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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

POWER ANALYSIS REPORT
for

M/S XYZ Pvt. Ltd

Prepared By: Beyond Vision Engineers and Consultants
Pune

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We are thankful to the management of the XYZ Pvt. Ltd for giving us this opportunity to contribute in their endeavor for Better Power Quality at Electrical System. We thank XYZ Pvt. Ltd team members for co-ordination and their efforts.

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

HARMONICS AND ITS AFFECTS Harmonic Distortion Sources and Effects
Events over the last several years have focused attention on certain types of load on the electrical system that results in power quality problems for the user and utility alike. Equipment which has become common place in most facility including. Computer power supplies, Solid-state lighting ballast, Adjustable speed drives (ASD’s) & Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS’s) are the examples of non linear loads. Non – linear loads generate voltage and current harmonics, which can have adverse effect of equipments, designed for operation as linear loads (i.e. Loads designed to operate on a sinusoidal waveform of 50 or 60 Hz.) Effects of non-linear load: Higher heating losses in the transformers. Harmonic can have a detrimental effect on emergency generators, telephone and other sensitive electrical equipments. When receive power compensation (in the form of passive power factor improving capacitors) is used with non-linear loads, resonance condition can occur that may result in even higher levels of harmonic voltage and current distortion, thereby causing equipment failure, disruption of power services, and fire hazards in extreme conditions. The electrical environment has absorbed most of these problems in the past. However, the problem has now reached a magnitude where Europe, the US, and other countries have proposed standards to responsible engineer system considering the electrical environment. IEEE 519-1992 and IEC 555 have evolved to become a common requirement cited when specifying equipment on newly engineered projects. The broad band harmonic filter was designed in part, to meet this specification. The present IEEE 519-1992 document establishes acceptable levels of harmonics (voltage and current) that can be introduced into the incoming feeders by commercial and industrial users. Where there may have been little cooperation previously from manufacturing to meet such specification, the adoption of IEEE 519-1992 and other similar world standards now attract the attention of everyone.

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

HARMONIC FILTERING AND REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION

Various technique of improving the input currents waveform is discussed below. 1) Introduction of line reactors and/ or DC link chokes. 2) Passive filters (series, shunt, and low pass broad band filters) 3) Phase multiplication (12-pulse, 18-pulse rectifier systems) 4) Active Harmonic Compensation. • Harmonic Overheating:

Harmonic distortion in power systems is generated by non-linear load equipment, and can cause substantial additional heating of the cabling system further leading to losses in energy and reducing life of the electrical system. This heating problem can be mitigated by: a) Applying the appropriate cable de-rating factor. b) Installing larger size Cables. c) Considering the use of a harmonic filter. • Generation of harmonics:

Harmonics have frequency in multiple of fundamental frequency. They are produced by equipment using frequency conversion technology. They are also generated due to power drawing pattern of non-linear loads. Therefore it is essential to record power parameters and conduct harmonic study in order to provide correct solution for the harmonic filtration and power factor improvement. • Mitigation of Harmonic Distortion For resolution of harmonic problem, various techniques have been proposed to reduce the impact of load harmonic currents on the input current to an electrical system. Essentially, the intent of all these techniques is to make the input current more continuous so as to reduce the overall current harmonic distortion. The various techniques can be classified into four broad categories, viz: a) The use of line reactors and / or DC link chokes b) Installation of passive filters (series, shunt, and low pass broad brand filters) c) Phase multiplication (12-pulse, 18-pulse rectifier system.) d) Harmonic compensation by active filtering.

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

Harmonic protection filters are used for improvement of power factor and part elimination of harmonics. They are nothing but a combination of reactors and capacitors, suitably detuned. They are useful when distortion is 15 to 40 %. Advantages of Harmonic Filters: a) Protect capacitors from harmonic overloading. b) Eliminate 20 to 50 % predominant harmonics. c) Avoid harmonic amplification in the system. d) Improve power factor. This system can be configured to operate in fully automatic mode. The object is to eliminate high level of harmonic current to acceptable level to comply with utility regulation. They provide traps for individual harmonics frequency and provide reactive power compensation at fundamental frequency. • Harmonic filtering offers the following benefits: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Elimination of power factor penalty. Improvement in reduction in energy bill. Release of additional VA capacity in the system. Improvement in voltage profile. Reduction in line losses Reduction in harmonic currents. Improvement in overall power quality. Improvement in life of electrical equipment. Improvement in system reliability. Power Quality Parameter’s Threshold (As per IEEE and General Electrical Standards)
Sr. No 1 Parameter Total Harmonics Distortion in Current (iTHD) Total Harmonics Distortion in Voltage (vTHD) Neutral Current Ground Leakage Voltage Variation in transformer’s secondary Benchmark Less than 4 % (As per IEEE)

2 3 4 5

Less than 3 % (As per IEEE) Less than 10% of load current Ideally Zero Less than 3 percentage (As per Electrical Standard)

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

SUMMARISED DATA PRESENTATION
This report is based on actual measurements taken by our personnel with KRYKARD ALM-30, which is an advanced measuring and analyzing instrument at XYZ Pvt. Ltd,
Tower-11.

