Popular Music Harmony 2011

©2011 m.mermikides@surrey.co.uk

The C Major Scale and its Diatonic Harmony
©2010 Mermikides

1. The 7 notes of C Major:
I II III IV V VI VII

4 &4

˙

˙

˙
tone

˙
semitone

˙
tone tone

˙
tone

˙
semitone

˙

tone Major 2nd

Major 3rd Perfect 4th Perfect 5th Major 6th Major 7th Octave

2. Triads: Root 3rd & 5th starting from each scale degree:
Major Triad: R, 3, 5
'UK' I 'US' I

(These triad types occur in the same order in any major key)
Minor Triad: R, b3, 5 Diminished Triad: R, b3, b5

& ˙ ˙ ˙

C

ii IIm Dm

˙ ˙ ˙

iii IIIm Em

˙ ˙ ˙

IV IV F

˙ ˙ ˙

V V G

˙ ˙ ˙

vi VIm Am

˙ ˙ ˙

viiº VIIº Bdim

˙ ˙ ˙

Major Diatonic Harmony Practice
m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

Reference: The diatonic triads and 7th chords of C Major.
'UK' I 'US' I

& ˙ ˙ ˙
I I^7 Cmaj7

C

ii IIm Dm

˙ ˙ ˙

iii IIIm Em

˙ ˙ ˙

IV IV F

˙ ˙ ˙

V V G

˙ ˙ ˙
V7 V7 G7

vi VIm Am

˙ ˙ ˙

viiº VIIº Bdim

˙ ˙ ˙

ii7 IIm7 Dm7

iii7 IIIm7 Em7

IV^7 IV^7 Fmaj7

iv7 VIm7 Am7

viØ VIIm7(¨5) Bm7b5 ˙

& ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

1. Find the key (add key signature), notate and analyse the following progression.
GŒ„Š7 E‹7 A‹7 D7

&
E‹7 A‹7 D7 GŒ„Š7

&

CŒ„Š7

D7

E‹7

A‹7

&

CŒ„Š7

D7

GŒ„Š7

&

2

2. Notate and write chord symbols for this progression in a key of your choice
ii7 V7 Imaj7 IVmaj7

&
viiø7 iii7 vi7

&
3. Write chord symbols and analyse with roman numerals the following chords:

### ™ w ™w & w w ### w w & w w

w w w w w w w w

w w w w w w w w

w w w w w w w w

4. Write chord symbols and analyse with roman numerals the following chords (6 chords and secondary dominants are used)

bw w &b w w w bb w & w w b nw &b b w w w

w nw w w w bw w w bw w w w

bw w w w w ww w w w w w

w w w w w nw w w

The Cycle of 5ths
©2010 Mermikides

C F
Am Dm Em

G D

Bb
Gm Bm

Eb

Cm

Cycle of 5ths
Bbm D#m Ebm G#m

F#m

A

Fm

C#m

Ab

E

Db

F# Gb

B

1. Diatonic Cycle of 5ths
©2010 Mermikides

Imaj7 I IVmaj7 IV V V7

(augmented 4th/ dimished 5th)

viiø

viiº

Diatonic Cycle of 5ths
iii iii7 vi vi7

ii

ii7

2.Composing with Diatonic harmony
©2010 Mermikides

Imaj7 I IVmaj7 IV V V7

(augmented 4th/ dimished 5th)

viiø

viiº

Diatonic Cycle of 5ths
iii iii7 vi vi7

ii

ii7

They're are no compositional 'rules' But here are some effective mechanisms to try I can jump to any chord ('I' as in 'one' not me) Any chord can jump to I (or IV or V) All other motion as indicated (dashed is less common) End on I Chords can be in there triadic, 7th or other form (6th, 9th, 13th, add9 etc.)

3.Secondary Dominant 7ths
©2010 Mermikides

C7 I7 I!7 G7
IV!7

C!7 F!7 G7

V7

Bø viiø V7/iii B7 iii7 V7/vi E7

Secondary Dominants

Dm7 ii7 V7/V

Em7

Am7 vi7 V7/ii A7

D7

4.Secondary Dominant 7ths Paths
©2010 Mermikides

C7 Gm7 I7 I!7 G7
IV!7

v7

C!7 F!7 G7

V7

Bø viiø V7/iii B7 iii7 V7/vi E7

Secondary Dominants

Dm7 ii7 V7/V

Em7

Am7 vi7 V7/ii A7

D7

The C Natural Minor Scale and its Diatonic Harmony
The 7 notes of the C natural minor scale:

b4 & b b4

˙
tone

˙
semitone

˙
tone

˙
tone

˙

˙
semitone tone

˙
tone

˙

Triads: Root 3rd & 5th starting from each scale degree: The triads in a minor key are:
Minor Triad: R, b3, 5
i iiº IIº Ddim Im Cm

Diminished Triad: R, b3, b5
III ¨III E¨ iv IVm Fm v Vm Gm

Major Triad: R, 3, 5
VI ¨VI A¨ VII ¨VII B¨

b &b b ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

7th Chords: Root 3rd 5th & 7th starting from each scale degree: The 7th chord types in a natural minor key are:
Major 7 chord: R, 3, 5, 7 Dominant 7 chord: R, 3, 5, b7
i7 Im iiøØ IIm7(¨5) Dm7b5 III^7 ¨III^7 E¨maj7

Minor 7 chord: R, b3, 5, b7 Minor 7b5 chord: R, b3, b5, b7 (Half diminished)
iv7 IVm7 Fm7 v7 Vm7 Gm7 VI^7 ¨VI^7 A¨maj7 VII7 ¨VII7 B¨7 ˙

b &b b ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Cm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

It is common in a minor key for the V chord to be changed from min7 to dom7. So here Gm7 would become G7 eg V7 - i or iiø - V7 - i.

Minor Diatonic Harmony Self-test
m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

Reference: The diatonic triads of A natural minor.
'UK' i 'US' Im

& ˙ ˙ ˙

Am

iiº IIº Bdim

˙ ˙ ˙

III ¨III C

˙ ˙ ˙

iv IV Dm

˙ ˙ ˙

v Vm Em

'UK' V 'US' V

˙ ˙ ˙

VI ¨VIm F

˙ ˙ ˙

VII ¨VII G

˙ ˙ ˙

i Im Am

˙ ˙ ˙

Common alterations from Harmonic minor:

#˙ ˙ ˙

E

viiº VIIº G©º ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙

Reference: The diatonic 7ths of A minor.
'UK' i7 'US' Im7

& ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Am

iiØ IIm7(¨5) Bdim

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

IIImaj7 ¨III^7 C^7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

iv7 IVm7 Dm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

v7 Vm7 Em

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

VI^7 ¨VI^7 F

VII7 ¨VII7 G

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Am ˙

i7 Im7

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ #˙ ˙ ˙ 1. Notate, write chord names and analyse the diatonic triads of
Common alterations from Harmonic minor:

'UK' V7 'US' V7
E7

viiº7 VIIº7 G©º7 ˙ ˙ #˙ ˙

a) sharp minor key of your choice (using a key signature)- indicate the common alterations of the v and VII chords

&
b) flat key of your choice (using a key signature) - indicate the common alterations of the v and VII chords

&

2

2. Notate, write chord names and analyse the diatonic 7th chords of a) sharp key of your choice (using a key signature) - indicate the common alterations of the v7 and VII7 chords

&
b) flat key of your choice (using a key signature) - indicate the common alterations of the v7 and VII7 chords

&
3. Notate, write chord names and key signatures for the following progression. a) Cm: iiº V7 i b) Dm: i iv V7 i

&
c) Em: VI∆7 iiø V7 i7 d) Bm: i7 bVI viiº7 i

&
4. Choose 4 different key signatures.Notate, write chord names and key signatures for iiø V7 i7

& &

Borrowing Chords from the Minor Scale-1
m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

In a major key, often chords are borrowd from the 'parallel' minor key. So in the key of C (top stave) triads from the key of C minor may be used (bottom 2 staves)

'UK' I 'US' I

& ˙ ˙ ˙
i Im Cm

C

ii IIm Dm

˙ ˙ ˙

iii IIIm Em

˙ ˙ ˙

IV IV F

˙ ˙ ˙

V V G

˙ ˙ ˙
v Vm Gm

vi VIm Am

˙ ˙ ˙

viiº VIIº Bdim

˙ ˙ ˙

iiº IIº Ddim

III

iv IVm Fm

VI

VII ¨VII B¨

& b˙ ˙ ˙

b˙ ˙ ˙

b˙ b˙ ˙

¨III E¨

b˙ ˙ ˙

b˙ ˙ ˙

b˙ b˙ ˙

¨VI A¨

˙ b˙ ˙

Common uses
The 'subdominant minor' IVm, iv iv I the bVI bVII I bVI bVII I

˙ b˙ & ˙ ˙

Fm

C

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

bœ bœ œ
'Epic'

œ bœ œ
minor key

n˙ ˙ ˙
major key

C

minor key The 'Beatles' chord

major key

2

Borrowing Chords from the Minor Scale-2

I

ii7 IIm7 Dm7

iii7 IIIm7 Em7

IV^7 IV^7 Fmaj7

V7 V7 G7

iv7 VIm7 Am7

viØ VIIm7(¨5) Bm7b5 ˙

& ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

I^7 Cmaj7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

i7 Im

iiøØ7 IIm7(¨5) Dm7b5

III^7 ¨III^7 E¨maj7

iv7 IVm7

v7 Vm7 Gm7

VI^7 ¨VI^7 A¨maj7

VII7 ¨VII7

& bb˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Cm7

b˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙

b˙ b˙ ˙ ˙

Fm7

˙ b˙ ˙ ˙

b˙ ˙ b˙ ˙

bB¨7 ˙ ˙ b˙ ˙

Common 7th chord uses
The 'subdominant minor7' IVm7, iv7 iv7 Imaj7 The bIIImaj7 and bVImaj7 Imaj7 Cmaj7 bIIImaj7 bVImaj7 V7 E¨maj7 A¨maj7 G7 Imaj7 Cmaj7

b˙ b˙ & ˙ ˙

Fm7

Cmaj7

minor key

major key

n˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

bœ œ œ œ

bœ œ bœ œ

major key

œ œ œ bœ

nœ œ œ œ

bw w w w

minor key Minor to major ii-V

major key

iiøØ7

V7 G7

I^7 Cmaj7

œ & bœ œ œ

Dm7b5

œœ œ œ

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

minor key

major key

ii - V - I Voice Leading
The 'guide tones' in 7th chords are the 3rd and 7th - determining much of the character of the chord. In a ii-V-i progression the guide tones moves in a particularly elegant fashion (indicated)

{ { {

{

Motion of 'guide' tones (3rd and 7th)
D‹7 G7

w & w ? w

w w w

CŒ„Š7

w w w

A different voicing.
D‹7 G7

& w w ? w

w w w

CŒ„Š7

w w w

The motion is similar, but not identical in a 'minor ii-V.' The flat 5 in the ii chord is not technically a guide tone but is included for context Motion of 'guide' tones (3rd and 7th)
D‹7(b5) G7

w & w ? bw w

w w w

bbw w w
C‹7

C‹7

Motion of 'guide' tones (3rd and 7th)
D‹7(b5) G7

& w w ? bw w

w w w

bw bw w

Chord Directory - 1

m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

(Almost) all the chord symbols you'll ever need. There'll always be more but all 'standard' chords should be derivable from these...

1-note
C pedal

& w
C5

[R]

2-note

& w w

[R, 5]

C(b5)

bw w

[R,♭5]

3-note (triads)
C

[R, 3, 5]

C‹

[R, ♭3, 5]

C&

[R, 3, ♯5]

[R, ♭3, ♭5]

& w w w

(major, maj)

bw w w
C(“4)

(minor, min, -)

#w w w
C(“2)

(aug, #5)

bbw w w

(diminished, dim)

3-note (sus chords)
[R, 4, 5] [R, 2, 5]

& ww w (sus)
CŒ„Š7 C7 C‹7

ww w
4-note (7th chords)
C‹7(b5) Cº7

[R, 3, 5, 7]

[R, 3, 5, ♭7]

[R, ♭3, 5, ♭7]

[R, ♭3, ♭5, 7]

[R, ♭3, ♭5, ♭♭7]

&

w w w w

bw w w w bw w w w

w bbw w w #w w w w

bbbw w w w bbw w w w

bb∫w w w w #bw w w w

C‹(Œ„Š7) [R, b3, 5, 7] CŒ„Š7(b5) [R, 3, ♭5, 7] CŒ„Š7(#5) [R, 3, #5, 7]

C7(b5) [R, 3, ♭5, ♭7] C7(#5) [R, 3, #5, ♭7]

& bw w w w

2

Chord Directory - 2
4-note (6th chords)
C6

m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

[R, 3, 5, 6]

C‹6

[R, ♭3, 5, 6]

C(b6)

[R, 3, 5, ♭6]

C‹(b6)

[R, ♭3, 5, ♭6]

& ww w w

bww w w

bww w w

bbww w w

4-note (add and sus chords)

C(„ˆˆ9)

[R, 3, 5, 9]

C‹(„ˆˆ9)

[R, ♭3, 5, 9]

C7(“4)

[R, 4, 5, ♭7]

& ww w w

bww w w

bww w w

5-note (9th chords)

CŒ„Š9

&

w w w w w

[R, 3, 5, 7, 9]

bw w bw w w

C‹9

[R, ♭3, 5, 7, 9]

bw w w w w

C9

[R, 3, 5, ♭7, 9]

w & bbw w w w

C7(b9)

[R, 3, 5, ♭7, ♭9]

b#w w w w w

C7(#9)

[R, 3, 5, ♭7, #9] C(“9)

bww w w w

[R, 4, 5, ♭7, 9] C(“4b9) [R, 4, 5, ♭7, ♭9]

bbww w w w

C%

&

ww w w w

[R, 3, 5, 6, 9]

C‹%

ww bw w w

[R, ♭3, 5, 6, 9]

6-note (11th chords)

3

Technically 11th chords include a root, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 11th. But '11' is also used to mean a 7th chord with an added 11th and no 9th (sometimes called 7add11) In addition, C11 is sometimes used as an (incorrect) shorthand for C9sus (R, 4, 5, ♭7, 9, ♭11) which has no 3rd. So the 'rare' 3rds ar bracketed below. The only common 'real' 11 chord is a min11 chord. #11 chords, however are often found.

