 9.7 5.7 4.5 7.2 8.2 7.5 8.2 7.4 8.4 0.0 7.1 9.5 6.1 4.4 8.6
1000 4.1 8.4 4.9 3.9 6.2 7.1 6.4 7.0 6.3 7.2 0.0 6.0 8.2 5.2 3.8 7.4
1500 2.1 4.4 2.6 2.0 3.2 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.3 3.8 0.0 3.2 4.3 2.7 2.0 3.9
2000 1.3 2.7 1.6 1.2 2.0 2.3 2.1 2.3 2.0 2.3 0.0 2.0 2.7 1.7 1.2 2.4
2500 0.9 1.9 1.1 0.8 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.4 1.6 0.0 1.3 1.8 1.1 0.8 1.6
3000 0.6 1.4 0.8 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.2 0.0 1.0 1.3 0.8 0.6 1.2
3500 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.0 0.7 1.0 0.6 0.5 0.9
4000 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.7
4500 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.6
5000 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.5
6000 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3
7000 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.3
8000 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2
9000 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2
10000 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1

D:\NEC\Cement EIAs\M\madhuvan\FINAL EIA REPORT\SPM TABLE4 madhuvan.doc


CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF SPM IN SURROUNDING AREA DURING CONDITION-D

WIND DIRECTION SE E ENE ESE NE NNE NNW N NW S SSE SSW SW W WNW WSW
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
NW W WSW WNW SW SSW SSE S SE N NNW NNE NE E ESE ENE
WIND VELOCITY, ‘m/s’ 4.44 2.08 3.67 4.7 2.9 2.5 2.75 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.53 2.93 2.13 3.46 4.77 2.38
DISTANCE, ‘m’ CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION IN µg/cu.m (as 24 hours average)
100 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
200 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
300 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.7 0.0 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.6
400 6.1 8.0 6.8 6.0 7.5 7.8 7.6 7.8 7.6 7.3 0.0 7.5 8.0 7.0 5.9 7.9
500 8.4 12.6 9.6 8.1 11.0 11.8 11.3 11.8 11.2 10.6 0.0 10.9 12.5 9.9 8.0 12.0
600 9.3 15.2 10.7 8.9 12.6 13.8 13.0 13.8 12.8 12.0 0.0 12.4 15.0 11.2 8.7 14.2
700 9.3 16.1 10.8 8.9 12.9 14.3 13.4 14.3 13.2 12.3 0.0 12.8 15.8 11.4 8.7 14.8
800 8.9 16.0 10.4 8.5 12.6 14.1 13.1 14.0 12.9 11.9 0.0 12.4 15.7 11.0 8.3 14.6
900 8.3 15.3 9.8 7.9 11.9 13.4 12.4 13.4 12.2 11.2 0.0 11.7 15.1 10.3 7.8 13.9
1000 7.7 14.5 9.1 7.3 11.1 12.6 11.6 12.5 11.4 10.5 0.0 11.0 14.2 9.6 7.2 13.1
1500 5.1 10.1 6.1 4.8 7.6 8.6 7.9 8.6 7.8 7.1 0.0 7.5 9.9 6.5 4.8 9.0
2000 3.6 7.3 4.3 3.4 5.4 6.2 5.7 6.2 5.6 5.0 0.0 5.3 7.2 4.6 3.3 6.5
2500 2.7 5.5 3.2 2.5 4.1 4.7 4.3 4.7 4.2 3.8 0.0 4.0 5.4 3.4 2.5 4.9
3000 2.1 4.4 2.5 2.0 3.2 3.7 3.3 3.7 3.3 3.0 0.0 3.1 4.3 2.7 2.0 3.8
3500 1.7 3.6 2.1 1.6 2.6 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.4 0.0 2.5 3.5 2.2 1.6 3.1
4000 1.4 3.0 1.7 1.3 2.2 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.2 2.0 0.0 2.1 2.9 1.8 1.3 2.6
4500 1.2 2.5 1.5 1.1 1.8 2.1 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.7 0.0 1.8 2.5 1.5 1.1 2.2
5000 1.0 2.2 1.3 1.0 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.5 0.0 1.6 2.1 1.3 1.0 1.9
6000 0.8 1.7 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.1 0.0 1.2 1.7 1.0 0.7 1.5
7000 0.6 1.4 0.8 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.0 1.0 1.3 0.8 0.6 1.2
8000 0.5 1.1 0.6 0.5 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.8 1.1 0.7 0.5 1.0
9000 0.5 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.0 0.7 0.9 0.6 0.4 0.8
10000 0.4 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.7

D:\NEC\Cement EIAs\M\madhuvan\FINAL EIA REPORT\SPM TABLE4 madhuvan.doc


CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF SPM IN SURROUNDING AREA DURING CONDITION-E

WIND DIRECTION SE E ENE ESE NE NNE NNW N NW S SSE SSW SW W WNW WSW
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
NW W WSW WNW SW SSW SSE S SE N NNW NNE NE E ESE ENE
WIND VELOCITY, ‘m/s’ 4.44 2.08 3.67 4.7 2.9 2.5 2.75 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.53 2.93 2.13 3.46 4.77 2.38
DISTANCE, ‘m’ CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION IN µg/cu.m (as 24 hours average)
100 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
200 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
300 0.9 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 1.0
400 2.8 3.6 3.1 2.7 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.3 0.0 3.4 3.6 3.2 2.7 3.5
500 4.7 6.8 5.3 4.5 6.0 6.4 6.2 6.4 6.1 5.8 0.0 6.0 6.7 5.5 4.5 6.5
600 6.1 9.5 7.0 5.9 8.1 8.8 8.4 8.8 8.3 7.8 0.0 8.0 9.5 7.3 5.8 9.0
700 7.0 11.5 8.1 6.7 9.5 10.4 9.8 10.4 9.7 9.1 0.0 9.4 11.4 8.4 6.6 10.7
800 7.4 12.7 8.6 7.1 10.2 11.3 10.6 11.3 10.5 9.7 0.0 10.1 12.5 9.0 7.0 11.7
900 7.5 13.2 8.7 7.1 10.5 11.7 10.9 11.7 10.7 9.9 0.0 10.4 13.0 9.2 7.0 12.1
1000 7.3 13.3 8.6 7.0 10.5 11.7 10.9 11.7 10.7 9.9 0.0 10.3 13.1 9.1 6.9 12.1
1500 5.8 11.4 7.0 5.6 8.6 9.8 9.0 9.7 8.8 8.1 0.0 8.5 11.1 7.4 5.5 10.2
2000 4.5 8.9 5.3 4.2 6.6 7.6 6.9 7.6 6.8 6.2 0.0 6.5 8.7 5.7 4.2 7.9
2500 3.5 7.1 4.2 3.3 5.2 6.0 5.5 6.0 5.4 4.9 0.0 5.2 6.9 4.5 3.3 6.3
3000 2.8 5.8 3.4 2.7 4.3 4.9 4.5 4.9 4.4 4.0 0.0 4.2 5.7 3.6 2.6 5.1
3500 2.3 4.8 2.8 2.2 3.6 4.1 3.7 4.1 3.7 3.3 0.0 3.5 4.7 3.0 2.2 4.3
4000 2.0 4.1 2.4 1.9 3.0 3.5 3.2 3.5 3.1 2.8 0.0 3.0 4.0 2.6 1.9 3.6
4500 1.7 3.6 2.1 1.6 2.6 3.0 2.7 3.0 2.7 2.4 0.0 2.6 3.5 2.2 1.6 3.2
5000 1.5 3.1 1.8 1.4 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.4 2.1 0.0 2.3 3.1 1.9 1.4 2.8
6000 1.2 2.5 1.4 1.1 1.8 2.1 1.9 2.1 1.9 1.7 0.0 1.8 2.4 1.5 1.1 2.2
7000 1.0 2.1 1.2 0.9 1.5 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.5 1.4 0.0 1.5 2.0 1.3 0.9 1.8
8000 0.8 1.7 1.0 0.8 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.2 0.0 1.2 1.7 1.1 0.8 1.5
9000 0.7 1.5 0.9 0.7 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.0 1.1 1.5 0.9 0.7 1.3
10000 0.6 1.3 0.8 0.6 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.0 0.9 1.3 0.8 0.6 1.2

