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Logistic Parameters Estimation

Logistic Parameters Estimation

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Applied Mathematics and Computation 150 (2004) 543–554 www.elsevier.

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Logistic parameters estimation using simple random sampling and ranked set sampling data
Walid A. Abu-Dayyeh a, Sameer A. Al-Subh a, Hassen A. Muttlak b,*
b a Department of Statistics, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan Department of Mathematical Sciences, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1676, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia

Abstract Logistic distribution is very widely used in modeling real life problems in different fields of study, particularly in the area of reliability. In this study, we propose different estimators for the location and scale parameters using simple random sampling and ranked set sampling (RSS) or some modifications of RSS. The estimators are proposed in the cases of either one or both parameters are unknown. The estimators are compared with each other for the cases considered via their mean square error. Finally most of the estimators considered in this study are compared using real life example. Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Location parameter; Maximum; Median; Minimum; Relative precision; Scale parameter

1. Introduction McIntyre [10] was the first to propose the method of ranked set sampling (RSS) to estimate the population mean. Takahasi and Wakimoto [18] independently described the same sampling method and presented the mathematical theory, which supports McIntyreÕs intuitive assertion. Dell and Clutter [6]

*

Corresponding author. E-mail address: hamstat@kfupm.edu.sa (H.A. Muttlak).

0096-3003/$ - see front matter Ó 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0096-3003(03)00290-X

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showed that the RSS mean remains unbiased and more efficient than the SRS mean even if ranking is imperfect. Even though RSS method is nonparametric in nature, several authors considered the use of RSS data to estimate the parameters of well-known distributions. Lam et al. [8] considered the estimation of the parameters of twoparameter exponential distribution. Ni Chuiv et al. [12] studied the estimation of the location parameter of the Cauchy distribution. Fei et al. [7] explored the estimation of the parameters for the two-parameter Weibull and extreme-value distributions using RSS. Sinha et al. [15] considered the estimation of the gamma mean based on RSS. Lam et al. [9] considered the estimation of the location and scale parameter of the logistic distribution using RSS. They proposed the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUEs) for the location and scale parameters using RSS and some modifications of the RSS method. Bhoj and Ahsanullah [2] considered estimation of the parameters of the generalized geometric distribution using RSS. They obtained the minimum variance linear unbiased estimators (MVLUE) of the parameters l and r for the generalized geometric distribution. Sinha et al. [16] proposed the BLUEs of the parameters of the normal and exponential distributions under RSS and some modifications of RSS. Bhoj [3] obtained the minimum variance unbiased estimator (MVUE) of the location and scale parameters of the extreme value distribution using RSS. Bhoj [4] proposed a modification to the RSS and called it new ranked set sampling (NRSS). He used this method to estimate the location and scale parameters of the rectangular and logistic distributions. Bhoj [5] proposed another modification of the RSS, called modified ranked set sampling (MRSS). He used this method to estimate the parameters of the uniform and logistic distributions. Tam et al. [19] investigated the sensitivity of the BLUEs to the misspecification of the underlying distribution. Most of the work has been devoted to the estimation of the population mean l. Stokes [17] treated the variance estimation using RSS and suggested an estimator for the variance r2 which is asymptotically unbiased and more efficient than the usual SRS unbiased estimator for r2 . Yu et al. [20] addressed the issue of variance estimation using RSS for the normal distribution. They suggested several unbiased estimators for r2 based on the balanced and unbalanced RSS data. In this paper, several estimators are proposed for the location and scale parameters of the logistic distribution. In Section 2, the estimation of the location and scale parameters are considered using SRS and RSS data. The cases of known scale and unknown location parameter are discussed in Section 2.1. The case when both parameters are unknown is considered in Section 2.2. Finally in Section 3, a real life data set is used to illustrate and compare most of the estimators proposed in this paper.