&

Csus11 [R, (3), 5, 7, 9, 11] [R, (3), 5, ♭7, 9, 11] [R, ♭3, 5, ♭7, 9, 11] [R, ♭3, ♭5, ♭7, (9), 11] [R, (4), 5, ♭7, 9, 11] (a 5-note chord)

CŒ„Š11

C11

C‹11

C‹11(b5)

C9(“4)

w w w w w w

w bw w w w w

w bw w bw w w

w w bbbw w w w

w bww w w w

#w w & w w w w

CŒ„Š7(#11)

[R, 3, 5, 7, 9, #11]

w b#w w w w w

C7(#11)

C‹7(#11)

[R, 3, 5, ♭7, 9, #11]

w bb#w w w w w

[R, ♭3, 5, ♭7, 9, #11]

C‹(Œ„Š7#11)

#w w bw w w w

[R, ♭3, 5, 7, 9, #11]

The most common the above are Cm11, Csus11, Cmaj7(#11) and C7(#11) The latter two are often played without 5ths

7-note (13th chords)
13th chords technically contain root, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 11th and 13th (all 7 notes). However the 11th, unless on a min13 chord is very rarely intended, the 9th often (but not always) is, and unless indicated otherwise, as a natural 9th (D on a C13). Often a 13th chord just implies root, 3rd, 5th, 7th and 13th (ie C7add13) unless other degrees are stated (eg. C7(b9/13). Some but not all 13th chords are listed below, although you should be able to derive most from those below.
CŒ„Š13 CŒ„Š13(#11) C13 C13(#11)

w bw w &bw w w w

[R, 3, 5, ♭7, ♭9, (11), 13] [R, 3, 5, ♭7, 9, (11), ♭13] [R, 3, 5, ♭7, ♭9, (11), 13] [R, 3, 5, ♭7, ♭9, (11), ♭13] [R, 3, 5, ♭7, #9, (11), ♭13]

C13(b9)

w w w & w w w w

[R, 3, 5, 7, 9, (11), 13][R, 3, 5, 7, 9, #11, 13] [R, 3, 5, ♭7, 9, (11), 13][R, 3, 5, ♭7, 9, #11, 13]

#w w w w w w w C13(#9)

C7[áÆ]

w w bw w w w w

C9(b13)

w w b#w w w w w

C7[äÆ]

w #w bw w w w w

bw w bbw w w w w

bw w bw w w w w

bw w b#w w w w w

7-note (Altered)
[R, 3, ♭5, ♭7, ♭9, #9, ♭13]

#bbw ww &b b w w w w
C7½

An altered dominant (alt.) chord includes a root, 3rd and ♭7 and any number (or all) extensions from an altered scale. (ie. ♭9,#9, #11/♭5, ♭13)

Passing Diminished Chords
m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk Diminished chords are often used as passing chords between chords I, ii and iii in either direction. Imaj7 #Iº7 IIm7 #IIº7 IIIm7 bIIIº7 IIm7 bIIº7

& V

CŒ„Š7

V

C©º7

V

V
I

D‹7

V

V

D©º7

V

V

E‹7

V

V

E¨º7

V

V

D‹7

V

V

D¨º7

V

V

The #IVº7 chord is often used between chords IV and a 2nd inversion I chord I7
C7/G

IVmaj7
FŒ„Š7

#IVº7
F©º7

IV7

#IVº7
F©º7

& V V V V

C/G

V V V V

F7

V V V V

V V V V

The bVII7 chord
The bVII7 chord (borrowed from the parallel minor) is sometimes used as a resolution to I Imaj7
CŒ„Š7

The bVII7 chord may also be preceded by a related II. We could call this the 'Aeolian ii-V' as it is drawn from the Aeolian mode and is quite common. IVm7
F‹7

bVII7
B¨7

Imaj7
CŒ„Š7

bVII7
B¨7

Imaj7
CŒ„Š7

& V V V V

The bVII chord from Mixolydian
I
C

V V V V

V V V V

V V V V

The bVII major triad, particularly when in proximity to a major IV chord is a very common rock device and can be seen as being drawn from the parallel mixolydian mode. bVII

IV
F

IVmaj7
FŒ„Š7

bVIImaj7
B¨Œ„Š7

I
C

& V V V V

V V V V

The bVII7(#11)
Imaj7

V V V V

V V V V

The bVII7 chord when it includes a #11 (and/or 9) is a common jazz device, not borrowed from parallel minor but Mixolydian b13 (a melodic minor mode) Imaj7 bVII7(#11) bVII9(#11)

& V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

B¨7(#11)

V

V

V

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

B¨9(#11)

V

V

V

V

Tritone Substitution
m.j.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk Taking another look at the guide tones in the ii-V-I progression, we notice that the 3rd and 7th of the dominant chord form a tritone interval.

{

{

Motion of 'guide' tones (3rd and 7th)
D‹7

w & w ? w

3rd 7th

7th 3rd

G7

w w w

CŒ„Š7

3rd

7th Root

w w w

Root

Root

Since the tritone interval may be inverted. This implies that a dominant chord a tritone away may be substituted with the guide tones maintained (with an enharmonic adjustment).

w & w ? w

3rd 7th

D‹7

bw w bw

3rd

D¨7

CŒ„Š7

3rd

7th (B-nat = Cflat)

7th

w w w

Root

Root

Root

Notice that the tritone substitution dominant chord now resolves down a semitone rather than a 5th, When a 'sub V' resolves down a semitone, let's analyse it with a dashed arrow. Similarly, a min7 or min7(b5) chord going down a semitone to a dominant chord gets a dashed bracket. IIm7 subV7 Imaj7

& V

D‹7

V

V

D¨7

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

SubVs may be preceded by min7 chords a 5th above subV7 Imaj7

& V

A¨‹7

V

D¨7

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

Tritone subs often have 9ths and /or #11 intervals added. The latter sometimes written as b5.

2

And occasionally standard dominants may be preceded by min7 (or min7b5) chords a semitone above. V7 Imaj7 And substitute secondary dominants may also exist

& V

A¨‹7(b5)

V

G7

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

And substitute secondary dominants may also exist, with related IIs of both types.

Imaj7

subV7/IV

IVmaj7

subV7/II

& V

CŒ„Š7

V

D¨‹7(b5)

V

G¨9(#11)

V

V

FŒ„Š7

V

E‹7(b5)

V

E¨9

V

IIm7

subV7

Imaj7

& V

D‹7

V

D¨9(#11)

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V
subV7

V
Imaj7

V

Pick a key and write chord symbols for the following progression Imaj7

& V & V & V

Analyse in the key of F, the following progression and mark with symbols. It's a bit tricky...
A¨‹7 D¨9(#11)

V

subV7/II

V

V

IIm7

V

V

V

V

FŒ„Š7

V V
G¨7(b5)

V

V

V
A¨7

C7

V
D¨7(#9) G¨7(#11)

A‹7

V

A¨7

V

G‹7

V

V

FŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

+

F%

Jazz Analysis - 1
Example Analysis
E7 A7 D‹7 G7

m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

& V V V V

BØ7

A‹7

Identify the key (it may not be in the key signature) usually ends on tonic and write out the diatonic 7th chords for reference if necessary

V V V V

V V V V

CŒ„Š7

V V V V

Label any diationic chords correctly ('US' used here)
VIIm7(b5) VIm7 IIm7 V7 Imaj7

& V

BØ7

V

V

E7

V

A‹7

V

V

A7

V

V

D‹7

V

V

G7

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

Check for any dominant chords a 5th above diatonic chords (see 'Secondary Dominant 7ths')

Label any dominant chord a 5th above a diatonic chord.
VIIm7(b5) V7 /VI VIm7
A‹7

V7 /II

IIm7

V7

Imaj7

& V

BØ7

V

V

E7

V

V

V

A7

V

V

D‹7

V

V

G7

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

Draw Arrows for dominant chords resolving down a 5th
IIm7 V7 Imaj7

VIIm7(b5)

V7 /VI

VIm7
A‹7

V7 /II

& V

BØ7

V

V

E7

V

V

V

A7

V

V

D‹7

V

V

G7

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

Draw brackets for minor 7 (or half-dim) chords resolving down a 5th to dom.
VIIm7(b5) V7 /VI VIm7 V7 /II IIm7 V7 Imaj7

& V

BØ7

V

V

E7

V

A‹7

V

V

A7

V

V

D‹7

V

V

G7

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

2

Only fill in what you can from page 1 for now

Test 1

& V

GŒ„Š7

V

V

V

G7

V

V

V

V

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

E7

V

V

V

V

& V

A‹7

V

V

V

D7

V

V

V

V

GŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

Test 2

& V

AŒ„Š7

V

V

V

F©7

V

V

V

V

B‹7

V

V

V

V

E7

V

V

V

V

& V

C©‹7(b5)

V

V

V

F©7

V

V

V

V

B‹7

V

V

E7

V

V

AŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

Test 3

& V

FŒ„Š7

V

V

V
D¨7

E7

V

V

V
G‹7

V

A‹7

V

V
C7

V

V

D7

V

V
FŒ„Š7

V

V

& V V V V

A¨‹7

V V V V

V V V V

V V V V

V V V V

The 12- Bar Blues (Major)
This is the very basic form based around I7, IV7 and V7. In this case I7 and IV7 are not considered secondary dominants as they do not have the same tendency to drop down a 5th. IV7 does not compel a resolution down a 5th and a piece can happily start and end on I7. Consider these dominant chords as idiomatic substitutions for I and IV (ot Imaj7 and IVmaj7) Note that the 12 bars are divided into 3 groups of 4 bars and that I, IV and V begin each group.
Basic Form

&4 V V 4 & V V

I7 'Statement'

V V V V

V V
IV7

V V V V V V

V V V V
I7

V V V V V V

V V ™™

IV7 'Restatement'

V

V

V

V

& V V V V

V7 'Response'

V V V V
'quick change'

I7

V V V V

V V V V

The basic form is often embellished with harmonic inflections, the 'quick change', the #IVº7 and the 'turnaround'.

& V

I7

V

V

V

IV7

V

V

V

V

V

I7

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

The #IVº7 raises the root of the IV7

& V

IV7

V

V

V

#IVº7

V

V

V

V

I7

The 'turnaround', the last 2 bars, is a little turn resolving the harmony back to the beginning of the form. There are many variations, 4 of them are given below I7 I7 I7 I7 V7 IV7 VIm7 I7 IIm7 V7 V7 V7

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

& V V V V
V7

IV7

V V V V

V V V V

V V V V

™™

2

A 'jazz blues' takes the basic 12-bar blues form and embellishes it with secondary dominants. Bars 9 and 10 are typically IIm7 to V7 rather than V7 to IV7. Jazz-blues appear in many different forms and a typical example is given below. Although not written, 7th chords are often extended to 9ths, 11ths and 13ths for added colour I7 IV7 I7 Vm7 V7/IV

& V

C7

V

V

V

F7

V

V

V

V

C7

V

V

V

V

G‹7

V

V

C7

V

V

IV7

#IVº7

I7

IIIm7(b5)

V7/II

& V
F9

V

V

V

F©º7

V

V

V

V

C7

V

V

V
VIm7
A‹7

V

E‹7(b5)

V

V

A7

V

V ™™

IIm7

V7
G7

I7
C7

IIm7
D‹7

V7
G7

& V V V V
D‹7

V V V V

V V V V

V V V V

A complex jazz-blues progression is found in Charlie Parker's 'Blues For Alice' Even though there is much embellishment of harmony, the 3 basic 4-bar divisions are still in place (analysed below). A jazz analysis on the remaining chords will be helpful in unravelling its complexity.