D:\NEC\Cement EIAs\M\madhuvan\FINAL EIA REPORT\SPM TABLE4 madhuvan.doc


CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION OF SPM IN SURROUNDING AREA DURING CONDITION-F

WIND DIRECTION SE E ENE ESE NE NNE NNW N NW S SSE SSW SW W WNW WSW
to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to
NW W WSW WNW SW SSW SSE S SE N NNW NNE NE E ESE ENE
WIND VELOCITY, ‘m/s’ 4.44 2.08 3.67 4.7 2.9 2.5 2.75 2.5 2.8 3.1 3.53 2.93 2.13 3.46 4.77 2.38
DISTANCE, ‘m’ CENTERLINE GROUND LEVEL CONCENTRATION IN µg/cu.m (as 24 hours average)
100 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
200 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
300 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
400 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
500 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1
600 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4
700 0.9 1.1 1.0 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.8 1.1
800 1.6 2.1 1.8 1.5 2.0 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 0.0 2.0 2.1 1.8 1.5 2.1
900 2.4 3.4 2.7 2.3 3.0 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.1 2.9 0.0 3.0 3.4 2.8 2.3 3.3
1000 3.1 4.8 3.5 3.0 4.1 4.4 4.2 4.4 4.2 3.9 0.0 4.0 4.7 3.7 2.9 4.5
1500 5.0 8.9 5.9 4.8 7.1 7.9 7.4 7.9 7.2 6.7 0.0 7.0 8.8 6.2 4.7 8.2
2000 5.0 9.3 5.9 4.7 7.2 8.1 7.5 8.1 7.4 6.8 0.0 7.1 9.2 6.2 4.7 8.4
2500 4.5 8.7 5.4 4.3 6.6 7.5 6.9 7.5 6.8 6.2 0.0 6.5 8.5 5.7 4.2 7.8
3000 4.0 7.8 4.8 3.8 5.9 6.7 6.2 6.7 6.1 5.5 0.0 5.8 7.7 5.0 3.7 7.0
3500 3.5 7.0 4.2 3.4 5.3 6.0 5.5 6.0 5.4 4.9 0.0 5.2 6.9 4.5 3.3 6.2
4000 3.1 6.3 3.8 3.0 4.7 5.4 4.9 5.4 4.8 4.4 0.0 4.6 6.2 4.0 2.9 5.6
4500 2.8 5.7 3.4 2.7 4.2 4.8 4.4 4.8 4.3 4.0 0.0 4.2 5.6 3.6 2.6 5.1
5000 2.6 5.2 3.1 2.4 3.8 4.4 4.0 4.4 3.9 3.6 0.0 3.8 5.1 3.3 2.4 4.6
6000 2.1 4.4 2.6 2.0 3.2 3.7 3.4 3.7 3.3 3.0 0.0 3.2 4.3 2.7 2.0 3.8
7000 1.8 3.7 2.2 1.7 2.7 3.1 2.9 3.1 2.8 2.6 0.0 2.7 3.7 2.3 1.7 3.3
8000 1.6 3.3 1.9 1.5 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.7 2.5 2.2 0.0 2.3 3.2 2.0 1.5 2.9
9000 1.4 2.9 1.7 1.3 2.1 2.4 2.2 2.4 2.2 2.0 0.0 2.1 2.8 1.8 1.3 2.5
10000 1.2 2.6 1.5 1.2 1.9 2.2 2.0 2.2 1.9 1.8 0.0 1.9 2.5 1.6 1.2 2.3

D:\NEC\Cement EIAs\M\madhuvan\FINAL EIA REPORT\SPM TABLE4 madhuvan.doc


INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

Fugitive Emissions :

The unit will install air pollution control equipments to control


particulate matter emissions. Fugitive emissions from the
proposed plant would be significant as there will be air
pollution due to activities like raw materials handling,
crushing, transfer points of materials, packing of product and
movement of vehicles. The raw materials will be transported
in covered trucks; hence fugitive dust is not envisaged. The
suctions of bag filter will be provided at all transfer points, silo
top, packing section and at the crusher. Hence, the impact
due to fugitive emissions would be insignificant. The proposed
greenbelt and regular water sprinkling will further reduce
fugitive emissions.

6.2.2 Impact on Soil

Dust generated by the cement manufacturing plant consists


primarily of alkaline particulates from the raw and finished
material. Accumulation of alkaline dust in soil may decrease
microbial biomass. Dust collected from air pollution control
equipment will be 100% recycled in process. Hence, the
proposed activities will not likely to have any significant
adverse impact on the soil environment.

6.2.3 Impact on Noise levels

The proposed industrial operations will generate noise in the


premises and noise levels in the immediate surrounding will
be slightly increased. The industry will develop green belt
around the plant. Adequate protective measures in the form
of ear plugs will be provided to the workers working in high
noise areas.

57
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

6.2.4 Impact on Ecology

Checklist for the evaluation of Eco-sensitivity of the study area and Prediction of Biological Stress with in the impact
zone of the proposed project

Biological Criteria Phase Assessment of Significance of criteria based on Degree of Mitigatory measures
Magnitude, Prevalence, frequency, Risk, and mitigation impact
of the impact due to the project activity envisaged
1 2 3 4 5
State of terrestrial Topography of the region was characterized by mainly No impact
vegetation in the impact agricultural fields. Tree cover was also very less and
zone of 10km radius restricted to road side plantation and at the boundary of the
agriculture fields .No natural forest area was observed in the
core zone and in the buffer zone ,

State of terrestrial . Project site is located closer to the High way in the No impact
vegetation at Project site outskirt of Kansari village The project site is almost barren
with out any tree cover , few shrubs were observed in the
project site which were dominated by Cassia auriculata
and , Prosopis juliflora.
Vegetation destroyed or Construction Not much vegetation , especially trees in the project site, No impact
disturbed due to the project phase hence not much disturbances to the existing vegetation.
activity Operation Not much impact is envisaged on the terrestrial vegetation due to Localized Proper green belt should
(deforestation, tree cutting, phase the proposed project, Clinker grinding Units. . Whatever impact negative impact be developed in the
shrinkage of habitat) generated due to the project will be due to the dust emission and premises to reduce the
it will be localized and can be maintained by the development of impact of dust generated
proper green belt in the factory premises

