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Submitted to: Mr. Manjinder Singh
Submitted by:Amrit pal Singh S.B.S.C.E.T, FZR
Acknowledgement………………… Preface……………………………… Company Profile…………………… Project 1……………………………… Project 2……………………………… Project 3……………………………… Project 4……………………………… Project 5………………………………l Biblography…………………………… 3 4 5 12 27 53 65 85 91
It is a matter of immense pride for me to present report of industrial training undertaken at International Tractors Limited from January 2006 to June 2006. I am grateful to I.T.L. to give me this opportunity. I am grateful to Mr. L.D.Mittal (Chairman), Mr.A.S.Mittal (Vice Chairman) & Mr.D.Mittal (Managing Director) and HRD who allowed me to get training in I.T.L .I am thankful of all engineers, officers & all workers who provide me knowledge. I also express my sincere thanks to Principle Mr.H.B.Sharda principal of S.B.S.C.E.T. Ferozepur & the teachers of Mechanical department for their matured guidance and encouragement in the accomplishment of training.
With Thanks. Amrit Pal singh S.B.S.C.E.T , FZR
PREFACE OF TRAINING
According to the curriculum after the completion of 3rd year or the 6th semester there is a six Months industrial to help the students understand the industrial culture or industrial atmosphere and have a in hand practical training in the industry in the industry. I have done my training in International tractors limited which is a joint venture of Sonalika international and Renault a M.N.C. (Muti National Company) which makes tractors. It is a leading company in tractor making and is a very fast growing company after only nine years in tractor making it is number three in India in this field. I chose this company because I have great interest in automobiles and there is a great future prospect after wording in such a big and fast growing firm. My project was to study working hydraulic lift. The main purpose of Tractor is in Agriculture field like ploughing fields etc. It is only possible because there is Hydraulic lift attached to the Differential Housing Assembly. All the main parts of Hydraulic Lift are mounted in the Rear Cover of Differential Housing. In our project we studied about the machining and working of various parts of tractors which I have explained below.
Introduction to the company Company profile
Sonalika Group Introduction
Sonalika Group is contributing to green revolution in India Since 1969. Initially it started with Farm Equipments and Machinery. Brand name of the group products is "SONALIKA". Market share in Farm Equipments is 80 % in India. Group turnover is 220 Million USD (INR 1000 Crores). Sonalika Group is one of the top five tractor manufacturers in India. Apart from tractors its product line includes multi utility vehicles, three wheelers, engines , Hydraulic Systems , Casting , Forging , Brake System , Automotive components manufacturing and various farm equipments and implements. Sonalika group since the inception has tried to understand customers need to be able to facilitate them with its value for money products. The company has a state of art manufacturing facilities, spread in acres, located in the pollution free suburbs of Punjab and HimachalPradesh. Sonalika is also an environmentally responsible corporate citizen and has developed in-house, the vehicle engines that confirm to Bharat II Norms. It is now in the process of developing the Bharat III engines for its advanced products. No wonder Sonalika products have created a niche for themselves not only in India but also in foreign markets. An average growth rate of 30% makes it one of the fastest growing corporate in India. It also happens to be one of the very few debt free companies in the world. It employs about 2500 people including some of the renowned names in the industry. The company works on the maxims of low production cost and clean and safe environment. Such efforts have fetched the company the accreditations like ISO 9001:2000 and ISO 14001.
was established on 1996 . ITL has signed an MOU with Renault Agriculture. Renault Agriculture provided state of the art technology and latest designs.1997.The total no of dealers of ITL in India & neighboring countries are 548. FRANCE in February 1999. it recorded a scale of more than $ 600 million. It has 6 . (As on 31/03/2003) Group Turnover The Group Turnover for the Current Fiscal Year is 1000 Crore INR (Indian Rupees) Group Units:: International Tractors LTD Sonalika Capital Ltd. Turn over of ITL if 400/crore. Company is also running its own agriculture equipment making industries. disk harrow. The Company And Its Tie Up With Renault The company has recently signed a tie with Renault of France who is the world leaders in the field of tractor manufacturing and was rated as world’s number one tractor company at the year’s award in Italy.There tie ups: Venture with Renault France The Company's authorized Capital = Rs. PATNA. subscribed and Paid up Capital = Rs. which is producing thrasher.56 million (As on 31/03/2001) Issued. The total no of employees working in ITL is 1200. Now in JUNE2003. ITL have introduced 15 models of tractors. Renault Agriculture designs manufactures & distributes tractors and agricultural machinery in 1998. which are at DELHI. AHMEDABAD.50 Million (As on 31/03/2000) Shareholding: Sonalika Group = 80% Renault Agriculture = 20% Annual Turnover = Rs.2098 Million approx. There are 5 regional offices in India. Casting Corporation of India Sonalika Agriculture Industries Punjab Agriculture Industries International Cars & Motors Ltd International tractor Ltd. the production rate of tractor is 60 per day. MANIPUR and BHOPAL. They have got collaboration with RENAULT AGRICULTURE LTD. wheat harvester etc. a 100% subsidiary of Renault group of France to manufacture and market tractors of Renault Agriculture design in India and neighboring countries. Company got ISO 9001 Certificate in April 1999 BY ICL.
three factories and 1883 people working for it and is represented in 52 countries across the globe. The world leader will jointly participate in the inter-national marketing strategies and efforts to market products of both the companies. Renault Agriculture . With a turnover of more than € 637 billion (2002). Renault Agriculture is the largest tractor manufacturing company in Europe. Major highlight of agreement is that Renault will open the European and Asian markets for Sonalika. Germany. Sonalika is sure to go a long way. Each year Renault produces over two million vehicles and employs over 140. the world’s biggest European tractors market. It produces tractors in the range of 50-250 HP. Renault is one of the 30 largest companies in the world.000 people. Renault Agriculture is a subsidiary of the Renault Group with 51% stake owned by CLAAS. Renault has alliance with NISSAN to complement the financial and technical strengths bringing in synergic growth. Technical. The MOU signed by ITL with Renault Agriculture is a three-pronged collaboration. Financial and Commercial. ITL went into collaboration with Renault agriculture of France in July 2000. By joining hands with the market leaders in France. having worldwide distribution ands sales network. Another special feature of the agreement is that Renault Agriculture will take minority equity stake of 20% in present ITL that will remain under its management control.ITL agreement results in the production of Ceres and Solis tractor under Sonalika brand name. 7 .
Fun This governs its approach to business and relationships within the organization. It has resulted in easy availability of loans to farmers coupled with quick disposal of cases.Mission: International Tractors Ltd. decisionmaking is quick and to a large extent delegated. It has designed its management structure in response to the needs of quick decision-making and operational flexibility even through hierarchies and designation does exit. In India 90% of the tractors are financed by bank credits at concession rates. 5. Fair 4. Company is exporting its tractors to different Asian as well as African countries. and dealer feels himself responsible and integral part of the enterprises. It is a highly informal organization where communication moves in all direction. Learning is encouraged in the company. versatile and low to medium powered tractors. rugged. The payment rotations have also become faster from the dealers to the company. 8 .L. Fast 2.T. and to become no. Is open & participative. Memorandum Of Understandings The Indian tractor market is dominated by low price. Every member respects 5 F formulas 1.T. which helps cost cutting. To provide superior quality tractors over all world with new technology at reasonable rates. ITL has signed MoUs with various banks all over the country for tractor retail finance. no frills.The firm is ranked as best in terms of its quality and production front. Seeks to create a culture where each employee. Future plans: 1.L.The company ensure better than the best after sale service for the satisfaction of the customer . vendor. Work culture The I. Tractors have an integral part of farm mechanization and have a crucial role to play in increasing productivity. 1 in automobile industry within five years. offer quality product with distinctive features at reasonable price . Focused 3. Friendly. which is giving a special impetus to company. The work culture at I.
ensures the welfare of the employees at the maximum level. To achieve international standards of excellence in all aspects of agriculture and diversified business with focus on customer delight through value of products and services and cost reduction. Objective of the company: The main objective of the company is to bring the latest technology of high quality and cost advantage to its consumers. ACHIEVEMENTS: 1. Itl has a network of around 514 dealers all over india. 4. Which are in tune with the main objective of the company? In that sense the main objective of personnel department is maximum utilization and development of the human resources available keeping all the aspect of human being in view? The personnel department of itl. Apart from the general objective every departments have their own objectives. 5. Company has increased its production of diesel engines up to 60 engines a day. which has shown about 127% increase in turnover within a period of 3 years. 9 . The company has obtained iso 9001 certification. and keeps morale of the company at high. 3. 6. 2. the fully computerization manufacturing facility ensures a non-stop supply of quality tractors. Corporate mission : 1. Company. Sonalika tractors have made rapid strides in indian tractor industry by having sold 13496 tractors during 2000-2001 achieving over 50% growth vis-à-vis industry drop to the tune of 10% as compared to preceding year. Itl have plans to market 25. Company has produced smoke free diesel engine. The company believes in developing human excellence.2.000 tractors during current financial year. By having a strong r & d with help of its technological partner Renault agriculture. skills through training.
