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This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the

Bachelor of Computer Science (Database Management)



Clinic Management System for UTeM is a system that can help the clinic to manage
their daily activity. This system help reduce the problems occur when using the
manual system. This system enables doctors and clinic assistant to manage patient
records, medicine stock, and appointment and produce reports. The system is develop
due to the problems that exist when using the manual system. Data inconsistency,
data mix with other data and problem regarding reporting is the main problem that the
user is facing. Due to that, this system is develop to overcome the problems. This
system is easy and simple to use by the user. Other than that, the system is user-
friendly and it can help the clinic to manage their activity and at the same time
overcome the problem.

Clinic Management System (CMS) adalah sistem yang boleh membantu klinik dalam
menjalankan aktiviti harian mereka. Sistem ini membantu mengurangkan masalah-
masalah yang dihadapi apabila menggunakan sistem manual. Sistem ini
membolehkan doktor dan pembantu k h i k untuk mengurus pendaftaran pesakit,
mengurus stok ubat, mengatur temujanji dan menghasilkan laporan. Sistem ini
dibangunkan berdasarkan masalah-masalah yang dihadapi semasa menggunakan
sistem manual. Maklurnat yang tidak konsisten, data bercampur dengan data yang
lain serta masalah berkaitan penghasilan laporan. Disebabkan itqsistem ini
dibangunkan untuk mengatasi masalah-masalah tersebut. Sistem ini ringkas dan
mudah difaharni oleh pengguna Selain itu, sistem ini mesra pengguna dan ia boleh
membantu pengurusan klinik dengan lebih berkesan.


1.1 Project Background

Clinic management is introduced to optimize clinic's operation. Because of huge

changes in management nowadays, management for clinic is important due to the widely
spread of technology. This system is proposed for clinic in Universiti Teknikal Malaysia
Melaka (UTeM) to manage the clinic's operation efficiently.

The process indeveloping the system include student's clinic in UTeM. The area
consists of the user in clinic which is doctor and clinic assistant. Basically there are no
such systems in the clinic. The system use before has caused a lot of problems to the
user. Due to that, using manual system seems to be the only solutions in managing the
daily works. The system will help out the user in the clinic in managing the work.

1.2 Problem Statement

Clinic Management System for UTeM is developed for Universiti Teknikal

Malaysia Melaka (UTeM). The system is enhanced from the previous system that has
been using in the clinic. Based on the previous system, the patient who comes to the
clinic for the first time is registered via the system. The assistant assist the student by
key in the data into the system. The patient gets the treatment and data about the
treatment is recorded into the system. The system manages the activities in the clinic. It
includes medicine registration, generate report and register new disease and category.

From the interview carried out, the previous system has cause problems to the
user. The clinic stop using the system and choosing manual is the best way to overcome
the problem exists.

For Projek Sarjana Muda (PSM), Clinic Management System for UTeM is
developed to overcome the problems. The system has few modules such as patient
registration, medicine registration, disease registration and treatment history, patient
record search, appointment and reporting.

The system has extra features that will display the information regarding BMI
(body mass index). BMI will calculate either weight or height for a person is suitable or
not. This is extra function in the system and the user will fmd it useful and benefit.

1.3 Objective

Based on the problem, a few objectives have been identified:

To overcome the problem exists in the previous system.

The problem stated by the user is the major points that will be develop.

To make management easy to maintain record

The management will find it usefbl to them as it help in daily activity in the clinic.
All the details will be kept in database.
To enable clinic assistant to view and print-out various type of clinic reports.
Various types of report can be view and print out according to the user requirement.

1.4 Scope

There are six modules in the system:

1. Modules

a) Patient Registration
Patient need to register before use the facilities at the clinic. All the information
will be keep in database.

b) Medicine Registration
This module manages all the medicine stock in the clinic. It will show current
quantity of medicine in the clinic. It includes the record search.

c) Disease Registration
This module manages data about patient's treatment history and register for
various type of disease.

d) Appointment -
This module manages appointment made by doctor to the patient.

e) Reporting
This module manages generate report according to the user need.

1.5 Project Significance

Clinic Management System for UTeM is used by the doctor and clinic assistant. The
user will find it useful because the system has benefits that can help the operation of the

The web-based clinic management system gives profit to user as the user can retrieve
data regarding themselves through the internet. They can access the clinic system
throughout the internet and those who have difficulties to go the clinic will find it

The system makes record keeping more efficient and secure from an unauthorized
people. Only authorized user has the right to retrieve data of their own. This will secure
the patient's information.

