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Overview of Process Plant Piping System Design
By: Vincent A. Carucci Carmagen Engineering, Inc.
Copyright © 2000 by
All Rights Reserved
....... X....................... Assembly and Erection......... 134 G............ Fabricability ............................................................................. 154 Other Considerations ....... What is a piping system ............................. Valve Functions..................................................... 73 Introduction ............................... VII......... 77 C................................ XI............................. 88 Valves ..... II.................... 158 Summary..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 77 D.......................................................................................Determine Pipe wall thickness .......... 78 Piping Components........................... VIII........ 110 Sample Problem 3 .........................3 BACKGROUND MATERIAL ..................................................... Welding and Heat Treatment ...................... 151 A...................... Design Considerations for Piping System Stress Analysis ............................................................. 151 B............................................................................. 85 Sample Problem 1 ................ Primary Valve Types ............................ Nonmetallic Piping.............................................................................................................................. Availability and Cost .............................................................................................. Scope of ASME B31.................................................................................................. Flanges............................ 98 Exercise 1 – Determine Required Flange Rating .............................................................................................................................................................................. 105 Sample Problem 2 ..................................................................................... 99 Design ........................................ 121 System Design ........................... and Erection ................................... 144 Quality Control .................................................................... 73 General ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 157 C.................................... Pipe Supports and Restraints ............... 73 A..................................... and Gaskets........... 140 A................ 79 A................................................................................. Loads and Stresses....................................................................................... 79 B................. Assembly........... 129 D........................... 134 Fabrication.................................... 90 C.................................... Layout Considerations ....... Fittings................................................................................................................ 75 B....................................................................................................... Flange Rating ......................................3...................... Strength.......................................... Pressure Design of Components .................................... Required Design Information for Piping Stress Analysis ..... 123 C.Determine Flange Rating ....................... High Pressure Piping.................................................................................... 122 A........................... PARTICIPANT NOTES ............................................................................................................. Criteria for Allowable Equipment Nozzle Loads ................ 100 B.................................................... 75 A............................... 101 C................................................................... 116 Exercise 2: Determine Required Pipe Wall Thickness ................TABLE OF CONTENTS PART 1: PART 2: I.. ................................................................ 132 F................................................................................... Valve Selection Process ................................................................... 100 A................................................ Piping Flexibility..................................... Inspection .... 156 A............................ 78 E.............................................. IV............................................................................ 73 B........................... Corrosion Resistance .......................... Testing............ 89 A......................................................................................................................................... Material Fracture Toughness ................................................................................................... Category M Fluid Service........................ VI............................... 122 B........................ Design Conditions ...................................................... 88 Solution ................................... IX.... When Should A Computer Analysis Be Used .............................................. 89 B.................... 160 III......... 132 E..................... V............... 156 B............................................. 140 B.... 73 Material selection considerations................................................................................
Part 1: Participant Notes 3 .
bolting • Valves • Pipe supports 2 Notes: 4 . etc.g. 1 Notes: Piping System Piping system: conveys fluid between locations Piping system includes: • Pipe • Fittings (e. Inc. Carucci Carmagen Engineering. gaskets.OVERVIEW OF PROCESS PLANT PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN By: Vincent A. elbows. branch connections. reducers.) • Flanges.
all fluid services: – Raw. intermediate. and finished chemicals – Petroleum products – Gas. steam.3 • Piping and piping components. air.ASME B31. and water – Fluidized solids – Refrigerants – Cryogenic fluids • Interconnections within packaged equipment • Scope exclusions specified 4 Notes: 5 .3 • Provides requirements for: – Design – Materials – Fabrication – Erection – Inspection – Testing • For process plants including – – – – 3 Petroleum refineries Chemical plants Pharmaceutical plants Textile plants – Paper plants – Semiconductor plants – Cryogenic plants Notes: Scope of ASME B31.
Strength • • • • • • Yield and Tensile Strength Creep Strength Fatigue Strength Alloy Content Material Grain size Steel Production Process 5 Notes: Stress .Strain Diagram S A B C E 6 Notes: 6 .
May be combined with erosion if high-velocity fluids. Occurs most often in stagnant areas or areas of low-flow velocity.Corrosion Resistance • Deterioration of metal by chemical or electrochemical action • Most important factor to consider • Corrosion allowance added thickness • Alloying increases corrosion resistance 7 Notes: Piping System Corrosion General or Uniform Corrosion Pitting Corrosion Uniform metal loss. and leaves graphite in place. Reduces iron in cast iron. and bolts where crevice exists. or moving fluids containing abrasives. lap joints. Result is extremely soft material with no metal loss. Occurs when two dissimilar metals contact each other in corrosive electrolytic environment. Occurs in cast iron exposed to salt water or weak acids. Anodic metal develops deep pits or grooves as current flows from it to cathodic metal. Galvanic Corrosion Crevice Corrosion Localized corrosion similar to pitting. Concentration Cell Corrosion Occurs when different concentration of either a corrosive fluid or dissolved oxygen contacts areas of same metal. Occurs at places such as gaskets. Localized metal loss randomly located on material surface. Usually associated with stagnant fluid. Graphitic Corrosion 8 Notes: 7 .
valves – Cast valves 10 Notes: 8 .Material Toughness • Energy necessary to initiate and propagate a crack • Decreases as temperature decreases • Factors affecting fracture toughness include: – Chemical composition or alloying elements – Heat treatment – Grain size 9 Notes: Fabricability • Ease of construction • Material must be weldable • Common shapes and forms include: – Seamless pipe – Plate welded pipe – Wrought or forged elbows. couplings. reducers. tees. crosses – Forged flanges.
Availability and Cost • Consider economics • Compare acceptable options based on: – Availability – Relative cost 11 Notes: Pipe Fittings • Produce change in geometry – – – – Modify flow direction Bring pipes together Alter pipe diameter Terminate pipe 12 Notes: 9 .
2 14 Cross Tee Notes: 10 .1 Notes: Tee Reducing Outlet Tee Figure 4.Elbow and Return 90° 45° 180° Return 13 Figure 4.
Reducer Concentric Eccentric Figure 4.4 Notes: 11 .3 15 Notes: Welding Outlet Fitting 16 Figure 4.
6 Notes: 12 .5 17 Notes: Lap-joint Stub End Note square corner R R Enlarged Section of Lap 18 Figure 4.Cap Figure 4.
7 Notes: Types of Flange Attachment and Facing Flange Attachment Types Threaded Flanges Socket-Welded Flanges Blind Flanges Slip-On Flanges Lapped Flanges Weld Neck Flanges Ring Joint Raised Face Flange Facing Types Flat Faced 20 Table 4.1 Notes: 13 .Typical Flange Assembly Flange Bolting Gasket 19 Figure 4.
Flange Facing Types 21 Figure 4.8 Notes: Gaskets • • • • Resilient material Inserted between flanges Compressed by bolts to create seal Commonly used types – Sheet – Spiral wound – Solid metal ring 22 Notes: 14 .
300. 1.2 Notes: 15 . 2.5 • Acceptable pressure/temperature combinations • Seven classes (150. 400.500. 900.Flange Rating Class • Based on ASME B16.500) • Flange strength increases with class number • Material and design temperature combinations without pressure indicated not acceptable 23 Notes: Material Specification List 24 Table 4. 600.
.3 Notes: Sample Problem 1 Flange Rating New piping system to be installed at existing plant.8 150 235 220 215 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 620 570 555 555 555 555 555 545 515 510 485 450 320 215 400 825 765 745 740 740 740 740 725 685 675 650 600 425 290 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1.9 300 750 750 720 695 695 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 320 215 400 1000 1000 965 885 805 785 785 710 675 650 600 425 290 190 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1. • Pipe Material: • Design Temperature: • Design Pressure: 1 1 Cr − 1 Mo 4 2 700°F 500 psig 26 Notes: 16 .10 300 750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 375 260 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 505 345 25 Table 4.Pressure . Determine required flange class. Classes Temp.Temperature Ratings Material Group No. °F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1.
4.Sample Problem 1 Solution • Determine Material Group Number (Fig.2) Group Number = 1.9 • Find allowable design pressure at intersection of design temperature and Group No. – Allowable pressure = 110 psig < design pressure – Move to next higher class and repeat steps • For Class 300. allowable pressure = 570 psig • Required flange Class: 300 27 Notes: Valves • Functions – Block flow – Throttle flow – Prevent flow reversal 28 Notes: 17 . Check Class 150.
12. 3. 10. 8. 17. 5.Full Port Gate Valve 1. 2. 18. Handwheel Nut Handwheel Stem Nut Yoke Yoke Bolting Stem Gland Flange Gland Gland Bolts or Gland Eye-bolts and nuts Gland Lug Bolts and Nuts Stem Packing Plug Lantern Ring Backseat Bushing Bonnet Bonnet Gasket Bonnet Bolts and Nuts Gate Seat Ring Body One-Piece Gland (Alternate) Valve Port 29 Figure 5. 6.1 Notes: Globe Valve • • • • • Most economic for throttling flow Can be hand-controlled Provides “tight” shutoff Not suitable for scraping or rodding Too costly for on/off block operations 30 Notes: 18 . 19. 9. 14. 20. 22. 15. 4. 16. 7. 21. 13. 11.
ratings. materials Valve type selection determined by – Size limitations – Cost – Availability – Service 31 Notes: Swing Check Valve Cap Pin Seat Ring Hinge Flow Direction Disc Body 32 Figure 5.Check Valve • • • • Prevents flow reversal Does not completely shut off reverse flow Available in all sizes.2 Notes: 19 .
Ball Check Valve 33 Figure 5.3 Notes: Lift Check Valve Seat Ring Piston Flow Direction 34 Figure 5.4 Notes: 20 .
Wafer Check Valve 35 Figure 5.6 Notes: 21 .5 Notes: Ball Valve No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Part Names Body Body Cap Ball Body Seal Gasket Seat Stem Gland Flange Stem Packing Gland Follower Thrust Bearing Thrust Washer Indicator Stop Snap Ring Gland Bolt Stem Bearing Body Stud Bolt & Nuts Gland Cover Gland Cover Bolts Handle 36 Figure 5.
7 Notes: Valve Selection Process General procedure for valve selection. etc. throttle. Identify potentially appropriate valve types and components based on application and function (i.e.Plug Valve Wedge Molded-In Resilient Seal Sealing Slip 37 Figure 5. material. valve function. 2. or reverse flow prevention). Identify design information including pressure and temperature. block.. 1. 38 Notes: 22 .
Finalize valve selection. 4. Determine valve application requirements (i. etc. F11 900°F 375 psig 40 Notes: 23 .Determine Required Flange Rating • Pipe: • Flanges: • Design Temperature: • Design Pressure: 1 1 Cr − 1 Mo 4 2 A-182 Gr. Check factors to consider if two or more valves are suitable. Provide full technical description specifying type. 39 Notes: Exercise 1 .. flange rating. 5.e. design or service limitations). cont’d 3.Valve Selection Process. material.
3 with design temperature and Material Group No. – Class 300 has 450 psig maximum pressure at 900°F 41 Notes: Design Conditions • General – Normal operating conditions – Design conditions • Design pressure and temperature – Identify connected equipment and associated design conditions – Consider contingent conditions – Consider flow direction – Verify conditions with process engineer 42 Notes: 24 .Solution 1. F11 2. (Table 4. Identify material specification of flange A-182 Gr.9 3. – The lowest Class for design pressure of 375 psig is Class 300. Determine Material Group No.Exercise 1 . Determine class using Table 4.2) Group 1.
1 Notes: 25 .Loading Conditions Principal pipe load types • Sustained loads – Act on system all or most of time – Consist of pressure and total weight load • Thermal expansion loads – Caused by thermal displacements – Result from restrained movement • Occasional loads 43 – Act for short portion of operating time – Seismic and/or dynamic loading Notes: Stresses Produced By Internal Pressure Sl Sc P t Sl Sc t P = = = = Longitudinal Stress Circumferential (Hoop) Stress Wall Thickness Internal Pressure 44 Figure 6.
Stress Categorization • Primary Stresses – Direct – Shear – Bending • Secondary stresses – Act across pipe wall thickness – Cause local yielding and minor distortions – Not a source of direct failure 45 Notes: Stress Categorization. cont’d • Peak stresses – More localized – Rapidly decrease within short distance of origin – Occur where stress concentrations and fatigue failure might occur – Significance equivalent to secondary stresses – Do not cause significant distortion 46 Notes: 26 .
0 Table 6.5 18.8 14.Allowable Stresses Function of – Material properties – Temperature – Safety factors Established to avoid: – General collapse or excessive distortion from sustained loads – Localized fatigue failure from thermal expansion loads – Collapse or distortion from occasional loads 47 Notes: B31.0 17.3 13.1 48 Notes: 27 .½Mo 1¼ . ksi.6 15.5 18. °F.7 16. At Metal Temperature.1 2.5 15.3 800 10.8 13.3 20.0 15.0 700 16. No/Grade 100 20.3 15.6 16.7 12.7 4.9 16.8 15.2 17.0 2.9 17.3 1.8Ni pipe 16Cr .0 7.4 17.5 12.0 TP316 20.3 500 18.12Ni-2Mo pipe Spec.0 400 20.3 1200 1300 1400 1500 A 106 A 335 A 335 A 312 A 312 B P1 P11 TP304 20.3 18.½Mo 18Cr .5 4.7 16.9 600 17.0 18.0 20.0 16.0 20.0 300 20.4 3.5 15.3 1.0 18.7 20. ° ° Material Carbon Steel C .8 9.1 15.5 17.0 20.4 1. 6.4 2.0 200 20.2 15.5 1000 1100 2.0 16.2 6.4 1.3 17.3 2.7 12.3 Allowable Stresses in Tension Basic Allowable Stress S.7 19.9 900 6.
.875 Notes: Spec..00 A 106 A 333 A 335 ..90 0. psi E = Longitudinal-joint quality factor Y = Wall thickness correction factor • • 49 t m = t + CA t nom = tm 0. 4 5 2 Seamless pipe Electric fusion welded pipe.00 0.80 50 Table 6. single butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe.. 1. Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Electric fusion welded pipe.. . 1.95 A 53 Type S Type E Type F . .. 3....00 0..85 0. Class (or Type) Carbon Steel Description Ej API 5L . .. Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Seamless pipe Stainless Steel 1... ...00 0. double butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe. double butt seam Nickel and Nickel Alloy 1.85 1.. 100% radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe.85 0. S = Allowable stress in tension..80 1.85 A 358 B 161 B 514 B 675 ..00 0. spot radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe.00 0.... All Seamless pipe and tube Welded pipe Welded pipe 1... double butt. psig D = Pipe outside diameter.00 A 312 . No.2 Notes: 28 . straight or spiral seam Furnace butt welded Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Furnace butt welded pipe Seamless pipe Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel 1. .60 1. in.Pipe Thickness Required For Internal Pressure • t= PD 2 (SE + PY ) P = Design pressure. . .00 0.85 0.80 0..