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2. Estimation of the location and the scale parameters Let X1 ; X2 ; . . . ; Xn be a random sample from the logistic probability distribution function with location and scale parameters h and k respectively with pdf: f ðxi ; h; kÞ ¼ 1 eÀððxi ÀhÞ=kÞ k ½1 þ eÀððxi ÀhÞ=kÞ Š2 ð1Þ

where À1 < xi < 1, À1 < h < 1 and k > 0. 2.1. Estimation of h when k is known 2.1.1. Estimation using SRS We will assume that w log that k ¼ 1. We will consider some famous estimators of h based on SRS including the sample mean X , the sample median bMedS and the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). Note that X and bMedS h h are both unbiased estimators of h, with VarðX Þ ¼ ðP2 =3nÞ and VarðbMedS Þ ¼ r2 h ððnþ1Þ=2ÞÞ for odd sample size, and  À Á   À Á r2 n þ r2 nþ2 þ 2Cov XðnÞ ; Xðnþ2Þ 2 2 2 2 VarðbMedS Þ ¼ h 4 for even sample size, where r2 is the variance of the ith order statistic of a ðiÞ random sample of size m from standard logistic distribution (h ¼ 0). The MLE bMleS for h cannot be obtained in a closed form and it is a solution h of:
n X i¼1

eÀðxi ÀhÞ n À ¼0 1 þ eÀðxi ÀhÞ 2

ð2Þ

To study the properties of bMleS , a simulation is carried out to see whether h bMleS is unbiased or not, and to estimate itÕs mean square error (MSE). The h simulation is done for sample sizes n ¼ 10, 30, 50 and for h ¼ 0:01, 0.1, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, and 10 in Table 1. The results of the simulation trial showed that the bias is very small in all the situations. For example, the largest value for the bias was found to be )0.008656 for the case n ¼ 10 and h ¼ 1:0. Also, we notice from the simulation study that the value of MSE does not depend on h and is decreasing as the sample size n increases. 2.1.2. Estimation using RSS Let Xði:mÞj denote the i-th ordered statistic, (i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; m) from the ith set of size m in the jth cycle of size r, (j ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; r). Notice that EðXði:mÞj Þ ¼ h þ Mi:m and VarðXði:mÞj Þ ¼ Vi:m , where Mi:m and Vi:m are respectively, the expected value

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Table 1 The values of the MSE and the bias for the MOME and MLE estimators for different values of and sample sizes using SRS data when k ¼ 1 h 0.01 0.1 0.0982 )0.0019 0.3047 0.5 0.5101 0.0101 0.3017 0.75 0.7471 )0.0029 0.2972 1 0.9913 )0.0866 0.2990 1.5 2 10 9.9921 )0.0079 0.3072

n ¼ 10, k ¼ 10 000 b h 0.0087 biasðb hÞ )0.0013 MSEðb hÞ 0.3033 n ¼ 30, k ¼ 10 000 b h 0.0102 biasðb hÞ 0.0002 MSEðb hÞ 0.0994 n ¼ 50, k ¼ 10 000 b h 0.0156 biasðb hÞ 0.0056 MSEðb hÞ 0.0602

1.4986 2.0029 )0.00144 0.0030 0.30012 0.3080

0.0984 )0.0017 0.0994

0.4964 )0.0036 0.0999

0.7574 0.0074 0.1032

0.9975 )0.0025 0.1025

1.5019 0.0019 0.1010

2.001 0.0010 0.1003

10.0002 0.0002 0.1001

0.0951 )0.0048 0.0609

0.4981 )0.0019 0.0601

0.7492 )0.0008 0.0624

1.0004 0.0607 0.0607

1.5014 0.0609 0.0609

2.0026 0.0605 0.0605

10.0018 0.0616 0.0616

and the variance of the ith order statistic of a SRS of size m from standard logistic distribution. In this subsection, we discuss the problem of estimating the location parameter h using RSS and some modifications of RSS when the scale parameter k is known which will be assumed without loss of generality to be one. The estimation will be based on samples of sizes rm ¼ n where n is the sample size in the case of SRS. The following estimators will be used 1. McIntyreÕs [10] estimator: YR ¼
r m 1 XX Xði:mÞj rm j¼1 i¼1

ð3Þ

2. The BLUE estimator, which was suggested by Lam et al. [9] and Sinha et al. [16]: bblueR ðm; rÞ ¼ h P 1  
r m X X Xði:mÞj Vi:m j¼1 i¼1

m i¼1

1 Vi:m

ð4Þ

3. The Median RSS estimator, which was suggested by, was Muttlak [11] to estimate the population mean:
mr X bMedR ðm; rÞ ¼ 1 h XðMedÞj mr j¼1