58
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

Animal behavior disturbed Construction No animal community in the project premises No impact
due to the project activity phase
Operation No animal community in the project premises No impact
phase
The Gir WLS is located far away from the project As the project
Wild life importance site. Even though certain scattered incident of Cattle site is located
killing by Lions, which were straying out from the far away from
protected area of Gir WLS were reported in Ambada the GIR WLS ,
no impact due
and Ugala villages located in the boundary of the study
to the proposed
area project on Wild
life is
envisaged
From the data generated for the floral diversity of this No impact
Floral endemicity region, Hyphaene dichotoma is an endemic plant observed
in this region
Faunal endemicity No endemic fauna was sighted No impact
Endangered fauna No endangered fauna in the core zone. Certain incident of As the project
Lions straying out from GIR WLS was reported from the site is located
villages; Ambada and Ugala in the buffer zone of the far away from
project site the GIR WLS ,
no impact due
to the proposed
project on Wild
life is
envisaged
Endangered flora No endangered flora No impact

59
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

1 2 3 4 5
Significant habitats in the
study area critical to the No habitats critical for the conservation of threatened and
conservation of threatened endangered species
and endangered species
Breeding ground of No breeding ground No impact
migratory and residential
birds
Direct of indirect impact No impact is envisaged No impact
on the avian fauna
The existing Protected areas Gir WLS is located far away
Legal status (National from the 10 km boundary from the project site. No No impact
park, Wild life sanctuary, significant impact due to the proposed project is envisaged
Reserve forest) on this protected area and its occupants.

The dominant landscape of the study area is agricultural Proper green belt has to
lands. But no agricultural land located in a close proximity No impact be developed
Agricultural lands to factory premises. As the proposed project is only the
Clinker Grinding units not much impact is envisaged on the
agricultural crops. More over the properly developed green
belts in and around the project sites will remove the limited
emission in the ambient before it reach the agriculture fields.

60
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

6.2.5 Impact on Water Environment

Construction Phase :

The unit has got the permission for ground water withdrawal
from Central Ground Water Authority. The copy of the same is
as enclosed. During construction phase groundwater will be
used. In the region groundwater is adequate hence tapping of
ground water for construction will not have any impact on
ground water resources.

Operation Phase :

During operation phase maximum water requirement will be


30 cu.m/day. The ground water will be used during operation
phase. The unit is proposing to develop rain water harvesting
systems at project site area to recharge ground water. Hence
during operation phase, withdrawal of groundwater will not
have nay impact on groundwater resources.

Wastewater will not generate from the proposed unit and


there will no impact on groundwater and any other water
environment with in study area.

6.2.5 Impact on Existing Landuse Pattern :

Within the project area, relatively large land areas are


devoted for Agriculture purpose. The nearest village is around
1.24 km in North direction. The proposed project is mini
cement plant and the acquired land is non agriculture of area
26305 sq.m. The project will not alter the general land use
characteristics in the project area and does not affect the land
use pattern.

61
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

7. ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT PLAN

The industry will take adequate pollution control measures to


abate the pollution due to the proposed production activities.

7.1 Air Pollution Control Management

™ Air pollution control equipments will be installed to


control dust emissions.
™ Raw materials loading and unloading will be done in the
covered area.
™ Raw materials will be stored in the covered structure.
™ All the conveyors will be provided with conveyer cover.
™ The automatic bagging machine will be installed for
packing.
™ The sprinkling of water will be done along the internal
roads in the plant in order to control the dust.
™ All the workers working inside the plant will be provided
with disposable dust masks.
™ Green belt will be developed around the plant to arrest
the fugitive emissions.
™ Bag filter will be cleaned regularly.
™ Maintenance of air pollution control equipments will be
done regularly.
™ Dust removal efficiency of air pollution control
equipments will be checked regularly.
™ The stacks of adequate height will be attached to the air
pollution control equipments to disperse the air
pollutant to the satisfactory levels. The vent will be
regularly monitored for SPM.

7.2 Noise Control Management

™ The greenbelt proposed around the boundary of the


plan will attenuate the noise emitted by the various
sources in the plant.
™ The rotating machinery will be lubricated and provided
with enclosures as far as possible to reduce noise
transmission.

62
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENE SERVICES
Environmental Impact Assessment – 2008
Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

™ Earplugs will be provided for the personnel working


close to the noise generating units as a part of the
safety policy.

7.3 Water Harvesting System

In scientific terms, water harvesting refers to collection and


storage of rainwater and also other activities aimed at
harvesting surface and groundwater, prevention of losses
through evaporation and seepage and all other hydrological
studies and engineering interventions, aimed at conservation
and efficient utilization of the limited water endowment of
physiographic unit such as a watershed. In general, water
harvesting is the activity of direct collection of rainwater.

The rainwater at the site will be harvested for direct use


(rooftop harvesting system) in the industry and groundwater
recharge as well. The details are as below :

Rooftop Harvesting System:

The total area of catchment is around 8348 sq.m. The


rainwater from the catchment areas will flow in drains and
finally collected in the storage tank. The flush valve will be
installed before storage tank to flush out first spell of rain.

Calculation of Maximum Rainfall that can be Harvested :

Total Area of Catchment : 8348 sq.m


Average annual rainfall : 1.0 m
Runoff coefficient : 0.85

Annual water harvesting potential : 8348 x 1.0 x 0.85

: 7096 cu.m

The industry will construct the tank of 50 cu.m volume to


collect the harvested rain water. The unit will construct a
borewell to recharge the rooftop runoff. Rainwater collected
on the rooftop of the building will be diverted by drainpipes to

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a settlement or filtration tank, from which it will flow into the


recharge well.

7.4 Greenbelt Development Plan:

The location of the industry is in Junagadh district in north


Saurashtra of Gujarat State.

The industry will develop such trees which can grow at the
site and can tolerate the cement dust. The industry will
develop Green Belt in the 7600 sq.m area. The proposed
greenbelt area is as shown in the Layout plan.

Greenbelts are an effective mode of control of air pollution,


where green plants form a surface capable of absorbing air
pollutants and forming a sink of pollutants. Leaves with their
vast area in a tree crown, sorbs pollutants on their surface,
thus effectively reduce pollutant concentration in the ambient
air. Often the adsorbed pollutants are incorporated in the
metabolic pathway and the air is purified. Plants grown to
function as pollution sink are collectively referred as
greenbelts.

An important aspect of a greenbelt is that the plants are living


organism with their varied tolerance limit towards the air
pollutants. A green belt is effective as a pollutant sink only
within the tolerance limit of constituent plants. Planting few,
known pollutant sensitive species along with the tolerant
species within a green belt however, do carry out an
important function of indicator species
Apart from function as pollution sink, greenbelt would provide
other benefit like aesthetic improvement of the area and
providing suitable habitats for birds and animals.