4 0.4 0..4 1050 0. .7 0.4 0.3 51 Notes: Curved and Mitered Pipe • Curved pipe – Elbows or bends – Same thickness as straight pipe • Mitered bend – Straight pipe sections welded together – Often used in large diameter pipe – May require larger thickness • Function of number of welds.4 1000 0..0 .4 0.7 0.. .4 1150 & up 0.4 950 0..5 0..7 0. °F Materials Ferritic Steels Austenitic Steels Other Ductile Metals Cast iron 900 & lower 0. .7 0. . size 52 Notes: 29 .5 0.4 0.4 1100 0......7 0.4 0.Temperature. Table 6. conditions.
577 in.Sample Problem 2 Determine Pipe Wall Thickness Design temperature: 650°F Design pressure: 1. Pipe outside diameter: 14 in. 53 Notes: Sample Problem 2 . Gr.200 × 1) + (1.380 × 14 2[(16. Material: ASTM A335.Solution t= PD 2(SE + PY) t= 1. P11 ( 1 14 Cr − 12 Mo ). 54 Notes: 30 .380 × 0.0625 in.380 psig.4 )] t = 0. seamless Corrosion allowance: 0.
875 55 Notes: Welded Branch Connection Tb Reinforcement Zone Limits tb c Mill Tol.Sample Problem 2 Solution. Reinforcement Zone Limits A3 A3 A4 L4 A4 A1 Tr c th Th Dh Nom.6395 = 0. t nom = 0. cont’d tm = t + c = 0.0625 = 0.6395 in. Db Nom. Mill Tol. 0.2 Notes: 31 . Thk.731 in. Thk.577 + 0. A2 d1 d2 d2 A2 β Pipe C 56 Figure 6.
58 Notes: 32 . in. in. c = Corrosion allowance. in. Tb = Minimum branch thickness. β = Acute angle between branch and header 57 Notes: Required Reinforcement Area Required reinforcement area. in. in.Reinforcement Area d1 = Db − 2(Tb − c) sin β d1 = Effective length removed from run pipe. A1: A 1 = t h d1(2 − sin β) Where: th = Minimum required header thickness. Db = Branch outside diameter.
5% 60 Notes: 33 . S = 16. A 106/Gr. B for branch and header.500 psi • Design conditions: 550 psig @ 700°F • c = 0.0625 in.Reinforcement Pad • Provides additional reinforcement • Usually more economical than increasing wall thickness • Selection variables – Material – Outside diameter – Wall thickness æ (D − Db ) ö A4 = ç p Tr ç sin β è 59 Notes: Sample Problem 3 • Pipe material: Seamless. • Mill tolerance: 12.
Branch: 0.11in.469 in.0625 ) = 15.395 × 15.875 − 0. sin 90° A1 = thd1(2 − sinβ) A1 = 0.395 in.2 62 Notes: 34 . Header: 0.375 × 0. • Branch connection at 90° angle 61 Notes: Sample Problem 3 .Solution d1 = d1 = Db − 2(Tb − c) sin β 16 − 2 (0.469 (2 − sin90°) = 6.263 in.Sample Problem 3. Branch: 0.562 in. cont’d • Nominal Pipe Thicknesses: • Required Pipe Thicknesses: Header: 0.375 in.
469 .0625 ) = 0.15.375 − 0.875 × 0.5 (0.469) (0. A2 = (2 × 15.Sample Problem 3 Solution.263 − 0. A2.875 × 0. A3 = 2L 4(Tb − tb−c ) sinβ L 4 = 2.003 in.0625 ) 2 = 0.469 in.562 0.53 in.2 63 Notes: Sample Problem 3 Solution.0625) A2 = 0. sin 90° Notes: 35 .664 in. cont’d • • Calculate excess area available in branch.875 × 0.0. A3.395 .664 (0. cont’d • Calculate excess area available in header.375 − 0. A 2 = (2d2−d1)(Th−th−c ) d2 = d1 = 15. < Dh = 24 in. A3 = 64 2 × 0.
5 (Tb .875) = 1. A4 = 0.003 + 0 = 0. A4.562 in.16 in 66 Notes: 36 . cont’d • Reinforcement pad: A106.533 in.562 . thick • Recalculate Available Reinforcement L41 = 2.0. L42 = 2.c) + Tr = 2. • Total Available Area: AT = A2 + A3 + A4 AT = 0.875 × 0.53 + 0.0625) + 0. 0.5 (Th .875 × 0.Sample Problem 3 Solution.5 (0.375 .0. AT < A1 ∴ Pad needed 65 Notes: Sample Problem 3 Solution.5 (0. B.c) = 2.0625) = 1.562 (0. cont’d • Calculate other excess area available.2 available reinforcement.073 in. Gr.
0. Dp is: Tr = 0.535 = 5.53 + 0. L4 = 1.2 Pad diameter.492 Sample Problem 3 Solution. cont’d Since 2d2 > Dp. A3 = 2L 4 (Tb − t b − c) sin β 2 × 1.073 (0.005 + 0 = 0. pad diameter is acceptable 68 Notes: 37 .3 Tr sin β 0.562 (0.535 in.375 − 0.2 (vs. cont’d Therefore.005 in.11 .2 previously calculated ) A T = A 2 + A 3 + A 4 = 0.875 × 0.263 − 0.575 in.575 + = + 16 = 27.0625 ) sin90 o A3 = A 3 = 0.2 67 Notes: • Calculate additional reinforcement required and pad dimensions: A4 = 6.Sample Problem 3 Solution.073 in. the 0.492 in. Dp = A 4 Db 5.003 in.875) = 0.
Determine Required Pipe Wall Thickness • • • • • • • 69 Design Temperature: 260°F Design Pressure: 150 psig Pipe OD: 30 in.4 • Thickness calculation: t= PD 150 × 30 = 2(SE + PY ) 2[(20.1.Solution • From Tables 6.000 psi – E = 1. Gr.000 × 1.0 – Y = 0.Exercise 2 . Pipe material: A 106.0 ) + (150 × 0. and 6. 70 Notes: 38 .2.04 )] t = 0.3 obtain values: – S = 20.112 in.125 Mill tolerance: 12. 6. B seamless Corrosion allowance: 0.5% Thickness for internal pressure and nominal thickness? Notes: Exercise 2 .
Notes: Layout Considerations • Operational – Operating and control points easily reached • Maintenance – Ample clearance for maintenance equipment – Room for equipment removal – Sufficient space for access to supports • Safety – Consider personnel safety – Access to fire fighting equipment 72 Notes: 39 .125 t = 0.875 = 0.875 0.237 = 0.Exercise 2 .112 + 0.Solution. • Mill tolerance calculation: t nom = t nom 71 tm 0.237 in. cont’d • Corrosion allowance calculation: t m = t + CA = 0.271 in.
Pipe Supports and Restraints • Supports – Absorb system weight – Reduce: + longitudinal pipe stress + pipe sag + end point reaction loads • Restraints – Control or direct thermal movement due to: + thermal expansion + imposed loads 73 Notes: Support and Restraint Selection Factors • • • • • • Weight load Available attachment clearance Availability of structural steel Direction of loads and/or movement Design temperature Vertical thermal movement at supports 74 Notes: 40 .
2 Notes: 41 .Rigid Supports Shoe Saddle Base Adjustable Support Dummy Support Trunnion 75 Figure 7.1 Notes: Hangers 76 Figure 7.
3 Notes: Restraints • Control.Flexible Supports Load and Deflection Scale Small Change in Effective Lever Arm Large Change in Effective Lever Arm Relatively Constant Load Typical Variable-Load Spring Support Typical Constant-Load Spring Support Mechanism 77 Figure 7. redirect thermal movement – Reduce thermal stress – Reduce loads on equipment connections • Absorb imposed loads – Wind – Earthquake – Slug flow – Water hammer – Flow induced-vibration 78 Notes: 42 . limit.
Restraints. cont’d • Restraint Selection – Direction of pipe movement – Location of restraint point – Magnitude of load 79 Notes: Anchors and Guides • Anchor – Full fixation – Permits very limited (if any) translation or rotation • Guide – Permits movement along pipe axis – Prevents lateral movement – May permit pipe rotation 80 Notes: 43 .
5 Notes: 44 .Guides Guide Guide x Vertical Guide 82 Guide Figure 7.Restraints .4 Notes: Restraints .Anchors Anchor Anchor Partial Anchor 81 Figure 7.
Piping Flexibility • Inadequate flexibility – Leaky flanges – Fatigue failure – Excessive maintenance – Operations problems – Damaged equipment • System must accommodate thermal movement 83 Notes: Flexibility Analysis • Considers layout. restraint • Ensures thermal stresses and reaction loads are within allowable limits • Anticipates stresses due to: – Elevated design temperatures + Increases pipe thermal stress and reaction loads + Reduces material strength – Pipe movement – Supports and restraints 84 Notes: 45 . support.
Flexibility Analysis. thickness • Design temperature and pressure • End-point movements • Existing structural steel locations • Special design considerations Notes: 46 . cont’d • Evaluates loads imposed on equipment • Determines imposed loads on piping system and associated structures • Loads compared to industry standards – Based on tables – Calculated 85 Notes: Design Factors • Layout • Component design details • Fluid service • Connected equipment type • Operating scenarios 86 • Pipe diameter.
Stress analysis required. and wall thickness. Nozzle size Tank Nozzles API 650 Steam Turbines NEMA SM-23 87 Table 7. 1. shell thickness.85 times NEMA SM-23 allowable API 661 Nozzle size Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Pressure Vessels. Shell. thickness. Exchanger Nozzles WRC 297 Nozzle size. tank diameter. nozzle elevation. height. Nozzle size.Equipment Nozzle Load Standards and Parameters Equipment Item Industry Standard Parameters Used To Determine Acceptable Loads Nozzle size Nozzle size.ASME Code Section and-Tube Heat VIII.1 Notes: Computer Analysis • Used to perform detailed piping stress analysis • Can perform numerous analyses • Accurately completes unique and difficult functions – Time-history analyses – Seismic and wind motion – Support motion – Finite element analysis – Animation effects 88 Notes: 47 . WRC 107. material Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Compressors API 610 API 617. reinforcement details. vessel/exchanger diameter.
NPS ≥4 ≥8 ≥ 12 ≥ 20 Maximum Differential Flexibility Temp. and restraints • Extent of analysis depends on situation 90 Notes: 48 .Computer Analysis Guidelines Type Of Piping General piping Pipe Size. ≥ 400°F ≥ 300°F ≥ 200°F any Any Any Any For rotating equipment For air-fin heat exchangers For tankage ≥3 ≥4 ≥ 12 89 Table 7.2 Notes: Piping Flexibility Temperature • Analysis based on largest temperature difference imposed by normal and abnormal operating conditions • Results give: – Largest pipe stress range – Largest reaction loads on connections. supports.
regeneration. Determine if heating or cooling cycles pose flexibility problems.Normal Temperature Conditions To Consider Stable Operation Temperature range expected for most of time plant is in operation. Includes pipe that is normally at ambient temperature but can be blocked in. especially piping connected to or Gas Freeing upper parts of towers. Piping connected to equipment which Steamout for Air will be steamed out. Startup and Shutdown Regeneration and Decoking Piping Spared Equipment 91 Table 7. This may govern flexibility of lines connected to towers that operate at less than 300°F or that have a smaller temperature variation from top to bottom.3 Notes: Abnormal Temperature Conditions To Consider Loss of Cooling Medium Flow Temperature changes due to loss of cooling medium flow should be considered. Most on-site equipment and lines. For 125 psig steam. should be checked for tower at 300°F and piping at ambient plus 50°F. and many off-site lines. and switching from one service to the other. Margin above operating temperature (i.4 Notes: 49 . if tower is heated while attached piping remains cold. piping flexibility should be checked. for no flow in some of piping.. use of design temperature rather than operating temperature) allows for process flexibility. For example. An example is furnace decoking. or decoking. Common example is piping for two or more pumps with one or more spares. If process flow can be stopped while heat is still being No Process Flow applied. 92 Table 7. Requires multiple analyses to evaluate expected temperature variations. 300°F is typically used for metal temperature. while subject to solar radiation. Such situations can occur with Continues steam tracing and steam jacketing. and for switching from one piece of equipment to another. flexibility should be checked for maximum While Heating metal temperature.e. Design for normal operation. are freed of gas or air by using steam.
Extent of Analysis • Extent depends on situation • Analyze right combination of conditions • Not necessary to include system sections that are irrelevant to analysis results 93 Notes: Modifying System Design • • • • Provide more offsets or bends Use more expansion loops Install expansion joints Locate restraints to: – Minimize thermal and friction loads – Redirect thermal expansion • Use spring supports to reduce large vertical thermal loads • Use Teflon bearing pads to reduce friction loads 94 Notes: 50 .
System Design Considerations • Pump systems – Operating vs. cont’d • Atmospheric storage tank – Movement at nozzles – Tank settlement • Friction loads at supports and restraints – Can act as anchors or restraints – May cause high pipe stresses or reaction loads • Air-cooled heat exchangers – Consider header box and bundle movement 96 Notes: 51 . spared pumps • Heat traced piping systems – Heat tracing + Reduces liquid viscosity + Prevents condensate accumulation – Tracing on with process off 95 Notes: System Design Considerations.
6 Notes: Welding • • • • Welding is primary way of joining pipe Provides safety and reliability Qualified welding procedure and welders Butt welds used for: – Pipe ends – Butt-weld-type flanges or fittings to pipe ends – Edges of formed plate 98 Notes: 52 .Tank Nozzle NOZZLE SHELL BOTTOM 97 Figure 7.
max. and Thinner (c) Suggested End Preparation.1 Notes: Butt-Welded Joint Designs Unequal Thickness 3/32 in.2 Notes: 53 .Butt-Welded Joint Designs Equal Thickness (a) Standard End Preparation of Pipe (b) Standard End Preparation of Butt-Welding Fittings and Optional End Preparation of Pipe 7/8 in. Thickness 99 Figure 8. Pipe and Fittings Over 7/8 in. (a) (b) (c) (d) 100 Figure 8.
scale. oil. wall thickness. welding process – Smooth with no slag from oxygen or arc cutting 102 Notes: 54 . etc. • Ends must be: – Suitably shaped for material.Fillet Welds 101 Figure 8. rust.3 Notes: Weld Preparation • Welder and equipment must be qualified • Internal and external surfaces must be clean and free of paint.
Preheating • Minimizes detrimental effects of: – High temperature – Severe thermal gradients • Benefits include: – Dries metal and removes surface moisture – Reduces temperature difference between base metal and weld – Helps maintain molten weld pool – Helps drive off absorbed gases 103 Notes: Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT) • Primarily for stress relief – Only reason considered in B31.3 • Averts or relieves detrimental effects – Residual stresses + Shrinkage during cooldown + Bending or forming processes – High temperature – Severe thermal gradients 104 Notes: 55 .
Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT). cont’d • Other reasons for PWHT to be specified by user – Process considerations – Restore corrosion resistance of normal grades of stainless steel – Prevent caustic embrittlement of carbon steel – Reduce weld hardness 105 Notes: Storage and Handling • Store piping on mounds or sleepers • Stacking not too high • Store fittings and valves in shipping crates or on racks • End protectors firmly attached • Lift lined and coated pipes and fittings with fabric or rubber covered slings and padding 106 Notes: 56 .
Pipe Fitup and Tolerances • Good fitup essential – Sound weld – Minimize loads • Dimensional tolerances • Flange tolerances 107 Notes: Pipe Alignment Load Sensitive Equipment • Special care and tighter tolerances needed • Piping should start at nozzle flange – Initial section loosely bolted – Gaskets used during fabrication to be replaced • Succeeding pipe sections bolted on • Field welds to join piping located near machine 108 Notes: 57 .
cont’d • More stringent limits for piping > NPS 3 • Prevent ingress of debris during construction 110 Notes: 58 .Load Sensitive Equipment. cont’d • Spring supports locked in cold position during installation and adjusted in locked position later • Final bolt tensioning follows initial alignment of nozzle flanges • Final nozzle alignment and component flange boltup should be completed after replacing any sections removed 109 Notes: Load Sensitive Equipment.
and Installation • • • • • • Redo damaged surfaces Clean faces Align flanges Lubricate threads and nuts Place gasket properly Use proper flange boltup procedure 112 Notes: 59 . Inspection.Flange Joint Assembly • Primary factors – Selection – Design – Preparation – Inspection – Installation • Identify and control causes of leakage 111 Notes: Flange Preparation.
4 Notes: Causes of Flange Leakage • • • • • • • • 114 Uneven bolt stress Improper flange alignment Improper gasket centering Dirty or damaged flange faces Excessive loads at flange locations Thermal shock Improper gasket size or material Improper flange facing Notes: 60 .“Criss-Cross” Bolt-tightening Sequence 113 Figure 8.
1 Notes: 61 .Inspection • Defect identification • Weld inspection – Technique – Weld type – Anticipated type of defect – Location of weld – Pipe material 115 Notes: Typical Weld Imperfections Lack of Fusion Between Weld Bead and Base Metal a) Side Wall Lack of Fusion b) Lack of Fusion Between Adjacent Passes Incomplete Filling at Root on One Side Only Incomplete Filling at Root c) Incomplete Penetration Due to Internal Misalignment d) Incomplete Penetration of Weld Groove External Undercut Root Bead Fused to Both Inside Surfaces but Center of Root Slightly Below Inside Surface of Pipe (Not Incomplete Penetration) Internal Undercut e) Concave Root Surface (Suck-Up) f) Undercut g) Excess External Reinforcement 116 Figure 9.
Cracks. Simple and inexpensive.1 Notes: Testing • Pressure test system to demonstrate integrity • Hydrostatic test unless pneumatic approved for special cases • Hydrostatic test pressure – ≥ 1½ times design pressure 118 Notes: 62 . Miter groove welds. Ferromagnetic materials. Subsurface flaws. Ferrous and nonferrous materials. Slag inclusions. Gas pockets. Slag inclusions in thick plates. Seams.) beneath the surface. Lack of fusion. Liquid Penetrant • • • • 117 Table 9. Girth welds.Weld Inspection Guidelines Type of Inspection Visual Situation/Weld Type All welds. Slag inclusions. Folds. • • • Radiography • • • Magnetic Particle • • Butt welds. • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ultrasonic Confirms high weld quality in pressurecontaining joints. Shrinkage. Inclusions. Porosity. Cracks. Weld root pass. Cracks. Intermediate weld passes. • • • Defect Minor structural welds. Surface defects. Laminations. For flaws up to 6 mm (1/4 in. Incomplete penetration. Porosity.
– For design temperature > test temperature:
1. 5 P S T S
ST/S must be ≤ 6.5
PT P ST S = Minimum hydrostatic test pressure, psig = Internal design pressure, psig = Allowable stress at test temperature, psi = Allowable stress at design temperature, psi
• Pneumatic test at 1.1P • Instrument take-off piping and sampling piping strength tested with connected equipment
• Thermoplastic Piping
– Can be repeatedly softened and hardened by increasing and decreasing temperature
• Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Piping (RTR)
– Fabricated from resin which can be treated to become infusible or insoluble
Nonmetallic Piping, cont’d
• No allowances for pressure or temperature variations above design conditions • Most severe coincident pressure and temperature conditions determine design conditions
Nonmetallic Piping, cont’d
• Designed to prevent movement from causing:
– Failure at supports – Leakage at joints – Detrimental stresses or distortions
• Stress-strain relationship inapplicable
Nonmetallic Piping, cont’d
• Flexibility and support requirement same as for piping in normal fluid service. In addition:
– Piping must be supported, guided, anchored to prevent damage. – Point loads and narrow contact areas avoided – Padding placed between piping and supports – Valves and load transmitting equipment supported independently to prevent excessive loads.
and safeguarded in most fluid services. 126 Notes: 66 . • Joined by bonding 125 Notes: Category M Fluid Service Category M Fluid • Significant potential for personnel exposure • Single exposure to small quantity can cause irreversible harm to breathing or skin. cont’d • Thermoplastics not used in flammable service.Nonmetallic Piping.
127 Notes: Category M Fluid Service. cont’d • Requirements same as for piping in normal fluid service. – Sensitive leak test required in addition to other required testing. In addition: – Design. pulsation. layout. and operation conducted with minimal impact and shock loads. – All fabrication and joints visually examined.Category M Fluid Service. – Detrimental vibration. – No pressure-temperature variation allowances. cont’d – Most severe coincident pressure-temperature conditions determine design temperature and pressure. resonance effects to be avoided or minimized. 128 Notes: 67 .
– Nonmetallic valves and specialty components. – Threaded nonmetallic flanges. cont’d • Following may not be used – Miter bends not designated as fittings. 129 Notes: High Pressure Piping • Ambient effects on design conditions – Pressure reduction based on cooling of gas or vapor – Increased pressure due to heating of a static fluid – Moisture condensation 130 Notes: 68 . fabricated laps.Category M Fluid Service. nonmetallic fabricated branch connections. caulked joints. – Expanded. threaded.
anchor. and terminal movement 131 Notes: High Pressure Piping.High Pressure Piping. cont’d • Other considerations – Dynamic effects – Weight effects – Thermal expansion and contraction effects – Support. cont’d • Testing – Each system hydrostatically or pneumatically leak tested – Each weld and piping component tested – Post installation pressure test at 110% of design pressure if pre-installation test was performed • Examination 132 – Generally more extensive than normal fluid service Notes: 69 .
Summary • Process plant piping much more than just pipe • ASME B31.3 covers process plant piping • Covers design. fabrication. inspection. and testing • Course provided overview of requirements 133 Notes: 70 . erection. materials.
Part 2: Background Material 71 .
Inc. 72 .OVERVIEW OF PROCESS PLANT PIPING SYSTEM DESIGN Carmagen Engineering.
plus additional requirements and guidelines based on common industry practice. A piping system consists of: • • • • • Pipe sections Fittings (e. paper. and bolting Valves Pipe supports and restraints Each individual component plus the overall system must be designed for the specified design conditions. branch connections. pumps. semiconductor.3 ASME B31. What is a piping system A piping system conveys fluid from one location to another.. It discusses requirements contained in ASME B31.3 specifies the design. heat exchangers. Process Piping.. chemical. etc. elbows.).3. and related process plants and terminals. and cryogenic plants. and prepares participants to take more extensive courses if appropriate. Process plants include petroleum refineries. B. GENERAL A. fabrication. 73 .) Flanges.g.g. and testing requirements for process plant piping systems. pharmaceutical. The information contained in this course is readily applicable to on-the-job applications. inspection. gaskets. the locations are typically one or more equipment items (e. reducers. etc. Within a process plant. materials. INTRODUCTION This course provides an overview of process plant piping system design. erection. process heaters. Scope of ASME B31. pressure vessels.I. II. or individual process plants that are within the boundary of a process facility. textile.
Cryogenic fluids. Power boilers that are designed in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and external boiler piping that must conform to ASME B31.3 applies to piping and piping components that are used for all fluid services. Tubes. nontoxic. The scope also includes piping that interconnects pieces or stages within a packaged-equipment assembly. The following are excluded from the scope of ASME B31. air. These include the following: • • • • • • Raw. and manifolds that are located inside a fired heater enclosure. heat exchangers. and its design temperature is from -20°F through 366°F. intermediate. • • • 74 .1. not just hydrocarbon services. Refrigerants. pumps. and finished chemicals. and not damaging to human tissue.ASME B31. crossovers. and other fluid-handling or processing equipment. Pressure vessels. tube headers. provided that the fluid is nonflammable. Fluidized solids. and water. Gas. compressors.3: • Piping systems for internal gauge pressures at or above zero but less than 15 psi. steam. This includes both internal piping and connections for external piping. Petroleum products.
Alloy content. A.III. its deformation also increases. creep. MATERIAL SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Piping system material selection considerations are discussed below. tensile. Gray cast iron is an example of a brittle material. the material is said to be ductile. the material is brittle.1).1) illustrates the yield and tensile strengths. If a large amount of strain occurs in going from Point A to Point C. Steel is an example of a ductile material. The maximum stress that the material attains is the tensile strength (Point B in Figure 3. material grain size. and the steel production process are factors that affect material strength. 1. and fatigue strengths. Strength A material's strength is defined by its yield. If the stress is further increased.1). S A B C E Typical Stress-Strain Diagram for Steel Figure 3. As the stress in a material increases.0 Yield and Tensile Strength A stress-strain diagram that is produced from a standard tensile test (Figure 3. If the strain in going from Point A to Point C is small. the rupture point.1 75 . The yield strength is the stress that is required to produce permanent deformation in the material (Point A in Figure 3. the permanent deformation continues to increase until the material fails.
or breaks during a load cycle that it has previously withstood several times. 76 . Above this temperature. One analogy to cyclic fatigue is the bending of a paper clip.e. the strain in the material will increase with time.0 Creep Strength Below about 750°F for a given stress. varies with temperature.. The initial bending beyond a certain point causes the paper clip to yield (i. 3.” and the second type is called “cyclic. For a particular temperature. The temperature at which creep strength begins to be a factor is a function of material chemistry. The first type of fatigue is called “static. The creep strength. The clip could be bent back and forth several more times and still not break. the strain in most materials remains constant with time.0 Fatigue Strength The term “fatigue” refers to the situation where a specimen breaks under a load that it has previously withstood for a length of time.e. permanently deform) but not break. the paper clip will break under this repetitive loading. The number of cycles to failure of a material decreases as the stress resulting from the applied load increases. For alloy materials (i.e. the creep strength of a material is the minimum stress that will rupture the material during a specified period of time.e. Purely elastic deformation (i.. without yielding) cannot cause a cyclic fatigue failure. This behavior is known as creep. even with constant stress..2. Static fatigue will not be discussed further in this course. load) cycles.” Examples of static fatigue are: creep fracture and stress corrosion cracking. not carbon steel) creep strength becomes a consideration at temperatures higher than 750°F.. The fatigue strength of a material under cyclic loading can then be defined as the ability to withstand repetitive loading without failure. like the yield and tensile strengths. However after a sufficient number of bending (i.
Corrosion Resistance Corrosion of materials involves deterioration of the metal by chemical or electrochemical attack. Corrosion resistance is usually the single most important factor that influences pipe material selection. Table 3.1 summarizes the typical types of piping system corrosion.
General or Uniform Corrosion
Characterized by uniform metal loss over entire surface of material. May be combined with erosion if material is exposed to high-velocity fluids, or moving fluids that contain abrasive materials. Form of localized metal loss randomly located on material surface. Occurs most often in stagnant areas or areas of low-flow velocity. Occurs when two dissimilar metals contact each other in corrosive electrolytic environment. The anodic metal develops deep pits or grooves as a current flows from it to the cathodic metal. Localized corrosion similar to pitting. Occurs at places such as gaskets, lap joints, and bolts, where a crevice can exist. Occurs when different concentration of either corrosive fluid or dissolved oxygen contacts areas of same metal. Usually associated with stagnant fluid.
Pitting Corrosion Galvanic Corrosion
Concentration Cell Corrosion
Graphitic Corrosion Occurs in cast iron exposed to salt water or weak acids. Reduces iron in the cast iron and leaves the graphite in place. Result is extremely soft material with no metal loss.
Typical Types of Piping System Corrosion Table 3.1 For process plant piping systems in corrosive service, corrosion protection is usually achieved by using alloys that resist corrosion. The most common alloys used for this purpose are chromium and nickel. Low-alloy steels with a chromium content of 1¼% to 9% and stainless steels are used in corrosive environments. C. Material Fracture Toughness One way to characterize the fracture behavior of a material is the amount of energy necessary to initiate and propagate a crack at a given temperature. This is the material's fracture toughness, which 77
decreases as the temperature decreases. Tough materials require a relatively large amount of energy to initiate and propagate a crack. The impact energy required to fracture a material sample at a given temperature can be measured by standard Charpy V-notch tests. Various factors other than temperature affect the fracture toughness of a material. These include the following: • • • Chemical composition or alloying elements. Heat treatment. Grain size.
The major chemical elements that affect a material's fracture toughness are carbon, manganese, nickel, oxygen, sulfur, and molybdenum. High carbon content, or excessive amounts of oxygen, sulfur, or molybdenum, hurts fracture toughness. The addition of manganese or nickel improves fracture toughness. D. Fabricability A material must be available in the shapes or forms that are required, and it typically must be weldable. In piping systems, some common shapes and forms include the following: • • • • • E. Seamless pipe. Plate that is used for welded pipe. Wrought or forged elbows, tees, reducers, and crosses. Forged flanges, couplings, and valves. Cast valves.
Availability and Cost The last factors that affect piping material selection are availability and cost. Where there is more than one technically acceptable material, the final selection must consider what is readily available and what are the relative costs of the acceptable options. For example, the use of carbon steel with a large corrosion allowance could be more expensive than using a low-alloy material with a smaller corrosion allowance.
A. Fittings, Flanges, and Gaskets 1.0 Pipe Fittings Fittings are used to make some change in the geometry of a piping system. This change could include: • • • • Modifying the flow direction. Bringing two or more pipes together. Altering the pipe diameter. Terminating a pipe.
The most common types of fittings are elbows, tees, reducers, welding outlets, pipe caps, and lap joint stub ends. These are illustrated in Figures 4.1 through 4.6. Fittings may be attached to pipe by threading, socket welding, or butt welding. An elbow or return (Figure 4.1) changes the direction of a pipe run. Standard elbows change the direction by either 45° or 90°. Returns change the direction by 180°.
180° Return Elbow and Return Figure 4.1 79
A tee (Figure 4. Tee Figure 4. • • • A straight tee has equal diameters for both the run and branch pipe connections. 80 . or integrally reinforced branch connection (Figure 4. Concentric Reducer Figure 4. whereas they are offset in an eccentric type. A cross permits the intersection of four sections of pipe and is rarely seen in process plants. A reducing-outlet tee has a branch diameter which is smaller in size than the run diameter. The centerlines of the large and small diameter ends coincide in a concentric reducer.4) has all the reinforcement required to strengthen the opening contained within the fitting itself.3) changes the diameter in a straight section of pipe.2 A reducer (illustrated in Figure 4.3 Eccentric A welding outlet fitting.2) provides for the intersection of three sections of pipe.