ð5Þ

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It was used to estimate the location parameters for logistic and normal distributions by Lam et al. [9] and Sinha et al. [16] respectively. 4. The ERSS estimator, which was suggested by Samawi et al. [14], which can be written in the case of even set size as: " # m=2 m=2 r X 1 X X bERSS ðm; rÞ ¼ h Xð1Þij þ XðmÞij ð6Þ mr j¼1 i¼1 i¼1 where Xð1Þij and XðmÞij are the smallest and the largest of the ith set of size m in the jth cycle respectively. We propose the following two estimators for h based on the largest and the smallest of random samples of size m. 5. The maximum RSS estimator: " # r m X X bMaxR ðm; rÞ ¼ 1 h XðmÞij À Mm:m ð7Þ mr j¼1 i¼1 6. The minimum RSS estimator: " # r m X X bMinR ðm; rÞ ¼ 1 h Xð1Þij À M1:m mr j¼1 i¼1

ð8Þ

Note that all the estimators given in Eqs. (3)–(8) are unbiased for h with variances: VarðY R Þ ¼
m 1 X Vi:m rm2 i¼1

ð9Þ

where Vi:m ¼ VarðXði:mÞj Þ ¼ w0 ðiÞ þ w0 ðm À i þ 1Þ and w0ðiÞ is the digamma function, for more details about the digamma function, see Abramowitz [1].   k2 h Var bblueR ðm; rÞ ¼ Pm
1 i¼1 Vi:m

ð10Þ 

 1 1 Var½XðMedÞi Š ¼ VMed:m Var bMedR ðm; rÞ ¼ h mr mr

ð11Þ

We notice that the variances for the estimators in Eqs. (6)–(8) are the same, which is   1 V1:m Var bMinR ðm; rÞ ¼ h mr ð12Þ

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So, we will consider only the estimator bMinR ðm; rÞ. bMaxR ðm; rÞ will not be h h considered for odd set size, since it is dominated by bMedR . For more detail see h Samawi et al. [14]. We calculated the variances for the estimators given in equations (3)–(5) and (8). Table 2 gives the variances of those estimators. We notice from Table 2 that bMedR has the smallest variance among the other estimators except in case h m ¼ 2. The estimators given in Eqs. (6)–(8) have the same and the highest value of variance among the estimators considered. The reason why we suggested these estimators is from practical point view. The sampling methods are very easy to implement in the field of study and will reduce errors in ranking. As a matter of fact, some times we have only to observe the largest or the smallest element of the set. In these cases, we can only use one of these estimators. 2.2. Estimation of the location and scale parameters In this subsection, we will study the properties of some estimators for the location and scale parameters for the logistic distribution when both are unknown using SRS and RSS data. 2.2.1. Estimation based on SRS Based on SRS, we will use the MOME and MLE estimators of h and k. The MOME estimators of h and k respectively are given by bMOMS ¼ X ¼ 1 h n and bMOMS k vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ! u n 1u X 2 2 t3 ¼ Xi =n À X p i¼1 ð14Þ
n X i¼1

Xi

ð13Þ

Table 2 The variances of the RSS estimators of h for different values of m and r when k ¼ 1 Estimators bblueR ðm; rÞ h YR bMinR ðm; rÞ h bMedR ðm; rÞ h m¼2 r¼5 0.2291 0.2290 0.2290 0.3015 m¼2 r ¼ 10 0.1145 0.1145 0.1145 0.1507 m¼3 r¼5 0.1139 0.1193 0.1360 0.0860 m¼3 r ¼ 10 0.0570 0.0597 0.0680 0.0430 m¼5 r¼5 0.0445 0.0510 0.0747 0.0316 m¼5 r ¼ 10 0.0223 0.0255 0.0373 0.0158 m¼6 r¼5 0.0315 0.0375 0.0609 0.0260 m¼6 r ¼ 10 0.0158 0.0187 0.0304 0.0130

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The MLE estimators for h and are the solutions of:
n oLðh; kÞ n X eÀZi ¼ À ¼0 oh 2 i¼1 ð1 þ eÀZi Þ n n X Zi eÀZi oLðh; kÞ n 1 X ¼ À ¼0 Zi þ ok 2 2 i¼1 ð1 þ eÀZi Þ i¼1