Beside that, it is easy for the management to maintain record about the patient. The
time for retrieving the information needed will be less compare to the manual. This will
help the clinic assistant in doing the job.

Furthermore, the system helps in minimize the losing of data. The clinic assistant can
view and generate report for the specified data.

1.6 Expected Output

This system has overcome the problems occur while using the manual system and
the previous system.

The system can generate report according to the user requirement. The report can be
either the type of treatment, type of medicine and number of patient per year. The extra
feature in the system can help the user to increase their knowledge and at the same time
help them to solve their problem.
1.7 Conclusion

Clinic Management System for UTeM is a system that can help clinic organization
to manage their activity everyday. This system will help reduce the problems occur
while using the manual system. Furthermore, it is hope that the system can fulfill the
user requirement in the future.

The next chapter focuses on the literature review and project methodology. It
consists of introduction, facts and findings, technique, project methodology, project
requirements and lastly project schedule and milestones.


2.1 Introduction

This chapter discusses about the literature review and project methodology of the
project. Literature review is a comprehensive survey of publications in a specific field of
study or related to a particular line of research, usually in the form of a list of references
or an indepth review of key works.

In software engineering and project management, a methodology is a codified set

of practices (sometimes accompanied by training materials, formal educational
programs, worksheets, and diagramming tools) that may be repeatably carried out to
produce software.

2.2 Facts and Findings

2.2.1 Domain

There are two main things that have been identified in this section which is
management and web-based system. Management

Until recently many researchers have shown interest in the field of management
and communication technology. They have carried out numerous experiments and field
observations to illuminate the darkness of this field. Their findings and suggestions are
reviewed here:

According to the Oxford Student's Dictionary (2002), there are two definitions
for management .First, management is defined as the process of managing a business or
group of people. Second, the people who manage the business.

This is the basic definition regarding the meaning of the management.

Management as define above play an important role as it is the study of how to make all
the people in the organization more productive. In this to-be system, management is
used in order to manage the activity effectively.

Based on the article The Pharmaceutical Journal Vol 265 No 7112 p331
September 2,2000 Letters, the writer said that 'The conclusion of the reported study was
that self-management was as eflective as clinic management and better accepted by
patients. I do not have the study to evaluate it in detail but feel that there are several
points worth rising on the strength of The Journal report alone'.

This passage illustrate that, clinic management is important as self management.

In the journal entitled, "Best practice Clinic: The making of a good quality
management system" written by Greg Dwyer, he said that to be manageable and
effective, a quality management system that is compliant with LAW 9000 should:
be easy to manage and involve minimal or no allocation of additional *s, and
work in tandem with existing initiatives, systems and structures. Web-based systems

'The wide spread evolution of global ir#orrnation infrastructure, especially based on

Internet and the immense popularity of web technology among people have added to the
number of consumers as well as disseminators of information. Until date, plenty of
search engine are being developed, however researcher are trying to build more
eficient search engines. Web site developers and web mining researchers are trying to
address the problem of average users in quicMyJinding what they are looking for from
the vast and ever-increasing global information network'

(International Journal of Data Warehousing and rnining,3(1),29-53 January-March 2007:

SeqPAM : A Sequence Clustering Algorithm for Web Personalization,

Due to the technology nowadays, the web based is important for those involved
in information and communication technology.

2.2.13 Comparison with existing system

r. Pencarian Rekod Pelajar

6 No. Matr~k No.HQ r Ham __ - _- Can

,Peddlaa Slok
iP-n R e k d Uxd
~Penddt- H e a mP w
P-a RckdWaia

Figure 2.2: Panel Clinic System

This system used by the clinic and is develop using visual basic 6.0 and access.
But, the system caused problems to the user and due to that the user decides to use
manual system.

The system is develop using web-based concept where PHP is the programming
language and mysql is the database.

2.2.2 Existing System

Clinic Management System for UTeM is an enhanced system that is develops

due to the problems that exist when using the manual system. The user has experience
problems while using the clinic system. During the first interview with the
user in the clinic, the user states few problems that arise when using the manual system
and clinic system.
The problems include the report that needs to be display and print-out. The data
mix with other data and are also displayed in the report and this do not Ilfill the user

Due to that, the user uses the manual system to manage the activity in the clinic.
Clinic assistant use manual system to record all the information about the patient that
visits the clinic. Everyday, the number of patient will increased and at the same time the
patient's data also increased. This will affect the use of paper each time patient comes to
get treatment.