Following are the summarized observations and recommendations.

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

SUMMARIZED DATA FOR ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Power Factor Pattern
1.000 0.800 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000 -0.200 -0.400 3/17/2011 10:25:40.000 AM 23:54:40 (h:min:s) 4 h/Div 3/18/2011 10:20:20.000 AM

Load pattern in Ampere at Your Facility
750.0 700.0 650.0 600.0 550.0 500.0 450.0 A 400.0 350.0 300.0 250.0 200.0 150.0 100.0 3/17/2011 10:25:40.000 AM 23:54:40 (h:min:s) 4 h/Div 3/18/2011 10:20:20.000 AM

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

iTHD at Your Facility
70.00 65.00 60.00 55.00 50.00 45.00 40.00 % 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.000 3/17/2011 10:25:40.000 AM 23:54:40 (h:min:s) 4 h/Div 3/18/2011 10:20:20.000 AM

iTHD with APFC Panel switched on

Total Harmonics Distortion: ‘R’ Phase: 14.2 %, ‘B’ Phase: 13.8% & ‘Y’ Phase: 16%

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd. iTHD with APFC Panel switched off

26 March 2011

Total Harmonics Distortion: ‘R’ Phase: 6.9 %, ‘B’ Phase: 7.5% & ‘Y’ Phase: 8.8%

PER PHASE HARMONICS LEVEL AT PCC PANEL Harmonics Order 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Current Harmonics Level (%) R-Phase 2.4 15.5 16.7 2.9 61.9 8.5 0.6 3.3 1.3 0.4 1.1 0.9 Y-Phase 8.4 16.7 17.3 3.1 58.7 18.4 2.6 3.2 1.5 0.3 1.4 0.9 B-Phase 3.1 12.9 15.1 2.3 53 12.6 1.1 2.9 1.5 0.5 0.9 0.7 Voltage Harmonics Level (%) R-Phase 0.5 2.1 1.8 0.3 2.8 0.9 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 Y-Phase 0.1 2.1 1.9 0.1 2.7 0.8 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 B-Phase 0.4 1.9 2 0.2 2.4 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 0 0 0

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

TOTAL CURRENT HARMONICS DISTORTION AT PCC PANEL
Current THD per Phase R Phase Y Phase B Phase Limit as per IEEE standard Below 4% Below 4% Below 4%

Actual iTHD 66.20% 64.10% 57.30%

Remark Harmonics % is high Harmonics % is high Harmonics % is high

Note: All above reading were undertaken at PCC panels with APFC panel switched On * OFF.

Findings:

Load at all the panels are found to be balanced. Current harmonics at 5th, 7th, 11th & 13th order is found to be beyond limit. The current wave form at above graph is found to be distorted and the harmonics level is found to be above limits. As per IEEE 519-1992 standard, it required below 5%. Voltage harmonics are found to be within limit. Current Harmonics with APFC panel switched on at PCC is found to be ‘R’ Phase: 14.2 %, ‘B’ Phase: 13.8% & ‘Y’ Phase: 16%. As per IEEE 519-1992 standard, it is required below 5%. Current Harmonics at PCC Panel incomer with APFC panel switched off is found to be ‘R’ Phase: 6.9 %, ‘B’ Phase: 7.5% & ‘Y’ Phase: 8.8%

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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XYZ Pvt. Ltd.

26 March 2011

Recommendation:

1. We recommend installing Active Harmonic Filters to control the Harmonics below the Acceptance level i. e. 4 % in the Current & 3% in Voltages. 2. Due to presence of electronic devices (i.e. computer, UPS etc) the 5th, 7th, 11th & 13th order of harmonics are dominant and seems to have more impact on electrical systems. It is highly recommended to filter these dominant harmonics to ensure healthy operations of electrical systems and extend the life of electrical equipments.

Beyond Vision Engineers & Consultants-Pune

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