ð15Þ

ð16Þ

We used the sample sizes of n ¼ 20, 30, 50 to study the bias and MSE of the above estimators. Table 5 gives the MSE, and the bias for the four estimators given in Eqs. (13)–(16). We conclude from Table 3 the bias is very small. The MSE is decreasing in n for fixed h and k and increasing in h and k when of them is fixed for fixed n. 2.2.2. Estimation based on RSS The MOME like estimators of the location and scale parameters using RSS are give respectively as
r m XX bMOMR ¼ Y R ¼ 1 h XðiÞj mr j¼1 i¼1

ð17Þ

and bMOMR k vffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi ! u r m 1u 1 X X 2 2 t3 ¼ X À YR p n j¼1 i¼1 ðiÞj ð18Þ

The MLE estimators for h and k based on RSS can be obtain by solving the following two equations
r m r m X X ZðiÞj eÀZðiÞj XX ðm À i þ 1ÞZðiÞj À ðm þ iÞ þ ðm þ 1Þ ¼0 ð1 þ eÀZðiÞj Þ j¼1 i¼1 j¼1 i¼1 r m mr X X eÀZðiÞj À ¼0 2 ð1 þ eÀZðiÞj Þ j¼1 i¼1

ð19Þ

ð20Þ

Table 6 gives the MSE and the bias for the four estimators obtained by using Eqs. (17)–(20) for different values of h and k, r ¼ 10 and m ¼ 2, 3, 5. The results of Table 4 indicate that the bias of the estimators is very small. The MSEs are decreasing in m for fixed h and k and increasing in h and k when one of them is fixed for fixed m and r. Finally comparing the results in Table 3 for the SRS data and the RSS results in Table 4 we can see that the RSS estimators dominate the SRS estimators for both parameters h and for the cases considered in this paper.

550 Table 3 The values of the MSE and the bias for the MOME and MLE estimators for different values of h and k and sample sizes using SRS data when both h and k are unknown MOME n 20 b h biasðb hÞ MSEðb hÞ b k biasðb kÞ MSEðb kÞ b h biasðb hÞ MSEðb hÞ b k biasðb kÞ MSEðb kÞ b h biasðb hÞ MSEðb hÞ b k biasðb kÞ MSEðb kÞ h ¼ 0:1 k ¼ 0:5 0.1013 0.0013 0.0408 0.4775 )0.0225 0.0095 0.1013 0.0013 0.0276 0.4847 )0.0153 0.0065 0.1039 0.0039 0.0164 0.4914 )0.0096 0.0040 h ¼ 0:5 k¼1 0.4995 )0.0005 0.1655 0.9589 )0.0411 0.0389 0.5069 0.0069 0.1121 0.96993 )0.0300 0.0254 0.4999 )0.0001 0.0677 0.9812 )0.0881 0.0145 h¼1 k¼2 0.9998 )0.0002 0.6721 1.912 )0.0884 0.1571 0.9989 )0.0011 0.4288 1.942 )0.0582 0.1006 0.9839 )0.0161 0.2714 1.9670 )0.0335 0.0604 h ¼ 10 k¼5 9.9681 )0.0322 4.1625 4.7432 )0.2572 0.9237 9.9470 )0.0528 2.705 4.847 )0.1528 0.6459 9.973 )0.0271 1.6154 4.908 )0.0919 0.3784 MLE h ¼ 0:1 k ¼ 0:5 0.1021 0.0021 0.0449 0.4879 )0.0121 0.0095 0.0981 )0.0019 0.0284 0.4913 )0.0087 0.0061 0.0984 )0.0017 0.0216 0.4933 )0.0068 0.0063 h ¼ 0:5 k¼1 0.4913 )0.0087 0.1702 0.9857 )0.0144 0.0365 0.5011 0.0011 0.1127 0.9821 )0.0179 0.0248 0.4930 )0.0069 0.0622 0.9872 )0.0128 0.0159 h¼1 k¼2 10.015 0.0146 0.6697 1.957 )0.0431 0.1545 0.9946 )0.0054 0.4419 1.9726 )0.0275 0.1026 0.9911 )0.0089 0.2461 1.9761 )0.0237 0.0612 h ¼ 10 k¼5 10.034 0.0340 4.0482 4.8663 )0.1345 0.9799 10.099 0.0995 3.457 4.913 )0.0875 0.8575 10.036 0.0357 1.6432 4.9351 )0.0651 0.3874 W.A. Abu-Dayyeh et al. / Appl. Math. Comput. 150 (2004) 543–554