I7

&b V

FŒ„Š7

V

V

V

E‹7(b5)

V

V

V

A7

V

D‹7

V

V

G7

V

V

C‹7

V

V

F7

V

V

IV7

&b V
B¨7

V

V

V

B¨‹7

V

V

E¨7

V

V

A‹7

V

V

D7

V

V

A¨‹7

V

V

D¨7

V

V ™™

IIm7

V7
C7

&b V V V V
G‹7

V V V V

F6

V V V V
D7

G‹7

V V V V
C7

Rhythm Changes
This is the basic form of a rhythm changes. Deviations from this form occur but usually only minimally, through secondary dominants, passing diminished chords, tritone substitution, and related ii chords, to the dominants (particularly on the bridge). Maj7 and 6 chords are interchanged. This is a very important musical form to know by heart and you will recognize it in tunes such as The Flintstones,I've Got A Rhythm (Gershwin) and Jumpin' at the Woodside (Basie)
A1

Imaj7

V7/II
A7

IIm7
D‹7

V7

IIIm7
E‹7

V7/II
A7

IIm7
D‹7

V7
G7

&4 V V 4
Imaj7

CŒ„Š7

V7/IV
C7

V V V V V V V V

IVmaj7
FŒ„Š7

V

V V V
IVm6

G7

IIIm7
E‹7

V V V V
V7/II

IIm7

V V V
V7
G7

V V V V V V V

& V
A2

CŒ„Š7

V V V V V V

V

V

V V V V V V

F‹6

V

V V V V V V

V

V V V V V V

A7

V

V V V V V V

D‹7

V

V V
V7
G7

V

Imaj7

V7/II
A7

IIm7
D‹7

V7
G7

IIIm7
E‹7

V7/II
A7

IIm7
D‹7

V7
G7

& V & V & V
E7

CŒ„Š7

V

V

V

V

V

V

V

Imaj7
CŒ„Š7

V7/IV
C7

IVmaj7
FŒ„Š7

IVm6
F‹6

IIIm7
E‹7

V7/II
A7

IIm7
D‹7

I6
C6

B

V

V

V

V

V

V

V V V V

V V V

V7/VI

& V
D7
A3

V7/V

V V
V7/II
A7

V V
IIm7
D‹7

V V
V7
G7

V7/II
A7

V7
G7

V

V V
V7/II
A7

V V
IIm7
D‹7

V V

Imaj7

IIIm7
E‹7

V7
G7

& V

CŒ„Š7

Imaj7

V7/IV
C7

V

IVmaj7
FŒ„Š7

V

IVm6
F‹6

V

IIIm7
E‹7

V7/II
A7

V

IIm7

V

V7
G7

I6
C6

V

Note that the A sections are made of I-vi-ii-V implications (bars 1-2, 3-4 and 7-8) and a move to the IV then IVm6 from the parallel minor (bars 5-6). The bridge (B section) is a series of dominant chords descending 5ths before resolving to the original key (A 'cycle V'). As an exercise, identify with arrows all the resolving dominant chords, and with brackets, ii-V relationships. Hunt through jazz books to find and analyse rhythm changes. Anthropology, Oleo and Cotton Tail should get you started, and give you ideas for composition.

& V V V V
CŒ„Š7

V V V V

V V V V

D‹7

V V V V

™™

Chromatically Embellished Static Harmony
There are harmonic progressions that may be described as a chord with a chromatically altered scale degree. Below are some common examples ©2010 Mermikides Major Triad with moving 5th (5,+5,6,+5) I I+ I6 I+
C C& C6 C&

& w w w
Im

#w w w
Im+
C‹& C‹

nww w w
Im6
C‹6

#w w w
Im+
C‹&

Minor Triad with moving 5th (5,+5,6,+5)

b &b b w w w
I
C

#w w w

nw w w
I7
C7

#w w w

Major Triad with moving Root/7th (R,7,b7,6) Imaj7
CŒ„Š7

I6
C6

OR

IV

& w w w w
I
C

w w w w

bw w w w

˙˙ ˙ ˙
OR

...similar progression with bass motion
C/B

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙
IV (1st inv.)
F/A

F

Imaj7 (3rd inv.)

I7 (3rd inv.)

VIm7
A‹7

& w w w
Im

w w w

w bw w

C/B¨

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Minor Triad with moving Root/7th (R,7,b7,6) Im(maj7)
C‹(Œ„Š7)

Im7

Im6
C‹6

OR

IV9
F9

b &b b w w w w

C‹

nw w w w

...similar progression with bass motion

bw w w w

C‹7

n˙˙ ˙ ˙

˙˙ ˙˙ ˙

Im

Im(maj7) (3rd inv.)
C‹/B

Im7 (3rd Inv.)
C‹/B¨

VIm7(b5)

IV9 (1st inv.)

b &b b w w w

C‹

w nw w

w bw w

A‹7(b5) OR IV9 C‹/A F9/A

˙ ˙ n˙ ˙

˙˙ ˙ n˙ ˙

The IV-I and cycles
m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk Much of the course material has focused on the V-I resolution, which is a fundamental component of tonal harmony. However in rock, pop, folk and modal music the IV-I is an equally important resolution. In classical music a IV-I resolution may be called a plagal cadence (The 'a-men' of a hymn)

{

Here's one of many possible voicings
F C

w w & w ? w

w w w w
IV I

The IV-I appears very often in rock and pop tunes, perhaps as frequently as the V-I. Often IV is interjected between V and I in a resolution. V
G

& V

V

V

V

V

F

V

V

V

V

C

V

V

V

In rock, blues and pops major triads are often extended to dominant 7 chords (even if they are non-diatonic) The V7-IV7-I7 is found in the last 4 bars of a basic blues form.

V7

IV7

I7

& V V V V
G7

V V V V
F7

V V V V
C7

V V V V

The IV-I also forms part of one of the most common chord sequences in rock and pop music: The I-V-vi-IV progression. See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pidokakU4I I
C

& ™™ V

V

VIm

IV

V

G

V

V

A‹

V

V

V
F

V

™™

2 The IV-I resolution may be extended backwards by one step. This is a very common rock sequence, which involves major triads gong down in 4ths. The I, IV and bVII all appear in the mixolydian mode, which is implied by the sequence. bVII IV (down 4th) I (down 4th)

& V

V

V
F

V

C

V

V

V

V

In the bridge of a rhythm section for example, a series of dominant chords can be linked together, with each resolving down a 5th until they arrive at the I chord. A series of 4th-descending major triads may also be linked together. In the following sequence this pattern of major triads means that the first three chords are derived from the (C) natural minor scale, while the last 2 are from the major key. This exact sequence is used, in the key of E, in Jimi Hendrix's Hey Joe. Because a minor pentatonic scale can be played over both a minor and major key, it can be used over this entire sequence. Minor Mixolydian Major bVI

bIII

bVII

& V V V V

(down 4th) (down 4th) (down 4th) (down 4th)

V V V V
F

IV

V V V V
C

I

V V V V

The Derivation of Modes
©2010 Mermikides

The major scale has a particular pattern of tones and semitones.
I II III IV V VI VII

4 &4

˙
tone

˙

˙
tone

˙
semitone

˙
tone tone

˙
tone

˙
semitone

˙

Since these intervals are not regular, we get a different pattern, and set of scale degrees depending from which of the 7 notes we start with. Each of these 7 starting points gives a 'mode' of the major scale and each has its own distinct and beautiful character, harmonic language and repertoire.

1. IONIAN
Mode 1: Starting on the 1st degree: Ionian. In this case: C Ionian (C, D, E, F, G, A, B) with degrees (R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) Identical, of course, to the major scale.

&

˙

˙
tone

˙
semitone

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

2. DORIAN
Mode 2: Starting on the 2nd degree: Dorian. In this case: D Dorian (D, E, F, G, A, B, C) with degrees (R, 2, b3, 4, 5, 6, b7) Natural minor with a 'sweet' and 'funky' major 6th.

& ˙
tone

˙
semitone

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

3. PHRYGIAN
Mode 3: Starting on the 3rd degree: Phrygian. In this case: E Phrygian (E, F, G, A, B, C, D) with degrees (R, b2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7) Natural minor with a 'sinister' and 'moorish' minor 2nd.

& ˙
semitone

˙
tone

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

2

4. LYDIAN
Mode 4: Starting on the 4th degree: Lydian. In this case: F Lydian (F, G, A, B, C, D, E) with degrees (R, 2, 3, #4, 5, 6, 7) Major with a 'bright' and 'magical' raised (augmented) 4th.

& ˙
tone

˙

˙

˙
semitone

˙

˙

˙

˙

5. MIXOLYDIAN
Mode 5: Starting on the 5th degree: Mixolydian. In this case: G Mixolydian (G, A, B, C, D, E, F) with degrees (R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7) Major with a 'bluesy' and 'majestic' flattened 7th.

& ˙
tone

˙

˙
semitone

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

6. AEOLIAN
Mode 6: Starting on the 6th degree: Aeolian. In this case: A Aeolian (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) with degrees (R, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7) Just like natural minor but without the alteration of the 6th and 7th degrees as found in typical tonal harmony. Aeolian is a 'bleak' and 'sorrowful' mode.

& ˙
tone

˙
semitone

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

7. LOCRIAN

Mode 7: Starting on the 7th degree: Locrian. In this case: B Aeolian (B, C, D, E, F, G, A) with degrees (R, b2, b3, 4, b5, b6, b7) Phrygian with a flattened 5th. Locrian's diminished quality is 'demonic' and 'twisted'.

& ˙
semitone

˙
tone

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

˙

Writing Modal Chord Progressions

3

Since 7 modes are derived from one scale, they all share the same notes, and diatonic chords. How then can we make, for example D Dorian sound different to E Phrygian or F Lydian? Here are 5 methods to help write effective chord progressions. You don't need to use them all, but they are excellent principles.

1. Return to Root Chord often
Use the 'root chord' regularly e.g. A minor or Aminor 7 in A Aeolian. This should occur on strong beats and bars (Every downbeat, or on every 2 or 4 bars for example)
A aeolian: Root chord appears on the downbeat every 2 bars, solidifying mode.

& ™™ V V V V
A‹ D‹

FŒ„Š7

V V V V

E‹7

A‹7

V V V V

G

V V V V

F

G

™™

2. Use a Pedal Tone
By keeping the root of the mode constantly below diatonic chords, the mode is clearly established.
F Lydian: Root of mode is kept as a pedal tone below diatonic chords, solidifying mode.

& ™™ V V V V
FŒ„Š7 G/F

A‹7/F

3. Static root chord with modal bass line

V V V V

G/F

FŒ„Š7

V V V V

G/F

A‹7/F

V V V V

E‹7/F

™™

By keeping the root of the mode constant above a modal bassline, the mode is clearly established.
G mixolydian: Root chord of G is kept constant while the bass line outlines important notes of the mode.

& ™™ V V V V
G G/F

G/E

4. Non-triadic harmony

V V V V

G/F

G

V V V V

G/F

G/E

V V V V

G/C G/F

™™

To avoid tonal references, chords can be constructed in 2nd, 4ths, 5ths and 7ths (and combinations there of) rather than just 3rds
D Dorian: These chords are built in 4ths creating a more 'open'
D‹11 E‹11

˙ & ™™ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

CŒ„Š11

E‹11

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

™™

5. Character
Discover the 'character' chords of the mode - the chords that best describe the mode and show its unique identity - and use them. The melody should also contain the character notes of each mode, and return to the root often. The character notes and chords are described for 5 very useful modes below.

4

Dorian
A Dorian

Let's look at the dorian mode, and choose A dorian so we can easily see its relationship to A natural minor. Since A dorian is derived from G major (the 2nd mode of G major) we'll use one sharp in the key signature. However A (and not G) should be considered the root, and we'll work out all scale degrees and chords with A as the root. The scale degrees are (R,2,b3,4,5,6,b7)

&

#

Root

˙

Maj2

˙

Min3

Ä ˙

˙

P4

˙

Ä ( #) ˙

˙
Min7

˙
Octave

P5

Maj6

Note that Dorian is different from natural minor in that it has a major 6th (not minor 6th) - in this case F# not F This is its character note. In fact it is the presence of both a minor 3rd and major 6th that gives much of Dorian's vibe. Here are the triads of A Dorian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character major 6th (F#) are underlined. The IIm and IV are the most common dorian modal chords (the VIº ir unstable and not commonly found) A Dorian A‹

& ˙ ˙ ˙

#

B‹

C

D

Im

IIm

˙ ˙ ˙

bIII

˙ ˙ ˙

IV

˙ ˙ ˙

E‹

Vm

˙ ˙ ˙

F©º

˙ ˙ ˙

G

w w w

VIº

bVII

And here are the 7th chords with roman numeral analysis. A very common and effective Dorian chord is the IV7, as it contains both the minor 3rd and major 6th of the mode. Of the seventh chords IIm7, IV7 are the most often used to describe Dorian modality, but most of the other diatonic chords may be found in progressions. In addition the Im6 is chord is often used. A DorianA‹7

# & ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

B‹7

Im7

IIm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

CŒ„Š7

bIIImaj7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

D7

IV7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

E‹7

Vm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

F©‹7(b5)