Furthermore, the boost of data needs large storage to keep it. In short term, it can
be more beneficial than owning a computer but in long term, many problems will arise.

2.23 Technique

According to the web, technique is a well-defined procedure used to accomplish

a specific activity or task. More than one technique may be available for accomplishing
a specific activity or task. Selection of the technique should be based on project
approach, available tools and others.

In this system, the data is collected using different alternatives that are available.
One of it is through the interviews with the real user. A set of questionnaires is prepared
to make the flow of the interviews run smoothly and can be completed according to the
time given. The communication between the programmer and the real user can be
develop at this time.

Another approach is made by observation during the visit to the clinic to get
treatment. At this moment, the process that take place in the clinic can be noted down
and can be using in analysis process.
Compare to the previous project, the system is develop standalone and for PSM,
web-based concept is used as the sources for the programming language because php is
open source and the coding can be search easily.

2 3 Project Methodology

The Database Lifecycle (DBLC) contains six phases: database initial study,
database design, and implementation and loading, testing and evaluation, operation and
maintenance and evolution.

23.1 Database Initial Study

The database designer might be a lone operator or part of the systems

development team composed of a project leader, one or more senior systems analysts,
and one or more junior systems analysts. It also depends on the complexity and scope of
the database environment. The purpose of the database initial study is to analyze the
company situation, define problems and constraints, define objectives and define scope
and boundaries.

a. Analyze company situation

The company situation describes the general conditions in which a company

operates its organizational structure, and its mission. The database designer need to
discover what the company's operational components are, the function and how the
interaction are. The design must satisfl the operational demands created by the
organization's mission. When the database designer know who controls what and who
reports to whom it make them easy to defmed required information flows, specific report
and query formats, and so on.

b. Define problems and constraints

Information can be divided into two categories which are formal and informal.
The paper trail will be informative to the development team, especially designer. The
designer must always alert to differences in information. The problem definition process
might appear unstructured. Other than that, the company's end user unable to describe
the large scope of company operations and hard to identify the real problems which are
occurred during the company operation. Overall, the managerial view of company
operations has a large difference compare to the end-users who perform the actual
routine work. The designer will be the main person who collects very broad problem
description in the initial problem definition process.

c. Define objectives.

The database system that wants to be developed must be designed in order to

solve at least the major problems that identified during the problem discovery process.
Sometime sources cannot be discovered. So, the designer will always keep note of the
initial study phase where it also contribute to the problem solution. The designer's job is
to make sure the database objective always Mfill the end-users expectation. In any
cases, the designer will begin to address the following questions: -
What is the proposed system's initial objective?
Will the system interface with other existing or future systems in the
Will the system share the data with other systems or users?

d. Define scope and boundaries.

The designer must get to know about the existence of two sets of limits which are
known as scope and boundaries. The system's scope will define the extent of the design
related to the operational requirement. By knowing the scope, it will help to define the
required data structures, the type and numbers of entities, the physical size of the
database and so on. The boundaries are known as external to the system. Boundaries
also required by existing hardware and software. Preferably, the designer can choose the
hardware and software that will best accomplish the system goals.
23.2 Database Design

The second phase focuses on the design of the database model that will support
company operations and objectives. In the process of database design, we must
concentrate on the data characteristics required to build the database model. In short, we
have 2 views of the data within the system: the business view of data as a source of
information, and the designer's view of the data structure, its access, and the activities
required to transform the data into information. Below are the main processes in
database design: -

a) Create the conceptual design

In this stage, the data modeling will be used to create the abstract database
structure, which represents the real world objects in more natural. It also will be easier to
understand. Moreover, it also must represent a clear view of the business and its'
functional parts. Abstraction level can define where the hardware and the database
model not yet identified. The design must be software and hardware independent, where
the system can be built within any hardware and software platform which will be chosen
later by the development team.

b) DBMS Software Selection

The selection of the DBMS software is very important to the information's

system for a smooth operation. Therefore the proposed DBMS software has its' own
advantages and disadvantages where it must be studied carefully. Other than that, the
end users also must be always aware of both DBMS and the database limitation to avoid
false expectations.

c) Create the logical Design

Logical design can be define as the major component where it will be used to
translate the conceptual design into the internal model for a selected database
management system (DBMS) such as SQL Server, Oracle, Access and so on. Further
more, all the objects in the model will be mapped to a specific constructs that used by
the selected database. The logical design for a relational DBMS is included by tables,
indexes, views, transactions, access authorities and so on.

d) Create the physical Design

Physical design can be define as a process of select the data storage and data
access characteristics of the chosen database. The characteristics of storage are the types
of devices supported by the hardware, type of data access methods supported by the
system and the DBMS. The physical design will affect the location of the data in the
storage device and also the performance of the system. Other than that, can also say that
the physical design described the technical job and more typical of the client or server.