Cap Figure 4. The wall thickness of a butt-welded pipe cap will typically be identical to that of the adjacent pipe section. Note square corner R R Enlarged Section of Lap Lap-Joint Stub End Figure 4.6) is used in conjunction with lap-joint flanges.4 A pipe cap (Figure 4.5 A lap-joint stub end (Figure 4.5) closes off the end of a pipe section.6 81 .Typical Integrally Reinforced Branch Connection Figure 4.
0 Flanges A flange connects a pipe section to a piece of equipment. Flanges are normally used for pipe sizes above NPS 1½. The type of attachment defines how the flange is connected to a pipe section or piece of 82 . or operational reasons. valve. or another pipe such that relatively simple disassembly is possible.7 shows a typical flange assembly. inspection.2. Disassembly may be required for maintenance. Flange Bolting Gasket Typical Flange Assembly Figure 4.7 A flange type is specified by stating the type of attachment and the type of face. Figure 4.
equipment (e.g., welded). The type of flange face or facing defines the geometry of the flange surface that contacts the gasket. Table 4.1 summarizes the types of flange attachments and faces. Figure 4.8 illustrates flange facing types.
Flange Attachment Types Threaded Flanges Socket-Welded Flanges Blind Flanges Slip-On Flanges Lapped Flanges Weld Neck Flanges
Flange Facing Types Flat Faced
Types of Flange Attachment and Facing Table 4.1
Flange Facing Types Figure 4.8
Gaskets A gasket is a resilient material that is inserted between the flanges and seated against the portion of the flanges called the “face” or “facing”. The gasket provides the seal between the fluid in the pipe and the outside, and thus prevents leakage. Bolts compress the gasket to achieve the seal and hold the flanges together against pressure and other loadings. The three gasket types typically used in pipe flanges for process plant applications are: • • • Sheet. Spiral wound. Solid metal ring.
Flange Rating ASME B16.5, Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings, provides steel flange dimensional details for standard pipe sizes through NPS 24. Specification of an ASME B16.5 flange involves selection of the correct material and flange "Class." The paragraphs that follow discuss the flange class specification process in general terms. Flange material specifications are listed in Table 1A in ASME B16.5 (excerpted in Table 4.2). The material specifications are grouped within Material Group Numbers. For example, if the piping is fabricated from carbon steel, the ASTM A105 material specification is often used. ASTM A105 material is in Material Group No. 1.1. Refer to ASME B16.5 for additional acceptable material specifications and corresponding Material Group Numbers.
ASME B16.5, Table 1A, Material Specification List (Excerpt) Table 4.2 After the Material Group has been determined, the next step is to select the appropriate Class. The Class is determined by using pressure/temperature rating tables, the Material Group, design metal temperature, and design pressure. Selecting the Class sets all the detailed dimensions for flanges and flanged fittings. The objective is to select the lowest Class that is appropriate for the specified design conditions. Table 2 of ASME B16.5 provides the information that is necessary to select the appropriate flange Class for the specified design conditions. ASME B16.5 has seven classes: Class 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1,500, and 2,500. Each Class specifies the design pressure and temperature combinations that are acceptable for a flange with that designation. As the number of the Class increases, the strength of the flange increases for a given Material Group. A higher flange Class can withstand higher pressure and temperature combinations. Table 4.3 is an excerpt from Table 2 of ASME B16.5 and shows some of the temperature and pressure ratings for several Material Groups. Material and design temperature combinations that do not have a pressure indicated are not acceptable. Specifying the flange size, material, and class completes most of what is necessary for selecting an ASME B16.5 flange. The flange type, facing, bolting material, and gasket type and material must be
Classes Temp. Pressure-Temperature Ratings (Excerpt) Table 4.3 87 .8 150 235 220 215 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 300 620 570 555 555 555 555 555 545 515 510 485 450 320 215 400 825 765 745 740 740 740 740 725 685 675 650 600 425 290 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1..added to complete the flange selection process. Discussion of these other factors is beyond the scope of this course. °F -20 to 100 200 300 400 500 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1.5.10 300 750 750 730 705 665 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 375 260 400 1000 1000 970 940 885 805 785 755 710 675 650 600 505 345 ASME B16. Material Group No.9 300 750 750 720 695 695 605 590 570 530 510 485 450 320 215 400 1000 1000 965 885 805 785 785 710 675 650 600 425 290 190 150 290 260 230 200 170 140 125 110 95 80 65 50 35 20 1.
SAMPLE PROBLEM 1 . The allowable pressure in this case is 570 psig. Design Pressure: 500 psig. Now check Class 300 and do the same thing. It is necessary to determine the ASME class that is required for the flanges.DETERMINE FLANGE RATING A new piping system will be installed at an existing plant. The material specification for forged flanges would be A182 Gr.3). SOLUTION Determine the Material Group Number for the flanges by referring to ASME Table 1A (excerpted in Table 4. 88 . and the corresponding material Group Number is 1. The following design information is provided: • • • Pipe Material: 1¼ Cr – ½ Mo.9. This is only 110 psig and is not enough for this service. Read the allowable design pressure at the intersection of the 700°F design temperature and Material Group 1. F11. The required flange Class is 300.2). which is acceptable. Find the 1¼ Cr – ½ Mo material in the Nominal Designation Steel column.9. Refer to Table 2 for Class 150 (excerpted in Table 4. Design Temperature: 700°F.
It might be necessary to throttle flow to regulate the filling rate of a pressure vessel. 3.V. Preventing reverse flow might be necessary to avoid damage to a pump or a compressor. 1. or to separate two portions of a single system to accommodate various operating scenarios. A valve may be used to block flow. VALVES A. and valves are used to control the flow.0 Blocking Flow The block-flow function provides completely on or completely off flow control of a fluid. Valve Functions The possible valve functions must be known before being able to select the appropriate valve type for a particular application. or prevent flow reversal. It might be necessary to block flow to take equipment out of service for maintenance while the rest of the unit remains in operation. 89 . or to automatically prevent backflow into the upstream part of the system due to process reasons. throttle flow.0 Throttling Flow Throttling may increase or decrease the amount of fluid flowing in the system and can also help control pressure within the system. Fluid flows through a pipe. 2. or to control unit operating pressure levels. generally without throttling or variable control capability.0 Preventing Flow Reversal It might be necessary to automatically prevent fluid from reversing its direction during sudden pressure changes or system upsets.
1 illustrates a typical full-port gate valve. Figure 5. The gate valve is an optimum engineering and economic choice for on or off service.B.0 Gate Valve Most valves in process plants function as block valves. 90 . Primary Valve Types 1. About 75% of all valves in process plants are gate valves. The gate valve is not suitable to throttle flow because it will pass the maximum possible flow while it is only partially open.
Body 21. Backseat Bushing 15. 6. 8. Seat Ring 20. Plug 13. Stem Packing 12.0 Globe Valve The globe valve is the type most commonly used to throttle flow in a process plant. In the smaller sizes.1 2. they are 91 . One-Piece Gland (Alternate) 22. Handwheel Nut Handwheel Stem Nut Yoke Yoke Bolting Stem Gland Flange Gland Gland Bolts or Gland-Eye Bolts and Nuts 10. Bonnet 16. Bonnet Gasket 17. 5. 4. 2. Gland Lug Bolts and Nuts 11. Bonnet Bolts and Nuts 18.1. Gate 19. Lantern Ring 14. Valve Port Full-Port Gate Valve Figure 5. 3. 7. 9.
seat ring. For all process designs. 3. These latter elements remain in the flowstream and the port configurations frequently include an angular change in flow direction. It swings freely in an arc from the fully closed position to one that provides unobstructed flow.0 Check Valve Check valves prevent flow reversal. The selection of a particular check valve type generally depends on size. In larger sizes. availability. The disc is hinged at the top and closes against a seat in the valve body opening. while swing check and plate check valves are used in the larger sizes. 3. not to effect complete leakage-free. pressure-tight shutoff of reverse flow. They provide relatively tight shutoff in control valve bypasses during normal operations. and pin. 92 . disc hinge. Ball and lift check valves are usually the choice for sizes NPS 2 and smaller. and service. they serve as temporary flow controllers when control valves must be taken out of service. the intended purpose of check valves is to prevent gross flow reversal. The valve is kept open by the flow. they are not suitable for piping systems that require scraping or rodding. Because all globe valve patterns involve a change in flow direction.1 Swing Check Valve The main components of a swing check valve (Figure 5. Typical check valve applications are in pump and compressor discharge piping and other systems that require protection against backflow. Globe valves are rarely used for strictly on/off block valve operations because conventional gate valves adequately serve that function at a lower cost and a much lower pressure drop.2) are the body. and disc seating is accomplished by gravity and/or flow reversal. cost. Valves which contain a disc or discs that swing out of the flow passage area usually create a lower pressure drop in the system than those which contain a ball or piston element.typically used as hand-control valves. applications are limited primarily to bypasses at control valve stations. cap. disc.
Ball check valves are available in sizes NPS ½ through 2 in all ratings and materials used in process plants.3). similar to a typical globe valve body). Their low cost usually makes them the first choice for valves sized NPS 2 and smaller. 93 .2 3. The basic types are the straight-through.Cap Pin Seat Ring Hinge Flow Direction Disc Body Swing Check Valve Figure 5.and globe-type (90° change in direction. provided the pressure drop is not a concern.2 Ball Check Valve The ball check valve utilizes a ball to prevent flow reversal (Figure 5.
5 ratings (Class 300 and greater).4) usually depends on gravity for operation. and where tighter shutoff is required. Some lift check valves utilize spring loading to assure positive seating. Valves of this type should only be used in clean services. a piston or disc is lifted off the seat by the fluid while being retained in the valve by guides.Ball Check Valve Figure 5. 94 . On reverse flow. the piston or disc is forced against the seat to block further flow.3 Lift Check Valve A lift check valve (Figure 5. Under forward flow.3 3. They are most commonly used in the higher ASME B16.or piston-type mechanism are available in sizes from NPS ½ through 2 in all ratings and materials used in process plants. Lift check valves employing the disc.
Seat Ring Piston Flow Direction Lift Check Valve Figure 5. Valves of this type are placed between pipe flanges and held in place by the compressive force between the flanges and transmitted through the gaskets.5. Valves of this type are mounted between pipe flanges and are held in place by cap screws. 95 .4 3.5). machine bolts.4 Wafer Check Valve The wafer body or flangeless valve is a valve body without flanges (Figure 5. or stud bolts which thread into the valve body. The lug-wafer (or single-flanged) valve is also shown in Figure 5.
The pressure/temperature ratings for ball valve soft seats above ambient temperatures are usually lower than the ASME ratings for steel valves. Ball valves are well suited for conditions where quick on/off and/or bubble-tight shut-off is required.6) usually function as block valves. 96 .5 Ball Valve Ball valves (Figure 5. This is because of the lower physical properties of the soft-seat materials. Soft-sealed ball valves are not normally used for throttling service because the softseats are subject to erosion or distortion/displacement caused by fluid flow when the valve is in the partially open position.5 3.Figure 5.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Part Names Body Body Cap Ball Body Seal Gasket Seat Stem Gland Flange Stem Packing Gland Follower Thrust Bearing Thrust Washer Indicator Stop Snap Ring Gland Bolt Stem Bearing Body Stud Bolt & Nuts Gland Cover Gland Cover Bolts Handle Ball Valve Figure 5. They are well suited for conditions where quick on/off and/or bubble-tight shutoff is required. Soft-seal plug valves are not normally used for throttling service since the soft seals are subject to erosion or distortion/displacement caused by fluid flow when the valve is partially open.6 Plug Valve Plug valves (Figure 5.7) usually function as block valves.6 3. 97 .No. The soft-seal-types may have lower temperature/pressure ratings than the ASME ratings for steel valves because of the lesser physical properties of the soft-seat materials.
material.. 5. This is done by specifying the valve type.. 4. butterfly.7 C. or reverse flow prevention). Provide a full technical description. Identify the necessary design information. valve function. Check which factors need consideration if two or more valves are suitable.e.e. block. 3.Wedge Molded-In Resilient Seal Sealing Slip Plug Valve Figure 5. Valve Selection Process The steps that follow provide a general procedure for selecting valves and valve components. design or service limitations). Finalize valve selection. 1. material. etc. throttle. etc. 98 .) and components based on application and function (i. Determine valve application requirements (i. ball.e. Identify potentially appropriate valve types (i. flange rating. etc. check. This includes design pressure and temperature. 2..
determine the required flange rating (or Class) in accordance with ASME B16.5.182 Gr.Exercise 1 – Determine Required Flange Rating For the piping system described below. F11 900°F 375 psig 99 . Pipe: Flanges: Design Temperature: Design Pressure: 1¼ Cr – ½ Mo A .
excluding failure of any operating device. Identifying the equipment to which the piping system is attached.0 General Normal operating conditions are those expected to occur during normal operation. 100 . 2.3 does not specify what margins should be used between operating and design conditions.0 Determining Design Pressure and Temperature The design pressure and temperature are used to calculate the required thickness of pipe and other design details. short-term variations stated in the applicable code. Design conditions are those which govern the design and selection of piping components. 2. ASME B31. The design temperature is used to determine the material basic allowable stress and other design requirements. and the occasional. suitable margins are determined by the user based on his experience. and are based on the most severe conditions expected to occur in service. The values for design pressure and temperature are based on process requirements.VI. operator error. Determining the design pressure and design temperature for the equipment. Design Conditions 1. Startup and controlled shutdown of plants and similar foreseeable events are included within normal operation. A suitable margin is used between the normal operating and design conditions to account for normal operating variations. DESIGN A. Piping system design conditions generally are determined based on the design conditions of the equipment to which the piping is attached. Determining the piping design conditions consists of: 1.
hoop) stress and longitudinal stress in the pipe wall.3. although some piping systems may also be designed for external pressure. Design pressure is normally the governing factor in determining the minimum required pipe wall thickness. The pressure load (caused by the design pressure) usually refers to internal pressure. Verifying the values with the process engineer. Considering contingent design conditions. Design pressure is defined as the maximum sustained pressure that a piping system must contain without exceeding its allowable stress limits.1. Considering the direction of flow between the equipment. 4. thermal expansion loads. B. such as upsets not protected by pressure-relieving devices. and occasional loads. 5. internal pressure produces both circumferential (i. As shown in Figure 6. Sustained loads are those that act on the piping system during all or most of its operating time.e. Sustained loads consist of two main categories: pressure and weight.0 Classification of Loading Conditions Pipe loads are classified into three principal types: sustained loads. 101 . Loads and Stresses 1..
flanges. valve operators.1 The weight refers to the total design weight load. internal lining. A piping system will expand or contract due to changes in its operating temperature.Sl Sc P t Sl Sc t P = = = = Longitudinal Stress Circumferential (Hoop) Stress Wall Thickness Internal Pressure Stresses Produced By Internal Pressure Figure 6. insulation. The weight loads produce a longitudinal stress in the pipe wall. Thermal expansion loads are created when the free expansion and contraction of the piping is prevented at its end points by connected equipment. Increasing the restraint in a system increases the loading and results in higher thermal expansion stresses. fittings. The total weight load includes the weight of the pipe. supports and any other concentrated loads. Another cause of pipe thermal loads can be from the thermal expansion of equipment at 102 . the fluid in the pipe. valves. or prevented at intermediate points by supports and/or restraints that are installed. The resulting loads cause thermal stresses in the pipe.
shear. 2. The basic allowable stress provides an upper limit for the actual stresses. Occasional loads involve seismic and/or dynamic loading. are not a source of direct failure from a single load application. causing displacements in the piping system. Peak stresses are considered equivalent in significance to secondary stresses. Occasional loads act during a small percentage of the system’s operating time. and peak stresses. and wind loads. 103 . steam/water hammer. fittings.pipe-to-equipment nozzle attachment points. Dynamic loads may be caused by safety-relief valve discharges.0 Stress Categorization To evaluate the stresses in a piping system. secondary. it is necessary to distinguish among primary. and safety factors. valve operation (both opening and closing). surge due to pump start-up and shutdown. Peak stresses are more localized stresses which die away rapidly within a short distance from their origin. Peak stresses occur in areas such as welds. Secondary stresses. Secondary stresses cause local yielding and minor distortions. • 3. branch connections. ANSI/ASCE 7). temperature. and other piping components where stress concentrations and possible fatigue failure might occur. The third type of loading comes from occasional loads. or bending stresses generated by the loading.0 Allowable Stresses The basic allowable stress is a function of material properties. unlike primary stresses. • • Primary stresses are the direct. Secondary stresses are those acting across the pipe wall thickness due to a differential radial deflection of the pipe wall. The degree of seismic loading that must be considered varies with geographic location and is defined by a seismic zone (Ref. but they do not cause any significant distortion.
