Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Bhupendra Singh Testing of Rigid Containers

Testing can be divided in to two parts : • • Quality Control Quality Assurance : Testing of incoming raw materials : Testing of finished products

Plastics testing can be divided into testing of plastic raw materials (generally granules) & testing of finished products after moulding. Testing procedures for Laboratory

Quality Control on plastic raw materials − Melt Flow Index − Notched Izod Impact − Flexural Modulus Quality Assurance of finished product − − − − − − − − − Stacking Test Test for drop impact strength Test for closure effectiveness ESCR tests Vibration tests Storage tests Test for ink adhesion of printed container Test for product resistance of printed containers Other tests as per requirement

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 1:

Test Method for Measuring Melt Flow Index (MFI) / Melt Flow Rate (MFR):

Purpose − It measures the flow of a molten polymer through an extrusion plastometer under specific temperature and load conditions − Used for differentiating various grades of plastic material. − It is a quantitative technique for the Quality Control of Incoming Raw Material. Reference − IS: 7328: 1992; ASTM D 1238 Method − An extrusion plastometer consists of a vertical cylinder with a small (0.0825 - inch diameter) orifice at the bottom and removable piston on top. A charge of granules is placed in the cylinder and preheated for several minutes. The piston is placed on top of the molten polymer and its weight forces the polymer though the orifice to a collecting plate. The amount of polymer collected after a specific interval is weighed and normalized to the number of grams that would have been extruded in 10 minutes at 2.16 Kg weight and at 190° C. Report − The result is stated as MFI / (MFR) of a material in gm/10min at 2.16 Kg weight and at 190° C.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 2:

Test Method for Measuring Stack Load Stability Purpose − To observe buckling of containers under constant load or when stacked during transportation. − The stack load test is used to determine the ability of a package to hold pressure for an extended time period.

Transport worthiness viz: ability to withstand compression loads occurring during warehousing and transportation

Reference − IS 10840, IS 6312: 1994, IS 2798: 1998 Method − 4 containers shall be used for test. Fill containers with water to normal capacity and close it with the closure. A force is applied to the top face of the container equivalent in magnitude to the total weight of identical packages stacked on top to a minimum stack height of 3 m for 24 hours duration. The top load should be uniformly distributed on the containers. Report − Look for permanent deformation and damages on the packages, if not it passes the test.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 3:

Test Method for Measuring Drop Impact Stability Purpose − To ascertain the bottles / containers manufactured pass drop impact as some of them may carry chemicals which in contact may be hazardous. − This test is a qualitative as well quantitative technique for the Quality Assurance of the outgoing Plastic Blow Molded Container as finished good.

Transport worthiness viz: ability to withstand drops occurring during loading /unloading.

Significance: to check overall performance against handling and distribution.

Reference − IS 7408- 2000; IS 6312-1980; IS 6312 - 1980 Method − Select 6 containers divide 2 sets of 3 each. Fill each container to its nominal capacity with water. First set of containers shall be dropped on the base from a height of 1.2 mtrs. Second set shall be dropped on the side or on any external feature such as handles. Examine containers for signs of rupture or leakage. Report − If containers failing in the first drop and on the same position on subsequent containers, then the same has to be reported.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 3 contd . . .

DROP IMPACT TEST (IS-6312) Drop sequence 1st diagonally on closure 2nd diagonally on bottom 3rd flat at top 4th flat at bottom 5th flat on shorter side 6th flat on wider side DROP IMPACT TEST (IS-7408) Details one drop on each container from 1.20 meter ht.

Set – I (5 containers) Drop flat on base Set – II (5 containers) Drop flat on side

Drop height 100 cm + 15cm… till container fails Drop height 100 cm + 15cm… till container fails

DROP IMPACT TEST (IS-7394)

Drop sequence

Details

1st flat on bottom both drops on same container 2nd diagonally on bottom from 2.0 meters ht. Fill with 50% ethylene glycol & water same container from mixture, expose to 00C for 1 hr.and drop 1.5 meters ht. flat on bottom

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 4:

Test Method for Closure Effectiveness Purpose − The test is conducted for observing effectiveness of closure and to check for leakage if any. − This test is a qualitative as well quantitative technique for the Quality Assurance of the outgoing Plastic Blow Molded Container as finished goods.

Indicates defect in closure system.