2 3 3 Implementation and Loading

In modern relational DBMS such as IBM DB2, Oracle or Microsoft SQL Server,
a new database implementation requires the creation of special storage-related constructs
to address the end-user tables. After the database has been created, the data must be
stored in to the database tables. If the data currently stored are different from the new
DBMS requirement, the data must be converted first before loaded. During the
implementation and loading phase, we also must address performance, secdty, backup
and recovery, integrity, company standards and concurrency control.

2.3.4 Testing and Evaluation

Once the data have been loaded into the database, the DBA will test and fine
tunes the database for performance, integrity, and concurrent access and security
constraints. The testing and the evolution phase occur in parallel with programming
applications. Moreover the programmers will use the database tools to prototype the
applications during the coding session. If the database implementation is fails to meet
the system's evolution criteria or requirement, several options will be considered to
enhance the system such as follows: -
For performance related issues, the designer must consider fine tuning
specific system and DBMS configuration parameters. The best sources of
information are the hardware and software technical reference manuals.
Modify the physical design.
Modify the logical design.
Upgrade or change the DBMS software or the hardware platform.

23.5 Operation

Once the database has been passed the evolution stage, it will consider being
operational. At this point the database, management, users and the application programs
will compose a complete information system. The beginning of the operational phase
consistently starts the process of the system evolution. When all the targeted end-users
entered the operation phase, the problems that could not predict during the testing phase
can be detected.

23.6 Maintenance and Evolution

The database administrator must be prepared to perform routine maintenance

activities within the database. Some of the required periodic maintenance activities
included such as follows: -
Preventive maintenance (backup)
Corrective maintenance (recovery)
Adaptive maintenance (enhancing performance, adding entities and attributes
and so on)
Assignment of access permission and their maintenance for new and old
Generation of database access statistics to improve the efficiency and
usefulness of system audits and to monitor system performance.
Periodic security audits based on the system generated statistics.
An Overview of Database Life e c l e (DBLC)

1 &Defineproblems and constraints.

Database Initial Study >Define objectives.
A P Define scope and boundaries.
9 3
v > Create the conceptual design.
Database Design > DBMS software selection.
> Create the logical design.
> Create the physical design.
Ci /

Implementation and
Loading P Create the databases.
& Load or convert the data.

v fd 1
Testing and > Test the database
Evaluation > Fine-tune the database
& Evaluate the database and its
application programs
(3 /

JJ > Produce the required information

Maintenance and > Introduce changes
Evolution > Make enhancement

Figure 2 3 :Database Life Cycle (DBLC)

23.7 Database Development Methodology

The methodology used to implement this database system is Waterfall

Development. It is a step-by-step approach to the Database Life Cycle that moves
logically fiom one phase to the next. Below are the phases involved:

a. Planning

The project planning starts in this phase. First, the information is gathered fiom
the management staff and the end users about the current system and also the expected
system. Then, the scope, objectives and the goals for the proposed system are set up. The
tentative schedule consists of project work plan and Gantt chart is developed.

b. Analysis

For this project, DBLC (Database Life Cycle) is used as project methodology. In
the database initial study phase, I study the situation of Student's Clinic in UTeM. From
that, I can know the business process. The problem statement of the system can be
defined throughout the observation. It will become the objective for the system. The
scope can be extracted fiom the objective to develop the system.

c. Design

Database design is define as the second phase, where a design for the database is
form. It can support the Clinic Management System operational and objective, as
MySQL and phpmyadmin is choose for the database management. The minimum
requirement for the installation need to be confirmed first in order for the DBMS in the
server to run smoothly.

Moreover, the Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), and data dictionary is create
where it will explain the main basic workflow of the system.
All relationship between the tables, define the storage structures and the access
paths will be known. In the conceptual design stage, data modeling is used to create an
abstract database structure which represents the real-world objects. There are two types
of database design such as top-down design and bottom-up design. At the top-down
level, the data set is identified and data element is defined. This process involves the
identification of different entity types and the definition of each entity's attributes.
Beside that, in bottom-up design data element will be identified which also called items
and the group them together in datasets. Although these two methodologies are
balancing, but priority goes to bottom-up approach because the Clinic Management
System has a small database with few entities, attributes, relations and transactions.