30

50

Table 4 The values of the MSE and the bias for the MOME and MLE estimators for different values of h and k and set sizes m and for r ¼ 10 using RSS data when both h and k are unknown MOME m 2 b h biasðb hÞ MSEðb hÞ b k biasðb kÞ MSEðb kÞ b h biasðb hÞ MSEðb hÞ b k biasðb kÞ MSEðb kÞ b h biasðb hÞ MSEðb hÞ b k biasðb kÞ MSEðb kÞ h ¼ 0:1 k ¼ 0:5 0.0967 )0.0033 0.0286 0.4812 )0.0188 0.0093 0.0988 )0.0012 0.0143 0.4899 )0.0101 0.0061 0.0972 )0.0028 0.0062 0.4938 )0.0062 0.0032 h ¼ 0:5 k¼1 0.5060 0.0060 0.1147 0.9649 )0.0351 0.0383 0.4996 )0.0005 0.0601 0.9794 )0.0206 0.0242 0.5018 0.0018 0.0258 0.9909 )0.0091 0.0127 h¼1 k¼2 0.9946 )0.0054 0.4465 1.9324 )0.0684 0.1483 1.0091 )0.0098 0.2369 1.958 )0.0421 0.0965 0.9927 )0.0073 0.0655 1.9761 )0.0244 0.0236 h ¼ 10 k¼5 9.9843 )0.0165 2.8532 4.8102 )0.1897 0.9369 10.0083 0.0077 1.5341 4.8863 )0.1142 0.6049 10.013 )0.0133 0.6634 4.9520 )0.0481 0.3171 MLE h ¼ 0:1 k ¼ 0:5 0.1029 0.00259 0.0261 0.4876 )0.0124 0.0079 0.1044 0.0044 0.0132 0.4916 )0.0084 0.0045 0.1005 0.0005 0.0067 0.4925 )0.0075 0.0035 h ¼ 0:5 k¼1 0.5026 0.0026 0.1067 0.9748 )0.0252 0.0323 0.5063 0.0063 0.0509 0.9785 )0.0215 0.01851 0.5019 0.0015 0.0208 0.9939 )0.0061 0.0095 h¼1 k¼2 0.9899 )0.0101 0.4427 1.9462 )0.0545 0.1229 0.9913 )0.0087 0.2077 1.9628 )0.0372 0.0737 1.0017 0.0017 0.0832 1.9826 )0.0174 0.0343 h ¼ 10 k¼5 9.9542 )0.0458 2.6939 4.9055 )0.0945 0.78301 10.012 0.0124 10.2247 4.9171 )0.0829 0.4468 9.9967 )0.0033 0.4842 4.9583 )0.0422 0.2409

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3. Example Samawi and Abu-Dayyeh [13] drew the data of this illustration from the Iowa 65+ Rural Health study (RHS). RHS is a longitudinal cohort study of 3673 individuals (1420 men and 2253 women) aged 65 or older living in Washington and Iowa, see Brock et al. [21]. Iowa 65+ RHS blood data has 601 men aged 65+ reported the Erythrocytes counts (RBC) million/mm3 blood, Hemoglobin level gm/100 ml (HGB) and other blood measurements. In this data, records of the HGB levels are ignored and SRS samples of size 15 each (m ¼ 3 and r ¼ 5) based on the ignored level records are drawn and then the associated HGB levels are measured. Hence, ranking is preformed by the mean of the concomitant variable RBC levels (normal range for adult male is 14–18). This is because in practice, the assessment of RBC level in blood serum is faster and inexpensive. To illustrate the estimators obtained in Sections 2, we will assume in this example that h and k are both unknown and our aim to estimate them using the unbiased estimators considered in this paper. We applied the Kolmogorov–Smirnov one-sample goodness-of-fit test on the data used in this study. The logistic distribution seems to fit the data very well. The values of the empirical expectation, bias, and MSE for most of the estimators considered in Sections 2 were calculated using m ¼ 3 and r ¼ 5 in the case of RSS and for sample of size n ¼ 15 in the case of SRS. Note that the exact value for h and k using the whole data set are 14.814 and 0.8145 respectively. The results of our calculation are given in Table 5 and 6. Using the exact results and the results in Tables 5 and 6, the following remarks can be made. 1. The values of most of estimators of h and k are very close to the exact values. 2. The bias of most of the estimators is negligible.