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

GŒ„Š7

w w w w

VIø7

bVIImaj7

There are may examples of the Dorian mode in popular music here are a few: So What - Miles Davis (alternates between D Dorian and Eb Dorian) Scarborough Fair and Drunken Sailor traditional songs, Pink Floyd 'Another Brick in the Wall' ( D Dorian:Dm7, F, C, G Im7, bIII, bVII, IV) The classic arpeggio of 'Sine On You Crazy Diamond' (G dorian. and most of the 'Dark Side of the Moon' album (E Dorian: Em (or Emadd9,Em7) to A7-Im to IV7) The opening riff of Lenny Kravitz' 'Always On the Run' (E dorian) Beatles - Eleanor Rigby (Verse melody in E dorian) Joe Satriani - 'Ice 9' opening melody (C# dorian) Loads of funk tunes: eg 'Brick House' - Commodores 'Le Freak' Chic Moondance - Van Morrison. The verses are Am Bm/A C/A Bm/A Oye Como Va - Santana (Am D7 -Im IV7)

Phrygian
A Phrygian

5

Now Let's look at the 3rd mode, the phrygian mode, and choose A phrygian so we can easily see its relationship to A. Since this is derived from F major (the 3rd mode of F major) we'll use one flat in the key signature. However A (and not F) should be considered the root, and we'll work out all scale degrees and chords with F as the root. The scale degrees are (R,b2,b3,4,5,b6,b7)

&b

Root

˙

Ä ( b)˙

Min2

Min3

˙

˙

P4

˙

˙
Min6

˙
Min7

˙
Octave

P5

Note that Phrygian is different from natural minor in that it has a minor 2nd (not major 2nd) - in this case Bb not B This is the character note of Phrygian which gives it its unique 'flamenco' quality. Here are the triads of A Phrygian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character minor 2nd (Bb) are underlined. The bIIm and bVIIm are the most common phrygian modal triads (the Vº if unstable and not commonly used) A Phrygian A‹
C Eº F G‹

&b ˙ ˙ ˙

D‹

Im

bII

˙ ˙ ˙

bIII

˙ ˙ ˙

IVm

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙
bVI

w w w

bVIIm

Here are the seventh chords of A phrygian with roman numeral analysis. Of the seventh chords bIImaj7 and bVIIm7 are the most often used to describe Phrygian modality, but most of the other diatonic chords may be found in progressions. In additional the Im(addb9) chord is also used. Also note that 'power chords' (chords with just roots and fifths) are found in Phrygian (and other modal) contexts. A Phrygian

&b ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

A‹7

B¨Œ„Š7

Im7

bIImaj7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

C7

bIII7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

D‹7

IVm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

E‹7(b5)

Vm7(b5)

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

FŒ„Š7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

G‹7

w w w w

VIø7

bVIIm7

There are may examples of the Phrygian mode in popular music, particularly when 'spanish' and sinister atmospheres are required. Here are a few: White Rabbit - Jefferson Airplane. (F#5 and G5 and the notes from F# phrygian are used) Symphony of Destruction - Megadeth (the opening riff uses E5, F5 and G5 from E Phrygian) The God That Failed - Metallica (Eb5, Fb5, Gb5, Bb5 from Eb Phrygian) War - Joe Satriani (E5 and Fmaj7(#11) from E phrygian)

6

Lydian
C Lydian

The 4th mode of the major scale, the Lydian mode, is often found in film soundtracks for its 'floating' and 'magical' quality. The lydian mode can be derived from C major from F to F. If we calculate Lydian with a root of C,we can easily see how it compares to a major scale. In this case we get an F# instead of an F. Lydian is a major scale with a raised (augmented) 4th. (R, 2, 3, #4, 5, 6, 7)

&

#

Root

˙

Maj2

˙

Maj3

˙

Ä ( #) ˙
#4

˙
P5

˙
Maj6

˙
Maj7

˙
Octave

Note that Lydian is different from major in that it has an augmented 4th (not perfect 4th) - in this case F# not F This is the character note of Lydian which gives it its unique 'magical' quality. Here are the triads of C Lydian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character augmented 4th (F#) are underlined. The II and VIIm are the most common lydian modal triads (the #IVº if unstable and not commonly used) C Lydian

# & ˙ ˙ ˙
C

D

I

II

˙ ˙ ˙

E‹

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

G

˙ ˙ ˙

A‹

˙ ˙ ˙

B‹

w w w

IIIm

#IVº

V

VIm

VIIm

Here are the seventh chords of C lydian with roman numeral analysis. Of the seventh chords II7 (often in 3rd inv.), Vmaj7 and VIIm7 are the most often used to describe Lydian modality, but most of the other diatonic chords may be found in progressions. In addition the Imaj7(#11) chord is also used.

C Lydian

& ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

#

CŒ„Š7

D7

Imaj7

II7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

E‹7

IIIm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

F©‹7(b5)

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

GŒ„Š7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

A‹7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

B‹7

w w w w

IVm7

Vm7(b5)

VIm7

bVIIm7

There are many examples of the Lydian mode in popular and film music, particularly when a floating and magical atmospheres are required. Here are a few moments from pop songs: Sara - Fleetwood Mac. (Opens with F, G/F and Am/F all from F Lydian) Man on the Moon - REM (the intro and verses use C major to Dadd11 from C Lydian) The Simpsons theme - Danny Elfman (One of the most famous lydian melodies of all time in C LydianIn fact some of the harmonic material implies Lydian dominant - a mode of melodic minor) The Riddle - Steve Vai (Open in E Lydian with an A# (sharpened 4th as the opening melody note) Other examples include Blue Jay Way - The Beatles, Every Little Thing She Does is Magic - The Police, All I need - Radiohead (C Lydian) The verses of Tonight, Tonight - Smashing Pumpkins.

Mixolydian
Ä ( b) ˙

7

The 5th mode of the major scale, the mixolydian mode, is often found in rock and blues. It is also found in superficially 'eastern' influenced pop music due to its similarity with some Ragas. The mixolydian mode can be derived from C major from G to G. If we work out a mixolydian scale with a root of C,we can easily see how it compares to a major scale. In this case we get a B-flat instead of a B, so mixolydian is a major scale with a minot (flattened) 7th. (R, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, b7)

&b

C Mixoydian

Root

˙

Maj2

˙

Maj3

˙

˙
P4

˙
P5

˙
Maj6

˙
Octave

Min7

So Mixoydian is different from major in that it has a minor (not major) 7th - in this case B-flat not B This is the character note of mixoydian which gives it its 'dominant' quality. In fact it is the combination of the major 3rd and minor 7th that sets it apart from all the other modes of the major scale. Here are the triads of C Mixolydian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character minor 7th (Bb) are underlined. The Vm and particularly the bVII are the most common mixolydian modal triads (the IIIº if unstable and not commonly used) C Mixolydian
C D‹ Eº F G‹ A‹

&b ˙ ˙ ˙
I

II

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

w w w

IIIº

IV

Vm

VI

bVII

Here are the seventh chords of C mixolydian with roman numeral analysis. Of the seventh chords I7 , Vm7 and bVIImaj7 are the most often used to describe mixoydian modality, but most of the other diatonic chords may be found in progressions, particular the IV chord. bVII/IV/I, for example, is a common mixolydian progression. C Mixolydian

&b ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

C7

D‹7

I7

IIm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

E‹7(b5)

IIIø

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

FŒ„Š7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

G‹7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

A‹7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

B¨Œ„Š7

w w w w

IVmaj7

Vm7

VIm7

bVIImaj7

There are countless examples of the mixolydian mode in popular music - particularly in the harmony of a track (even if melodies and solos are in minor pentationic) The bVII/IV/I sequence can be found in everything from AC/DC to Zappa. More 'pure' examples of mixolydian (when harmony and melody are both mixolydian) include: Norwegian Wood - Beatles. (E Mixolydian) Sweet Child of Mine - Guns and Roses and Sweet Home Alabama - Lynyrd Skynyrd (D, Cadd9, G D in verses and the notes of guitar intro are all from D mixolydian) Champagne Supernova - Oasis (A, A/G, A/F# and A/E - derived from A mixolydian) Other examples include Led Boots - Jeff Beck, Within You or Without You - Beatles,

8 The 6th mode of the major scale, the aeolian mode, is a common mode in rock and pop music when a mournful emotion is required. The aeolian mode can be derived from C major from A to A which gives us the following scale degrees. (R, 2, b3, 4, 5, b6, b7) A Aeolian

Aeolian

&

Root

˙

Maj2

˙

Min3

˙

˙

P4

˙

Ä ˙

Ä ˙

˙
Octave

P5

Min6

Min7

You'll notice that the aeolian mode is identical to the natural minor scale. However in a minor key, the 7th note of the scale is often changed to a leading tone (harmonic minor) which allows for V7 chord for example. The 6th degree is also sometimes changed, as in melodic minor. However the aeolian mode has a fixed minor 6th and minor 7th which gives it its particular character. Here are the triads of A Aeolian , together with a ('US') roman numeral analysis. Chords containing the character minor 6th (F) - distinguishing it from Dorian - are underlined the IIº (rarely used), IVm, VI. The Vm and bVII which contain the character minor 7th (G) are also underlined. A Aeolian
A‹ Bº C D‹ E‹ F G

& ˙ ˙ ˙
I

IIº

˙ ˙ ˙

III

˙ ˙ ˙

IVm

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙
VI

w w w

Vm

bVII

Here are the seventh chords of A aeolian with roman numeral analysis. All of these contain the minor 6th and minor 7th, and they are all used in aeolian progressions -although the IIm7(b5) is rare. A Aeolian
A‹7 B‹7(b5)

& ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

Im7

IIm7(b5)

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

CŒ„Š7

bIIImaj7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

D‹7

IVm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

E‹7

Vm7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

FŒ„Š7

˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

G7

w w w w

bVImaj7

bVII7

There are many examples of the Aeolian mode in popular music - the Im/bVII/bVI/bVII sequence is common, as well as peices built around Im, IVm and Vm. Here are a few examples of the Aeolian mode in popular music The X-Files Theme - melody in A Aeolian. All Along the Watchtower - Jimi Hendrix (C#m - Bm - A all from C# Aeolian - although the guitar is tuned down a semitone) Ain't No Sunshine- Bill Withers is built around Am7, Dm7 and Em7 (all from A Aeolian) Stairway to Heaven (Led Zeppelin) outro solo has the repeated chords Am G F G from A Aeolian. The Sound of Silence (Simon and Garfunkel) is in Eb Aeolian. (with chords Im bVII bVII and III)

©2010 Mermikides Pentatonics are hugely important scales in a wide range of musical styles. There are many 5 note scales in use, but the two most common are the major pentatonic and minor pentatonic and are shown below.

Pentatonic Scales
MAJOR PENTATONIC

C major pentatonic (C D E G A) (R,2,3,5,6)

& w

Root

Maj 2nd

w

w
Maj 3rd

w
Perfect 5th

w
Maj 6th

The major pentatonic is like a major scale but without the 4th and 7th. Note that the omitted 4th and 7th scale degrees are the ones with semitone relationships against a tonic triad, and the source of the most harmonic motion in the major scale. With the 4th and 7th omitted, the major pentatonic is a very neutral, singable and familiar scale.

The major pentatonic has 5 modes, the most common starts on the last note (the A here) and is called the minor pentatonic So the notes of C major pentatonic (C D E G A) are the same as A minor pentatonic (A C D E G)

MINOR PENTATONIC
A major pentatonic (A C D E G) (R,2,3,5,6)

& w
Root

w
Min 3rd

w
Perfect 4th

w
Perfect 5th

w
Min 7th

The minor pentatonic is like a natural minor (aeolian) but without the 2nd or 6th (which have semitone relationships against a tonic minor triad) With the 2nd and 6th omitted, the minor pentatonic is an extremely useful, effective and commonly used scale.

Comparing Major and Minor Pentatonic
It is useful to compare major and minor pentatonic scales in parallel here is C major pentatonic side by side with C minor pentatonic.

C major pentatonic

C minor pentatonic

& œ
R

2

œ

3

œ

œ
5

œ
6

œ bœ
R

b3

4

œ

5

œ bœ
b7

2

PENTATONIC SCALES AND THE MODES
The major scale has 7 modes, 3 major (ionian, lydian, mixolydian) 3 minor (dorian, phrygian and aeolian) and 1 dimished (locrian). Interestingly the 3 major modes all contain the major pentatonic, and only differ in terms of there 4th and 7th degrees. Similarly, the 3 minor modes all have the minor pentatonic in common, with their 2nd and 6th degrees differing.

C major pentatonic

&

œ

R

œ
2

3

œ

5

œ

œ
6

Add 4th and 7th (Perfect 4th, Major 7th) C Ionian (Augmented 4th, Major 7th) C Lydian (Perfect 4th, Minor 7th) C Mixolydian

&

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
R 2 3 4 5 6 7

œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ
R 2 3 #4 5 6 7

œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ
R 2 3 4 5 6

b7

C minor pentatonic

&

œ bœ
R

b3

4

œ

5

œ bœ
b7

Add 2nd and 6th

(major 2nd, major 6th) C Dorian

(minor 2nd, minor 6th) C Phrygian

(major 2nd, minor 6th) C Aeolian

& œ œ bœ œ œ œ bœ
R 2 b3 4 5 6

b7

bœ bœ œ bœ bœ œ œ
R b2 3 4

5 b6 b7

bœ bœ œ œ bœ œ œ
R 2 3 4

5 b6 b7

3

Using Pentatonic Scales on Chords

One approach in using pentatonic scales over a chord sequence, is to use the pentatonic scale of the key over all the progression. For example if the sequence is in G major, then G major pentatonic may be used throughout. G major pentatonic

& V V V V
Chords from G major

#

G

D

V V V V

E‹

V V V V

C(„ˆˆ9)

V V V V

And minor pentatonic may be used over a chord progression from a minor key.