Maintaining standards of quality and customers. 7. 4. 10 . 6. Hence the vision of the company can be described as providing latest technology advanced tractors to the consumers. Maintaining standards of quality and customers satisfaction. To cultivate high standards of business ethics and total quality management for a strong corporate identity and brand quality. 8. The company had achieved an impressive over 30% growth rate during last year when the entire industry was reeling under economic recession.2. To faster a culture of participation and innovation for employees growth and conditions. 5. To provide technology and services through sustained research and development. Constantly increasing profits by achieving higher growth rate. To help enrich the quality of life of the community and preserve ecological balance and heritage through a strong environment conscience. To attain leadership in developing. 3. To maximize creation of wealthy value and satisfaction for the shareholders. adopting and assimilating state of the art technology for competitive advantage.
9. 10. 11. 7. 3. Financial years 1996-1997 1997-1998 1998-1999 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 Production(nos) 396 2808 6375 6493 13502 16931 16627 19616 26855 32741 37841 11 .Production of Tractors Sr. 8. no. 1. 4. 5. 6. 2.
cage and the trumpet are machine here. The heavy machine shop divided into five sections: (1)Differential housing line (2)Gearbox housing line (3)Cage & trumpet line (4)Crankcase housing line All the sections are highly equipped with modern machinery. The Component is made to go through final inspection before it is dispatched for the assembly. It plays a very important role in the production of the tractor. fork lift trucks. Each workstation is provided with a power hoist of 500 kg. Introduction to machines: The heavy machinery shop is one of the most important shops of the industry. overhead crane. The material handling system in HMS shop consists of hydraulic lifts truck. The machining process is carried out under the strict quality norms. the raw material is received at the end and the finished component is dispatched from the other. The castings from the trucks are loaded onto these conveyors and the material goes to the respective section. There is in process inspection at each workstation. bins etc. power hoists. These are used to pick the casting from the conveyor and load onto the machine and vice versa. The shop is called the backbone pf the industry. crankcase housing. 12 . At the end of each conveyor a section for the inspection has been made so as to make the component through inspection process.e. roller conveyors. Each section has a process layout i. gearbox housing. As the name suggests all the heavy components namely the differential housing. the shop has well designed network of roller conveyors.Project 1 Study of the entire machine present in Heavy machinery shop.
Instruments for heavy machinery shop:- Sr . diff.no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Instruments Vernier calliper Vernier calliper Vernier calliper Micrometer Micrometer Micrometer Micrometer Micrometer Micrometer Micrometer Depth Vernier Bore gauge Bore gauge Bore gauge Size 0-100 0-400 0-600 0-25 25-50 50-75 75-100 100-125 125-150 150-175 0-200 10-18 18-35 35-60 Components Diff. Housing Cage assembly Trumpet Housing Gearbox Housing Diff & gear Housing Rear cover 13 . Housing. cage assembly Gearbox Housing Trumpet Housing Gearbox Housing Diff Housing Gearbox Housing Trumpet Housing Trumpet. Housing Diff.
Machines in HMS Differential housing line The differential is the major component of the tractor. Without the differential we cannot give the tractors the relative movement between the tyres during the turns. For that we have various machines for there machining. These machines are: (1) (2) Vertical machining centre-1 Vertical machining centre-2 14 .
which regulates the feed and the rpm of the tool and also the movement of the job.P. With simodrive 6C1 drive system Axis transverse: Longitudinal (x-axis) Transverse (y-axis) Vertical (z-axis) 1200 mm 560 mm 560 mm 15 . In this machine the tool is stationary and the arm moves in zdirection and the job moves horizontally in x-direction & y-direction. VMC is a fully automatic and highly precision machine.(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Duplex milling machine-1 Duplex milling machine-2 Rough boring machine Two way boring m/c Drilling S.M Fine boring machine-1 Fine boring machine-2 Multispindle drilling machine Radial drilling machine Flexi arm (Tapping machine) (1) Vertical Machining Center :The machine is called vertical milling center because in this the tool is perpendicular to the axis of the job.Siemens 830 GA3 CNC control. The machine is controlled by the computer. The operation performed on the VMC is: (1)Face milling (2)Chamfering (3)Rough milling (4)Reaming (5)Fine milling (6)Boring (7)Drilling (8)Doweling The basic specification of that machine is: Standard features of that machine is Control system: .
Table size: Tool change capacity Feed: Variable feed Rapid transverse Spindle: Nose taper Power Speed range 1000*500 mm 24 1TO 6000 mm/rev 16000 mm/rev BT-50 5 KW 50-6000 rpm Hydraulic & lubrication system: Oil used Hydraulic system Lubrication system hydraulic oil 32 Grade Tuken centralized lubrication system (2) Duplex milling machine : It is the hydraulically controlled milling machine. The machine is fitted two circular cutters having 64 inserts and one wiper each. The 64 inserts are for rough milling and wiper is for the finishing. of milling spindle : Size of saddle : Stroke of saddle: Overall dimension: Loading height: Component clamping: Duplex milling machine 2 1000*2500 mm 1200 mm 5400*5000*2500 1100 mm Hydraulic clamping 16 . The job is fed between these two cutters. On this machine the milling can be performed on both faces of the differential housing. Standard features of that machine: Control system: Messung XMP-8PLC control system Basic machine data :Type of machine : No. The machine is highly précised and we can get the high degree of surface finish. Movement of job is in x-axis only and the movement of cutters is in the y-direction.
In one way boring machine we can bore the component from one side & in two ways we can bore the component from both of the sides. In this machine we can bore the hole for brake housing of dia 109 mm Lt& Rt on the differential housing and also on bore the hole for trumpet housing of dia 129 mm Lt & Rt on the differential housing. Boring machine can be of two types (1) One way boring machine (2) Two way boring machine.Feed: Feed rate Rapid transverse Spindle: Spindle speed Power Hydraulic & lubrication system: Oil used Hydraulic system Sump oil capacity Lubrication system 480/240 mm/min 9000 mm/rev 85 rpm 22*2 KW Hyd. Both of those machines are hydraulically operated. In that tool arm is parallel to 17 . This machine is used to enlarge the diameter of various components. Oil 68 Grade Tuken 300 centralized lubrication system Within 220 grade lubrication oil (3) Rough boring machine: It is hydraulically controlled boring machine.