3 Table A-1) lists basic allowable stresses in tension versus temperature for several materials. Allowable stresses for occasional loads are established to prevent wind and earthquake type loads from collapsing or distorting the piping system.• Allowable stresses for sustained loads are established to prevent general collapse or excessive distortion of the piping system. Table 6. • • Actual stresses are calculated for the following load cases: • • • Sustained loads Occasional loads Stress range due to differential thermal expansion The piping system is designed such that the calculated stresses are no larger than the appropriate allowable stresses. Allowable stresses for thermal expansion loads are established to prevent a localized fatigue failure.1 (excerpted from ASME B31. 104 .
°F.3 17. 6.7 16.½Mo 1¼ .3 18. steamout.1 2.1 15.6 15.5 15.0 16.0 17.5 15.3 for design requirements for external pressure. This section only discusses the internal pressure design of straight sections of pipe.0 18.3 800 10. process vacuum conditions. = Internal design pressure.4 17. Table A-1 (Excerpt).3 13.0 7. 2.4 1.3.5 17. No/Grade A 106 A 335 A 335 A 312 A 312 B P1 P11 TP304 TP316 100 20.Basic Allowable Stress S.0 20.0 20.5 1000 2.4 3.½Mo 18Cr .7 19.0 18.0 20.9 600 17. Some piping systems may be subject to a negative pressure or vacuum condition during operation (e.7 16.0 20.7 12.8 15.3 500 18.8 14.5 4. Refer to ASME B31.0 20.0 15.8 9.7 12.0 16.2 17. ksi.8Ni pipe 16Cr . psig 105 .9 900 6.3 15.2 15.3 2.0 Required Wall Thickness for Internal Pressure of Straight Pipe The required wall thickness for internal pressure is calculated using the following equation: t= PD 2 (SE + PY ) Where: t P = Required thickness for internal pressure.0 2.0 400 20.0 700 16.7 20.3 1. Pressure Design of Components 1.2 6. in. Material Carbon Steel C . underwater lines.0 200 20. At Metal Temperature.5 18.0 General Two different types of pressure may be imposed on a piping system: external or internal.) and must be designed for external pressure.5 18.g. Most piping systems need only be designed for internal pressure.12Ni-2Mo pipe Spec.9 16. etc.3 1200 1300 1400 1500 ASME B31.9 17.1 C.3 20.4 1.0 300 20.8 13. Basic Allowable Stresses in Tension for Metal Table 6..5 12.7 4.4 2.6 16.3 1100 1.
3) The longitudinal-joint quality factor is based on: • Whether the pipe is seamless or has a welded longitudinal seam The pipe material and welding process (if welded pipe) • The wall thickness correction factor is based on the type of steel and the design temperature. psi = Longitudinal-joint quality factor (Table 6. 106 .2) = Wall thickness correction factor (Table 6.S E Y = Allowable stress in tension (Table 6.1).
double butt seam Nickel and Nickel Alloy B 161 B 514 B 675 .60 1. 1.90 0. . Class (or Type) Description Ej Carbon Steel API 5L ...00 0.95 A 53 Type S Type E Type F .. 1.. No. double butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe.85 0.00 0. . double butt.80 1.00 A 106 A 358 ASME B31.85 1. 4 5 2 Seamless pipe Electric fusion welded pipe. ..80 0. single butt seam Electric fusion welded pipe.. straight or spiral seam Furnace butt welded Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Furnace butt welded pipe Seamless pipe Low and Intermediate Alloy Steel A 333 A 335 . 100% radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe...85 0.85 1..Spec. spot radiographed Electric fusion welded pipe.3..00 0. . Basic Quality Factors for Longitudinal Weld Joints. .2 107 .00 0..00 0. ..85 0.. 3....80 1.... Table A-1B (Excerpt). All Seamless pipe and tube Welded pipe Welded pipe 1.... Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Seamless pipe Stainless Steel A 312 ..00 1.00 0. . Ej Table 6.. Seamless pipe Electric resistance welded pipe Electric fusion welded pipe.
4 0.Temperature. Thus: tm = t + CA Where: tm = Total minimum required wall thickness. The typical pipe mill tolerance is 12.4 1000 0.3.4 0. The corrosion allowance is based on experience and data for the particular pipe material and fluid service. Use the following equation to determine the minimum required nominal thickness to order: 108 .4 0.7 0..4 1100 0. Values of Coefficient Y Table 6. .5%. Corrosion allowance (CA) is an additional thickness that is added to account for wall thinning and wear that can occur in service.. This means that the as-supplied pipe wall thickness can be up to 12.1..4 0.. . Mill tolerance accounts for the difference between the actual manufactured pipe wall thickness and the “nominal” wall thickness specified in the relevant pipe dimensional standard.4 0.4 1050 0.5% thinner than the nominal thickness and still meet its specification requirements. .4 0.7 0.7 0.. ..5 0. Table 304.. °F Materials Ferritic Steels Austenitic Steels Other Ductile Metals Cast iron 900 & lower 0..5 0.4 1150 & up 0.1 (Excerpt)..3 Two additional thickness allowances must be considered to determine the final required pipe wall thickness: corrosion allowance and mill tolerance.4 950 0.. ASME B31.7 0.7 0. in.0 .
A mitered bed is fabricated by welding straight pipe sections together to produce the direction change. 109 . etc.0 Curved and Mitered Pipe Segments The minimum required thickness of curved pipe (elbows or bends) is the same as that required for straight pipe sections. Each pipe size has several standard nominal thicknesses that are available. size.t nom = tm 0. The nominal pipe thickness that is specified for a system must be selected from those readily available and be at least equal to tnom.3 for thickness calculation requirements. 3. in. design conditions. A mitered bend is generally less expensive than a wrought elbow for large pipe sizes (over ~ NPS 24). depending on the number of miter welds. The minimum required thickness for a miter may be greater that that of the connected straight pipe sections.875 Where: tnom = Minimum required nominal pipe wall thickness. Refer to ASME B31.
P 11 material: S E Y = 16.380 psig.1 of ASME B31. 14 in. Gr. spare heat exchanger.SAMPLE PROBLEM 2 . The material is ASTM A335. [Table A-1 of ASME B31.4 [Table 304. For the A335.DETERMINE PIPE WALL THICKNESS A piping system must be modified to add a new.1.3. Since all the required parameters have now been determined. You have been assigned the responsibility to determine the required wall thickness for the pipe from the heat exchanger to several pumps. The design pressure is 1. seamless.3 at 650°F = 1.380 psig.150 psi. Corrosion allowance is 0. since the material is ferritic and the temperature is below 900oF.3] = 0. Gr. The pipe outside diameter is 14 in. P11 (1¼ Cr – ½ Mo). The piping system will have a design temperature of 650°F. the required internal pressure thickness may be calculated as follows: 110 .0625 in. What is the minimum required thickness for this pipe? SOLUTION The following equation applies: t= PD 2 (SE + PY ) Based on the given information: P D = = 1.0 [Table A-1B of ASME B31.
In this case.3 requirements. This section discusses only branch connections that are fabricated by welding a branch pipe to the run pipe.380 × 0. corrosion allowance has been specified.3 contain rules for determining the required reinforcement for both welded and extruded outlet-type branch connections. crosses.731 in. or an integrally reinforced branch connection.0625 in. 111 . Branch connections can also be made using forged or wrought fittings (i. tnom = 0.e. tees. couplings. or half-couplings). Reinforcement calculations are not required for forged or wrought type branch connections because they have adequate inherent reinforcement and have been designed and tested to meet ASME B31.4)] t = 0.577 in..6395 = 0.150 × 1) + (1. additional reinforcement must be provided. Unless the wall thickness of the pipe is sufficiently greater than that required to sustain the pressure. Therefore: tm tm = = t + c = 0.t= 1.0625 0. 0.380 × 14 2 [(16. ASME B31. a 0.0 Branch Reinforcement Requirements A pipe with a branch connection is weakened by the required opening.875 4.577 + 0.6395 in. laterals.
The branch connection must have adequate reinforcement to compensate for the weakening caused by cutting a hole in the run pipe. Pipe C c th Mill Tol.1 Area Removed By Branch Connection A volume of metal is removed from a pipe wall when a hole is cut in it for a branch connection. However.2). Reinforcement Zone Limits Tb Reinforcement Zone Limits tb A3 A3 A4 L4 A4 A1 Tr Th Dh Nom. Thk. A2 d1 d2 d2 A2 β Welded Branch Connection Figure 6.4. The removed volume of pipe wall is then looked at as an area (see Figure 6. and the intersection is viewed in crosssection.2 Limits of Reinforcement Zone The reinforcing zone is the region where credit may be taken for any reinforcement that is present. a simplification is made when evaluating branch reinforcement requirements. This reinforcement: 112 . An imaginary plane is passed through the branch and run pipes. Thk.2 4. Db c Mill Tol. Nom.
3 Branch Connection Reinforcement Branch connection reinforcement located within the reinforcement zone may come from one or more of the following sources. Acute angle between branch and header 113 .• Must be located reasonably close to the opening to provide any practical benefit. • Additional material located outside of this zone is not effective for reinforcement. in. in. 4. or weld metal. 4. ring. If excess thicknesses in the branch and header pipes do not provide enough reinforcement. Minimum branch thickness. or both. Additional reinforcement added in the form of a pad. saddle. This is calculated using: d1 = D b − 2(Tb − c ) sin β Where: d1 Db Tb c β = = = = = Effective length removed from the run pipe. in. • • Excess thickness available in the branch or header pipe. Branch outside diameter. May be located in the branch pipe. Corrosion allowance.4 Reinforcement Area The required reinforcement area is based on the metal area removed. additional metal may be added. the run pipe. in.
Db = Tr = Outside diameter of the branch. is then calculated using : A1 = t h d1(2 − sin β) Where: th 4. There are three variables to select in designing the reinforcement pad: • • • Material Outside diameter Wall thickness To calculate the area of the reinforcement pad. and may be provided by locally increasing the thickness of either the header or branch pipe. Reinforcement Pad Additional branch reinforcement is needed when the required area exceeds the available area. The acute angle between the branch and header pipes. in. the following equation is used: æ (D p − D b ) ö A4 = ç Tr ç sin β è Where: D01p = Outside diameter of the pad.The required reinforcement area. A4. β= 114 . it is usually more economical to provide a reinforcement pad to supply the additional reinforcement. A1.5 = Minimum required header thickness. However. in. in. Pad thickness. in.
The following Sample Problem illustrates the branch reinforcement calculation procedure. The pad material is generally equivalent to that of the pipe. 115 .The pad must be large enough to provide the additional reinforcement needed and be within the reinforcement zone.
0. d1.500 psi. This equals the corroded inside diameter of the branch connection after accounting for mill tolerance (i. d1 = Db − 2(Tb − c ) sin β 116 . A 106/Gr. Next. and that its thickness equals the header thickness. the actual pipe wall thickness may be up to 12.e.5% less than the nominal thickness).562 in.SAMPLE PROBLEM 3 A new steam turbine is being installed within a process plant.. neglecting the area of any welds.0625 in. Determine if additional reinforcement is required for this branch connection. size the reinforcing pad. Design temperature Design pressure Allowable stress Corrosion allowance Mill tolerance Nominal Pipe Thicknesses Required Pipe Thicknesses for Pressure 700°F 550 psig 16.395 in. must be calculated.375 in. the value for the effective length removed from the run pipe.5% Header: 0. Header: 0. SOLUTION See Figure 6. Branch: 0.263 in. The branch connection is made on top of the header at a 90° angle. This will require a new NPS 16 steam supply line to be connected to an existing NPS 24 distribution header. and does not penetrate a header weld.Seamless. Branch: 0. B for both the branch and header. If it is. The following design information has been determined: • • • • • • • • • Pipe material . • • The required thicknesses for pressure were given. Assume that the pad material is equal to the header material. 12.2 for the relevant nomenclature.
875 − 0.0625 ) sin 90° d1 = 15.875 × 0. A2 = (2 x 15.395 . This is determined using any “excess” thickness available in the header and branch that is not necessary to withstand the pressure (or other) loads.469 in.53 in.469 .375 × 0. • Calculate the excess area available in the header. or.469 (2 − sin90°) A1 = 6.375 − 0. A1.d1 = 16 − 2(0.11in. (0.469 in. A2 = (2d2 − d1)(Th − th − c ) First determine d2 which is the greater of d1.0.0625 ) + 15. A1 = t h d1 (2 − sinβi A1 = 0.2 • Calculate the excess area available in the branch. which is less than the header diameter of 24 in.395 × 15.15. may be calculated.43 in. A2. (Tb−c ) + (Th−c ) + d1 2 .875 × 0.562 .0625 ) + (0. 117 . Disregard any contribution from nozzle attachment welds since this is minimal.469) (0. but less than the header diameter. Dh = 8.469 2 ∴ d2 = d1 = 15.. • Now the required reinforcement area.0.875 x 0.562 − 0.0625) A2 = 0.2 The available reinforcement areas in the header and branch pipe are now calculated. A3.