Sensitive and tolerant plant species to Cement dust:

CPCB, (March, 2000) compiled the earlier conducted research


reports on the tolerant and sensitive species with reference to
cement dust. The documented sensitive plants to the cement
dust is given in the Table 7.1 , and Tolerant species to cement
dust is given in the Table 7.2- 7.4.

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Table 7.1 : Sensitive Plants to Cement dust


Plants species References
Zea mays Sree Rangaswamy, et.al.,
(1973)
Syzygium cumini Jarif et.al., (1979)
Triticum aestivum Singh and Rao ( 1980,a)
Calotropis procera Yusaf and Vyas, (1982)
Cassia fistula “
Dalbergia sissoo “
Withania somnifera “
Source CPCB ( March ,2000): PROBES/75/1999-2000,

Table 7.2 : Tolerant species- Poor Dust collector


Plants References
species
Erythrina Shety and Chaphekar (1980
indica
Cassia fistula Das et al. ( 1981
Poinciana Das et al. ( 1981
regia
Sesbania sp. Das et al. ( 1981
Azadirachta Pandey and Mishra (1974)
indica
Source CPCB ( March ,2000): PROBES/75/1999-2000,

Table 7.3 : Tolerant species- Dust collector


Plants species References
Mangifera indica Shety and Chaphekar (1980)
Das et al. ( 1981)
Thespesia Shety and Chaphekar (1980
populnea
Polylathia Das et al. ( 1981)
longifolia
Ficus Das et al. ( 1981)
bengalensis
Ficus infectoria Das et al. ( 1981)
Ficus religiosa Das et al. ( 1981)
Tectona grandis Das et al. ( 1981)
Shorea robusta Das et al. ( 1981)
Terminalia Das et al. ( 1981)

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arjuna
Nerium indicum Das et al. ( 1981)
Thevetia Das et al. ( 1981)
neriifolia
Source CPCB ( March ,2000): PROBES/75/1999-2000,

Table 7.4 : Tolerant species –Best Dust collector


Plants species References
Pithecellobium Rao (1971)
dulce
Argyrea speciosa Rao (1971)
Source CPCB ( March ,2000): PROBES/75/1999-2000,

Selection of plants for Green Belts :

The main limitation for plants to function as scavenger of


pollutants are, plant’s interaction to air pollutants, sensitivity
to pollutants, climatic conditions and soil characteristics. While
making choice of plants species for cultivation in green belts,
due consideration has to be given to the natural factor of bio-
climate. Xerophytes plants are not necessarily good for
greenbelts; they with their sunken stomata can withstand
pollution by avoidance but are poor absorber of pollutants.
Character of plants mainly considered for affecting absorption
of pollutant gases and removal of dust particle are as follows.

For absorption of Gases:

1) Tolerance towards pollutants in question , at


concentration , that are not too high to be
instantaneously lethal
2) Longer duration of foliage
3) Freely exposed foliage
4) Adequate height of crown
5) Openness of foliage in canopy
6) Big leaves( long and broad laminar surface)
7) Large number of stomatal apertures

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For Removal of Suspended Particular matter

1. Height and spread of crown.


2. Leaves supported on firm petiole
3. Abundance of surface on bark and foliage
4. Roughness of bark
5. Abundance of axillary hairs
6. Hairs or scales on laminar surface
7. Protected Stomata

Plantation along road sides:

Automobiles are the source of pollution of gaseous and


particulate pollutants. Component of green belt on road side
hence should be with both absorbers of gases as well as of
dust particles. The choice of plants for road side should
include shrubs of height 1 to 1.5 meter and trees of 3-5 meter
height. Medium sized trees, alternating with shrubs are ideal
for sorption of particulates and gases.

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Table 7.5 : Recommended Plant Species for Green Belt


Development

Plant Habit Tolerance Stomatal Mode of


species limit index Regeneration
Acacia Tree Tolerant 10.9 Seeds
auriculiformis
Acacia catechu tree 8.24 seeds
Acacia Shrub T 12.01 seeds
leucocephala
( Hari baval)
Ailanthus tree T 13.01 Seeds, shoot,
excelsa root cuttings
Albizia Tree T 19.72 Seeds
lebbeck
Albizia tree T 20.21 seeds
procera
Alstonia Tree T 15.23 Seeds
scholaris (
Devil- tree)
Annona Small T 26.19 Seeds, Grafting
squamosa tree
(Seetaphal)
Anogeissus Tree T 18.72 Seeds
latifolia
(Dhavdo)
Azadirachta Tree T 29.2 Seeds
indica
Bauhinia Tree T 23.58 Seeds
purpurea
Bauhinia Small T 25.68 seeds
racemosa tree
(Aasundro)
Bougainvillea Shrub T 32.53 Cutting
spectabilis
Caesalpinia Tree T 29.09 Seeds and
pulcherrima Cuttings
(White gold
mohur)
Calotropis Shrub T 9.93 Seeds
gigantea
Calotropis Shrub T 10.32 Seeds
procera
Cassia fistula Tree T 20.4 Seeds and
suckers
Cassia siamea Tree T 21.2 Seeds
Cordia Tree T N.A Seeds/ stem
dichotoma cuttings

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(Gunda)
Delonix regia Tree Sensitive 14.38 Seeds /stem
( Gulmohur) cutting
Emblica Tree T 11.62 Seeds /stem
officinalis( cutting
Amli)
Euphorbia Shrib T NA Cuttings
tirucalli
Ficus Tree T 21.72 Seeds /stem
bengalensis cutting
(Vad)
Ficus hispida Tree T 17.21 Seeds /stem
cutting
Ficus religiosa Tree T 18.70 Seeds /stem
(papal) cutting
Hibiscus rosa- Small T 23.32 stem cutting
sinensis tree
Ixora arborea Small T 17.3 stem cutting
tree
Ixora rosea Small T 20.30 Stem cutting
tree
Jatropha Shrub T NA
curcas
Lantana Shrub T 12.13 Seeds /stem
camara cutting
Lawsonia Shrub T 17.0 Seeds /stem
inermis cutting
(Mendi)
Mangifera Tree T 30.77 Seeds/ grafting/
indica ( Am) budding/
Manilkara Tree T 25.78 Grafting
zapota
(Chikoo)
Melia Tree T Seeds /stem
azadirachta cutting
Nerium Shrub T 15.7 Cutting
indicum
Peltophorum Tree T 16.68 Seeds
pterocarpum
Polylathia Tree T 22.27 Seeds
longifolia
Sesbania Shrub T 19.2 Seeds
sesban (
Tamarindus Tree T 18.4 Seeds
indica
Tectona Tree T 23.48 Seeds
grandis
Terminalia alata Tree T NA Seeds /stem
cutting

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Thespesia Tree T 29.81 Seeds /stem


populnea cutting
Thevetia Shrub T 27.8 Seeds /stem
peruviana cutting
Zizyphus Tree T 12.4 Seeds /stem
mauritiana cutting
(Bordi)

T: Tolerant, NA =Not available


Highlighted species are most suitable for this locality, considering its
terrain and other existing vegetative cover in the study area
Sources: CPCB (March ,2000) PROBES/75/1999-2000

7.5 Solid Wastes Management :

Dust collected from air pollution control equipment will be


100% recycled in the process. Other solid wastes will be
used/spent oil and discarded drums and bags. The sources of
solid wastes, generation and its management are as given in
the following table.