In differential we use both type of machine because we have to fine the bore on the right face & the left on machine & in second on for the finishing operations on PTO & tail pinion bore. In this machine bore the fine hole for T. Two way Multispindle boring drilling (SPM): It is a special purpose machine. The specification of that machine: - 18 .the component.P. The clamping device is also hydraulic. Fine Boring Machine :It is also a hydraulic controlled boring machine. Boring machine is of two types (1) The machine which can fine the bore on the left & right face (2) The machine which can fine the bore on the rear face & front face.P. The position of the operation on the different component is: (a) We can tap various holes like drain plug on the top side of differential & make many operation on the hole which are made through the VMC like chamfering etc (b) We can drill various holes on the rear end where we can fit the shifter rods in assembly. In this machine we can perform the operation like tapping and drilling. If we are going for the boring of PTO face or TP carrier face & it is perpendicular when we bore the trumpet or BP shaft face. carrier and the PTO shaft cover and the other accessory on the back side of the differential housing. These machines are used according to the component whether it is gearbox or differential. (4) Radial drill machine : This machine is move in a radial direction of the job. carrier and also drill the hole for mounting the T. We can perform the operation on the input shaft face & the pump face. In this machine we can bore the hole of dia 130 mm for the trumpet mounting and break housing mounting of dia 110 mm simultaneously by fixing the fixture with this machine. In gearbox we use one of those kinds.
5 KW 40-180 rpm Hydraulic oil 68 Grade Forced lubrication system 19 Oil used Lubrication system .125 to 1.Control system: Capacity: Drilling in solis Tapping metric fine Working range: - Electromechanical controls 60 mm 70*2 mm Drilling Radius: Max Min Sleeve diameter : Sleeve to spindle distance : Max Min Spindle transverse: Base to spindle distance:Max Min Variable feed : 1420 mm 355 mm 1325 mm 355 mm 325 mm 1500 mm 530 mm 350 0.6/4.25 mm/rev Working surface of base: Length Width Spindle : Nose taper Power Speed Lubrication: - 1490 mm 910 mm MT5 3.
5. Multispindle drill machine: Multispindle drilling machine is used to drill the hole at the various positions of the component. The tool that we using in that machine are present in no.On that machine we can change the position of the component if we want to drill hole on the other side of the component by the help of lifter. 2. 20 . Flexi arm (tapping machine) This machine is used to tap the various holes on the rear cover & the front side as well on the bottom side the top face of the component of various diameters as per the position that are mention in the drawing. Rough boring machine Fine boring machine Heavy-duty lathe Radial drilling machine HMC 1200 (horizontal) milling machine. 4. There are two types of machine: (1) Which can drill the hole on the trumpet & BP shaft face (2) Which can drill the hole on filter mounting face & front face of the component? This can machine can increase the production of the component by using the number of operations at one time. 3. Gearbox housing line Fowling is the machine in the gearbox hosing line: 1. of quantity depend upon the number of holes which we have to drill as per the drawing.
The machining of the component is done up to 1mm or +0. By using that machine we can perform the various operations like turning on the inner side of the gear face upon which facing can be done. (2) Fine boring machine: In this machine we can fine the bore to limit. is the bilateral limit more than the dimension acquired by rough boring machine. 418mm and then take the thickness up to 15mm and total length up to 416 mm is done. This machine increases the diameter of the various faces by 4 to 5mm.e. chamfering. On horizontal machine center we perform the operation of rough milling. All the specification of the radial machines is throughout same in HMS shop. boring dowelling etc. fine milling. These two bore are in opposite to each other but in the same alignment or in same line. (4) Radial drilling machine: - This machine is used to drill the component for making the holes for the shifter fork rods up to the total length of the gearbox i. In rough boring machine we also perform the operation of chamfering at one position & turning at the middle of the PTO face.00 i. drilling of various diameters.(1) Rough boring machine: This machine is basically used to make the bores in which the intermediate shaft and the lay shaft are passed.e. The PTO bore in the gear must of the same diameter when we bore them. (3) Heavy-duty lathe: In this machine facing of front face of the gearbox housing up to dia.005 & -0.416mm after the fine boring or the various operations can be done. This machine is used to bore the pump face and the PTO bore face on both the side of the gearbox. which are mentioned in drawing. (5) Horizontal machining center: This machine is basically a CNC machine in which we can use various machine codes and l codes to perform the various operations. by 21 .
In this machine we can clamp the component on the bed of the machine and this bed can move according the required parameter. This machine can increase the production of the particular component by large scale. In this machine the tool is stationary and rotate about its axis & the arm moves in y-direction and the job moves horizontally in x-direction & z-direction. The machine is controlled by the computer. which regulates the feed and the rpm of the tool and also the movement of the job. The operations which are performing on the gearbox on HMC are: (1) Rough cutting (2) Final cutting (3) Drilling of dia 10. The specification of that machine is: Standard features : Control : simens Axis transverse : Longitudinal Transverse Vertical head Rotary Table size: 630 mm 560 mm 500 mm 360° 500*500 mm Automatic tool changer: Capacity 32 Feed Variable feed Rapid transverse Spindle Nose taper Power ITO 6000 32000 mm/min BT-50 11/15 KW 22 .e.2 (4) Drilling of dia 12 i. Dowell (5) Boring of Dowell pin (6) Chamfering of holes (7) Reaming of holes. This machine is computer numeric machine in which we can feed the program and the operation. which is feeded into the control panel.using single machine.
Lathe (4 jaw chuck. CNC milling machine. In this machine. This machine is used to increase the production of one component that requires lot of drilling operation on one component. 3 jaw chuck) 2. we set the rpm of the chuck along which we can clamp the component on one side and on the other side we can clamp through tailstock. Multispindle drilling machine: Multispindle drilling machine is basically used to make multiple holes at one time. Boring machine: This machine is used to bore the hole of various dia on both the side of the trumpet at the same time. Lathe (4 jaw chuck. Trumpet housing line Following are the various machines in the trumpet housing line: 1. 3 jaw chuck): Lathe is basically used for the turning and facing operation manually without any program feed into the machine.Speed range 60-6000 rpm Hydraulic & lubrication system Oil used Hydraulic system Lubrication system 32 Grade YUKEN centralized lubrication system. After we can perform the various operations like facing.2 mm & on the rear side it is of dia 13 mm. In this machine we can make the hole of different dia like on front side of the trumpet it is dia 10. We can make multiple holes of that of same dia on the periphery of that component as per drawing. We can also perform the operation of 23 . Multispindle drilling machine 3. Boring machine 4. turning etc as per the requirement.
In this machine we can clamp the component at certain angle so that we can get the smooth surface at some angle as required in assembly. Then we feed the program on the control panel as per the drawing like at what angle the cut has to be performed.grooving on that machine. 24 . In this machine the component can move x direction and the tool can move in y direction. In this machine we can clamp the component on the bed and the operation can be performed automatically as per the program feed into the machine control panel. which can perform the operation. In this machine we can clamp the component on the machine. The control we are using in that machine is Fanuc control. Their cutting bits contain three edges we can approximately cut 60-65 pieces of the component with one edge. This machine is completely operated by the codes. CNC Milling Machine: This machine can be used to make the facing operation on the topside of high low gear housing.
Crank case housing line This line contains various types of machine (1)Vertical machining center (VMC 1200) (2)Gang milling machine (3)Rough milling horizontal machine (4)Face milling horizontal machine Crankcase is of various types like (1)Two cylinder crankcase (2)Three cylinder crankcase (3)Four cylinder crankcase All of that crankcase require different fixture for them for machining. In this machine the tool is stationary and the arm moves in zdirection and the job moves horizontally in x-direction & y-direction. VMC is a fully automatic and highly precision machine. which regulates the feed and the rpm of the tool and also the movement of the job. It can be interchanged as per the production or requirement of the component. Vertical Machining Center (VMC 1200) The machine is called vertical milling center because in this the tool is perpendicular to the axis of the job. In this three VMC contains the fixture of three cal crankcase and one contains the fixture of two cylinder & four cylinder engine. The machine is controlled by the computer. The operations performed on the VMC are: (1)face milling (2)chamfering (3)rough milling (4)reaming (5)fine milling (6)boring (7)drilling (8)doweling 25 . For that we are using five vertical machining centers.