B minor pentatonic

Chords from B minor

# &#V V V V
B‹(„ˆˆ9)

A

V V V V

G

V V V V

D/F© E‹

V V V V

B‹

It is also common for minor pentatonic to be used over a major key (or ambiguous) chord sequence: E minor pentatonic

&b V V V V
E

G

V V V V
A

V V V V
C D A

V V V V
E

Chords from E major (and E minor) Alternatively, a pentatonic scale may be used for each chord, major pentatonic for major chords (including maj7 and dom7 chords) and minor pentatonic for minor or minor7 chords*. F maj. pent F maj. pent Ab maj.pent Bb maj.pent

D min. pent A min. pent
A‹ D‹

Bb maj.pent

&b V V V V

F7

* The minor pentatonic is sometimes used over dominant chords I7 or V7 chord - e.g. in a G blues Gminor pent on G7 and D minor pentatonic on D7. It is hardly ever found on the IV7 chord.

V V V V

V V V V

F

V V V V

4

Major and Minor Blues Hexatonic scale
The major and minor pentatonic scales may be embellished with an added note (making 6-note - or hexatonic -scales) These added notes gives the 'blues' scale an idiomatic bluesy quality.

Major Blues
The Major Blues 6-note scale is created by adding a sharpened 2nd (minor 3rd) interval between the 2rd and 3rd degree. This gives the scale an idiomatic minor 3rd as well as major 3rd.

&

C Major Blues

œ

R

2

œ

#2/b3

3

œ

œ
5

œ
6

Minor Blues
On page 1 we created a minor pentatonic scale by starting a major pentatonic from the last scale degree. We can do the same thing to the mMajor Blues, to create the minor blues scale. This is a minor pentatonic scale with an idiomatic raised 4th (flattened 5th).

& œ

A Minor Blues

œ

œ
4


#4/b5

œ
5

œ
b7

R

b3

The blues scales are embellished versions of their pentatonic counterpoints creating an idiomatic bluesy quality. They might be used wherever the pentatonic scale is - as described on page 3. So for example a progression in B minor can be melodicized with B minor blues, a G major progression with G major blues and a Dminor7 chord with D minor blues.

Parallelism
Some harmonic progressions include one chord type (usually a 5, major triad or dom7 chord) that is moved in a 'block' to create non-diatonic progressions. Often this can be best explained as the 'block' harmonisation of a scale - often pentatonic -(regardless of diatonicism) Here are some examples.

MAJOR CHORDS on MINOR PENTATONIC
'Knock on Wood' Floyd/Cropper

#### &

Parallel Major chords on an E minor pentatonic scale

˙ ™™™ ˙™ ˙ ˙™ ˙™ ˙

E

œj nœj œ ‰ nnœ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ nœ

G

A

˙ ™™ ˙ ™™ ˙ ˙™ ˙™ ˙

˙ ™™ ˙ ™™ ˙ ˙™ ˙ ˙™
B

nœ nœ œ ‰ œ nœ œ J

D

œ #œ ‰ œ œ œ œ J

B

˙ ™™ ˙ ™™ ˙ ˙™ ˙ ˙™

POWER CHORDS ON A MINOR BLUES SCALE
'Smoke on the Water' Deep Purple

j j j j bb œj ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œj ‰ œ ‰bbœ œ Œ œj ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œ ‰ œj ˙ ™ & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ ˙™ J
Parallel Power chords (inverted root and 5th) outlining part of a G minor blues scale.

G5

B¨5

C5

G5

B¨5

D¨5 C5

G5

B¨5

C5

B¨5

G5

CHROMATIC PARALLEL MAJOR CHORDS
'I'm A Man' Steve Winwood

#### nw & nn w w nw w

G

F

E

#˙ ˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

n˙ nnn ˙ ˙ ˙ n˙

w w w w w w

Parallel major chords moving down chromatically

2

DOMINANT CHORDS ON PENTATONIC
'Sgt. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band' (Chorus) - Beatles
G7 B¨7 C7 G7 C7

# & nœ œ Œ bœ œ Œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ

bœ œ Œ nœ œ Œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ

bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

Parallel dominant 7 chords on part of G minor pentatonic (G, Bb, C).

POWER CHORDS ON CHROMATIC and OTHER SCALES
'Enter Sandman' -Metallica
F5 E5 G5 E5 F©5 E5 F©5 G5 F©5 E5 # E5 & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ ‰n œj nœ œ œ œ œ œ œnœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœœœ > œ

Parallel 5th chords on implied modes. Bars 1-2: phrygian. Bar 3: aeolian mode. Bar 4: locrian/minor blues.

'Them Bones' - Alice in Chains

& b 7 œ œ œ bœ œ œ n œ œ œ œ ‰ 8 œ œ œ b œ œ œ nn œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
D5 E¨5 E5 F5

D5

‰ œ œ œ bbœ œ œ nn œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

E¨5

E5

F5

Parallel 5th chords on D, Eb, E, F chromatic notes.

Six Movable Chord Types:
Root note on string 6 (E form):
Major
1 3 4 2 1 1 1 3

Mermikides

Minor
4 1 1 1 1

Dominant 7
3 1 2 1 1 1

Minor 7
3 1 1 1 1 1

Major 7
3 4 2 2

Minor 7b5
3 4 1

Root note on string 5 (A form):
Major
1 3 3 3 1

Minor
3 4 2 1

Dominant 7
1 3 1 4 1 1

Minor 7
3 1 2 1

Major 7
1 3 2 4 1

Minor 7b5
1 2 3 4

Root note on string 4 (D form):
Major
1 2 4 3

Minor
1 3 4 2

Dominant 7
1 3 2 4

Minor 7
1 4 2 3

Major 7
1 3 3 3

Minor 7b5
1 3 3 3

Variations on the Dominant 7th Chord (C form):
Dominant 7
3 2 4 1

Dominant 9
2 1 3 4

Dominant 9
2 1 3 3 3

Minor 9
2 1 3 4

Dominant 7#9 Dominant 7b9
2 1 3 4 3 1 4 2

Inversions and Basslines
©2011 m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

So far we have been looking mainly at root inversion chords, however inversions are often used to create compelling (often step-wise) bass-lines. There are countless examples, a representative selection of which are below. You'll notice that some of these will include, but are not limited to, CESH elements.

1. I to V(1st inversion)
I to V(1st inv) to vi creates a descending bassline: E.g. Let it be (Beatles) Tears in Heaven (Clapton - in A major) A Day In the Life (G major)

&4 4

C

w w w w

G/B

w w w w

A‹

w w w w

Or the same bassline may occur using an inversion of Imaj7 E.g. No Woman No Cry (Bob Marley)

& w w w w

C

CŒ„Š7/B

w w w w

A‹

w w w w

Or a similar concept in minor key:

w w w & w

A‹

E7/G©

w ww #w

A‹7/G

w w nw w

This mechanism of creating a descending bass line with I(i) to 1st. inv V can be employed in various ways, common in rock music, sometimes in parallel sequences. For example:

C

G/B

G/B

C

C

G/B

D

A/C©

G/B

C

A/C©

D

E

& ˙ ˙

˙ ˙

˙ ˙

˙ ˙

˙ ˙

˙ ˙

˙ ˙ ˙ #˙

˙ n˙ ˙ ˙

˙ #˙

˙ ˙

w w

2

2. I to iii (2nd inversion)
Similarly a move from I to a second inversion iii (or III) chord creates a chromatic descent. 7th forms of any of these chords may of course be used. Some examples:
C E‹/B C E/B CŒ„Š7

& w w w & w w w
C

The downward motion may be continued with the vi of IV (1st inv.) Some examples:
E‹/B

w w w

w w w
C

#w w w

w nw w w w
C

E7/B

#w w w w

w w w

A‹

w w w w

w w w

E7/B

#w w w w

A‹

w w w w

w w w

#w w w w

E/B

F/A

w w w w

3. Continuing down.
Once the bass has reached the VI degree through 1. or 2. it may continue downwards with a V, 3rd inversion vi7, 1st inversion iv or appropriate combinations thereof, followed by a cadence. Here are a few of many possibe sequences
C G/B A‹ G F G C

& V & V & V
C C

V V V

V V V

V V V

V V V

V V V

V V V

V V V

V V
C/G F

V V V

V V V

V V V

V
C

V V V

V V V

V V V

E7/B

A‹

A‹7/G

F/G

V
C

E/B

F/A

F‹/A¨

4. I to ii to 1(1st inv.)
D‹ C D‹

V

F‹

V

& ™™ V V V V
C D‹

The use of a 1st inversion I chord can create an ascending bass-line of I-ii-I, this can be made more bluesy with a passing diminished chord.
C/E

V V V V

™™ V V V V

D©º7

V V V V
C/E

This device of inversions and passing diminshed chords can be taken further with a #ivº to I(2nd inv)

& ™™ V V V V
C D‹

D©º7

V V V V
C/E

V V V V
F F©º7

C/G

V V V V
G

™™

3

5. i to V(2nd inv.) to 1(1st inv.)
A simple alternating i-V7 pattern can be given a step-wise bass motion through the use of inversions

& V

A‹

V

E7/B

V

V
A‹/C

A‹/C

V

V

E7/B

V

V
D©º7

A‹

V

V
A‹/E

V
E7

V ™™

Using passing diminished chords and a 2nd inversion I chords, an ascending bassline may be achieved.

& ™™ V V V V
A‹ E7/B

6. Static chords with moving basslines
C7/B¨

V V V V
C©º7

D‹

V V V V

V V V V

& ™™ V V V V
C CŒ„Š7/B

The use of a continually moving bass line can create interesting progressions with harmonic implications. Here are some examples

& ™™ V V V V
A‹ A‹/G A‹ A‹/G©

A‹/F

V V V V
A‹/F©

V V V V
F/A A‹/E

F‹/A¨

™™ ™™ V V V V
A‹ A‹/G A‹/F

V V V V
C/G

G

A‹/F©

V V V V
A‹/F

V V V V

™™ ™™ ™™ ™™

& ™™ V V V V & ™™ V V V V
C C/B¨

A‹/G

V V V V
C/G

V V V V
C C/E

A‹/E

E7

V V V V
C/F

A bass-line can outline a mode under a static chord eg: Mixolydian (Champagne Supernova) Ionian (Older Chests-Damien Rice)
C/A

V V V V
C/B¨

™™ ™™ V V V V
C/A

V V V V
C/G

C/G

Major triad with chromatically descending bassline (eg Something - Beatles in A)

& V
A

C

V

C/B

V

V

Putting it all together
F©‹

V

V

V

V

C/A¨

V

V

V

V

From Something-Beatles, note the use of inversions descending bass lines (both diatonic and chromatic)

### & V V V V
C©‹/G©

V V V V

F©‹/E

D

V V V V

G

A /G© /G /F© /F /E

V V V V

Rock and Soul Harmonic Devices
©2011 m.mermikides@surrey.co.uk Other than the diatonic, secondary dominant, modal, parallel and other harmonic functions covered in the first half of this course there are other common and effective techniques that ‘deviate’ from these theoretical foundations. Here we look at the II chord, interpolated IV, III, VII and VI chords, the Vsus9 and bVIIsus9 hybrid chords and sliding chords. Note that most of this terminology is coined here so don’t expect to hear the terms elsewhere. However you will find these devices used widely, and regardless of how they are named (if at all) it is very instructive and useful to understand and recognize them. The ‘non-functioning’ II or II7 chord. Although this may be seen as a V/V or V7/V there are times when it doesn’t have this function, acting more as a momentary Lydian implication (an example of modal interchange) – In these cases it is more appropriate to call it a II (or II7) rather than V/V (or V7/V). Examples: You’re all I need to get by – Marvin Gaye/Tammi Terrell. A: A I B II Dm6 A iv6 I

School of Rock This use of II occurs in the following progression. D: D I E II G IV D I

Sometime a V/V is resolved – but with an intervening IV chord delaying the resolution. eg. V/V IV V I. This device of delaying a resolution to V we can call an interpolated IV for lack of a pre-existing term. Here’s a real-life example from Beck - We Live Again !5th resolutions Bb: Bb I Gm C vi V/V [---ii V---] Eb IV F V Bb I

We can think of the C chord as a V/V here, partly because of the preceding ii chord, and partly because of the eventual resolution to the F. The difference

of this case from the II chord is subtle and a little subjective but it’s instructive to understand the differentiation. Resolution through chromatic ascent of III (or III7) and VII (or VII7) In ‘standard’ diatonic harmony, major or dominant chords built on the 3rd or 7th degree of a major scale III have a secondary dominant function: V7/VI or V7/III respectively. !5th : C I !5th : C I B(7) V/III Em iii E(7) V/VI Am vi

However there are many cases when these are used as approaches to IV and I respectively, ascending a semitone, rather than descending a 5th. "min2nd C I "min2nd C I B(7) VII7 C I E(7) III(7) F IV