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Table 7.6 : Details of Hazardous Wastes Generation & its Management

Sr. Type of Source Category as Quantity, Physical Waste Management details


No. Hazardous per Haz. MT/ month form
waste Waste Rules, Collection Storage Reuse/ Disposal
2003 Recycle

Wastes Reuse in Selling to


Used/spent Prime 500 HDPE
1 5.1 Liquid Storage plant for authorised
Oil Movers lit/month Drums
area lubrication recyclers
Returned
Wastes
Discarded 200 to raw
2 Storages 33.3 Solid - storage -
Drums nos./year materials
area
suppliers
Returned
Wastes
Discarded 10,000 to raw
3 Storages 33.3 Solid Bags Storage -
Bags nos./year materials
area
suppliers

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7.6 Cleaner Production :

The unit will take following steps to implement the cleaner


production in the proposed plant.

1. The proposed unit will install air pollution control


equipments to control dust emissions. The collected
dust will be 100 % recycled.
2. The proposed unit will implement good housekeeping.
3. Water harvesting systems will be set up at the plant.
4. Maintenance of air pollution control equipments will be
done regularly.
5. Efficiency of air pollution control equipments will be
checked regularly.
6. Green Belt will be developed in the industrial premise.

The unit will procure Fly Ash and Gypsum from companies
where it is generated as a waste.

Hazardous Waste Co – incineration :

The unit will use high calorific substances such as Rubber


waste/dust, Shredded tyre chips/scraps and used oil.

7.7 Socio-economic Development Activities :

The industry is committed to support socio-economic


development activities in surrounding villages under the study
area. The unit will support water and soil conservation
activities in these areas by providing cement from company at
no profit no loss basis for check dam construction and other
relevant activities. Another major activity will be environment
education in school children and youth of the surrounding
villages. Under this, the industry will held seminars,
workshops, essay writing competition, exposure trips, film
show etc.

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8. SAFETY MEASURES

The raw materials silica, gypsum, lime stone, coke breeze,


clinker and product cement will be handled in the proposed
unit.

8.1 Hazard Identification :

Potential Health Effects :

Eye Contact :

Airborn dust may cause immediate or delayed irritation or


inflammation. Eye contact with large amounts of clinker dust
and dry cement powder can cause moderate eye irritation,
chemical burns and blindness. Eye contact with large amounts
of gypsum can cause moderate eye irritation, redness, and
abrasions. Eye exposures require immediate first aid and
medical attention to prevent significant damage to the eye.

Skin Contact :

Dust of clinker, gypsum and cement may cause dry skin,


discomfort, irritation, severe burns and dermatitis. Clinker
dust and cement dust are capable of causing dermatitis by
irritation. Skin affected by dermatitis may include symptoms
such as, redness, itching, rash, scaling and cracking. Irritant
dermatitis is caused by the physical properties of clinker dust
including alkalinity and abrasion.

Inhalation (Acute) :

Breathing dust may cause nose, throat or lung irritation,


including choking, depending on the degree of exposure.
Inhalation of high levels of dust can cause chemical burns to
the nose, throat and lungs.

Inhalation (Chronic) :

Risk of injury depends on duration and level of exposure. This


product contains crystalline silica. Prolonged or repeated

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inhalation of respirable crystalline silica from this product can


cause silicosis, a seriously disabling and fatal lung disease.
Some studies show that exposure to respirable crystalline
silica (without silicosis) or that the disease silicosis may be
associated with the increased incidence of several
autoimmune disorders such as scleroderma (thickening of the
skin), systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and
diseases affecting the kidneys. Silicosis increases the risk of
tuberculosis.

Ingestion :

Internal discomfort or ill effects are possible if large quantities


are swallowed.

8.2 Exposure Limits :

The exposure limits for Portland cement, gypsum, crystalline


silica and calcium carbonate are as given in the following
table.

Table 8.1 Exposure Limits

Sr.No. Chemicals ACGIH TLV-TWA


(mg/m3)
1 Portland Cement 10 mg total dust/m3
2 Calcium Sulfate dehydrate 10 mg total dust/m3
(gypsum)
3 Crystalline Silica 0.05 mg respirable
quartz/m3
4 Calcium carbonate 10 mg total dust/m3

8.3 First Aid Measures

Eye Contact :

Rinse eyes thoroughly with water for at least 15 minutes,


including under lids, to remove all particles. Seek medical
attention for abrasions and burns.

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Skin Contact :

Wash with cool water and a pH neutral soap or a milk skin


detergent. Seek medical attention for rash, burns, irritation,
and dermatitis.

Inhalation :

Move person to fresh air. Seek medical attention for


discomfort or if coughing or other symptoms.

Ingestion :

Do not induce vomiting. If conscious, have person drink


plenty of water. Seek medical attention.

8.4 Exposure Controls and Personal Protection

Exposure Controls :

™ Control of dust through implementation of good


housekeeping and maintenance;
™ The bag filters will be installed to control dust emission.
™ Use of PPE, as appropriate (e.g. masks and respirators)
™ Use of mobile vacuum cleaning systems to prevent dust
buildup on paved areas;

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) :

™ Respiratory Protection : When the dust level is beyond


exposure limits or when dust causes irritation or
discomfort use Respirator
™ Eye Protection : Wear Safety goggles to avoid dust
contact with the eyes. Contact lenses should not be
worn when handling the materials.
™ Skin Protection : Wear impervious abrasion and alkali
resistant gloves, boots, long sleeved shirt, long pants or
other protective clothing to prevent skin contact.

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8.5 Other Safety Measures

™ Safety training to the workers will be given.


™ PPE will be provided to the workers.
™ The maintenance and cleaning of bag filters will be
carried out regularly.
™ The dust removal efficiency of bag filters will be check
regularly.
™ Work place environment monitoring will be carried out
regularly and records will be maintained as per Form
No. 37 of GFR. The monitoring of cement dust and silica
in the work place will be carried out.
™ Good house keeping will be implemented in the plant.
™ First aid box will be provided.
™ The industry will provide adequate lighting facility inside
the plant premises.
™ General dilution ventilation will be provided to control
dust levels below applicable exposure limits.
™ Fire extinguishers will be provided to withstand the fire
or explosion condition.
™ Pre-employment and periodical medical examination of
workers will be done by government approved medical
practitioners and the details will be recorded as per the
Form no. 32 of Gujarat Factory Regulations.
™ The industry will prepare on-site emergency plan.
™ In case any emergency, arrangement of ambulance van
will be done from Junagadh.
™ Two main gates will be provided for entry and exit of
the workers.
™ Work place environment monitoring for cement dust and
silica will be carried out as per the Gujarat Factories
Rules.