The bit we can use in this machine is 3 edges. Gang milling machine Gang milling machine is multi cutter machine which are fixed on the abhor which can be rotated by the spindle at particular rpm.In this machine we can machine the component two times.5 mm to get the required dimensions as per the requirement. After doing the operation on the component we can pass the component to these can pass the component to the rough milling horizontal to do the further operation. is: (1)rough milling on cylindrical face (2)rough milling on the pump face (3)fine milling on the cylindrical face (4)fine milling on the pump face (5) Drilling of dia 6. It is hydraulic machine through which we can perform the operation. which are perpendicular to the bottom side face. (6)Drilling of holes of dia 14 on the cyl surface The operations performed on the bottom side are: (1)rough milling on bottom face (2)rough milling on the bearing cap face (3)fine milling of the bottom face (4)fine milling on the bearing face (5)drill of dia 6. By that machine we can perform two operations i.e. Rough milling horizontal This machine is basically used to machine the both the faces. (1)Rib milling (2)Notching 26 . which we are performed on the topside. Firstly on the top side then secondly on the bottom side. This machine is the Multispindle machine. which can perform the operation on the different positions. which cannot be done the single machine.8 on the pump face. The operation.8 It depends upon the number of passes of the cutter on the component for machining of the piece. This can deplete the layer by 4.
This machine is hydraulically operated by that thing we can move the bed and the tool cutters along the x-direction to the bed. It may be of 5 mm in dimensions on both the ends of the crankcase on which last bearing cap rest. which are present in Heavy machinery shop. the cutters can move circumferentially along the pump face. Radial drilling machine Radial drilling machine is used to drill the component or taping of the holes. 27 . In between the cutters there are notching cutters.These are all the brief review of all the machines. In face milling. starter face. There tolerance can vary in microns. The bits we can use in the cutters are three-edged shape.The abhor contain ten cutters of same dia from left to right and contains five notching cutters which perform the operations. Through pressurized system we can performed the operation like up and down movement of the abhor and the bed on which the component can clamp. This machine is hydraulically operated. These cutter can rotate circumferentially and deplete the later of bearing from both side by 3mm on which bearing cap can rest and also an the other bearing ends. which can perform the notching operation in the component. which are made during the process on the various machines at different positions on the bottom face and on the cylinder face of various diameters. The cutters we are using are four in number. Face milling horizontal This machine is used to face the component along y-direction in which the bed can move. tender face and deplete the layer of the boundary lining by 2-3 mm to get the proper adjustment in the assembly.
28 . The same tool or the tool having a square geometry can be used for the final cut. which are of hexagonal form.Project 2 Study of the tool life & the parameter that effect the tool profile. In rough-cut the rpm of the machine is more and the feed is less as compare to the final cut. There are various types of machines which are used in the industry are (1) CNC machine (2) Duplex machines (3) Manually operated machine These types of machine requires the different tools for there operations • For CNC & Duplex machines we require small tools • For manually operated machines like radial drill we require big tools CNC Machines CNC mainly consists of two forms: (1) Vertical machining center (2) Horizontal Machining Center For CNC machines. Which have more number of edges as compare to the other tool. In final cut the rpm is more and the feed is little bit more as compare to the rough cut. the tool profiles are as per the machining of any component are of (a) Triangular type (b) Hexagonal type (c) Rhombus type (d) Octahedral type These profiles are depend upon the operation perform on the component. Tools are of various types depending upon the operation that we have top perform or on what type of machine we are using for the operation. (2) The machine that can perform the operation on the front and the rear side of the component. In rough cut the depth of cut is more than 4.5 mm. Duplex Machine Duplex machines are of two types: (1) The machine that can perform the operation the Left and right side of the component. Whether we have to perform the rough cut or the final cut. In CNC the rough cut requires the tool.
For duplex machines. These machines are used for rough cut only which can increase the diameter of the component. In this rpm are high and the feed is also more. we can perform those operations of drill that cannot be done by the VMC i. In these machines we use the tools of triangular form. the tool profiles are of different shapes. the feed of the cutter is low and the depth of the cut is more near about 4 to 5mm. which can perform the operation as per drawing. The tools that we used are ob bigger in length but are thick in size & having a circular profile.5mm to 1mm.e. The tools are in 60 to 64 in number. the feed is more and the depth of cut is near about 0. In duplex machine we use big tool cutters on which tool are fixed in their particular position and then we screwed it with the help of device which can check the accuracy of the tool whether the tool is screwed at a proper angle or not. Manually Operated machines Manually operated machines are of different type: (1) Rough Boring machines (2) Fine boring machines (3) Radial drill machines (4) Multispindle drilling machines. The arms of the tool cutters are in various lengths depend upon the bore position from the headstock. 29 . which are small and big in size. In final cut. In rough cut. we always use low rpm and high feed. Fine Boring Machine In fine boring machine we use the tool that are also of triangular form but small in size as compare to the Rough boring. Rough Boring Machine In Rough boring machines. Radial Drilling Machine In radial drill machine. All these tools are embedded in the circular disc. is drilling on the front and the rear side of the component. tools moves around the left & right hand side periphery & made a cut depend upon the rough cut and final cut dimensions to be achieved. Duplex machines are use for the side facing which cannot be done by the CNC vertical machining center. These machines are used to bore the different diameters depend upon the drawing of the component. These tools are placed on the arms of the tool cutter that is fixed to the headstock and operated by the spindle. These machines have headstocks on both the sides. In these machines. For these types of machines we require the tools of square geometry or the rhombus geometry.
PROJECT NO. These entire models housings have different dimension along their length. 3 Study of the Differential Line that includes the machining of the component from first stage to the last stage: In that project we can see the various stages that are performing on the differential housing of various tractors. If we need the more production of any model we can fix the fixtures on the machine & done the operations. breaths& their circumferential diameter. These machines have high feed and rpm as compare to the other machine.Multispindle Drilling Machine In these types of machine used various drill of various diameters as per drawing. These differentials are made according to the production. Machining of Differential Housing There are different types of machines that are used for the machining of differential housings are: (1) Vertical machining center (2) Duplex milling machine (3) Window milling machine 30 . There are three type of tractor differential model that are used by the industry that are: (1) CRD model (2) Solis-3 model (3) Normal model These components are machine at different machines because e the fixtures are of different lengths & breaths. In that type of machine there are more than 10 spindles on the both the headstock.
How the machining can be done on CRD. Reference the major point in the machining of any component. The operations that we perform on the various side of differential is (1) Rough milling (B. From that point we can move to the other directions to perform the different operations on the various side of differential.S) (2) Drilling drain (3) Chamfer (4) Final milling (5) Rough milling (R.560) along X.560.7 (9) Final cut (10)Reamer For the machining of that component we can place the component on the bed of the machine & mark the reference.S) (6) Drilling dia 10. (9) Tapping (a) Machining of CRD Model CRD model have different dimensions related to other models so it has different fixtures than the other. Z-axis. Normal and Solis-3 differential: The machines that come in the sequence of the machining is in that way: - (1) Vertical machining center For the machining of differential the first machine come is the VMC. Y. For the machining of the differential we mark the reference as (0.(4) Rough boring machines (5) Fine boring machines (6) Drilling machine (spm) (7) Multispindle drilling machine (8) Radial drilling machine. In this we can perform the various operations on the differential as per the drawing.2 (7) Chamfer (8) Boring dia 11. From that point we can move to the operations. 31 .
drilling. (1) Top face milling (rough) This is the first operation come in the machining of the differential. (3) Doweling: - 32 .2 having a depth 26-mm on the outer periphery of the component on the rear cover side. In this operation the tool perform the operation the outer periphery of the component. (2) Drilling on the top side In this case dowel have a particular position because the tool always start at the dowel position and close at dowel position after making one loop.2 mm on the rear cover side.The operation can be done on the bottom side of differential. For the normal model we can drill 21 holes of dia 10. The sequence of the operations is as follows: • • • • • • • • Drilling on (rear cover mounting hole) Boring for dowelling Reaming for dowel hole Chamfering Milling finish (top side) Bottom face milling (rough) Drain plug drilling Milling finish (bottom side) By taking the reference we can perform the operations. This operation is used to remove the layer of material by 5mm form the rear cover face. In that machine we have to place the component on the bed of the machine & done the various operation on the component like milling.4 mm from 468. For the CRD model it reduces the layer by 5mm from 478 mm to 473 mm & For the Solis model it reduce the layer by 2. For the CRD model: This is the operation that we can perform on the component after rough milling. In this we can make the reference & perform the rough cut on the (1) Vertical machining center (MCH-56) This machine is used for the CRD & Solis models.8 mm. In this operation we can fix the component on bottom side by the use of dowel pin that is near to the drain plug. In this operation we can drill 20 holes of dia 10. & dowelling on the rear cover side & on the top side.2 mm to 465.