The III-IV (and III7-IV) resolution actually makes good harmonic sense: If we take the key of C as an example. The non-diatonic III - or III7 – chord (E or E7) introduces one non-diatonic note: the G#. This accidental resolves to an A (the 3rd of the F(IV) chord) rather than the root of the VIm chord in its more ‘functional’ resolution. This resolution of the non-diatonic note has a satisfying elegance, and is quite common in rock/pop tunes. A couple of examples: C E7 F I III IV (Imagine – John Lennon – Just after ‘You may say I’m a dreamer’) or G B7 C A7 (Sitting on the Dock of Bay – Otis Redding verse – which also uses the II7 chord)

The VII-I on the other hand has a more parallel feel, with the 2 non-diatonic notes (the F# and D# of B in the key of C) both resolving upwards. The VII/I - in combination with II – appears here: Bb C A Bb I II VII I (We Live Again - Beck) The VI chord The VI chord is a non-diatonic triad that doesn’t always fall into a V/II function. Since the VI chord isn’t a parallel minor or common modal ‘borrowed’ chord, what can it mean? One possible explanation is that it is simply the replacement of the expected VI minor chord with a major chord type. Indeed it seems to be used like a VIminor chord- C A instead of C Am for example – as if it’s the I major of the relative minor key. Odd I know. Whatever the explanation, the VI chord has a really distinctive and surprising sound. An example in a well-known tune is the ‘whistle section’ of Sitting on the Dock of Bay – Otis Redding: A looping 4-bar section: 3 bars of G (I), one bar E (VI). Softening the V7-I The V7 has a very implicit function in tonal harmony, the resolution to I is particularly expected, which is due to: 1) 2) 3) 4) The bass on the 5th degree (which ‘wants’ to resolve down a 5th) The leading tone (7th degree) which ‘wants’ to resolve up. The 4th degree of the scale that ‘wants’ to resolve down. It contains a tritone interval (which ‘wants’ to be somehow resolved)

Sometimes we don’t want all of these devices – they might seem to twee and obvious when used together. The tritone substitution - for example - drops the first characteristic, and keeps the other three. We could soften the cadence by removing the 4th degree (and thus the tritone) leaving only item 1) and 2). This is a V-I cadence. On the other hand if we do not include the leading tone (using the root instead) we also erase the tritone dissonance, and only have items 1) and 3). This is a Vsus7-I cadence. Removing the leading tone and the 4th degree – also removes the tritone and creates the relatively soft Vsus-I. These degrees of softness of V-I resolution are useful and commonly used. V7–I Hard cadence ! subV7 V-I Vsus7–I Vsus – I " Soft cadence

The IV over V bass hybrid chord There is another common - and very effective - device to create an alternative cadence. This involves taking the first item 1) from the list above and merging it with the softer IV-I (plagal cadence). This involves a IV chord with a V bass. This device of using a chord with a non-chord tone is known as a hybrid chord – and there are many beautiful examples. In this case we are taking the IV chord and putting a V root in the base, So in the key of C this would be F/G. The F/G chord (G, F, A, C) can be considered as a Vsus9 (without a 5th). This idea can expanded for example the IV-I cadence can be elaborated as a IVmaj7–I – by using the 7th form of the chord. An Fmaj7/G (G F A C E) can also be considered a Gsus13 (with no 5th) a more ‘open’ and ‘colourful’ sound than Gsus9. One final example (althought there are many more) is to use a minor iv-I cadence – that we’ve seen before as a borrowing from the parallel minor, but with the V degree in the root of the iv chord : Fm/G (G, F, Ab, C) which creates a Gsus(b9) implication. This technique is a simple way of creating cadences that have the sense of a V7-I resolution but with more harmonic sophistication and ‘openness’. See Blame it on the Boogie as one of many examples where an Ab/Bb (Bbsus9) chord is used at the end of the verse and a Cbmaj7/Db (Dbsus13) in the chorus. Sliding Chords We’ve looked at parallelism before, where one chord type is moved in a usually systematic fashion creating moments of non-diatonicism (e.g. a series of major chords moved in a minor pentatonic scale). There is a special case of parallelism that is quite short and specific: When two diatonic chords are the same type and a whole tone apart, sometimes a chromatic non-diatonic passing chord of the same type can be interpolated – which we can call a ‘sliding chord’ – underlines below. E.g. If I Ain’t Got You – Alicia Keys G: Bm7 Bbm7 Am7 Gmaj7 IIIm7 bIIIm7 IIm7 Imaj7

Wind Cries Mary – Jimi Hendrix F: Cadd9 Vadd9 Cbadd9 Bbadd9 bVadd9 IVadd9 Fadd9 Iadd9

Modal Interchange
©2011 m.mermikides@surrey.co.uk Here is a quick survey of commonly modes and their characteristic chords that are often borrowed into parallel keys. They have been divided into minor and major modes depending on whether the mode has minor or major 3rd. The most common interchange chords are bold.
Minor Mode
Dorian Phrygian Aeolian

Notes with C root
C, D, Eb, F, G, A, B (Mode 2 of major) C, Db, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb (Mode 3 of major) C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb (Mode 6 of major) C, D, Eb, F, G, A, B

Description
Natural minor scale with major 6th Natural minor scale With minor 2nd Natural minor scale (minor 6th & 7th) Natural minor scale with major 6th & 7th (Or major with minor 3rd ) Natural minor scale with major 7th

Character chords
IIm, IIm7 IV, IV7 bII, bIImaj7 bVIIm IVm, IVm7 bVI, bVImaj7 bVII, bVII7 Im(maj7) bIII#5, bIIImaj7(#5) IV7(#11) VIIm7(b5) Im(maj7) V7(b9), V7(b13) VIIdim7

Melodic Minor

Harmonic Minor

C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, B

Major Mode
Lydian

Notes with C root
C, D, E, F#, G, A, B (Mode 4 of major) C, D, E, F, G, A, Bb (Mode 5 of major)

Description
Major scale with raised (augmented) 4th Major scale with minor 7th

Character chords
II, II7, Imaj7(#11) Vmaj7 I7 Vm, Vm7 bVII, bVIImaj7 I7(#11) I7 and II7 found together I and bII found together

Mixolydian

Lydian b7

Phrygian Dominant

C, D, E, F#, G, A, Bb (Mode 4 of Melodic minor) C, Db, E, F, G, Ab, Bb (Mode 5 of Harmonic minor)

Harmonic Major

C, D, E, F, G, Ab, B

Major scale with raised (augmented) 4th and minor 7th Phrygian with major 3rd or Mixolydian b9 Or Major with minor 2nd, 6th and 7th Major scale with minor 6th All degrees flattened (major #1 !)

I(b6), Imaj7(b6) IVm(maj7) I7 (b9/#9/b5/b13) I7 alt

Altered

C, Db,Eb,E,Gb,Ab,Bb (Mode 7 of Melodic Minor)

Upper Structure Major Triads
m.j.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk As we've seen briefly in Rock & Pop Devices, basic triads - when placed over non-chord tones - can create sophisticated harmonic/modal implications while retaining a sense of simplicity. Here's a roster of upper structure chords (major, minor and 7th) with their harmonic/modal implications in relation to the bass note and - where appropriate - the triad. The implications depend very much on context, remember it is how these devices are heard - not dispassionately analysed - that is important. These devices are used in a wide range of music from Stevie to Stravinsky and the best way to learn them is to identify them in music of others and use them in your own writing. These are termed variously as upper structure triads, slash or hybrid chords. Basic inversions are included from completeness.

Alternative spelling: Intervals from root: Modal implication:

{

w & w w ? w
C (R, 3, 5) C Ionian

C

D¨/C

w bbw w w

D/C

#w w w w

Alternative spelling: Cm7 / Eb6 3rd inv. Intervals from root: (b3, 5, b7) Modal implication: C Aeolian etc.

{

Dbmaj7 3rd inv. (b9, 4, b6) C Phrygian
E/C

D7 3rd inversion / Cmaj13(#11) (9, #4, 6) C Lydian
F/C

w bbw & w ? w

E¨/C

#w w w w

w w w w

Alternative spelling: Intervals from root: Modal implication:

Alternative spelling: C6(b9) / A7#9 4th inv. Intervals from root: (b9, 3, 6) Modal implication: C Major b9

{

{

Cmaj7#5 (3, #5, 7) C Lydian #5
G/C

F 2nd inv. Csus6 (R, 4, 6) C Ionian
A¨/C

G¨/C

& bbbw w w ? w
A/C

w w w
C maj9 (no 3rd) (9, 5, 7) C Ionian / Lydian
B¨/C

w bbw w
Ab 1st inv. Cm(b6) (R, b3, b6) C Aeolian etc.
B/C

C7alt (b9, b5, b7) C Altered

w

w

w & #w w ? w

bw w w
Csus9 (9, 4, b7) C Mixolydian
©2011 Milton Mermikides

#w #w w
Cm(maj7(#11)) Ab7(#9) no root (b3, #11, 7) C Melodic Minor (#11) or Double Harmonic Minor

w

w

2

Upper Structure Minor Triads
m.j.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

Alternative spelling: Intervals from root: Modal implication:

Alternative spelling: Cm7(b5) / Ebm6 3rd inv. Intervals from root: (b3, b5, b7) Modal implication: C Locrian

{

{

Here is a list of the implications of every minor triad over a fixed root.
C‹

bw & w w ? w
Cm (R, b3, 5) C Aeolian etc.

bbbw w w w

D¨‹/C

D‹/C

w w w w

Dbm(maj7) 3rd inv. C(b6/b9) (b9, 3, b6) C Phrygian Dominant
E‹/C

Dm7 3rd inv. Csus(69) (9, 4, 6) C Ionian / Mixolydian
F‹/C

bbbw w & w ? w

E¨‹/C

w w w w

bw w w w

Alternative spelling: Intervals from root: Modal implication:

Alternative spelling: C6 / Am 1st inv. Intervals from root: (R, 3, 6) Modal implication: C Ionian etc.

{

{

Cmaj7 (3, 5, 7) C Ionian / Lydian
G‹/C

F 2nd inv. / Csus(b6) (R, 4, b6) C Aeolian etc
A¨‹/C

F©‹/C

& #w #w w ? w

bw w w
C9 (no 3rd) (9, 5, b7) C Mixolydian / Aeolian etc.
B¨‹/C

bbbw w w
Ab(#9) 4th inv. Cm(maj7)(b6) (b3, b6, 7) C Harmonic Minor

C6(b9/b5) (b9, b5, 6) C half/whole diminished
A‹/C

w

w

B‹/C

w & w w ? w

bbw w w w

w #w w w

Csusb9 C(maj9(#11)) no 3rd (b9, 4, b7) (9, #11, 7) C Mixolydian(b9) C Lydian C Phrygian/ Phrygian Dominant
©2011 Milton Mermikides

Upper Structure 7th Chords
m.j.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

3

There are dozens of possible seventh chords over non-chord tones, but here are some very effective, and often used examples

Alternative spelling: Intervals from root: Modal implication:

{

E¨Œ„Š7/C

E‹7/C

E‹7(b5)/C

w & bbw w w ? w
Cm9 (b3, 5, b7, 9) C Aeolian etc.

w w w w
Cmaj9 (9, 3, 5, 7) C Ionian / Lydian

bw w w w
C9 (9, 3, 5, b7) C Mixolydian

w

w

Alternative spelling: C7alt Intervals from root: (3, b5, b7, b9) Modal implication: C Altered

{

bw w & bbbw w ? w

G¨7/C

G‹7/C

w bw w w w

G‹7(b5)/C

w bbw w w w

GŒ„Š7/C

#w w w w w

Csus9 (4, 5, b7, 9) C Mixolydian

Csus(b9) (4, 5, b7, b9) C Mixolydian (b9) C Phrygian C Phrygian Dominant

Cmaj9(#11) no 3rd (#4, 5, 7, 9) C Lydian

Alternative spelling: Csus(9/13) Intervals from root: (4, 6, b7, 9) Modal implication: C Mixolydian

{

B¨Œ„Š7/C

B¨7/C

B¨‹(Œ„Š7)/C

B7/C

& w w bw w ? w

bw w bw w
Csus(9/b13) (4, b6, b7, 9) C Mixolydian b13

w

w w bb w w
Csus(b9/13) (4, 6, b7, 9) C Mixolydian b9

w

w ##w w w
Cdim7(addmaj7)/ B7(b9) 4th inv. (b3, b5, 6(bb7), 7) C Whole/Half Diminished

w

Enjoy.

©2011 Milton Mermikides

Melodic Minor Harmony and Modes
m.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk

The Jazz Melodic Minor scale is a minor scale with a major 6th and major 7th. Unlike the melodic minor scale you may already know, the 6th and 7th are not altered depending on direction. Here is A melodic minor scale with its diatonic 7th chords. We'll then look at its 7 modes and character chords and their use.
A melodic minor (A, B, C, D, E, F#, G#)

&

R

˙
I

˙
2

˙

b3

˙
4

˙
5


6

#w
7

IIm7 Bm7

¨IIImaj7(©5) Cmaj7(©5)

IV7

V7

VIm7(¨5) F©m7(¨5)

VIIm7(¨5)

VII7alt

Am(maj7)

& #˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

#˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

*Chord VII has two possible spellings, we'll see why later

#˙ ˙ ˙ ˙

˙ #˙ ˙ ˙

D7

˙ #˙ ˙ ˙

E7

˙ ˙ #˙ ˙

G©m7(¨5) or G©7alt

#˙ ˙ #˙ ˙

˙ ˙˙ ˙

*

You'll notice that there are 3 possible dominant chords that emerge from the melodic minor. By extending the chords we can compare them.