Interaction with the end-users is needed in order to develop a precise description

of end user data views. After that, end-user data view will be used to identify the
databases main data elements. Business rules that extract from a detailed description will
help to create actions within the organizations environment. The business rules defined
will properly describe the entities, attributes, relationship and connectivity and

d. Implementation

During this phase, the database management that has been design will be load
and implement. I install the database that has been design for the system. The data will
be load to create tables and defined the relationship.

e. Testing

The next phase of DBLC is testing and evaluations. Once the data have been load
into the database, the database is test for performance, integrity, and concurrent access
and security constraints. Other than that, testing and evaluate the system parallel with
application programming is done.
AAer the evaluation stage, it can pass through the operational system. This phase
involve all the users in Clinic Management system that will use this system. In this stage
it can be define that the users meets their requirement. Once the data loaded into the
database, the processes such as tests and fine-tunes will be carried out for purposes of
performance, integrity, and concurrent access and security constraints.

The testing and evaluation phase occurs in parallel with applications

programming. If the database implementation fails to meet the user's requirement,
several options will be consider in order enhancing the system.

g. Evaluation and Maintenance

Maintenance and evolution is the last stage in the methodology and it also life
time stage. The system developer will perform routine maintenance to the Clinic
Management System which periodic maintenance require doing on the system backup,
recovery, enhancing or normal maintenance.

2.4 Project Requirements

2.4.1 Software Requirement

a. Equipment/developmenttools (eg: LI)E/Microsofi Project)

Macromedia Dreamweaver 8

Microsoft Project

Microsoft Visio

Adobe Photoshop

b. Operating systemlserver (eg: OS/Web serverIApp Server)


Windows XP Professional

c. Database system (eg: OracleIMS SQL ServerIMySQL)


2.4.2 Hardware Requirement


o Intel Pentium I11 with CPU 300MHZ and 300 MI3 of RAM

2.43 Other Requirement

LAN (Local Area Network)

2.5 Project Schedule and Milestones

This section will discuss about the milestones which will be the guideline for the
PSM project. The Gantt chart is provided to describe the details of the project schedule.

Table 2.1 :Project Schedule and Milestones

Activity Dura Start Date End Date Milestones/Deliverable

1. PSM Seminar 1d 9/5/2007 9/5/2007 Topic and supervisor
2. Proposal Project 5d 7/5/2007 11/5/2007 Complete proposal
approval by project
3. Project approval 5d 9/5/2007 11/5/2007 Topic approved
by PSM committee
4. Build and do 10d 14/5/2007 25/5/2007 Report chapter I and

chapter Chapter I1
I(introducti0n) and
chapter I1
(Literature review
& project
5. Chapter I11 5d 4/6/2007 8/6/2007 Report chapter I11
6. Chapter IV 5d 11/6/2007 15/6/2007 Report chapter IV
Evaluation Report
and project
7. Submit PSM 1 5d 18/6/2007 22/6/2007 PSM 1 report
8. Presentation 5d 25/6/2007 29/6/2007 Presentation and
PSM 1 evaluation PSM 1
9. Build Chapter 20d 2/7/2007 27/7/2007 Detail report for chapter
IV, the detail IV
10. Chapter V 30d 301712007 3 1/8/2007 Report chapter V
11. Chapter VI 21d 3/9/2007 2 1/9/2007 Report chapter VI
12. PSM 5d 2911012007 211 112007 PSM presentation
13. Draft report 5d 211 112007 911 112007 PSM report
14. Final PSM 5d 1211112007 1611112007 Final PSM report
2.6 Conclusion

Briefly this chapter describes on literature review and project methodology.

Information for literature review is gathered from journals in library, online journal,
magazines and article. All the information is useful to support the statement from the
approaches that has been made.

In project methodology, it described about methodology that will be develop for

the system. It consists of six phases which has been explained in this section.
Furthermore, in project requirements, it tell about the software and hardware that been
choose to develop the project.

Gantt chart attached is to help to manage project schedule so that this project will
be finished on time. Managing time is the way to assuring the project can be finish
according to the plan.

Next chapter discusses about analysis where it cover problem analysis and
requirement analysis.