For the CRD model it is at 284 mm with the tolerance of 0.5 mm on the drain plug down the z-axis.20 mm from the left face on the rear side. After the milling operation the dimensions of the normal is 445± 0. (7) Milling finish: By that operation we can make a fine cut on the topside of the component & deplete the layer by 1mm. (10) Drilling drain plug:This process is used to drill a hole of 22. Reaming is done upto 15mm down the z-axis for all the models. By making that operation we can form the dowel that is used in the further operations on different machines.1 mm from the right face on the rear side. (5) Chamfering: This operation is used to chamfer the hole by 45°with 1 mm down along the z-axis.2 on the two sides& for the solis model it is of dia 7 and having a depth of 13 mm.This is the major operation that we perform on the particular component because if the is any error in that particular position the component is rejected. The chamfering is performing on all the holes that we made on the component during operation. (4) Reaming of dowel hole: This process is used for enlarging the diameter of the dowel to dia 12 with the depth of 18 mm with a unilateral limit of +0.5 mm & for the CRD is 469 approximately (8) Milling on the bottom side: This operation is used to deplete the layer by 5mm from the two side of the broke hole & from the drain plug. This component has different dowel position depend upon the model For the normal model it is 120 mm with the tolerance of 0. (9) Drilling on the sides: This operation is performing on the two sides to drill dia 10.018 mm this dimensions is same for the different models. 33 .
00 800.05 90.02 330.2 MCH-56 1 min 54 sec Chamfer MCH-56 16 sec Boring MCH-56 39 sec Final cutter MCH-56 1 min 32 sec Reamer MCH-56 37 sec These are the various operations & the time cycle of the operation.011 115.00 Life/edge 26 1000-2000 60 51 26 500 1000-1100 50 550 TIME CYCLE OF ALL THE OPERATIONS: Sequence of operation Machine used Cycle time Rough milling MCH-56 31sec Drilling drain MCH-56 10 sec Chamfer MCH-56 11 sec Final cutter bottom MCH-56 25 sec Rough cutter (R.02 1500. DETAILS OF CUTTING TOOL PARAMETER: Operation Rough milling Drilling Chamfer Final cutter Rough cutter Drilling Boring Final cutter Reamer Cutting tool Face mill cutter S/c drill 22.2 Boring head Face mill cutter Carbide reamer dia 12 Rpm 700 1120 2000 750 700 2000 1600 750 420 Feed 900.00 2000. Inprocess inspection 34 .03 700.5 Chamfering insert Face mill cutter Face mill cutter S/c drill 10.C) MCH-56 3 min 34 sec Drilling dia 10.(11) Milling fine:This operation is used to perform to deplete the layer by 1mm on the two sides & on the drain plug.01 500. which can be done on the machine MCH-56.
By this we can deplete the layer by 4 mm from the topside & the bottom side. After machining the component the dims are 445.This operation is used to chamfer the hole by 45°with 1 mm down along the z-axis.2: . The chamfering is performing on all the holes that we made on the component during operation.2 (3) Boring for doweling (4) Chamfering (5) Milling finish (6) Reaming for the dowel hole By taking reference we can perform the operation as same as the machine MCH 56.After doing the machining we can go for the inprocess inspection in which we can calculate the various dimensions formed by the machine.In this we can machine the component from the top & also from the bottom side by performing the milling operations on that faces.this is the first operations which we can start the machining. By that operation we can first drill the dowel. In dims between the top face & the bottom face is 448. the topside. Milling operations are of two kinds (a) Milling rough: . & dowelling on the rear cover side & on the top side as same as the machine MCH 56. (4) Chamfering: . (b) Milling finish: .7 mm on the two faces on the differential.2 mm approximately (2) Vertical machining center (MCH 57) This machine is used for the normal model. These operations give the smooth finish over the topside & bottom side.e. In this we can deplete the layer by app 2mm from the topside. The sequence of the operations is as follows: .on the topside (1) Milling rough (2) Drilling dia 10. The major dimension we can check is the distance between the top face & the bottom face. In that machine we have to place the component on the bed of the machine & done the various operation on the component like milling.5-mm. 35 .e.5 mm after machining. This machine is basically used for the various operations on the rear cover side i. After boring the dims of the hole is 11.this is the fifth operation on the component. drilling. The operations are as follows (1) Milling operations: .in this operation we can increase the dia of the one hole i. For the CRD model it is 473 mm approximately For the solis model it is 468. (3) Boring for doweling: . the dowel hole.by that operation we can drill 21 holes on the periphery of the topside that is of depth 26 mm. (2) Drilling of dia 10.
01 115.this process is used to increase the dia of the dowel pin hole from 10.2 Boring head Face mill cutter Carbide reamer Rpm 700 1020 1600 1700 750 2000 1600 750 420 Feed 1100.2 Boring 11.07 500.018 mm.(5) Reaming for the dowel hole: .2 Face mill cutter S/c drill dia 10.5-448.2 Boring Final cut Reamer Cutting tool Face mill cutter S/c drill dia 22.07 90 Life/edge 26 500 60 520 26 500 1000-1100 28 550 CYCLE TIME FOR THE OPERATIONS: Operation Rough milling bottom Drilling drain Chamfer Final cut bottom Rough cutter top Drilling 10. These are operations which we can perform on the differential on MCH 57.2 mm to 12 mm with the accuracy of + 0.5 Chamfer Drill dia 12 Final cut (B) Drill dia 10.00 3000. we can check the dimensions between the top face & bottom face. DETAIL OF CUTTING TOOL PARAMETER: Operation Rough milling Drill dia 22.01 2700.02 330 800 450. It must be 445.5 mm.7 Final cut top Reamer Drilling 12 Machine used MCH 57 MCH 57 MCH 57 MCH 57 MCH 57 MCH 57 MCH 57 MCH 57 MCH 57 MCH 57 Time 56 sec 10 sec 36 sec 49 sec 2 min 34 sec 2 min 9 sec 34 sec 60 sec 41 sec 48 sec Duplex milling machine 36 .5 Chamfer insert S/ drill dia 10. Inprocess inspection: After doing the machining.
There are two duplex machines that have two different fixtures on them. On that dowels we can firmly place the component and stat the operations. The two cutters move towards each other & perform the operations. In that machine we face two sides that is front side & rear side of the differential. In this machine the cutter are along the ± x-axis & We can place the differential in the fixture via Y-axis. DMH 59: . The position of the dowel is 284± 0.That machine is use for the machining of the normal model differential. In that machine we can perform two operations that is (1) Milling first cut (2) Milling final cut In this machine we can rest the component on the topside by the help of dowel pin that are made from vertical machining center.1 mm from the right face one along the rear end along left face . In that machine we can perform one operations that is (1) Milling cut In this machine we can rest the component on the topside by the help of dowel pin that are made from vertical machining center. The two cutters move towards each other & perform the operations.On that dowels we can firmly place the component and stat the operations. By that we can perform different operations on the differential housing. The machines are: (1) DMH-58 (2) DMH-59 Both that machine is used for same operations but on the different sides. The position of the dowel is 20 mm from the dowel center one along the right face & another on the left face. Cutting tool parameter for DMH 58 Operation Milling first Cutting tool Face mill cutter left Face mill cutter right Face mill cutter left Face mill cutter right Rpm 85 Feed 480/240 Life/edge 63 Milling Second 85 480/240 63 Cycle time for the operations for DMH 58 Operation Milling first Machine used DMH 58 Time 2 min 34 sec 37 .That machine is use for the machining of the CRD model differential. In this machine the cutter are along the ± y-axis & we can place the differential in the fixture via x-axis. DMH 58: . In that machine we face two sides that is left face & right face where we can assemble the breaks on the differential.