IV7(©11)

V7(9/¨13) E7(9/¨13) w #w w #w w w

w w w & #w w w

D7(©11)

#w w #w w

V7alt G©7alt = G©7(¨5/¨9/©9/¨13)

Melodies and harmonic progressions based entirely on the melodic minor are quite rare, rather particular modes and chords are borrowed from the melodic minor and used in a variety of contexts.

©2011 Milton Mermikides

2

Modes and Character Chords of the Melodic Minor.
Mode I: The Melodic Minor

The melodic minor scale is used melodically (e.g. Autumn serenade) and improvisationally over a minor chord particularly in a jazz context.
The minor (maj 7) is sometimes used in place of a minor chord (usually as the I chord), to create a mysterious quality. Often, but not always it is used as an ending chord to create a different colour to the minor triad or minor 7 chord.

& #w w w w

A‹(Œ„Š7)

A‹(Œ„Š9)

#w w w w w

#w E major w wA minor w w

E/Am

The above shows the minor(maj7) chord and it's common extension minor(maj9). The latter may be constructed with the use of polychord (the superimposition of 2 distinct chords) in this case: E/Am. Examples of the min(maj7) and variants may be found as ending chords in 'spy' and jazz tunes (Eva Cassidy-Autumn Leaves) or as part of the form (1st chords of Solar - Miles Davis (Cm(maj7) and It's Probably Me - Sting (Em(maj9) to Em69))

Mode II: Dorian (b9) "Phrygadorian"

&

R

˙

b2

˙

b3

˙
4

˙
5


6

w

b7

The 2nd mode of melodic minor may be seen as a Dorian scale with a minor 2nd or a Phyrgian scale with a major scale - and is sometimes called 'phrygadorian'. It's rather rare but there are examples when something sufficiently surreal is required Everything In Its Right Place - Radiohead has C Dorian b9 moments on its 'chorus'. Pentatonic versions of the mode can also appear in blues e.g. (R,b9,b3,5,b7)

©2011 Milton Mermikides

3

Mode III: Lydian (#5) "Augmented Lydian"

& ˙
R

˙
2

˙
3

#4

˙
6

w
7

#5

The 3rd mode of melodic minor comes out as a Lydian with a raised 5th, quite an ear opener of a mode. Its most common application comes from its character chord the maj7(#5) which is not too unusual particularly in contemporary jazz. It can be used in place over a maj7 chord as a spicy alternative so long as it doesn't interfere with the melody. Here's the chord, with a common extension and an upper-structure spelling.
CŒ„Š7(#5)

Cmaj7(#5/#11)

& #w w w w

#w w #w w w w

E/C

#w E major w w w

Mode IV: Lydian (b7) "Lydian Dominant"

&

R

˙

˙
2

˙
3

#4

˙
5

˙
6

bw
b7

Mode IV is perhaps the most used melodic minor mode- The Lydian scale with a flattened 7th (Lydian dominant), it has a very distinctive character - the Simpsons being an excellent example in terms of both melody and harmony. Furthermore the characteristic chord of the mode (Dominant7(#11)) is often used when a 'floating' quality is wanted on a dominant chord. This usually happens on the IV7(#11) the bVII7(#11) and on tritone substitutions (eg sub V7(#11)/I etc.) The progression I7 - II7 incidentally, outlines all the notes in Lydian b7.

©2011 Milton Mermikides

4

Mode V: Mixolydian (b13)

&

R

˙

˙
2

˙
3

˙
4

˙
5


b6

bw
b7

Mode V has an unusual quality and there are examples of its use in contemporary jazz, and in a pentatonic and hexatonic form, some music from Africa. It's character chord - the Dominant9(b13) is quite scrunchy and used compositionally in some jazz standards and some contemporary players like John Scofield.
Mode VI: Locrian (nat2)

&

R

˙

˙
2

˙
3

˙
4

˙
5

b6

#w

b7

Mode VI the Aeolian b5 or Locrian nat 2 is most often used over min7(b5) in a jazz context or in sophisticated metal. Its character min9(b5) is also used in contemporary jazz.

Mode VII: Altered (Superlocrian)

&

R

˙

b2

b3

b4=3


b6

bw
b7

b5

Mode VII is an important mode of the melodic minor. Notice that every scale degree is flattened (R, b2, b3, b4, b5, b6, b7). It is sometimes called the superlocrian, but most often refered to as 'Altered'. Although it is technically a minor scale (b3) the flattened 4th is enharmonically equivalent to a major 3rd, so this together with the flattened 7th makes it a dominant scale - the most dissonant dominant scale imaginable. It includes all the funky tensions: (b9/#9/b5/b6) while maintaing the root and the 3 and b7 of a dominant 7th chord. It is played over a dominant chord (usually in jazz) and it's character chord (7(b9/#9/b5/b13)) is usually abbreviated to alt 7 (or 7 alt).

©2011 Milton Mermikides

bw b #ww &b b w w w w

C7b5(b9/#9/b13) or C7alt.

©2011 Milton Mermikides Complete Track Analysis

1

Complete Track Analysis
©2011 m.mermikides@surrey.co.uk With the important elements of harmony in place, it’s time to integrate these aspects into a complete picture of a track1. Here’s a very brief but pertinent checklist of various musical features that when taken together can help further musical understanding and in turn enhance creativity. These concepts and questions are all worth considering when approaching a track analysis. In this course we’re looking mainly at the pure harmonic mechanics, rather than lyrical interpretation and song structure, but we must remember that the impact of a track is multi-faceted, so understanding these other important elements will give a more nuanced – and more applicable – understanding of popular music harmony. Many of these concepts may be addressed to the score of the track. However it is very important that an analysis is conducted through the receptive listening of music. The musical practice is about the listening and creative process, and although notation is an extremely useful way to communicate, consider and conceptualise a track, it is only a tool in order to enhance, and not replace, the musical experience.

The Basics
Style – Genre(s) - Instrumentation - Production Tempo – Time Signature - Groove – Rhythmic Subdivision - Feel Lyrical content – Impact – Vibe - ’Meaning’ Do any of the above change during the course of the track?

1 We’ll use the term ‘track’ to denote any relevant composition be it pop song, metal instrumental, jazz standard or folk tune. ‘Piece’ or ‘work’ is a tad pretentious, ‘song’ is an odd term for instrumental music and ‘tune’ is a bit ambiguous. So, for convenience, ‘track’ it is. We needn’t get distracted further with semantics, or get overly fussy with terms, so that said, let’s just get on with it.

©2011 Milton Mermikides Complete Track Analysis

2

Structure
Can the track be divided into logical sections using such terms as Intro, Verse, Prechorus, Chorus, Instrumental Solo, Bridge or ‘Middle 8’, Instrumental Interlude and Outro? Can you provide a simple map of the sections? Can that map be further simplified using repeats, DS, DC, Coda, Fine etc? When sections occur more than once, how are they varied, truncated, extended, reinterpreted, transposed or otherwise reinterpreted? Do any of the sections share features? For example does the guitar solo have the same chords as the verse? Sketch, or write out the basic form. Here’s an example, it doesn’t have to be exactly like this, any way that communicates the whole structure as simply and clearly as possible.

©2011 Milton Mermikides Complete Track Analysis

3

Key and Harmony
What is the key area, mode or tonic note of the track? Does it change through modulation? If modulations occur are they simply shifting previous material to a new key or does new material accompany the shift? Are the key modulations closely related to the original key (eg. F to Aminor) or a parallel shift (Cmajor to Db major)? Is the modulation ‘pivotal’ (by using chords that are related to both keys) or is it ‘direct’ and ‘unprepared’? Once a modulation occurs, does the track end in this new key, return to the original, or continue to another –maybe similar – modulation? Does the chord progressions fit into any of the harmonic devices covered in this course? (E.g. Diatonicism, parallel major/minor/borrowing, inversions, secondary dominants, Blues chords, parallelism, pedal tones etc.) Can the progression be generalized and quickly absorbed using roman numeral (or similar) analysis (e.g. i – iv – i - V7). Harmony is of course, is the main content of this course so we needn’t repeat it here. However it’s important to remember that: a) As noted before, harmony is just one of several important musical aspects and it its interaction with other features that creates musical impact. b) All the harmonic concepts presented in the course are only important because they are used and can be reapplied effectively. Harmonic analysis is not an intellectual diversion like sudoko, it has direct musical relevance.

Melody
There will be supporting material for the study of melody but here are some salient points that will help understand how to approach the analysis and creation of melodies. Listen (and look) at the entirety of the melody. Can it be broken into logical phrases? Often this can be done at a few levels: 1) The entire melody 2) The melody at each of the structural sections (see Structure) 3) Phrase groups within each section 4) Commonly used intervals/motifs within phrases. For each of the above it can be useful to explore:

©2011 Milton Mermikides Complete Track Analysis

4

1) Range and contour. What is the highest and lowest pitches in the melody (or phrases)? When does the peak occur, what is the overall shape of the melody, or contours of the phrases? How and where do any of these contours repeat, perhaps transposed? When a phrase is repeated closely, look out for any variations – particularly at the end of phrases. When the melody is played in isolation which phrases feel unresolved (‘questions’) and which feel like resolutions (‘answers’)? 2) How are phrases separated? Do phrase lengths change? 3) Is the melody (or are the phrases) drawn from a common scale/mode (is it heptatonic, hexatonic or pentatonic?) Does it does change at any point and if so, how and when? 4) What intervals does the melody make against the chords? Are they all chord tones? How are non-chord tones resolved if at all? When melodic shapes are repeated against different chords, does the melody stay the same (changing the intervals against the chords) or is the melody transposed or sequenced (perhaps preserving the same intervals)? 5) What are the most distinguishable, characterizing and memorable aspects of the melody?

The Big Picture
You should now be able to combine the important aspects from all of the above into a complete picture. Your final project will include such an analysis of a complete track and a composition (with commentary) of your own. This process will help to understand the track in its entirety, improving your musical perception, appreciation and ability to create your own music, which in turn will increase your understanding of music. Keeping this positive cycle of theory-practice active will improve your understanding, communication, creativity and enjoyment of music. Not a bad deal.

©2011 Milton Mermikides

Interval Training
Interval Unison P1 Minor 2nd m2 Major 2nd M2 Minor 3rd m3 Up Down Barbara-Ann- Beach Boys etc. etc. Jaws Theme – John Williams Happy Birthday “Near – Far’ Titanic theme Smoke on the Water New World Symphony – Dvo!ák Champagne Supernova – Oasis (verse begins with alternating minor 3rds) Hey Jude- Beatles Na-na-na spells out major triad. Fur Elise - Beethoven Yesterday - Beatles Girl from Ipanema – Jobim. Beethovens 5th 2nd phrase

Major 3rd M3 Perf 4th P4 Augmented 4th Diminished 5th A4, d5 Perfect 5th P5 Minor 6th m6

Wedding Song – Mendellsohn Nirvana-Smells Like Teen Spirit – clean guitar The Simpsons 3 note motif. Is R-#4-5 Maria from West Side Story

First 2 notes of Swing Low Sweet Chariot Summer Time Beethovens 5th 1st phrase Eine Kleine Nachtmusik

Star Wars Theme Spring from Vivaldi’s Four Seasons Dr. Who Theme Song 1st 2 notes of ‘Theremin’ melody In My Life – 1st 2 notes of guitar intro. Nessun Dorma - Puccini. The big moment. Angels- Verse My Way-Sinatra Star Trek- Original Theme

Take The A-Train – Ellington/Strayhorn Bass Intro From note 2 to 3 in big guitar riff of Enter Sandman – Metallica (R,8,b5) It Don’t Mean A thing Flintstones Love Story Theme -Lai Higher (The Saturday’s ft. flo.rida) 3rd keyboard figure, 1st two are descending major 6ths Man In The Mirror – Michael Jackson Chorus

Major 6th M6

Min 7th m7 Maj 7th M7 Octave P8

Take on Me – Aha Don’t Know Why – Nora Jones Somewhere Over the Rainbow Singin’ in The Rain

1st 2 notes of Watermelon Man Melody -Herbie Hancock I Love You – Cole Porter

Willow Weep for Me

Melody and Harmony
m.j.mermikides@surrey.ac.uk As mentioned, in 'Complete Track Analysis', harmony can only be fully understood in relation to other musical considerations. This handout looks at melody's relation to harmony in a little more detail. Remember that context is crucial in music, so none of the following are immutable laws, just helpful guidelines and incentives to notice the most salient features. Music is multi-dimensional, there is expressive power in timbre, rhythm, groove, melody and harmony as isolated features, and in their complex interactions. First we look at some expressive features of melody in itself, and then its interaction with melody.