The available total reinforcement of 0. A4. 118 .664 (0. 2 × 0.. Therefore.2 is obviously much less than the required reinforcement area of 6. Since Tr = 0 (i.875 × 0.e.003 in.0625) 0.0625 ) sin 90° A3 = 0. no reinforcing pad initially) and Th is greater than Tb. AT = AT = AT = A2 + A3 + A4 0. is calculated by adding the contributions from each source. There is no reinforcing pad and the area contribution from the branch weld is being disregarded. whichever is smaller .375 . A4 = 0.5 (Tb−c ) + Tr.003 + 0 0.263 − 0.664 in.11 in. AT. Therefore. L4 = L4 = A3 = 2. L4 is based on the second equation. L4= 2. a reinforcing pad is required.0.2.533 in.375 − 0.5 (Th−c ) or 2.2 available reinforcement. • Total Available Area: The total available reinforcement area.2 • Calculate other excess area that may be available.5 (0.A3 = 2L4(Tb − tb−c ) sin β First determine L4.875 x 0. The reinforcement pad will now be sized.533 in.53 + 0.
875) 1.5 (0.c) 2. Therefore.875 × 0.0.0.5 (Th .562 (0.11in. A3 = 2L 4 (Tb − t b − c) sin β 2 × 1.875 × 0.375 . the additional reinforcement area to be provided in the pad. the available reinforcement in the branch must be recalculated since the height of the reinforcement zone in the branch pipe will change slightly. the 0.005 in.875 × 0.c) + Tr 2. is: 119 .375 − 0. • Recalculate Available Reinforcement: Now that a reinforcing pad is being used.A106.5 (0.003 in.005 + 0 A T = 0. Therefore.0625) sin 90 o A 3 = 0.0625) + 0.2 available reinforcement A3 = • Calculate additional reinforcement required and the pad dimensions: The required reinforcement area is 6. and the available area is 0. 2.2.53 + 0.2 (vs. L4 = 1. L41 = L41 = L41 = L42 = L42 = L42 = 2. A4. Gr.535 in.263 − 0.2. B material will be used for the reinforcement pad.2 previously calculated) A T = A 2 +A 3 + A 4 A T = 0.073 (0. Its thickness is set to be equal to the header nominal thickness of 0.073 in.073 in.562 .0625) 1.16 in.535 in.5 (Tb .562 in.
Since 2d2 = 30.575 Lr = 0.875) = 0.575 + 16 0. The following approach of calculating the required pad width. Dp = Dp = A4 Db + Tr sin β 5.562 (0.492 D p = 27.3 in.5 × 5. The pad diameter must be at least 27.66 in. Dp.492 L r = 5. this pad diameter is within the reinforcement zone along the header and is acceptable. Lr.492 in. 0.535 5.575 in.A4 = A4 = 6. to provide adequate reinforcement. Lr = 120 .11 . Db = 16 in.938 in.5 A4 Tr 0.3 in. may be used as an alternative to calculating the pad diameter.2 • Determine the diameter of the pad. Tr = 0..0.
b. a. A corrosion allowance of 1/8 in. The system design pressure is 150 psig. The fluid being transported will have a design temperature of 260°F. 121 .2 and 6. B seamless pipe. the pipe outside diameter is 30 in. What is the thickness required for internal pressure? What is the minimum required nominal wall thickness? Use Table 6..3. Gr.1 along with Tables 6. Assume there is a 12. and the pipe being used is A 106. has been specified for the pipe. All piping within the tank farm is designed in accordance with ASME B31.3 for the necessary information.EXERCISE 2: DETERMINE REQUIRED PIPE WALL THICKNESS A new project is being considered to transport 48° API crude oil in a carbon steel pipe between two areas within a tank farm.5% mill tolerance.
0 Operations Requirements Operating and control points (e. flanges. cranes) and for vehicles (e. Access must be provided so supports can be maintained.VII. valves. or replaced with minimum difficulty. 1.g. These factors must be recognized when designing the layout and spacing of piping and equipment. instruments. This section discusses how these factors influence piping layout. Large valves must be removed to repair or replace their seats. repaired. 2. There must be enough space to access and remove large pieces of equipment if they require maintenance. and vents) should be located so that they can be used safely and easily.g. There must also be enough lateral space to access valves.. trucks). maintenance. Layout Considerations Operational.g.. and other equipment that may require operator attention. vessel flanges. There must be enough clearance above and below the pipe to perform basic operations on valves and flanges. There must be ample clearance for maintenance equipment (e. For example. and safety considerations influence the layout of a piping system. sample points. • • 122 . SYSTEM DESIGN A. drains. Heat exchanger bundles must be pulled out for cleaning. valves must be located so that they can be reached.0 Maintenance Requirements The piping system must be laid out so that its components can be inspected. • Access near rotating equipment is important because cranes must reach the equipment when removal or realignment is required.. sample points.
Pipe Supports and Restraints A piping system needs supports and restraints because of the various loads that are imposed upon it. and end point reaction loads. Pipeways must be routed and designed to provide the necessary clearances. This specifically includes access for fire fighting equipment and fire prevention. pipe sag. vessels. and tankage). Direction of loads to be absorbed or movement to be restrained. 123 . Selection of a specific type of support or restraint to use in a particular situation depends on such factors as: • • • • • • Load to be supported or absorbed.0 Rotating equipment requires frequent monitoring and maintenance. Firewater piping must be routed so that it would not be damaged by piping containing hazardous fluids that could rupture. Safety Considerations Piping layout must consider the safety of personnel near the pipe.• 3. The control of thermal movement may be necessary either to keep pipe thermal expansion stresses within allowable limits. Restraints control or direct the thermal movement of a piping system.. Need to permit vertical thermal movement at a support. heat exchangers. There must be enough space beneath pipeways for people to walk and work. Fire fighting equipment needs clearance to access major pieces of equipment (e. Clearance available for attachment to pipe. Availability of nearby structural steel that is already there. Design temperature.g. B. or to limit the loads that are imposed on connected equipment. Supports absorb system weight and reduce longitudinal pipe stress.
Pipe hangers are typically 124 .0 Rigid Supports Rigid supports are used in situations where weight support is needed and no provision to permit vertical thermal displacement is required.1. See Figure 7. and will permit lateral movement and rotation. Shoe Saddle Base Adjustable Support Dummy Support Trunnion Rigid Supports Figure 7. will sometimes prevent vertical thermal movement upward.1 Hangers are a type of rigid support. A rigid support always will prevent vertical movement downward.1. They support pipe from structural steel or other facilities that are located above the pipe and carry piping weight loads in tension.
Hangers Figure 7.one or more structural steel rods bolted to a pipe attachment and to the overhead member. and not restrict thermal expansion in these directions. Weight is supported by the use of a coil spring having an appropriate stiffness to carry the applied weight 125 .0 Flexible Supports Flexible or resilient supports allow the piping system to move in all three directions while still supporting the required weight load. A hanger will prevent movement both down and up. A hanger rod is designed to move freely both parallel and perpendicular to the pipe axis.2 2. See Figure 7.2.
the amount of vertical load exerted by the support changes as a result of the pipe thermal movement (which compresses or extends the spring).load.3. See Figure 7.3 3. Load and Deflection Scale Small Change in Effective Lever Arm Large Change in Effective Lever Arm Relatively Constant Load Typical Variable-Load Spring Support Typical Constant-Load Spring Support Mechanism Flexible Supports Figure 7. In the variable-load type flexible support. There are two basic types of flexible supports: variable load and constant-load-type.0 Typical Restraints and Anchors 3. and vertical thermal expansion must also be permitted. Since the spring is resilient. The amount of vertical load exerted by a constant-load type support does not change throughout its movement range. This type of support is used in situations where support must be provided at a particular location. it permits vertical thermal movement while still carrying the weight. 126 .1 Restraints Restraints have two primary purposes in a piping system.
and the magnitude of the load that must be absorbed. or to combine a restraint with a support. They are used to either reduce the thermal stress in the pipe or the loads exerted by the pipe on equipment connections. The selection of which type to use and its specific design details depends primarily on the direction of pipe movement that must be restrained. the location of the restraint point. Figure 7. An anchor is used in situations where it is necessary to totally isolate one section of a piping system from another from the standpoint of load and deflection. translation or rotation. 3. or redirect the unrestricted thermal movement of a pipe. Restraints absorb loads imposed on the pipe by other conditions such as wind. limit. water hammer. if any. A directional anchor which restrains the line only in its axial direction is more commonly used. It is also possible to restrain more than one direction at one location in a piping system. or cause flange leakage. 127 .4 provides several examples of anchors. • There are several different types of restraints that may be used. or flow-induced vibration. Anchors provide full fixation of the pipe.• Restraints control. permitting very limited. earthquake. slug flow.2 Anchors An anchor is a special type of restraint that stops movement in all three directions. Excessive loads could result in high pipe stress or equipment reaction loads. A total anchor that eliminates all translation and rotation at one location is not used as commonly as one or more restraints that act at a single location.
pipe rotation may or may not be restricted. and in straight pipe runs down the side of a tower to prevent wind-induced movement and control thermal expansion.3 Guides A guide is a particular type of restraint that permits movement along the pipe axis while preventing lateral movement. Common situations where guides are used are in long pipe runs on a pipe rack to control thermal movement and prevent buckling.4 3. See Figure 7. 128 .Anchor Anchor Partial Anchor Restraints/Anchors Figure 7.5. Depending on the particular guide details employed.
Piping systems must be designed to ensure that they do not fail because of thermal stresses or produce excessive forces and moments at connected equipment. Piping Flexibility Piping must have sufficient flexibility to accommodate thermal expansion (or contraction) effects. excessive maintenance.Guide Guide x Vertical Guide Guide Examples of Guides Figure 7. fatigue failure of the pipe. 129 . If a system does not provide adequate flexibility. operations problems.5 C. and damaged equipment. the results can be leaky flanges.
earthquake. Attention must also be paid to pipe support/restraint design details to ensure that localized stresses in the pipe wall are kept within allowable limits. A piping system can be described as an irregular structural frame in space because of its relatively slender proportions when compared to structural steel systems. in real systems. or shock loading).0 Rationale for Piping Flexibility and Support Design Support and flexibility design is a combination of art and science with multiple factors to consider and usually more than one way to design the system.. In those situations.g. Planning for pipe supports and restraints should be done simultaneously with establishing possible layout configurations to achieve the most cost-effective design. 1. wind. stresses are developed in the pipe and moments and forces are imposed on the connected equipment and at supports and restraints installed in the system. control vibration.A structure that is subject to a change in temperature will change in dimensions. If these thermal movements are allowed to occur without any restraint whatsoever. A thermal flexibility analysis is done to ensure that the piping system is laid out. It requires knowledge of how the operating and design conditions of a piping system influence its overall design. Elevated design temperatures or various operating scenarios may cause sufficient pipe thermal stress or reduce material strength such that supplementary structural assistance to support the piping system is required. and the supports and restraints required for the system. 130 . no pipe stresses or reaction loads result. The basic problem is to determine the internal pipe stresses and the external loads. design details that spread the applied load over a wider portion of the pipe surface are used. supported. However. It is also often necessary to limit the pipe movement at specific locations to protect sensitive equipment. or to resist external forces (e. and then decide if they are acceptable. and restrained such that the thermal stresses in the pipe and the loads on the end points are within allowable limits.
g. End-point movements. there is no single procedure or design method applicable for all situations.. If required. Determine if the situation warrants a detailed computer analysis. Interpret the results of the analysis.0 Approaches to Design Due to the complexity of the piping flexibility and support design process. loads.2.. Design temperature and pressure.. Fluid service. • Examine the layout and operation of the piping system to identify: Layout geometry. - • • • • • Determine the potential effects of those conditions (e. Pipe diameter and thickness. Relevant operating scenarios. orientation of loads). rotating or fixed). and locations of any changes in these parameters. and stresses). wind. long radius or short radius). thermal movements. 131 . vibrationprone services.g. Special design considerations (e. Locations of existing structural steel.. Piping component design details such as branch connection details and type of elbows used (i. Determine the types of support or restraint required and their approximate locations. The following is one way to approach the problem.e.e. Type of connected equipment (i. including its potential danger. identify which conditions apply for the analysis and utilize an appropriate computer program.
if any. Systems that will undergo more than 7000 operating cycles during their design life are designed using a reduced allowable stress basis. End-point movements. several things must be considered: • • • • Applicable design conditions and operating scenarios for the piping system. whether the equipment is a rotating 132 . Design temperature and pressure. Required Design Information for Piping Stress Analysis Detailed piping stress analysis is done using a computer program such as Caesar II. Allowable stresses from ASME B31. on connected equipment. However. including whether it is dangerous. Design conditions that must be known to perform a detailed pipe stress analysis are listed below: • • • • • • • • Layout geometry of the piping system. or Triflex. restraint.3 piping systems are designed for a minimum of 7000 cycles. Another consideration is the number of cycles that the system will undergo during its design life.D. Extent of analysis required to identify most severe case. Special design considerations and load cases. Load limitations. E.3. Structural steel located in the vicinity. All ASME B31. Such programs have the capability to consider any combination of pipe geometry. support. Pipe diameter and wall thickness. This influences piping flexibility design because the allowable flexibility stress is based on fatigue failure. Simflex. and load conditions. Type of connected equipment. Fluid service. Criteria for Allowable Equipment Nozzle Loads A poorly designed piping system can cause damage to the equipment it is connected to.
Nozzle size Equipment Item Industry Standard Centrifugal Pumps Centrifugal Compressors Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers Pressure Vessels. thickness. Parameters Used To Determine Acceptable Loads Nozzle size Nozzle size. Equipment vendors will sometimes have allowable load criteria that must be considered. poor operation. nozzle elevation.type (e. The allowable values can sometimes be read from a table contained in the applicable industry standard. pressure vessel or heat exchanger). Table 7.. and wall thickness. the allowable loads or the equipment stresses that they cause must be calculated.g. Stress analysis required.85 times NEMA SM-23 allowable API-661 ASME Code Section VIII. height. vessel/exchanger diameter. WRC-107. tank diameter. pump or compressor) or stationary type (e. Other times. Rotating equipment is the more sensitive with respect to imposed piping loads because of the moving parts and small clearances involved in its design. 1. shell thickness. Loads that are imposed by the piping system on connected equipment are determined from the results of the piping flexibility analysis..1 summarizes industry standards that apply to equipment nozzle load evaluations. and the parameters that are used to determine the allowable loads. Nozzle size. reinforcement details.1 133 . WRC-297 Tank Nozzles API-650 Steam Turbines NEMA SM-23 Equipment Nozzle Load Standards and Parameters Table 7. Excessive piping loads imposed on rotating equipment can cause damage. Shelland-Tube Heat Exchanger Nozzles API-610 API-617. material Nozzle size Nozzle size. These loads are then compared to allowable values based on industry standards for particular types of equipment to determine if they are acceptable.g. and/or maintenance problems at levels well below those that would cause pipe or equipment stress concerns.
and bends. When Should A Computer Analysis Be Used Computer programs can perform numerous analyses with many different combinations of design conditions and system geometries. a computer program can often be used to finalize and optimize the final design. ≥ 400°F ≥ 300°F ≥ 200°F any Any Any Any Computer Analysis Guidelines Table 7. when greater accuracy is required due to the nature of the system. Computer programs are also very useful for analyzing the stresses and loads at piping components such as valves. Design Considerations for Piping System Stress Analysis The following paragraphs discuss several design considerations in piping system stress analysis. NPS ≥4 ≥8 ≥ 12 ≥ 20 ≥3 ≥4 ≥ 12 For rotating equipment For air-fin heat exchangers For tankage Maximum Differential Flexibility Temp. and for complicated piping systems. A computer analysis should also be used when there are several operating combinations to be considered and other methods would be inadequate or too time consuming. A piping system designer should remember that a computer program only gives quantitative guidelines. Even though hand calculations can be used in many situations. branches.2 may be used to help determine when a computer analysis should be performed: Type Of Piping General piping Pipe Size.F.” Computers can also perform unique functions that would be difficult or impossible to do by hand or other methods with sufficient accuracy.2 G. The guidelines listed in Table 7. 134 . They can perform many functions that would be difficult for a piping analyst to do “by hand. to which they must apply common sense and judgement.