Reference − IS 7408: 2000; IS 6312-1980; IS 2798: 1998 Method − 3 containers shall be used. Fill each container to its nominal capacity with the test load at ambient temperature. Close each container with closure as per recommended torque. Invert closure and keep for 24 hours. Examine for leakage after 24 hrs. Report − If the liquid spills out, that implies the closure is not effective.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 5:

Test Method for Environment Stress Crack Resistance (ESCR) Purpose − To test the bottle / closures for stress cracking − This test is a qualitative as well quantitative technique for the Quality Assurance of the outgoing Plastic Blow Molded Container as finished goods. − To detect the processing defects and resistance of container against repetitive washing. Reference − IS 6312; IS 8747; IS 2798: 1998 Test Chemical − Teepol B300 Method − The container is filled to nominal capacity with the test liquid and secured as for transport. The container is then placed in oven: 60°C for 48 hours for containers up to 25 liters, 80°C for 48 hours for containers more than 25 liters. − Fill the containers with 0.5% Teepol solution & exposed to 60+/-2° C for 48 hrs − Pieces dipped into test liquid & exposed to 80+/-2° C for 48 hrs. and observed for surface cracks (IS-6312) Report − The container is then checked for cracks developed if any and reported.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 6:

Test Method for Vibration Stability of the Plastic Containers Purpose − The method helps to determine the ability of a closure (on a container) to prevent leakage due to transportation in vibration. − This test is a qualitative as well quantitative technique for the Quality Assurance of the outgoing Plastic Blow Molded Container as finished goods. − Transport worthiness of filled Blow Molded Containers can be determined as per Indian Standard. − This test is used to determine and evaluate the ability of Blow Molded Plastic Container to withstand shock and vibration encountered during the course of transporting products. Apparatus − A vibrating table, aptitude of vibration 25mm and frequency 8 HZ Reference − IS 12512; IS 2798: 1998 Method − Fill the container to normal capacity with product / water and then close the closure. Mount the container upside down on the table for 1 hour. Check for leakage Report − If the liquid spills out, then the closure is not effective.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 7:

Test Method of Storage Stability of Plastic Containers

Purpose − To test the loss in product filled in container Reference − IS 7394 Method − Fill the container to its nominal capacity. Seal the closure and weigh the container accurately. Store the container for a period of 30 days at 27+/2°C. Determine the loss of mass from the container Report − The loss in weight as per specifications of the Chemical filled, or as agreed between the purchaser and the supplier.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 8:

Test for Ink Adhesion on the Container

Purpose − To test the adhesion of ink to the bottle / container surface Reference − IS 7408 - 2000; IS 2798- 1998 Method − Apply two strips of 25mm wide transparent adhesive tape on the printed area, one down the length of container and other around the circumference. Pass the tape on the container and leave it for 15 hrs. Pull it slowly Report − Record the degree of print removal as nil, slight and severe

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 9:

Test for Product Resistance of Printed Containers

Purpose − To test the resistance of ink on the containers, getting washed away due to incompatibility of the product Reference − IS 7408- 2000 Method − The containers should be printed at least 24 hrs before conducting the tests. Immerse or smear the containers with the product to the packed and leave for 1 hour. Rinse with cold water and leave to stand till dry. Rub container with dry paper. Report − Record degree of print removal as nil, slight or severe.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 10:

Test Method for Determining Brimful Capacity of the Container Purpose − To test the brimful capacity of the bottle / container. Reference − IS 7408- 2000, IS 2798- 1998 Method − Weigh the empty container. Fill the container with water at ambient temperature up to the brim of the container. Place the rigid transparent plastic disc on the neck face and top-up by carefully pouring water through the slot until the water is seen just contacting the underside of the disc. Weigh the filled container with the disc. The difference in the weight recorded in grams is reported as brimful capacity. Report − Record the weight of the water in gram as the Brimful capacity of that container. Nominal & Brimful Capacity (IS-7408) Nominal Capacity (ml) Min. Brimful Capacity(ml) 100 108 200 212 500 525 1000 1035 2000 2060 3000 3075 5000 5125 10000 10500 20000 21000 25000 26250

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 11:

Test Method for Dimensional Tolerances of the Container Purpose − To test the Dimensional Tolerance of the bottle / container. Reference − IS 7408- 2000 Method − Container Height to Neck Face: The highest point of the neck face of the finished empty container. − Container Overall Height: The height of the finished empty container at its highest point with closure and fitment. − Container Diameter: The external diameter of the finished empty

container at a specified height, expressed as the mean of the two perpendicular diameters, or as the circumference multiplied by 0.318 at the same specified height. − Neck Height: the perpendicular distance from the highest point of the plane including the neck face to the nearest point of the finished containers shoulder along a line passing through: In the case of screw threaded necks, the outermost edge of the thread; a feature below the thread of greater diameter than the thread is considered as a part of the containers shoulder In case of plain cylindrical necks, the outermost diameter point excluding flash In the case of necks having a bead or beads only, the outermost point of the bead − Neck Diameter: The external diameter of the neck, excluding thread and / or prominences, measured as the mean. − Thread Diameter: The external diameter of the neck thread measured as the mean of two perpendicular diameters avoiding the part line.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