In that machine the operation is performed on the PTO bore faces of the component.e. In that machine the operation is performed on the left & the right side of the component. It is used to bore the PTO fixed face.Milling final DMH 58 2 min 15 sec Cutting tool parameter for DMH 59 Operation Milling first Cutting tool Face mill cutter left Face mill cutter right Face mill cutter left Face mill cutter right Rpm 85 Feed 480/240 Life/edge 63 Milling Second 85 480/240 63 Cycle time for DMH 59 Operation Milling cut Machine used DMH 59 Time 6 min 40 sec After doing the operations then inprocess inspection come in which we can check the distance between the two faces i.5 mm on the inner face & dia 79 38 . RBH-20-21-22-110: . RBH-20 is used to bore the normal tractor differential. The dimensions before the machining is 105 approximately but after machining it becomes of dia 114 mm.these are the different machines on which we can perform the work. This operation is performing on the both the faces of the differential. In that machine the tool that we can use of triangular profile. RBH-21 is used for the operation on the CRD model differential. RBH-22 is used for the operation on the normal differential. This machine can bore along the different directions of the component. In this operation the component is rest on the machine on the rear cover side. Before perusing for the operation the dims is dia 123 on the trumpet face & dia 100 0n the brake house face.5 & dia 72 on the outer face. Before perusing for the operation the dims on the inner face is dia 72 & 73.5 mm between the front face the intermediate face. In this operation the component is rest on the machine on the rear cover side. After machining its dims changes from 123 to 129 app on the trumpet face & 109 on the brake housing face. This is hydraulically operated machine. After machining its dims changes to dia 79 & 73. is left & right. It can also perform the other operation facing rough in which it can form the dimensions of 367. Rough boring machine Rough boring machine is basically used for the boring operation.
left & right. In that machine the component is placed along the front side in the down direction.71 on the brake house face.mm on the outer face of the component. In that machine the operation is performed on the left & the right side of the component. Detail of cutting tool & their cycle time For RBH-21 Operation Cutting tool Boring rough inner Boring carbide Boring rough outer Boring carbide Life /edge 150 150 Cycle time 4 min 53 sec 4 min 4 sec For RBH-110 Operation Bore bar unit 1 Bore bar unit 2 Drill on break pedal face Cutting tool Boring carbide Boring carbide S/c drill dia 30 Life/edge 150 150 1000 ( multiple edge) Cycle time 4 min 40 sec 3 min 35 sec 2 min RBH-20 Operation Boring dia 109 Window milling machine Window milling machine is used for the machining on the widow that is present on the right & left face near the front side.e. Machine used RBH-20 Cycle time 3 min 34 sec 39 . After machining its dims changes from to 134 mm app on the trumpet face & 111. This operation is performing on the both the faces of the differential i. In this operation the component is rest on the machine on the rear cover side. if the reading on the pressure gauge goes in + the component is machined accurate if in – it id defective. This operation is perform on the both the rear & the intermediate faces of the differential. INPROCESS INSPECTION After doing the operations inprocess inspection comes.70 mm on the brake housing face. RBH-110 is used for the operation on the CRD model differential. Before perusing for the operation the dims is dia 128 on the trumpet face & dia 104. In which they can check the bore by the pressure gauge.
035. That operation is fine boring that is made upon the hole by the rough boring.2 mm. It depletes 1mm from the various sections of the component on which the rough boring is performed. Before perusing for the operation the dims is dia 134 on the trumpet face & dia 111.10 and along the left face its distance is 143± 0. The grove is of dimension 3.In this machine the two operations are performed on the component i.70 on the brake house face. In that machine the operation is performed on the left & the right side of the component. There are various machines for the operation to be performed. After the machining TPC has a dimension of dia 120± 0.1mm from the center of the component.04 mm app on the trumpet face & 112. After machining its dims changes from to 135± 0.712± 0.5 mm.45 mm from the bp shaft face to the intermediate face. Parameter of that machine: Operation Milling rough Milling fine Cutting tool Face mill cutter Face mill cutter Life/edge 150 150 Cycle time 6 min 28 sec 6 min 10 sec Fine boring machine: This machine is use to perform a final operation on the component. Boring inner & outer have dimension dia 80+0. In this operation the component is rest on the machine on the rear cover side. inner & outer face & facing & grooving on the rear end bore. When the operation is performed the dimension of the right face from the center is 153± 0.e. the window milling on left side & boss milling on the right side.035 accuracy & on the outer it is dia 80 +0. FBH-108-109 FBH 108is used for the CRD model. In that machine both the operations done at the same time. FBH-109 is used for the operation on the CRD model differential. It must be of dimension 286± 0.18 mm from one face of the differential & having a dia of 83. INPROCESS INSPECTION After the operation we can check the distance between the window face & the boss face. Operation Boring Cutting tool Fine boring unit Rpm 280/240 Feed 3000 Life/edge 60 40 . Grooving is done on the PTO face at distance of 196.035 mm on the BP shaft face. This operation is done on the both the faces of the component. In that machine various operations are performed like TPC face.035 mm.1 mm & having a perpendicularity of 0.
Assy. With this instrument we can take one surface as a base or the reference after that we can get the various figures that we need as prescribed in the drawing. After the machining& the inprocess inspection the process comes final inspection. Gear box assy. Trumpet assy. Oil filling Primer zone Dry-up zone Chasis washing Front axle assy. Rear cover assy Mtg. For the final inspection TRIMOS is use that can calculate the CD of the component from the different sides. Engine assy Mtg. Gear box sub assy. assy Diff. Mtg. 41 . Mtg. Rear cover assy. Loading on line Trumpet Hsg. Hsg. Mtg. PROJECT-4 THE STUDY OF TRACTOR ASSEMBLY SHOP Process chart of tractor assembly line Diff.Boring in Boring out Facing Grooving Face boring unit Face boring unit STGCRION11 Grooving tool 280/140 280/140 280/140 280/140 3000 3000 3000 3000 60 60 34 70 After that the component that is machined goes to the threading machine where we can make tapping on all the sides of the component. Sub.
Trumpet housing and other housing are send to main line for Tractor assembly. rear cover. In main Tractor assembly line tractors are send to paint shop through overhead endless chain rotating conveyor.Front axle & related components Engine assy & related component INTRODUCTION Tractor assembly shop is main shop of ITL. gearbox. It is supported from ceiling and has a fixed path to travel which saves valuable floor space. The arrangement is such that lifting mechanism (with help of hook) lowers down for loading and unloading of tractors. In this shop the different machined parts. housing and other components which are 'finished or machined in other departments of the industry and other component which are purchased from vendors are assembled here. Then assembled components like differential housing. 42 .
Following are main phase of assembly: 1) Differential housing assembly. 4) Main line assembly phase. 5) Paint phase. 2) Gearbox assembly. 3) Rear cover assembly. 6) Assembly of accessories and inspection. 1) DIFFERENTIA HOUSING LINE 43 .