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9. RISK ASSESSMENT AND SAFETY MEASURES :

9.1 Classification of the Hazards in the Cement Industry

The hazards in the proposed cement plant can be classified as


under :

A. Routine and general hazards such as:

• Safe behavior
• Environment, work and passage areas
• Work equipment
• Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
• Manual load handling

B. Special hazards during the cement production phases such


as:

• Crushing
• Clinker production
• Milling processes at raw mill, cement mill
• Material transport
• Storage
• Loading and delivery of final products
• Fuel storage activities
• Use of hazardous material
• Generating units

C. Special hazards as a result of the work environment:

• Dust
• Noise
• Fire
• Emergency response

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9.2 Hazards, Risk and Safety Measures

9.2.1 Storage and Material Transportation Systems

A. Hazards and Protection Measures :

The main hazards during the transportation and storing of


material are:

™ The airborne dust created during the storage of material


™ The conveyor belts during their normal operation as well
as during their maintenance

In order to reduce the risk from airborne dust:

™ To use dust suction systems


™ To implement the necessary procedures for the routine
cleaning of the settled dust

In material transport systems there are moving parts that are


a constant source of hazard for any person working near
these conveyors during normal operation or during the
maintenance activities. For the safe operation of material
transportation systems all the necessary guards are applied to
isolate the moving parts. Additionally where personnel is
working at a short distance from the guards, emergency stops
are provided within short distance of these operators.

During the normal operation of the transportation systems:

™ The removal of guards by unauthorized personnel must


be prevented.
™ Any maintenance work during the operation of the
transportation systems must be avoided.
™ Removing material during the operation of the
conveyors must be avoided.
™ The cleaning of overflows during operation must be
avoided unless the cleaning is done by the conveyor
operative.
™ The use of unauthorized passageways either over or
under the transportation systems must be avoided

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because there is the risk of personnel getting trapped


by the conveyor or overflowing material can fall from
height.
™ The overhead bridges must be clean in order to
minimize the possibility of the tripping and falling of the
personnel performing the checks on the conveyor belts.
™ Any intervention on the conveyor belt overload systems
must be done by authorized personnel.

During the maintenance activities of the material conveyor


belts it is necessary:

™ For the transportation systems to be secured so that


accidental start ups are eliminated.
™ To check that all guards have been put in place prior to
commissioning and
™ To check that the maintenance work is completed and
that all maintenance personnel have left the vicinity of
the equipment.

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B. Risk assessment and Safety Measures :

(1) Hazard (2) (3) (4) (5)


Specific Hazard Person Harm Safety
Hazard Area Description measures
Material storage and material transportation systems
1 Airborne dust Airborne dust in Operatives Breathing PPEs, Dust
the storage area problems suction
systems
2 Conveyor Contact with Operatives Serious Guarding,
moving parts moving parts, injury
the
risk of
entrapment
3 Cleaning of Contact with Operatives Serious Side
overflows moving parts, injury guarding,
the
risk of
entrapment
4 Use of Use of Operatives Serious Restricted
unauthorised unauthorised injury , entry. Use
passages passages. death of
Travelling over appropriate
and under of the safety
transportation signage
system
5 Maintenance Risk when Operatives, Serious Use of
during carried out by technicians injury , authorised
operation unauthorised death personnel.
personnel Supervision
6 Motor Unauthorised Operatives, Serious Use of
overloading tampering technicians injury , authorised
systems death personnel.
Supervision
7 Supervision Unclean Operatives, Fall from Implementa
platforms platforms can technicians height, tion of the
cause staggering Serious dust
and falls injury , cleaning
death schedule

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9.2.2 Crushing

A. Hazards in crushing operations

The hazards in the Crushing sections focus on:

™ The rotational movement and the movement of the


parts of the crusher.
™ The exposure to noise and dust of the personnel
responsible for the continuous control of the crusher.
™ The maintenance activities of crushing machinery
™ The electrical problems
™ The activities inside the hopper due to:

o The operation of the feeder


o The possible crushing of material
o The approach of heavy goods vehicles for
unloading material

™ The movement of heavy goods vehicles:

o Reversing of the vehicle into the hopper


o Accident on personnel

The inappropriate loading of material onto the heavy goods


vehicles with the result that material is hurled from the
vehicle as the material is transported.

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B. Risk assessment and Safety Measures :

(1) Hazard (2) (3) (4) (5)


Specific Hazard Person Harm Safety
Hazard Area Description measures
Crusher
1 Crusher The moving parts Operators, Serious Use of
moving parts of the crusher to Maintenance injury, Guards. Use
come into contact technicians Death of securing
with people procedures
so that
all
personnel is
removed
from the
area
2 Electricity During the Maintenance Serious Authorized
maintenance of technicians injury, personnel
the electrical Death
parts there is a
hazard from the
electric cables
3 Exposure to During the Operators Gradual Use of PPE
Noise operation of the hearing
crushers impairment
4 Maintenance Necessary Maintenance Serious Authorized
While interaction with technicians injury, personnel
machinery is the machinery Death
in operation Authorized
personnel
5 Inappropriate Inappropriate Operators Serious Training of
loading of loading can cause injury, Personnel.
material on the shifting of the Death Construction
heavy vehicle load with the of a
result that rocks Control
and material is room made
flung in the area from
of the hopper concrete to
withstand
possible
crushing

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6 Movement of The vehicle can Operators Serious Guards at


heavy goods hit an operative injury, the back of
vehicles while reversing Death the vehicle.
or making him Training of
fall in the hopper personnel
7 Excessive During unloading Operators Breathing Use of PPE
dust dust is flung in problems
the air
8 Work inside Necessary work Operators Serious Training of
the hopper in the hopper for injury Personnel.
the purpose of Presence of
unblocking the an
mouth of the Observer,
hopper Check the
stability of
rocks inside
the hopper.
Adequate
light

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9.2.3 Milling Processes (Raw Mill and Cement Mill)

A. Hazards and protection measures in milling operations

The main hazards during normal operation of the mills mainly


concern:

™ The movement parts of machinery


™ The falling of material from height in case the protection
ducting is blocked
™ The hurling of mill parts
™ The exposure to noise
™ The exposure to dust

For the safe operation of the mills all the necessary guards
must be in place in order to isolate the mechanical movement
from contact with the operators. Additionally where operatives
need to be near moving parts of machinery the necessary
emergency buttons must exist in case there is a need for to
stop the machinery. For the purpose of supervising the mills
the operators have to walk on specific platforms equipped
with protective railing so that falls from height are prevented.
Due to the excess kinetic energy of material as it rotates and
the continuous pounding of the material inside the mill there
is a serious hazard from the frequent hurling of mill nuts. In
order to minimize the risk of accidents it is necessary to wear
the appropriate helmet as well as the periodic tightening of
the of the nuts. Within the milling area and the blowers
homogenizing area – storage, the employees are exposed to
noise and dust. The sound level must be assessed and if in
doubt it must be measured. The resulting corrective action
first of all must involve the reduction of noise at source, then
the isolation of noise and if then this is not possible to use the
necessary and appropriate PPEs.

Due to the nature of work there is risk of dust being released


to the atmosphere and if the dust stays airborne for a long
time it creates short and long term breathing problems to the
employees. A dust collection system must be used and
employees must use the appropriate PPEs.