. Must be examined to determine if the heating or cooling cycles pose flexibility problems.0 Piping Flexibility Temperature Flexibility analysis should be made for the largest temperature difference that may be imposed on the pipe by normal and abnormal operating conditions.3 and 7. and for switching from one piece of equipment to another. Note that more than one of these items might require consideration in a particular system and lead to the need for multiple computer calculations to identify the case that governs the system design. the piping flexibility should be checked for that case.1.4 provide guidelines to determine the temperatures to consider in a flexibility analysis. and restraints. For example.e. and the largest reaction loads imposed on equipment end connections. A common example is the piping for two or more pumps with one or more spares. Some margin above equipment operating temperature (i. if a tower is heated while some attached piping remains cold. Must be designed for normal operation. for no flow in some of the piping. This results in the largest pipe stress range to be considered in fatigue failure evaluation. An example is the decoking of furnaces.3 135 . regeneration. use of the design temperature rather than operating temperature) allows for process flexibility. and switching from one service to the other. or decoking. Startup and Shutdown Regeneration and Decoking Piping Spared Equipment Normal Temperature Conditions To Consider Table 7. supports. Tables 7. Stable Operation Gives the temperature range expected for most of the time a plant is in operation. Requires multiple analyses to determine if the piping is adequate for the expected variations of temperature.
especially piping connected to the upper parts of towers. are freed of gas or air by the use of steam. For 125 psig steam.4 Metal temperatures that govern the flexibility design of a piping system are not necessarily the ones associated with the most severe coincident pressure and temperature which govern the wall thickness of the pipe. 300°F is typically used for the metal temperature. A realistic ambient installation temperature (typically lower than 70°F) must be used for the specific plant site to accurately calculate the maximum thermal stress range and reaction loads. Piping analysis computer programs typically include a “default” ambient temperature (commonly 70°F). the ambient temperature).Loss of Cooling Medium Flow Temperature changes due to a loss of cooling medium flow should be considered. Then. Such situations can occur with steam tracing and steam jacketing. and many off-site lines. Piping flexibility depends only on the temperature. a condition of high temperature and low pressure may govern the piping flexibility design while the wall thickness is based on a higher pressure but a lower temperature. the piping flexibility should be checked for the maximum metal temperature. Piping connected to equipment which will be steamed out. Steamout for Air or Gas Freeing No Process Flow While Heating Continues Abnormal Temperature Conditions To Consider Table 7. This situation may govern the flexibility of lines connected to towers that operate at less than 300°F or that have a smaller temperature variation from top to bottom.e. If process flow can be stopped while heat is still being applied. Therefore. Pipe thermal movement is caused by a temperature change from the piping installation temperature (i. should be checked for the tower at 300°F and the piping at ambient plus 50°F.. while subject to solar radiation. all thermal movements and resulting thermal stresses are calculated based on the difference between the specified pipe design temperature and the default ambient temperature. This includes pipe that is normally at ambient temperature but can be blocked in. 136 . Most on-site equipment and lines.
number of temperature cycles. For example.0 Modifying System Design The initial piping system layout may not be satisfactory for thermal flexibility stresses or loads on connected equipment.2. The overall purpose of the analysis is to provide enough flexibility for the system. The engineer must analyze the right combination of operating conditions to determine where.0 Extent of Analysis The extent of a piping system analysis depends on the situation. layout. and if. The following guidelines may help the situation. the allowable stress at design temperature for weight-plus-pressure stresses. Determine conditions of end-point restraint and movements. Judicious installation of anchors or other restraints in a large system could also help simplify the modeling by separating the system into sections. material. 137 . The engineer must also decide if it is desirable and acceptable to not include portions of a large. Use the following steps to develop the piping design: • Define line size. maximum differential temperature. complex system in the analysis to simplify the modeling. These make the system more flexible and reduce the thermal stresses. • • • • 3. or use more expansion loops within the same space. Compare the results with the allowable stress range for thermal expansion stresses. Select a suitable analysis method and calculate the loads and stresses. Locate intermediate points of restraint and define any limitations that they impose on piping movement. • Provide more offsets or bends. and any alternative operating scenarios. wall thickness. and the applicable load criteria for connected equipment. additional flexibility is needed to reduce pipe stresses or loads at end points. including an NPS 4 branch run in the model of a NPS 24 main system may not be necessary.
various scenarios of operating vs. Expansion joints represent a "weak link" in a piping system. Avoid fixed supports that result in large thermal stresses. Restraints could also be used to direct pipe thermal expansion into a section of the system that has more inherent flexibility to absorb it.g.0 System Design Considerations Each type of piping system has particular factors that must be considered when performing a detailed analysis. One situation where expansion joints must be used is where pressure drop or other process requirements dictate the use of relatively straight pipe runs (e. or to prevent condensate accumulation. or if thermal expansion causes pipe to lift off fixed supports. For example: • Pump systems will often be installed with spared pumps. this approach should be the exception rather than the rule. spared pump(s) must be considered since portions of the system near the pumps will be hot while other portions are cold. However. Thus. Piping systems are sometimes heat traced. This might be done either to reduce liquid viscosity to allow the necessary flow.• Install expansion joints. the use of expansion joints should only be considered as a last resort. • • • 4.. fluidized solids transfer lines). Piping systems connected to atmospheric storage tanks must be designed considering movement that occurs at • • 138 . The condition with the process flow off while the heat tracing remains on must also be considered since the pipe metal temperature for this case may be higher than the normal design temperature. Use spring supports if large vertical thermal movements are expected. and can create maintenance and operational problems. Strategically locate restraints to minimize thermal and friction loads at equipment. Use Teflon bearing pads at supports for large-diameter pipe or other large weight loads if friction loads are excessive on equipment connections or structural members. They may affect the life of the system since they are more susceptible to damage than pipe. Thus.
the shell will bulge outward and the nozzle will rotate down due to this shell bulging (see Figure 7. Over a period of time.the tank nozzle. friction loads can restrict pipe movement and cause unexpectedly high pipe stresses or end point reaction loads. Typical situations where it may be necessary to consider friction loads are for long horizontal pipe runs. If large enough.7 • It may be necessary to consider pipe frictional effects at support points. it is often necessary to use a flexible-type pipe support located near the tank nozzle to ensure that the tank nozzle is not overloaded.7). Because of these expected tank movements. NOZZLE SHELL BOTTOM Tank Nozzle Figure 7. straight sections of pipe to connect the manifold to the exchanger nozzles. The flexibility analysis should include the restraining effect of friction from movement of the exchanger bundle. or where large concentrated weight loads are supported near equipment nozzles. The most common configuration for air-cooled heat exchanger piping uses short. • 139 . The heat exchanger tube bundle is allowed to move laterally to accommodate the thermal expansion of the pipe manifold. The manifold is located directly above or below the exchanger header box. the tank may also settle down into its foundation with respect to the pipe. which will resist lateral movement of the bundle. When the tank is filled with liquid.
. or by using weld metal to provide a smooth transition as shown in Figure 8. A..VIII. geometry). FABRICATION. overhead. electrical details. joint preparation (i.g. and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) requirements. ASSEMBLY. The transition between ends of unequal thickness may be accomplished by taper grinding the thicker pipe to match the thinner. etc.). to weld butt-weldtype flanges or fittings to pipe ends.e. 140 . Individual spool pieces are then assembled and erected in the field. All design codes call for welding to be carried out using a qualified procedure and welders. vertical. Butt-welds are always used to weld pipe ends together. preheat and interpass temperatures.2. Butt-welded joints in piping systems are primarily of the single-V configuration and are welded from the pipe outside surface. techniques. welding process (including whether it is manual or automatic). electrode type and material. AND ERECTION Individual sections of pipe must be fabricated into convenient sections (i. spool pieces). Welding and Heat Treatment Welding is one of the primary ways of joining pipe.1 are typically used for ends of equal thickness. or to weld the edges of formed plate together when plate is used to manufacture pipe. 1.0 Butt-Welds Butt-welds are made between two components whose edges are in close proximity. Welded joints represent the ultimate in safety and reliability.e. Joint designs shown in Figure 8. weld position (e. Included in the welding procedure are: base-metal specification.. The joint preparation and the procedure that is used ensure that there is complete fusion between the edges of the components being joined.
1 3/32 in.2 2. and Thinner (c) Suggested End Preparation. (a) (b) (c) (d) Butt-Welded Joint Design Unequal Thickness Figure 8.0 Fillet Weld The fillet weld generally requires no special joint preparation.(a) Standard End Preparation of Pipe (b) Standard End Preparation of Butt-Welding Fittings and Optional End Preparation of Pipe 7/8 in. max. It is an angular weld bead that joins components normally positioned at a 90° angle to each other. and for welding 141 . Pipe and Fittings Over 7/8 in. Thickness Butt-Welded Joint Designs Equal Thickness Figure 8. In piping systems. The size of a fillet weld is stated as a leg length of the largest inscribed right isosceles triangle. fillet welds are only used for slip-on flanges. socket welds.
attachments to piping components (e.3 142 . See Figure 8.). supports.g. etc. reinforcing pads..3. Fillet Welds Figure 8.
Reduces the temperature difference between the base metal and the weld to reduce the cooling rate of the weldment.0 Preheating Preheating is used. or other material that would be detrimental to either the weld or base metal when heat is applied. • • 5.0 Postweld Heat Treatment (PWHT) PWHT averts or relieves the detrimental effects of high temperature and severe temperature gradients that are inherent in welding. to minimize the detrimental effects of high temperature and severe thermal gradients that are inherent in welding. scale. Helps drive off absorbed gases (e. Helps maintain the weld pool molten longer to permit maximum separation of impurities. • The individuals and equipment executing the welding procedure must be confirmed to be qualified to produce acceptable results. oil. rust.3. The ends of the components to be welded must be set to the correct geometric shape suitable for the materials. hydrogen) which could contribute to weld porosity. This lowers the weld hardness and reduces cooling/shrinkage stresses.0 Welding Preparation Steps The following outlines the overall steps that are required for welding. Specific heat treatment temperature and procedure requirements are specified in 143 . along with heat treatment. and relieves residual stresses that are created by bending and forming. and welding process involved. The following identifies the benefits of preheating: • • Dries the metal and removes surface moisture which could result in weld porosity.g. wall thickness. • • 4.. Internal and external surfaces to be welded shall be clean and free from paint.
the material must be heat treated to restore its maximum corrosion resistance. Minimizing weld hardness reduces the tendency to crack. • • • B.3 based on the pipe material and wall thickness being joined. After welding the normal grades of stainless steels (i. The following summarizes the principal reasons for PWHT: • Stress relief is the most common reason for specifying PWHT.ASME B31. 1.e.g.. they can lead to premature failure of the pipe. Residual stresses will remain in the pipe and result from shrinkage as the weld and adjacent pipe metal cool down from elevated welding temperatures. Other reasons for PWHT (e. PWHT is required to prevent caustic embrittlement of welded carbon steel pipe that handles alkaline solutions.g.3. 144 .. due to process considerations) must be specified by the user or contractor. Caustic embrittlement is a form of stress corrosion where the residual stresses due to welding are sufficient to cause failure. wet H2S).0 Storage and Handling Improper handling and storage of pipe materials and welding filler metals can cause damage and result in poor construction quality and failures during operation. If these residual stresses are too high. Assembly and Erection Additional piping fabrication requirements must be considered. Several of these are discussed below. PWHT is sometimes necessary to reduce weld hardness in certain materials.. especially in certain process environments (e. those that are not stabilized with alloy additions). Residual stresses will also remain after bending or forming processes. This is the only consideration for the PWHT requirements specified in ASME B31.
and location of attachments should be ±1/8 in. The tolerance for axial dimensions. measured as the offset between elevation of bolt holes on opposite sides of a flange centerline. should not exceed ±1/16 in. The tilt of flanges measured at the periphery across any diameter should not exceed 1/32 in. should not exceed 5% of the nominal diameter of the pipe (3% at the ends). Fittings and valves should be stored in shipping crates or on racks to provide protection until used. a slight mismatch may be permissible. measured as the difference between the largest and smallest outside diameter at any crosssection. face-to-face.0 Pipe Fitup and Tolerances Good joint fitup is essential to making a sound weld and minimizing the loads imposed on the piping system and connected equipment. which could result in corrosion. or socketweld ends. from the square position. Flange bolt holes shall straddle the centerlines. • • Pipe fitup for welded joints shall be as required by the welding procedure. End protectors should be firmly attached to prevent damage to weld bevels. Rotation of flanges. flange faces. • • • • 145 . Use of a 1/64 in. Lined and coated pipes and fittings should be lifted with wide fabric or rubber-covered slings and padding to prevent damage. Lateral translation of branches and connections from centerline of run should not exceed ±1/16 in. threads. Pipe should not be stacked so high that pipes or their coatings may be damaged.• Pipe should not be stored directly on the ground to help prevent rainwater accumulation around the pipe. Flattening of bends. • • • • 2. maximum. centerto-face. tolerance is often necessary for flanges at load-sensitive equipment. Depending on the welding process used.