T. 44 .P. shaft sub assy. shaft in the casting Cage & B. Clean the casting & punch the serial no.Process chart of differential assembly P. shaft assy. On the casting Load the casting on the working trolley Fit the drain plugs with the washer & tight it.O.T.O. Fit the P.
shaft sub assy. shaft sub assy.shaft.2-0.5mm) &tight it temporary Preloading (12kg) is done to check the No. shaft with shim (0. pumps and other accessory components with the help of pulley attached on it. which is used to run the thrashers. to Lt. shaft cover. shaft on the left side of casting & cage & insert the right B. gear Fit the angle Fit the rocker link Bkt. shaft (Power take off shaft).T. In washing machine If backlash is more than 0.O.O.P.P. Of shim & bearing setting Fit the T. The main function of differential in tractor to supply the power from gearbox to the wheels. It also consists of the P.2mm move shim Rt.P.P. Fit the plain cover with oil filter & P.T. Insert the left B.O shifter sub assy. carrier tightly Brake housing sub assy.P. shaft into the cage from the right side of casting with little hammering Fit the thrust bearing cone on the left side of casting Wash the cage & B.20.5mm) & tight it temporary. Fit the trumpet assy & bull gear in Diff. Apply yellow paint to check backlash & setting of teeth If backlash is less than 0.T. First stage reduction in tail pinion and crown wheel meshing and second stage reduction in bull gear meshing with left and rights B. Assy.T. it also helps to turn the tractor with the wheels at different speed. Fit the sliding & fixed P.3mm move shim from right to left Fit the seal carrier on B.P. Fit the Brake housing on the spline of B.P. shifter sub assy. shaft. Housing.P.O. Fit the link plate & P. Tight the seal carrier & T. 45 . The reduction of speed is done in two stages.Cage & B.O. Fit the Chain Differential is rear part of the tractor chassis. carrier with shim (0.P. It also helps to reduce the speed. Trumpet sub.T. Oil filter & P.
so that all other holes of cage and crown come into same line. Bevel gears.P.O. Cage is having two dowel holes. B.P. Different sized shims are also placed before the tightening of rear cover of cage. B. planet gears and cross) P. Bearings Bearing cones. Bull gears. The bearing is heated before the fitting. shaft left. Tail pinion. Then the left bevel gear is placed on the planet gear.T. Then the tail pinion is inserted inside bearing. the cone for taper roller bearing is pressed with hydraulic press. The crown wheel is pressed with hydraulic press and then tightened by bolts with lock washer.Following are the main parts of differential housing: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Crown wheel. Cage assembly. 46 . Shaft right. Tail pinion assembly: First of all in tail pinion assembly. shaft. Operator o checks the motion of gears and does the manual inspection. Brakes housing assembly (with disc etc) Shims Gaskets Fasteners Assembly of the crown wheel: First of all components are washed with oil to remove the dirt particles. Cage left is placed on left side of right cage assembly and then tightens by bolts and washers. The four planet gears are put on cross with washer and then this assembly put in the cage. Then right bevel gear is placed on the cage seat. Whole assembly is tightening by nuts and bolts. (With sun. in these holes dowels are tightened for accurate fitting of crown.
then two cones one on B. The rear axle is passed through these two bearing with seal in trumpet.P. If pre .TO.Rear axle assembly: In rear axle assembly of tractor the bolts are tight fitted in holes of hub. left and B. Two bearing either side of trumpet housing are tighten at their respective place of cone.O. shaft assembly: Two bearings are tightly fit on P. hole of differential housing. and if pre .P. which are provided on both side of the bearing.load force is increase the efficiency of taper bearing is decrease due to over friction between cages of bearing. During expansion of cast iron plate the discs are strongly mounted on B. The ventilated results in reduction of about 30% in pad temperature. If it is less then 20 micron then vice versa. The cover is used to cover the open side of trumpet housing (hub side). 3.kg /cm2 forces is apply. 2.P.O. right shaft to stop the axle.T. right shafts are inserted tightly.loading test is done with 10 Kgf to rotate the cage assembly. For tight fitting the hydraulic press is used and 120.contact. Backlash of crown wheel is not more than 20 to 30 micron.) Back lash testing. shaft assembly is passed through rear P. If it is deviated from this value then packing is change on either side (left or right) of cage of bearing housing.P. left and other on B. Brake housing cover contain two disc made of asbestos base non-metallic substance. shaft at there proper placed with help of circlip lock. First of all the P.T. The inner side bearing is lubricated with oil and outer bearing is lubricated with grease. Following three testing is done on crown wheel and tail pinion: 1. Then tail pinion assembly is inserted into respective holes with shims and tail pinion teeth meshed with crown wheel teeth. If backlash is more then 30 micron then shims from right side is removed and shifted in to left side. left and right shaft assemblies are placed through the hole in cage housing of differential. P. Between these two discs a cast iron plate is fixed which contain spherical steel rollers and held by spring.T. The seal carrier with different size of shims is tightened by bolts on both side of differential housing (right and left side).O. Where the rear tire is tighten with their bolts to whole assembly. The B. It also has actuators and link with rubber seal. which gives better cooling. The brakes operate with spherical roller and ventilation pipe.) Pattern test 1) Backlash testing: This test is performed with help of plunger dial gauge. Then pre . 47 .load force is decreased then the efficiency of taper bearing also decrease due to less contact with cover cage of bearing. Brake housing assembly: This tractor having heavy duty self-energizing. water sealed disc brakes. When ever brake is applied the spherical roller move or lift from there place in the plate and try to expand the plate.P.) Percentage of. But the numbers of shims are never changed. The maximum temperature resistance is about 300 0 C.
0. Shaft to protect the outer teeth.1 mm and backlash is 0.O.0. An improvement was achieved in the form of constant mesh gear used in gearbox. The percentage of contact is 60% to 70% required. The P . There are 8 forward and 2 reverse gears with a high and low selection: Gear Max.2) Percentage of contact: Pattern test and percentage contact test is done with help of yellow paint which is applied on teeth of crown wheel.2 .loading is 12 kgf. and crown wheel pre .05 . The crown wheel is then rotated with hand and percentage contact and pattern of tail pinion is impressed on the teeth of wheel. which gives better results in higher mechanical efficiencies and lower noise level due to the use of helical gears instead of straight spiral gears. Crown wheel run out is 0.0.3 mm.86 km/hr II-Low 4. The sliding gear and P. Two filters are placed inside of differential housing and then whole assembly of differential housing is sent to the main line. Speed I-Low 2.24 km/hr II-High 16. Every model has their specification. In these tractors the sliding mesh type gearbox are used for transmission the power at various speed from engine to differential.76 km/hr 48 . The different views of the differential are: Top view full assembly of differential PTO fixed & sliding GEAR BOX ASSEMBLY In ITL it is the main shop. The bull gears are tighten to trumpet housing assembly with lock nut and the whole assembly of trumpet housing is also tightened by nuts on studs and on outer side of differential housing.T .T . shaft head cover is tightening on P . When increase in number of shims the pattern goes increase and vice versa. shifter rod assembly is mounted on differential housing. It can be increase or decrease by using the shims by fastening it on tail pinion carrier.O. Tail pinion pre – loading is 8 kgf. By assembling the different devices we can from the differential Differential that we assemble on the line are different in there sizes.25 km/hr I-High 8. It is the main assembly between the engine and differential housing. It gives the tractor a top speed of 3O km / hr and a minimum speed of 2 km / hr. It depends upon what model which we assembling.T.
model the drive shaft is placed through the hollow lay shaft.A.e. Input shaft is put into the gearbox with the bearing. which is locked by circlip. In case of dual clutch.81 km/hr 11. 49 . (j)Bearings.A. Z-45. spacer 15mm and bearing with circlip. (i) Shifter forks. (f) Gears. Inner bush is placed and held with C. gear Z-25. Splined part is attached to clutch and geared part (Z-19) is attached the constant mesh gear of lay shaft i. (k) Fasteners. (c) Lay shaft assembly. constant mesh gear with input shaft gear) spacer 15mm. Clutch actuator assembly: C. (h) Shifter rods. gear Z-36.III-Low III-High IV-Low IV-High Reverse-Low Reverse-High 6. The whole assembly is washed. One end of the lay shaft is threaded (in case of single clutch) and tightened from front side of gearbox with a hexagonal nut. The drive shaft consists of splines on one end and a gear (Z-45) on the other end. spacer 30mm. (l) Planet gear and carrier assembly with internal gear. The gear constantly meshed with the gear on intermediate shaft.85 km/hr 28. (g) Gear box housing. assembly contains clutch actuator guide on which the bearing is tight fitted and locked with circlip.45 km/hr 25. gaskets and spacers. (e) Actuator shaft assembly. (b) Output shaft assembly. The whole assembly consists of gear Z-45 (i. guider springs. The main function of lay shaft is to rotate fixed gear on it from where we can get different speeds with the help of sliding gear on drive shaft. (d) Intermediate shaft assembly.e. gear Z-30. Lay shaft assembly: The lay shaft is hollow shaft with splines on outer surface.40 km/hr 8.75 km/hr 2. Input shaft assembly: Input shaft consists of spiral gear on one end and splines on the other end.08 km/hr Following are the main components of Gearbox: (a) Input shaft assembly.