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Maintenance Activities :

The maintenance activities in the inside of the mills include:

™ The maintenance of mill linings


™ The replacement of the milling balls

As a result of the above activities a number of serious hazards


are created for the workers at least as follows:

™ Falls from height (from the mill platforms)


™ Hurling of metallic fragments from the mills’ shell
™ Work in confined spaces with insufficient ventilation
™ Exposure to dust
™ Exposure to High temperatures

Due to the nature of the hazards involved such high risk


operations must necessarily be planned so that all the
following preventive measures are adhered to:

™ Securing of the plant in a place where there is easy


access of the maintenance technician into the mill.
™ The maintenance activity must be conducted by
authorised personnel.
™ The work must be carried out under continuous
supervision.
™ Adherence to documented operating preventive
procedures.
™ Assure the necessary ventilation of the work space.
™ Assure the reduction of temperature prior to access to
the space.
™ The use of the appropriate PPEs that must include:

o Special helmet equipped with eye protector


o Safety belt connected to a tying rope
o Special work ware and foot ware able to withstand
thermal load
o Heat retarding gloves
o Special mask equipped with ventilating fun or
connected to a central ventilation system
o Portable torchlight

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B. Risk Assessment and Safety Measures

(1) Hazard (2) (3) (4) (5)


Specific Hazard Person Harm Safety
Hazard Area Description measures
Risk Assessment in milling operations – Raw material and cement mills
1 Airborne dust Airborne dust in Operators Breathing PPEs, Dust
the milling area problems suction systems
2 Mechanical Contact with Operators Serious Proper
moving parts moving parts injury guarding,
of mills PPEs.
3 Falling During Operators Serious Proper
material transportation injury guarding,
there a risk PPEs.
from falling
material
4 Operators Operatives falling Operators , Serious Proper
falling from from height by Maintenance injury , guarding,
height not using Technicians Death Safety
approved signage
passageways PPEs.
5 Maintenance/ Increased risk if Operators , Serious Proper
cleaning carried out by Maintenance injury , guarding,
activity on unauthorised Technicians Death PPEs,
operating personnel Supervised
machinery work
6 Exposed to Exposed to Operators , Gradual Minimise noise
excessive excessive noise Maintenance hearing at source or
noise levels levels Technicians impairment isolate noise.
in the milling PPEs. Secure
areas due to the the doors of the
crushing of homogenization
material inside rooms
the
mill and due to
the operation of
the
homogenisation
blowers

7 Work in Work in confined Operators , Serious PPEs,


confined spaces during Maintenance injury , Supervised
spaces the repair of the Technicians Death work
mill inner walls
or the
replacement of
the milling
balls

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Madhuvan Cement Industries, Junagadh

8 Back firing Hot gases Operators , Serious Use of an


returning back Maintenance injury automatic fuel
due to Technicians from burns, interruption
insufficient Death system (fusible
respiration of the link)
furnace

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9.2.4 Kilns Operation :

A. Hazards and protection measures

The main hazards are focused on the following :

™ Contact with superheated material


™ Exposure to heat
™ Exposure to noise
™ Fall from height
™ Mechanical hazards

During the maintenance in the kiln, the hazard will be as


under :

™ Falling of material
™ Insufficient ventilation
™ Working in a confined space
™ Thermal load
™ Saturation of space with dust
™ Moving part of transport machinery
™ Use of high pressure pumps

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B. Risk Assessment and Safety Measures

(1) Hazard (2) (3) (4) (5)


Specific Hazard Person Harm Safety
Hazard Description measures
Area
Clinker production
1 Falling of Falling of Technicians Serious PPEs,
operatives operatives during injury, Checked
gaining access death lifting devices
inside the furnace
2 Work in Work in confined Technicians Serious PPEs,
confined spaces inside injury, Supervision
spaces the furnace and death
the preheater
3 Airborne Airborne dust Technicians Breathing PPEs, Dust
dust inside the clinker problems suction
furnace, the system
preheater and the Ventilation
cooler system
4 Falling of Falling of material Technicians Serious PPEs,
material injury Supervision
5 Falling of Falling of the inner Technicians Serious PPEs,
the lining injury Supervision
inner lining
6 Use of Use of manual Technicians Serious PPEs,
manual work equipment injury Supervision
work
equipment
7 Exposure Exposure to noise Operators Gradual PPEs
to in the furnace Technicians hearing
noise area impairme
nt
8 Use of high Use of the high Operators Serious Maintenance
pressure pressure water Technicians injury and check of
equipment pump to clean the the
linings high pressure
(WOMA) line. Use of
PPEs
9 Exposure Exposure to Operators Thermal PPEs,
to thermal load in Technicians stress Supervision
thermal the
load clinker furnace
area

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9.2.5 Silo Cleaning Operations

A. Hazards and Preventive Safety Measures

Hazards :

The internal cleaning of silos is high risk and relatively


frequent operation in the cement industry and for this reason
all necessary preventive measures must be taken. The
cleaning of the silo takes place whenever there is a problem in
the extraction of material due to the blocking of the outlets
from solidified material. In addition this happens when there
is a problem with the ventilators and a result there is
insufficient ventilation or homogenization of the material in
the Blending Sib.

The main hazards are focused in the following:

™ Work in confined spaces


™ Falling of personnel from the working platform
™ Falling of material
™ Exposure to dust
™ Use of lifting equipment

Preventive Safety Measures :

For such a high risk operation there must be a responsible


supervisor for the silo cleaning. He is responsible to ensure
that the following steps are followed:

™ Firstly he must notify the silo operatives about the


impending cleaning and to make sure that the feeding
of material to the silo is stopped. This is done by
decommissioning the relevant electrical motors, closing
the silo inlet valves and by placing blind flanges for
additional safety.
™ Before the start of any cleaning activity the silo must be
inspected from above using Portable torch light which is
lowered gradually downwards in order to observe:

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o If there are conglomerated masses of material on the


silo walls and at what height
o The quantity and distribution of material
o To identify whether the level of material is over or
under the silo side door

™ Afterwards the cleaning of the walls from above is


carried out
™ The next step is to open carefully the side door. The
door and the area around the door is cleaned using a
dust suction system and with the use of aluminium
piping with the operatives staying out side the silo.
™ Once the supervisor has inspected and made sure that
he has seen the bottom of the silo near the door and
that no material masses are hang from the silo walls,
then he gives the necessary instructions to start the
Filter funs.
™ All personnel entering the silo must be equipped with
the following:

o Dust mask due to the small size of dust particles


inside the silo
o Safety shoes
o Safety glasses
o Helmet
o Safety belt and harness connected to an
appropriate rope leading outside of the silo. There
must be at least two operatives outside the silo
who in case of emergency will pool out the
operative inside the silo. The supervisor is always
nearby throughout the cleaning activity

™ The cleaning of the silo is done either manually or using


the suction system. In both cases the cleaning is done
peripherally in a downward spiral direction using the
work platform
™ The operator inside the silo must pay constant attention
to the fact that he must step only on the clean bottom
surface

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™ If the cleaning operation takes more than one day then


it is the responsibility of the supervisor to inform daily
the silo operators about the start and finish times.