− Neck Bore: The diameter of the inner periphery of the neck at a specified depth. − Neck Ovality: the difference between the maximum and the minimum neck diameter. Report − Record as per the table given below. Dimensional Tolerances Container Overall Height Tolerance on Overall height ± 2.00 % or 1.00 mm, whichever is greater Container Diameter 1.5% or 0.1 mm, whichever is greater

Tolerance for Container Diameter

Neck Height Up to and including 75 mm overall height Over 75 mm ± 0.25 mm ± 0.40 mm

Neck and Thread Diameters Tolerance for Neck and Thread Diameters ± 1.25 % or ± 0.25 mm, whichever is greater Wall Thickness Minimum Wall thickness at any point of the container shall be not less than 0.20 mm Neck Bore Shall be as agreed between purchaser and supplier Neck Ovality Shall be as agreed between purchaser and supplier

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 12:

Test Method for Leakage Test of the Container Purpose − To test the Leakage of the bottle / container. Reference − IS 2798- 1998; Method − The test is carried out by maintaining the specified pressure in the container and detecting any leakage with water or soap solution.

HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TEST Purpose − To detect the performance of the container against internal pressures. Reference − IS 2798: 1998 Method − A regulated water pressure of 0 to 15Kg/cm2 is applied for period of 5 minutes and observed for localized bulging or leakage. Report • Any sign of Rupture or leakage from the container other than from around the mouth or localized bulging of the container shall be deemed to indicate failure.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

AIR PRESSURE TEST Purpose − to detect the performance of the container against internal pressures. Reference − IS 2798: 1998

Method − A regulated air pressure of 0.35 kg/cm2 is applied for period of 5 minutes and observed for leakage. Report − Any sign of Rupture or leakage from the container other than from around the mouth or localized bulging of the container shall be deemed to indicate failure.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 13:

Test Method for Compatibility of the Container Purpose − To ascertain the bottles/container is reported to Pass / Fail the compatibility test with the product. − It checks the compatibility the Product-Package Compatibility. Reference − IS 2798-1998; IS-7551 -1975 Method − Containers are filled with the product/ water to nominal capacity, closed & exposed to 50 +/- 2°C for 28 days OR − Pieces of equal Size (at least 15 cm2) from any part of the container weighed, measured for dimensions and then cleaned, Test pieces are then immersed in the liquid product & exposed at 50+/-2° C for 28 days. (liquid and test pieces are agitated every 24 hrs). • • • – Visible Cracks Change in Weight Change in colour & shape

For dry products the test may only be carried out on container but for products which are not stable above 50° C storage test shall be carried out at room temp.

Based on the results the purchaser & supplier reach an agreement about the stability of the plastic material for the intended purpose.

Report − The Compatibility of the container with the product is reported as compatible or not compatible.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 14:

Test Method for Migration of the additives from the Container in the product Purpose − To ascertain the bottles/containers if they Pass/ Fail the compatibility test with the product. − It checks the migration of the additives and other constituents to product. Reference − IS 9845-1981 Method − Representative samples are subjected to overall migration test with simulating liquids like n-Heptane, at 27 +/- 20 C for 30 minutes and extract is determined gravimetrically. − Maximum limit for extraction values 60 mg/liter. Report − The Migration level is reported in mg/liter.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 15:

Test Method for Top Load or Compression Strength of the Container Purpose − To check the load bearing capacity of the Container. − This test also provides the Top Load Bearing Capacity of the Container. Reference − IS 7028 Method − Compress the container vertically between two platens of the compression strength tester and observe for vertical deformation − Speed: 10 mm/minute Report − The Values of Compression are reported in Kg force

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 16:

Test Method for Leakage of Container under Vibratory Condition Purpose − To test the Leakage of the bottle / container under Vibratory condition. Reference − IS 7408- 1998; Method − Filled Containers are mounted on a vibration table in upside down position and vibrated for 1 hr. and observed for leakage & closure tightness. − Amplitude of 25 mm and frequency 180 c.p.m. is maintained during the test. Report − The Leakage of the container through the Closure is evaluated. And the Report is made as either container passing the test or any leakage is a failure of the container.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 17:

Test Method for Leakage Test of the Container Purpose − To test the Leakage of the bottle / container. Reference − IS 6312; Method − Filled containers are placed on ground in upside down position for 30 minutes(IS-6312) − Significance: to detect the perfect ness of closure system Report − Any sign of leakage from the container around the mouth of the container shall be deemed to indicate failure.

by – Bhupendra Singh

Testing of Plastic Rigid Containers

Test Method No. 18:

Test Method for Handle Pull of the Container Purpose − Indicates ability of the handle to bear weight of the filled container. − Performed on containers with detachable handles. Reference − IS 10840; IS 6312-1980; Method − The filled container is subjected to a vertical pull of double its nominal filling capacity for 10 minutes and observed for damage. Report − Any sign of Rupture or leakage from the handle area of the container shows failure of the container.

by – Bhupendra Singh