Bolt on succeeding pipe sections as appropriate up to the first support. This will reduce the possibility of having a large mismatch between the pipe and machine flanges if pipe installation is begun from the opposite end of the system. Specifically. in attaching pipe to rotating equipment. Proceed to any other adjacent supports which should be similarly adjusted. Final bolt tensioning of component flanges close to the machinery should be done after initial alignment of nozzle flanges. If spring-support adjustment is insufficient. modifications to associated structural members or shimming will be required. the installation should avoid putting excessive forces and moments on the machinery nozzles which could result in misalignment. All spring supports will be adjusted in the locked position just until they contact their respective support points.3. One or more field welds are typically used to join the piping nearest to the machine with the rest of the system. Spring supports should be locked in their cold position during pipe installation. flange alignment must be within more stringent limits than is • • • • • • • 146 . Piping that requires any sections to be removed for flushing after completing field welds should have final nozzle alignment and component flange boltup completed after replacing flushed sections.0 Alignment of Pipe Attached to Load-Sensitive Equipment Special care must be taken for load-sensitive equipment. The number and location of these field welds are determined such that they will permit final position adjustments to achieve acceptable flange alignment at the machine nozzle. • Installation of piping that is connected to rotating equipment should preferably start at the machine nozzle flange. Adjust this support as required to just contact the pipe at its bearing point. For piping over NPS 3 connected to machinery. especially rotating equipment.
low-temperature. Remove all burrs. many rules of good flanged joint design and makeup can and have been violated with no adverse consequences. and Installation The following discusses the primary steps that are required to achieve a properly assembled flanged joint. and dirt from flange faces with scrapers or wire brushes. high-temperature services since the results can be serious leakage problems with consequent fires.0 Flange Preparation. All gasket and flange surfaces should be clean. Warped or badly corroded flanges should be replaced or refaced. it is dangerous to break these rules in critical. • Precautions should be taken to prevent ingress of debris into machine internals during construction of connecting pipework. and/or nonflammable services. Reface flanges with tool marks or scratches across the gasket seating surface. In many low-pressure. and installation of the flanged joint.0 Flange Joint Assembly Flange joint assembly procedures directly affect the ability of the flange to be leak-tight in service. • 147 . • Redo Damaged Surfaces. Identifying and controlling the causes of leakage. More stringent limits are required to minimize the loads that are imposed by flange boltup. 4. 5. Inspection. Proper preparation. The primary factors for successfully making up a flanged joint and controlling leakage are the following: • • • Proper selection and design of the flanged joint. However. inspection. Flanged joint assembly and leakage control are discussed below. Clean Faces.specified for general piping systems. rust.
Sheet gaskets should be cut so that their outside diameter corresponds to the bolt position. Lubricate the bolt threads and the nut faces where they will contact the flange. and thus provide a leakage path. but never on the seating surfaces. Residual stresses could lead to flange leakage in service or overload problems in systems that are connected to load-sensitive equipment. Flanges may be made up using a wrench and hammer. • • Use Proper Flange Boltup Procedure. regardless of method. paste.• Align flanges. as the residual stress increases with increasing diameter for the same amount of misalignment. The gasket must be centered on the flange faces to achieve a reliable joint. with the flanges practically mating before the bolts are installed. Flanges at rest should be within the alignment tolerances previously discussed. again to help centering. but holding the gasket in place can be a problem. which could damage the gasket and cause leakage. • Lubricate Threads and Nuts. The high temperature causes these materials to burn off. Place Gasket Properly. Thin cellophane tape may be used on the outside edges of a gasket. Bringing the flanges into alignment should not leave any residual stresses in the piping system. This becomes more important with increasing pipe diameter. a torque wrench. Centering rings on spiral-wound gaskets help by allowing the gasket to be supported in the proper position by a few bolts while the other bolts are inserted. The most important aspects of a proper boltup procedure. a high-temperature grease may be used sparingly in systems that operate at less than 200°F. burn out at operating temperature. No grease. or a stud tensioner. If something must be used to hold the gasket. are to: 148 . Lubrication helps increase the amount of bolt load that goes into tightening the flange rather than into overcoming friction. an impact wrench. Tape on the seating surfaces will deform the gasket during joint assembly. or adhesive should be used to hold gaskets for systems operating at 200°F or more.
Improper flange alignment. as is used when bolting a wheel onto a car.000 psi is the normal target. it will be unevenly compressed and more prone to leakage. scratches.e. An incorrect boltup procedure or limited working space near one side of a flange can leave some bolts loose while others crush the gasket.- Use a "criss-cross" pattern bolt-tightening sequence. causes uneven gasket compression.4. there is greater assurance that uniform bolt load is achieved. For such applications. Excessive Loads in the Piping System at Flange Locations. This approach helps achieve uniform bolt load around the flange circumference. protrusions. Improper Gasket Centering. scale. - - 6.. This is especially troublesome in high-temperature services. In this way. This approach helps to achieve a uniform bolt load around the flange.0 Causes of Flange Leakage Most of the primary causes of flange leakage are directly related to poor inspection or installation. For the most critical high-temperature or highpressure flanges. Use at least three rounds of tightening around the flange. Dirty or Damaged Flange Faces. using excessive • • • • 149 . Improper Flange Alignment. These are summarized below: • Uneven Bolt Stress. If a gasket is off-center. local crushing. Excessive piping system forces and moments at flanges can distort them and cause leaks. use a method that permits measuring the applied load (i. especially nonparallel faces. with two rounds at the maximum load. torque wrench or stud tensioner). when the heavily loaded bolts relax during operation. increasing the applied load in each round. and subsequent leakage. See Figure 8. Common causes of this are inadequate flexibility. or weld spatter on gasket seating surfaces provide leakage paths or can cause uneven gasket compression that results in leakage. Dirt. a maximum stud stress during boltup of 40-50.
Rapid temperature fluctuations can cause flanges to deform temporarily and leak. Improper Gasket Size or Material. and improper location of supports or restraints. Using the wrong gasket size or material can cause leakage.4 150 . • • • Thermal Shock. A rougher flange-surface finish than specified for spiral-wound gaskets can result in leakage.force to align flanges. Improper Flange Facing. Typical "Criss-Cross" Bolt-Tightening Sequence Figure 8.
151 . Cracks. The method of weld examination needed to ensure that welds of acceptable quality are achieved must be specified. and pipe material. Incomplete penetration of weld groove. Concave root surface. Excess external reinforcement. weld type. including individual components and overall workmanship. Incomplete penetration due to internal misalignment.1): • • • • • • • • Lack of fusion between adjacent weld passes. The following requirements are based on ASME B31. Determining the proper type of weld inspection is a function of technique. Not all welds are inspected in the same manner. QUALITY CONTROL A. Defects must be identified before a piping system can be tested or go into operation. where they are typically used. Table 9. and the types of defects they can locate. Lack of fusion between weld bead and base metal. anticipated type of defect. location of weld. the quality that is achieved in a particular instance may not be acceptable for a variety of reasons. Defect identification is especially important in welded areas. each piping installation. shall be examined.IX. Undercut. The following are common weld defects (illustrated in Figure 9.3. A good weld starts with a proper design and is executed using a qualified procedure and welder. Inspection Prior to initial operation.1 summarizes the primary weld inspection methods. However.
Typical Weld Imperfections Figure 9.1 152 .
Severe Cyclic Conditions.e. any defects caused by heat treatment will be present. 3. Normal. For P-Nos. and 5 materials. Thus. For a welded branch connection.3 specifies weld examination requirements and acceptance criteria based on fluid service category (i.Type of Inspection Visual Situation/Weld Type All welds • • • Defect Minor structural welds Cracks Slag inclusions Gas pockets Slag inclusions Incomplete penetration Cracks Porosity Lack of fusion Cracks Seams Porosity Folds Inclusions Shrinkage Surface defects Laminations Slag inclusions in thick plates Subsurface flaws Radiography • • • Butt welds Girth welds Miter groove welds Ferromagnetic materials For flaws up to ¼ in. the examination of and any necessary repairs to the pressure-containing weld shall be completed before any reinforcing pad or saddle is added. • • 153 . and Category D fluid services). 4. Thus. examination shall be performed after heat treatment. beneath the surface Ferrous and nonferrous materials Intermediate weld passes Weld root pass Simple and inexpensive • • • • • • • • • • • • • Magnetic Particle • • Liquid Penetrant • • • • Ultrasonic Confirms high weld quality in pressure-containing joints • • • Guidelines for Weld Inspection Table 9.1 The following inspection guidelines also apply: • ASME B31.. the reinforcement will not prevent inspection and repair.
5 PS T S 154 . 100% of fabrication for longitudinal welds.• • At least 5% of all fabrication shall be visually examined. except in components made in accordance with a listed specification. shall be visually inspected. erected. The hydrostatic test pressure at any point in a metallic piping system shall be as follows: a) Not less than 1½ times the design pressure. • • A hydrostatic test must be used unless otherwise approved for special situations. The following highlights several test requirements.5: PT = 1. Piping in severe cyclical service requires additional examination. b) For design temperatures that are above the test temperature. and inspected.and miter-groove welds shall be examined fully by random radiography or random ultrasonic examination. • • • • • B. Random visual examination of the assembly of threaded. Not less than 5% of all brazed joints shall be examined. and other joints. Not less than 5% of circumferential butt. by inprocess examination. the minimum test pressure shall be calculated as follows. bolted. Testing The piping system must be pressure tested after it has been completely fabricated. The pressure test demonstrates the mechanical integrity of the system before it is placed into operation. except that the value of ST/S shall not exceed 6. Random visual examination during the erection of piping.
psig Allowable stress at test temperature. up to the first block valve. Instrument take-off piping and sampling system piping. 155 . psi c) If the test pressure as defined above would produce a stress in excess of the yield strength at test temperature. shall be strength tested with the piping or equipment to which it is connected. shall be conducted at 110% of the design pressure. psig Internal design pressure. when approved. psi Allowable stress at design temperature. • • Pneumatic strength tests.Where: PT P ST S = = = = Minimum hydrostatic test pressure. the test pressure may be reduced to the maximum pressure that will not exceed the yield strength at test temperature.
3 for additional details. Examples of nonmetallic piping include: • Thermoplastic Piping. Detrimental stresses or distortions in connected equipment. pressure expansion. Nonmetallic Piping The following highlights several aspects of nonmetallic piping design. • Some differences in the design of nonmetallic piping vs. or by application of heat. Piping systems shall be designed to prevent thermal expansion or contraction.X. Leakage at joints. or both. Piping fabricated from a resin capable of being changed into a substantially infusible or insoluble product when cured at room temperature. • • The stress-strain behavior of most nonmetals differs considerably from that of metals. Therefore. Refer to ASME B31. or by chemical means. In addition to the requirements of flexibility and support for metallic piping in normal fluid service: • 156 . The most severe conditions of coincident pressure and temperature will be used to determine design conditions. metallic piping in normal fluid service include: • Allowances for variations of pressure or temperature. above design conditions are not permitted. Reinforced Thermosetting Resin Piping (RTR). the assumptions that stresses throughout the piping system can be predicted from strains. Piping fabricated from a plastic which is capable of being repeatedly softened by an increase of temperature and hardened by a decrease of temperature. or movement of piping supports and terminals from causing: Failure of piping supports from overstrain or fatigue. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS A. are generally not valid. or that displacement strains will produce proportional stress because of fully elastic behavior of the piping materials.
and a single exposure to a very small quantity of the toxic fluid can cause irreversible harm to breathing or points of bodily contact. as well as all threaded. Point loads and narrow areas of contact between piping and supports shall be avoided. heat fusion. and solvent cementing. • • 157 . No allowances may be made for pressure-temperature variations. Category M Fluid Service The following highlights several aspects of Category M fluid service. pulsation. • B.3 for additional details. A sensitive leak test in addition to the required leak test must be included.• Nonmetallic piping shall be supported. The following highlights several provisions. or resonance effects should be avoided or minimized. guided. bolted. hot gas welding. All fabrication. Refer to ASME B31. that apply to Category M Fluid Service. wrapping. and other mechanical joints. Nonmetallic piping is joined by bonding. in addition to those specified for normal fluid service. Category M defines a fluid service in which the potential for personnel exposure is judged to be significant. Bonding can be achieved through many methods including adhesive. Thermoplastics shall not be used in flammable fluid service above ground and shall be safeguarded when used in most fluid services. layout. and operation of piping shall be conducted to minimize impact and shock loads. and anchored to prevent damage to the piping. • • • Design. Conditions which could lead to detrimental vibration. Valves and equipment that would transmit excessive loads to the piping shall be independently supported. Suitable padding shall be placed between piping and supports where piping damage may occur. The coincident pressure-temperature conditions requiring the greatest wall thickness or the highest component rating will determine design temperature and pressure. shall be visually examined.
However. under the coincident pressure.3 for additional details. and nonmetallic fabricated branch connections Nonmetallic valves and specialty components Threaded nonmetallic flanges Expanded.• C. The design temperature of each component in a piping system is the temperature at which. The heating of a static fluid in a piping component causes a pressure increase. fabricated laps. • • • The cooling of a gas or vapor may reduce the pressure sufficiently to create a vacuum. Consideration must be given to the ambient effects on a piping system. the design pressure of each component in a high pressure piping system must be at least equal to the pressure at the most severe condition of coincident internal or external pressure and temperature expected during service. Design Conditions and Criteria Piping is generally considered to be high pressure if it has a pressure over that allowed by Class 2500 for the specific design temperature and Material Group. 158 . threaded. In most cases. Refer to ASME B31. there are no specific pressure limitations for the application of the rules for high pressure piping. and caulked joints High Pressure Piping The following highlights several aspects of high pressure piping design. Moisture condensation can result in atmospheric icing when piping system design minimum temperature is less than 32°F. The following may not be used: Miter bends not designated as fittings. the greatest thickness or highest component rating is required.
Wall thickness calculation requirements. For example. then the additional test is not necessary. Examination While the examination of High Pressure Piping is very similar to that of piping in normal fluid service. only 5% of the fabrication must be examined for normal fluid service. live loads. in normal fluid service.g. a sample selected at random per the inspector's judgement is sufficient to make a determination as to the acceptability of the material.0 Dynamic Effects (e. Particular fabrication details not permitted (e. Weight Effects (e. 3. In high pressure piping. 159 . If the initial testing is done on the installed piping.0 Testing Prior to initial operation. Allowable stresses. it must be more extensive. whereas 100% of fabrication must be examined in high pressure piping. Anchor. impact.g. wind. No allowance for pressure above the design pressure permitted. Also. vibration.In any case.g. an additional test of the installed piping system shall be conducted at a pressure not less than 110% of the design pressure. each piping system shall be either hydrostatically or pneumatically leak tested.. 100% of the material and components must be examined. and Terminal Movements. miters). earthquake. Thermal Expansion and Contraction Effects. dead loads).. Each weld and each piping component (except bolting and individual gaskets to be used during final assembly) shall be tested. the design must allow the system to either withstand or provide some type of relief from the ambient effects. Effects of Support. discharge reactions). If the testing is done on the equipment prior to installation.. Other effects to consider include: • • • • • • • • 2.
160 . This course provided an overview of process plant piping system requirements. fabrication. Participants can use this information on their jobs.3 specifies the design.). equipment nozzle load requirements. valves.. materials. erection.g. pipe supports. inspection. flexibility analysis guidelines. SUMMARY A process plant piping system includes much more than just straight sections of pipe. It also includes fittings. ASME B31. and restraints. flange assemblies. including items that are not explicitly included in B31.3 (e. etc. and testing requirements for process plant piping systems. and are prepared to take more extensive courses if appropriate.XI. valve selection and design.
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