Melodic Tension
Note Hierarchy of the Major Scale

& œ
R

œ
2

œ
3

œ
4

œ
5

œ
6

œ
7

A scale is usually written, and conceived, in ascending form (see above). However, in terms of hierarchy, the 7 notes may be better arranged in terms of degrees of resolution. Diatonic Tones from pentatonic Non-pentatonic scale tones

Triad tones

R more resolved

&

œ

œ
5

œ
3

œ
2

œ
6

œ
4

œ
7 less resolved

The layout above gives a general impression of how the notes of a major scale compare in terms of resolution level. This explains why we see certain shapes of melodies, and how phrase endings differ between phrases of a melody. We may also extend this concept of melodic tension to include non-diatonic notes, an impression is given below. Although subjective, there are technical reasons for the rough layout below. However, although we are still considering melody as independent of harmony, the following should be taken only as an approximate guide - context of surrounding melody notes, implied keys, phrasing and rhythm are still critical.

& œ

R 5 more resolved

œ

œ
3

œ
2

œ
6


b7

œ
4


7

b3

#4

b6 b2 less resolved

©2011 Milton Mermikides

2 We have so far been looking at a 'major' context. If however a minor (or modal) context is established a different pattern may emerge, still noting all the caveats previously mentioned. Here's an impression of a melodic tension continuum in a minor context:

&

R

œ

œ
5

b3

œ
4


b7

œ
2

œ
6


7


b6

#4

more resolved

b2 3 less resolved

So far we have looked as melody as separate (as far as possible) from harmonic context. This is an important component of analysis (and context) and establishes the sense of expression in an isolated melody. The following extract (Beatles-Across The Universe) gives a simple general impression of the melodic tension in the melody. Note how a phrase is repeated almost identically, except for the ending which is at first unresolved, and then resolved.

# &#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
D DŒ„Š7

F©‹7

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰

œ J

Resolved (Root)
E‹7 A7

Quite resolved (5th)

# 5 &#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 4œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
Less resolved (4th) Unresolved (7th)
F©‹7

4 4

## 4 D œ œ œ DŒ„Š7 œ œ œ œ œ & 4œ
Resolved Root)

Quite resolved (5th)

2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ 4 J
œ œ Ó

## 2E‹7 & 4œ

Ϫ

œ

œ

4œ 4
G‹

œ

Less resolved (4th)

Resolved (Root)

If we look at the chords in isolation we get another pattern of tension and release, which sometimes correlates with the melodic tension and sometimes doesn't. They differ most notably here when the melody resolves at the end of the 2nd phrase while the harmony holds down a colourful and unresolved subdominant minor (iv) chord. This is an example of the multi-level property which makes music so endlessly fascinating and absorbing. Now we've looked at melodic tension, and also mentioned that it exists in relationship (but not direct correlation) with a sense of harmonic resolution, we now turn our attention to consonance and dissonance, how particular melody notes are heard against specific chords - sometimes referred to as the vertical relationship.

Consonance and Dissonance
The following diagrams give an indication of the level of consonance/dissonance over a few common chords. Remember context is important - for example - whether the note is diatonic, or if it stressed rhythmically or left unresolved will alter the sense of dissonance. Still, it is certainly worth trying these out yourself and considering this important mechanism in both your analysis and composition.

3

Major chord

& w w w

R 5 Consonant

œ

œ

œ
3

œ
2

œ bœ nœ
6 b7 7

œ
4

bœ #œ bœ bœ
b3 #4 b6

b2 Dissonant

Minor or minor 7 chord

& nw w w

R 5 Consonant

œ

œ bœ
3

œ
4


b7

œ
2

œ #œ
6

nœ bœ
7 b6

#4

bœ nœ

b2 3 Dissonant

Major 7 chord

&

w w w w

R 5 Consonant

œ

œ

œ
3

œ
7

œ
9

13

œ #œ nœ
7

11

#9

bœ #œ bœ bœ
b13 b7

b9 Dissonant

& bw w w w

Dominant 7 chord

R 5 Consonant

œ

œ

œ
3


b7

œ
9

œ #œ nœ
6 #2 4

bœ bœ
#

b13

œ
4

œ
7 Dissonant

The above guide treats chords in isolation, divorced from harmonic context - whether the chord is a I, ii or IV for example. A general persepective of consonance and dissonance which includes this element might be represented thus: Consonant Chord Tones (CTs) Common Diatonic note whole tone or above nearest chord tone Non-diatonic note whole tone or above nearest chord tone Diatonic note semi tone above nearest chord tone Dissonant Non-diatonic note semi tone above nearest chord tone Rare

There are some exceptions to this guide. Most notably the minor 3rd, which is a very commonly used and stylistically fundamental non-diatonic note in a major or blues context.

4

Melody on Harmony
Chord-Tone Melody

The study and understanding of melody is a life-long pursuit, but let's look at a succinct representative selection of broad concepts addressing how melody may effectively integrate with harmony, how dissonance is resolved and common 'tensions.'

In the following example (All The Things You Are - Hammerstein/Kern) the melody is constructed entirely from chord tones (CTs) from the underlying chord sequence. Chord degrees (not specifically major minor) are given.

b & b bb w
3rd

F‹7

B¨‹7

˙™

3rd

7th 3rd

œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙
7th 3rd

E¨7

A¨Œ„Š7

7th 3rd

œ œ œ œ œ œ n˙
3rd 3rd

D¨Œ„Š7

D‹7 G7

CŒ„Š7

7th 3rd

œ nw

Diatonic Sequence, Passing Tones and CT pivots
There are 3 powerful devices in the following extract (Autumn Leaves - Kosma/Mercer) 1) Diatonic sequence: A fixed pattern of chord degrees are moved through a harmonic progression. 2) Passing Tone: Stepwise resolution of NCTs between CTs. Note how the NCTs here (9ths) are approached from, and resolved to, CTs using a diatonic scale. 3) Chord-tone pivots (a new term): Note how held notes change from one CT to another CT of a new chord.

b &b Œ

(Gm7)

b &b œ
7th

E¨Œ„Š7

Root 9th 3rd CT NCT CT (step) (step)

œ

œ

œ

C‹7

w

F7

œ

3rd CT
A‹7(b5)

7th CT
D7

Root

œ

9th

œ

œ
3rd

B¨Œ„Š7

w

3rd
G‹7

Root

œ

9th

œ

3rd

œ

w

œ

(G melodic minor)

3rd

7th

Root

œ

9th

3rd

w

3rd

Common NCT Devices
Now the concept of passing tones has been introduced, let's take a survey of many of the typical devices for handling NCTs.

5

Anticipation (ANT)

& ˙™
CT

C

œ

E‹

˙™

œ

˙™

F

NCT CT (same note)

NCT CT (same note)

NCT CT (same note)

œ

C

w

A CT is played before the harmonic change, resulting in a momentary NCT (usually but not always diatonic). In other words, the NCT is created (and resolved) by anticipating a harmonic change.

Neighbour Tone (NT) or Auxillary Note (AUX)

& ˙

A‹

œ
(step)

œ

E‹

˙

NT

œ

œ
CT

˙
CT

F

NT

CT

NCT CT (step)

CT

NCT

NCT

œ

œ
CT

E7

œ
CT

NT

œ

œ
CT

CT

NCT

A NCT (usually diatonic) is played above or below a CT and is approached, and resolved in step wise motion.

Incomplete Neighbour Tone

& œ œ œ

C

CT NCT CT CT NCT CT (skip) (step) (skip) (step) (aka appoggiatura)
G

œ œ œ

CT NCT CT (skip) (step)

œ œ ˙™

œ œ œ
CT NCT CT (skip) (step)
A‹

F

(non-diatonic)

CT NCT CT (skip) (step)

œ bœ œ

& œ œ ˙™ & œ
C

CT NCT CT (skip) (step)

CT NCT CT (skip) (step)

œ œ œ œ œ œ™ J œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ™ J ˙
CT (skip)

CTNCTCT (skip) (step)

œ

œ

CT NCT CT CT NCT CT (skip) (step) (skip) (step) (same-direction)

CT NCT CT (skip) (step)

CT NCT CT (skip) (step)

œ

CT NCT CT (step) (skip)

œ

CT

œ

CT

œ

NCT

œ

(step)

A NCT is approached by a skep and resolved by a step (usually but not always in the opposite direction) Appoggiatura. A NCT may also be approached by a step from a CT and resolved by a skip (usually in the opposite direction) This is very similar to the idea of escape tone, where the skip occurs on a harmonic change. NCTs are usually but not always (see bar 3) diatonic.

6

Escape Tone(ET) or Echappeé
NCTs are approached by step and then resolved onto a CT of a new chord in the opposite direction.
A‹ G

& ˙™
CT

œ
(step)
NCT

CT

˙™

œ
(step)
NCT

F

(opposing skip to CT on new chord)

NCT CT (step) (opposing skip to (opposing skip to CT on new chord) CT on new chord)

CT

œ

œ

E7

˙

Changing Tones (ChTs) or Double-Neighbour Tones (DNTs)
CTs left by a step, then skip in the opposite direction and resolved to CT by step.

& ˙
CT

C

œ

œ

A‹

˙

œ

œ

F

˙

NCT NCT

CT

NCT NCT

CT

NCT NCT

œ

œ

œ bœ
CT CT

F‹

C

CT

˙

Suspensions and Retardations

& ˙™

C

G

œ

A‹

œ

sus.4-3 prep. sus.9-8 res.

˙

œ
prep.

F

œ

œ

G7

˙
prep.

C

œ

˙™

ret.7-8 res.

ret.2-3 res.

A delayed step-wise resolution to a CT. When the resolution falls its a suspension, when it rises the NCT is a retardation. The note in the preceding chord is known as the preparation.(prep.) which are suspended (sus.) or retardated (ret.) and then resolved (res.).

Passing Tones (PT)
From Heart-Shaped Box - Nirvana

& Œ

A‹

CT NCT CT NCT CT

œ œ œ œ œ œ J J œ œ œ œ™ J J J
F

D7

˙

˙
NCT

˙
CT

Ó

NCT

CT

NCT

CT

Stepwise connections between CTs of the same, or next chord using NCTs. These are usually single and diatonic, but may also involve more than one note (eg double passing tones) or may also be chromatic, and combined with other devices to form more complex approach patterns.

7

Double Passing Tones (DPTs), Approach Patterns and 'Accepted' NCTs
From Blue Monk - Thelonius Monk
C7 F7

& œ

CT NCT NCT CT Double chromatic passing tones.
C7

œ

œ

˙

œ


NCT

œ
NCT

œ
CT

˙

CT

Double chromatic passing tones.

& œ


NCT

œ bœ
CT

CT

NCT NCT NCT NCT

œ

œ #œ

œ

CT

j œ bœ

NCT

j nœ

NCT

œ

Œ

Neighbour Tone

Chromatic Passing Tone to...

Changing Tone with chromatic passing tone: Approach Pattern

Chromatic 'Accepted' Passing Tone NCT. to...

The last note here introduces the idea of 'accepted' non-chord tones. Clearly the 9th sounds just fine and may be happily left unresolved. Actually in Jazz such melody notes are often 'written in' to the harmony, a C9 in this case. But this isn't always appropriate, and often in popular music these notes are clearly not included in the harmonic accompaniment, doing so can make the harmony overly fussy and weaker. So how do we decide what is 'acceptable' in terms of NCTs? A musical ear is always the best judge and context and style are important and sometimes 'outness' is desired. (Just listen to Zappa, Blur or King Crimson for perfectly judged 'wrong' notes) Page 3 of this section (Consonance and Dissonance) will provide some theoretical context to the degrees of dissonance in melody, not forgetting that placement on strong or weak beats - the rhythmic emphasis of NCTs is crtitical. Using dissonant notes is not necessarily bad (although involves skill) and perfectly 'correct' notes does not necessarily produce good music. However an awareness of the consonance/dissonance continuum is hugely valuable. This particulary topic is vast but we will end with just one further illustrative example:

Fixed Melody and Changing Harmony
A powerful device is to use a fixed melody, over a changing harmonic sequence. The melody may create NCTs (in this case very common ones) and there is an interesting musical effect of hearing similar material in different harmonic contexts. In a way this is the opposite of the sequence, which changes melody to maintain similar chord degrees over changing harmony. From C-Jam Blues - Duke Ellington

& œ œ Œ & œ œ Œ
9 9 5 F7 5

C7

Ó Ó Ó

F7

œ œ Œ
9 9

œ œ Œ
9 9

C7

Ϫ Ϫ
5

R

œ Ó J œ Ó J
E¨7 E‹7

∑ ∑ ∑
A7

œ œ Œ
9 9
G7

œ œ Œ
9 9

C7

& œ œ Œ
11 11

D‹7

R

œ œ Œ
R

R

œ œ Œ
R

5 C7

Ϫ
5

R

R

œ Ó J

A¨7

D¨7

8

The End and the Beginning
Often dismissed by people don't know any better as 'simple', popular music harmony is a complex and fascinating mix of concepts and cultural influences that are endlessly interesting, effective and inspiring. Do remember that harmony lies in a complex interrelationship with all other music parameters and how its used - and its musical effect - is determined by context rather than theoretical abstraction. I graduated from a 4-year degree in 1996 which I approached with passion and commitment, since then there has not been a day that I have not thought about, played or composed music, I've even completed a PhD in composition, and I am still discovering fascinating and rewarding insights about understanding and using 'simple' harmony. I wish you the same enjoyment and satisfaction.

Milton Mermikides 2011

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