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B. Risk Assessment and Safety Measure

(1) Hazard (2) (3) (4) (5)


Specific Hazard Person Harm Safety
Hazard Descripti measures
Area on
Cleaning of storage silos
1 Falling of Falling of Operators Serious PPEs,
personnel operatives / injury, Approved
during cleaners death and tested
accessing lifting device
the work (platform)
area or
when
using the
lifting
platform
2 Work in Work in Operators Serious PPEs,,
confined confined / injury, Supervision
spaces spaces cleaners death
inside
the silo
3 Airborne Airborne Operators Breathing PPEs, Dust
dust dust inside / problems suction
the silo cleaners system
4 Falling of Falling of Operators Serious PPEs.
material material / injury Cleaning
during the cleaners from top to
cleaning of bottom
the silo
walls
5 Falling of Falling of Operators Serious PPEs,
material material / injury Approved
during the cleaners and tested
cleaning of lifting device
the silo (platform)
walls due
to
Insufficien
t securing
of the
safety
devices

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6 Use of Use of Operators Serious PPEs


hand hand held / injury
held work work cleaners
equipment equipment
during the
cleaning
operation
7 Exposure Inside the Operators Gradual PPEs
to silo due to /cleaners hearing
noise the use of impairment
the work
equipment

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9.2.6 Operation and Maintenance of Bagfilters

In the cement industry filters used for the collection of the


dust produced are the bag filters.

A. Hazards and Protection Measures

During the normal operation the main hazards associated with


filters are:

™ Falling of material on operatives due to blockage of the


transportation system
™ Operatives falling from height
™ Exposure to dust
™ Explosion due to the existence of increased
concentration of CO in the case of coal dust

The main protective measures are:

™ Never remove all the necessary safety devises such as


barriers, guards, security of access doors etc.
™ The use of authorized personnel
™ To follow the special operating instructions given for a
particular type of work
™ To with the safety instruction available at the work place
™ To use the appropriate PPEs assigned to each operative

Hazards and Protection Measures during Filter Maintenance :

During the maintenance activities of the filter the following


additional risks must be added such as:

™ Dusty environment
™ Accumulated material
™ Insufficient ventilation
™ High temperature
™ Staggering and falling of operators

The main preventive measures necessary include:

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™ The removal all the accumulated material from the filter


prior to entry
™ The cleaning of the filter in a well ventilated
environment
™ The interruption of the compressed air supply (bag
filters)
™ The isolation of the mechanical movement of the filter
as well as the material transportation system
™ The use the appropriate PPEs.

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B. Risk Assessment and Safety Measures

(1) Hazard (2) (3) (4) (5)


Specific Hazard Person Harm Safety
Hazard Description measures
Area
Filter Plant
1 Falling of Falling of Operatives Serious Guarding,
material material on injury Barriers,
operatives and
other
collective
safety
measures.
2 Falling of Falling of Operatives, Serious Guarding,
operatives operatives Technicians injury Barriers,
from from height and
height during other
maintenance collective
and safety
operation measures.
Operating
procedures
3 Exposure Exposure to Operatives, Serious Adequate
to dust during Technicians injury securing of
dust normal the
operation filters prior
and to any
maintenance maintenance
work. Use of
PPEs.
4 Work in Work in Operatives, Breathing Adequate
confined confined Technicians problems securing of
space space inside asphyxiation the
the filters. Use
electrostatic of PPEs ,
filters authorised
and trained
personnel
5 Static Static Operatives, Serious Adequate
electricity electricity Technicians injury securing of
can be the
created if filters.
the filter is Authorised
not earthed and
properly, trained
can be a personnel
source of
ignition

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9.2.7 Fuel Storage Area

During the production of cement, the coke breeze or coal is


used to manufacture clinker.

For combustion (fire) to take place there is a need for three


conditions to coexist:

• Presence of fuel
• Presence of oxygen
• Presence of thermal energy (heat)

If any one of the above three conditions is absent then the


combustion does not take place

The start up of an unwanted fire may be due to employees


not adhering to the company’s operating procedures, or due
to the inappropriate maintenance of the fuel storage facilities.

The main hazards associated with the storage and use of fuel
are:
• Explosion
• Fire
• Asphyxiation
• Creation of toxic waste (eg VOCs)

The basic sources of ignition are:

• The use of open flames near the storage areas


• The creation of hot spots during operation or
maintenance of the tanks
• The electrical discharge (thunderbolt, electrostatic
charges, short circuits)

The basic preventive and protective measures for the


reduction risks associated with the above are aimed towards
the isolation or quick reduction of one of the three sources
that create or cause the combustion namely the fuel quantity
or oxygen or the presence of heat.

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For this reason it is necessary :

™ To adhere to the special safety operational instructions


that specify that no smoking is allowed, nor the use of
open flames near that fuel tanks and the distribution
facilities.
™ To comply with the safety signage
™ To make sure that the supply of electricity is switched
off prior to any maintenance work.
™ To make sure that the conditions for creating an
explosive is removed prior to entering an empty tank or
storage silo that previously contained fuel
™ To routinely maintain all the storage facility’s health and
safety equipment such as high pressure relief valves,
the control valves, the equipment for protection against
atmospheric discharge, the earthing equipment, the fire
fighting and/ or neutralization as well as the pipe
isolation valves.
™ To always use the appropriate PPEs

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B. Risk Assessment and Safety Measures

(1) Hazard (2) (3) (4) (5)


Specific Hazard Person Harm Safety
Hazard Area Description measures
Fuel Storage
1 Hot spots Hot spots are All Multiple Hot working
created personnel deaths operating
during the instructions
maintenance
activities
which can
be a source of
ignition
2 Hurling of hot Hurling of hot All Multiple Hot working
particles particles from personnel deaths operating
an Instructions
other fire Emergency
source in the response plan
area in
case of another
fire source in
the area
3 Electrical Electrical All Multiple Authorisation
spark spark during personnel deaths procedures for
maintenance working on the
work on the coal
coal transportation
dust piping system
system
4 High High All Multiple Coal storage
temperatures temperatures personnel deaths inspection
created within procedures
the coal
storage stock
piles
5 Atmospheric Atmospheric All Multiple Maintenance
discharge discharge personnel deaths and control
during procedures of
unstable the
weather antidischarge
facilities.

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9.2.8 Environment, Work Areas and Passageways

The work areas must be constructed and adjusted according


to the following parameters:

™ The provision of adequate space for the activities carried


out and the existence of entrances and exits
™ The operational, ergonomic and safe positioning of work
places and equipment
™ The environmental conditions (Ventilation, air
conditioning and light)
• The protection against physicochemical agents such as
Noise, Dust, etc.

The safe keeping of the work place contributes greatly


towards the prevention of accidents and work diseases

For this to be achieved there is a need to:

™ Keep the passageways, floors and emergency exits free


of any obstacles. To remove presently any material spilt
on floors and escalators. If this is not possible the
spillage area must be correctly labeled and protected.
™ To remove and sharp corners or edges present either as
a result of the building or the equipment and furniture.
™ To close any permanent or temporary floor openings.
™ To replace any barriers or guards when removed.
™ To place the manual equipment and hand tools in safe
place and out of the way.

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