Table 5 The values of the empirical expectation, bias, MSE for the estimators given in Section 2.2.1 for m ¼ 3 and r ¼ 5 in the case of RSS and n ¼ 15 for in the case of SRS Estimators YR bMedR ðm; rÞ h bMinR ðm; rÞ h bMaxR ðm; rÞ h bERSS ðm; rÞ h bblueR ðm; rÞ h bMeanS ðnÞ ¼ X h bMedS ðnÞ h b hÞ Eðb 14.8188 14.8536 15.0668 14.5179 14.7984 14.8218 14.8146 14.8167 b^ b iasð hÞ 0.0048 0.0396 0.2528 )0.2961 )0.01560 0.0078 0.0006 0.0027 Mb b SEð hÞ 0.0770 0.0621 0.1584 0.1631 0.0834 0.0764 0.1442 2.1981

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Table 6 The values of the empirical expectation, bias, MSE for the estimators of h and k given in Section 2.2 for m ¼ 3 and r ¼ 5 in the case of RSS and n ¼ 15 for in the case of SRS SRS MOME b hÞ Eðb b^ b iasð hÞ ^ hÞ MSEðb b kÞ Eðb tb^ b iasð kÞ ^ kÞ MSEðb 14.8135 )0.0005 0.1469 0.7716 )0.0430 0.0309 MLE 14.8705 0.0565 0.1639 0.8107 0.0038 0.0375 RSS MOME 14.8165 0.0025 0.0788 0.7819 )0.0326 0.0285 MLE 14.8595 0.0456 0.0810 0.8022 0.0123 0.0235

3. The values of the MSE calculated using our data set for most of the estimators are very close to the exact values found in Sections 2 and 3. 4. The RSS median estimator of h has the smallest MSE that confirms the results of Section 2. References
[1] M. Abranowitz, I.A. Stegun (Eds.), Handbook of Mathematical Functions, National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematical Series. Number 55, US Government printing office, Washington, 1964. [2] D.S. Bhoj, M. Ahsanullah, Estimation of parameters of the generalized geometric distribution using ranked set sampling, Biometrics 52 (1996) 685–694. [3] D.S. Bhoj, Estimation of parameters of the extreme value distribution using ranked set sampling, Communication in Statistics––Theory and Methods 26 (3) (1997) 653–667. [4] D.S. Bhoj, New parametric ranked set sampling, Applied Statistical Sciences 6 (4) (1997) 275– 289. [5] D.S. Bhoj, Estimation of parameters using modified ranked set sampling, Applied Statistical Sciences 6 (2) (1997) 145–163. [6] D.R. Dell, J.L. Clutter, Ranked set sampling theory with order statistics background, Biometrics 28 (1972) 545–555. [7] H. Fei, B.K. Sinha, Z. Wu, Estimation of parameters in two-parameter Weibull and extremevalue distributions using ranked set sampling, Journal of Statistical Research 28 (1994) 149– 161. [8] K. Lam, B.K. Sinha, Z. Wu, Estimation of parameters in two-parameter exponential distribution using ranked set sample, Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics 46 (1994) 723–736. [9] K. Lam, B.K. Sinha, Z. Wu, Estimation of location and scale parameters of a logistic distribution using ranked set sample, in: Nagaraja, Sen, Morrison (Eds.), Papers in Honor of Herbert A. David, 1995, pp. 187–197. [10] G.A. McIntyre, A method of unbiased selective sampling, using ranked sets, Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 3 (1952) 385–390. [11] H.A. Muttlak, Median ranked set sampling, Journal of Applied Statistical Science 6 (4) (1997) 245–255. [12] N. Ni Chuiv, B.K. Sinha, Z. Wu, Estimation of location parameter of a Cauchy distribution using ranked set sample. Technical Report, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 1994.

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