Z-45 of lay shaft. help of pins inserted through them. The sliding gear 34 is used for first and reverse gear. Assembly of Gear box: First of all the gearbox is placed over the trolley which is continuously moving with the help of the chain system. The internal gear assembly is tightened on the outside of gearbox with output shaft. The purpose of the dowels is to locate holes on the plate with respect to internal gear. The forth selector rod is meant for low and high-speed selection. The four selector rods are placed in the holes with spring-loaded ball. Then Z. Then the output shaft assembly is placed into the gearbox where its one side is inserted into the input shaft hole. which is placed into the internal gear. cover plate is consists have the steering assembly and high. These gears are provided with grooves on one side to attach gear shifter fork. Z. placed over the input shaft and its Z-21 gear is meshed with Z-43 of connecting shaft. which are fixed to carrier with. The shaft is placed in to gearbox with both ends supported by bearings and locked by circlip.F.M. which placed through the hollow lay shaft.F. For dual clutch models the intermediate shaft. Then whole assembled gearbox is send to the main line assembly The different views of gearbox are: - 50 . The idler gear is placed with their idler gear shaft in gearbox its respective place. After this input shaft is placed from front side of the gearbox housing. sliding gear 31 is used for second gear and sliding gear 24 for third and fourth gear. which is hollow. Its Z-19 is meshed with C. Internal gear assembly: On internal gear two dowels are inserted at their proper place and faceplate with thrust plate is placed over dowels. 31 and 34 gears. The planet gear and carrier assembly is placed inside the internal gear them thrust plate and outer plate is placed and tightened by nuts.Output shaft assembly: Output shaft assembly is solid shaft with splines on outer surface. The gear selector forks are insel1ed in to the groove of sliding gears and then tightened to the gear shifter rods with help of the bolts. The planet carrier contains three planet gears. cover bracket is placed over the upper side of the gearbox. This rod is connected to the drive shaft. The back part of shaft is projected out side the gearbox to give drive from it. The assembly of shaft consists of gears 24. Then lay shaft assembly is inserted into the respective holes and tightened from front side by hexagonal nut. low speed shifter assembly.
(lay shaft) (Shifter forks) (Intermediate shaft) (Front view of normal Model gearbox) (Rear view) (Clutch disengage) The basic diagram of gearbox with the attachment with the differential is show below: - 51 .
(e) Sensor tube assembly. bolts. Control sector assembly: It contains the draft crank assembly. Two dome nuts are placed at their respective place. check valve and release valve. The control sector assembly is placed at there respecting place with actuator shaft and compiler assembly. V. It is also connected with control valve through pipe housing. nuts (g) Other components. All assembly is fastened with bolts. cylinder and other components assembly fitted inner and outer side of rear cover assembly.). (d) Operating sector assembly. (b) R. nuts. housing assembly. The relief valve assembly is mounted at top front of cylinder. spacer and seals Are placed. All other 53 . which is placed through the hollow position crank assembly. washer and locknuts. Response valve housing is placed out side rear cover. It contains lift control system. At the end of rock arm assembly lift arm assembly is placed on the splinted and then locked with bolts on both side. This assembly is fitted inside rear cover. It contains one response valve. The position crank assembly is connected to black mark lever and draft crank assembly is connected to red mark lever. A rock arm. R. A sensor tube with bush is placed at rear side of rear cover.V housing assembly:It contain the response valve which having different valves and components are placed at their respective place. (c) Hydraulic cylinder and piston assembly with lift arm. Driver seat is fitted on the upper side of rear cover. Ram cylinder assembly: It contain cylinder for single lever with piston inserted in side the cylinder. Coupler assembly: In coupler assembly a draft rod having a flange and position rod contains spring on it. The main components are fitted in rear cover assembly (a) Control valve assembly. The knob is placed at top of response valve to close or open the response valve as per requirements. V. which is hydraulically operated. which is connected to control value through pipes. Then a ram cylinder assembly is mounted inside rear cover. The connecting rod is placed in piston rear side ands one side is locked with ram arm assembly. Draft rod assembly is connected to the draft lever and position rod to position lever through the control valve. Both these assembly are connected to their lever.REAR COVER ASSEMBLY Rear cover assembly is used to cover the differential housing. (t) Gaskets. The response valve housing (R. First of all rear cover is mounted on the moving trolley and light with bolts. control valve.
During operating of position arm the unloading valve close the gallery of oil to back pressure valve. the knob of response value of R. which. During un-operated position the oil is continuously through the backpressure value of control valve. As this position the oil goes in the ram cylinder. which is further connected. The opening pressure checks value is 9-12kgf and opening pressure of backpressure value is 6kgf. further operate the lift arm. For requirement of any position lift. But to avoid deep digging of harrow in soil the draft is set at required position through sensor tube.V. The rocker arm attached to sensor tube and harrow link. Back measure value (3-6kgf) unloading value and scroll value. which over load the tractor. housing and Backpressure value of control values. housing is rotate which cut off the supply of oil and the position of ram arm is got. to the check value through inner hole of R. V. V. housing through pipes. When oil from pump goes into R. which push the sensor tube inside and automatically control value control oil supply. Sensor tube is work in field working during plugging with harrow and when harrow deeply dug in soil. housing built up which open the check valve at 9-12kgf. Thus the pressure in R.e. The top view views of the rear cover assembly: - 54 . V.components assembly is a placed their respective place control value container three value i.
The basic component that describe in the figure is (1) Rock shaft (2) Ram cylinder (3) Coupler assembly (4) Spool arrangement (5) Relief & pressure valve (6) Rear cover housing 55 .
The views of the part of rear cover assembly: - (Sensor tube) 56 .
rear side) and lower side attached with lower link hook. Rocker link is attached with angle plate rocker bar. and RT.) are joining with link plate. steering arm. Then engine assembly is attached to gearbox assembly with nuts and bolts. Whole brake assembly fitted on tractor and connected with brake housing through mechanical links. Two lower links (L T.) tie rod end (L T. The anchor chain attached with angle plate (with attached to diff. electrical panel. Whole assembly is heated in oven Then tyres.T. other components. which is connected to the conveyor. In axle beam assembly pivot pin is placed at their hole with thrust washer and the front axle bracket is attached with axle beam Assembly with nuts and bolts. accessory and mounting are placed at their proper place and then it send to testing department for testing.). Firstly the differential housing assembly is put on moving trolley. and RT. All other mounting and accessory are fitted on tractor then it is sent to paint shop through overhead conveyor. The way we can work on the tractor on the assembly line is shown below: - 57 . and wheel rim front (L. and RT.LINE ASSEMBLY PHASE In line phase assembly all the components are assembled together. The lift rod upper and right leveling rod assembly is attached with end of rear cover. wiring system. and RT. Then clutch assembly is placed at their place. At front side of engine assembly the front axle beam assembly is fitted. tie rod assembly. and RT. meters. Two straight bars are attached with trumpet housing and lower side link for supporting. hub.) and other components. Then the gearbox assembly is joined with help of bolts to differential housing and then accessories mounting are joined. Firstly tractor is washed and then paint on it.) are placed in front axle beam assembled with their steering arm (L T. Two king pin stub axle assembly (L T. The rocker attached to the sensor tube of rear cover assembly.
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