Name __________________________________

Period _________ Date___________

AP BIOLOGY – PARADE THROUGH THE KINGDOMSKEY
Complete the questions using the chapters of your textbook Campbell’s Biology (6th
Edition).
CHAPTER 27 – Prokaryotes & The Origin of Metabolic Diversity
PART 1. Directions: All answers are to be completed on your own and neatly written.
1. How common are prokaryotes on earth?
_____________________________________________________________________________
Their collective biological mass is at least 10 times that of all eukaryotes. They are the
dominant species.
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2. How do bacterial cell walls differ from plant cell walls?
Differ in molecular composition and construction. Most have cell walls of peptidoglycan.
_____________________________________________________________________________
This molecular fabric encloses the entire bacterium and anchors other molecules that
extend from its surface. Archaean cell walls contain a variety of polysaccharides and
_____________________________________________________________________________
proteins, but lack peptidoglycan.
3. How does the cell wall aid in classifying the bacteria?
Using the gram staining methed we can classify bacteria into 2 groups. Gram + are
_____________________________________________________________________________
bacteria with simpler walls and with large amounts of peptidoglycan. Gram – are bacteria
with less peptidoglycan and are structurally more complex, with outer membranes that
_____________________________________________________________________________
contain lipopolysaccharides.
4. List the methods bacteria use to locomote.
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Flagella (most common); Chemostaxis (movement in response to stimulus)
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5. Give an example if a stimulus and describe how bacteria react to that stimulus (taxis).
_____________________________________________________________________________
Movement toward nutrients/oxygen (positive chemotaxis); away from a toxic substance
(negative chemotaxis).
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6. How do bacteria typically reproduce?
_____________________________________________________________________________
Binary fission. The prokaryote replicates its genetic material and then simply divides
into 2 equal cells. These in turn do the same thing (4, 8, 16, and so on).
1

Name __________________________________

Period _________ Date___________

_____________________________________________________________________________

7. List three methods that can modify bacteria genetically.
a. transformation
a. _______________________________________________________________________
b. conjugation
c. transduction
b. _______________________________________________________________________
c. _______________________________________________________________________

8. Identify and briefly define the four nutritional categories of bacteria.
d. _______________________________________________________________________
d. Photoautotrophs – photosynthetic organisms that capture light energy and use it to drive the
synthesis of organic compounds from CO2.

e. _______________________________________________________________________
e. Chemoautotrophs – need only CO2 as a carbon source. Instead of using light for energy, they
oxidize inorganic substances, such as hydrogen sulfide (H S), ammonia (NH ), or ferrous ions (Fe2+).

2
3
f. _______________________________________________________________________

f.

Photoheterotrophs – use light for energy but must obtain their carbon in organic form.

g. _______________________________________________________________________
g. Chemoheterotrophs – consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon.

9. How has molecular systematics lead to classifying prokaryotes into two domains?
_____________________________________________________________________________
Using small subunit ribosomal RNA as a marker for evolutionary relationships, Carol
Woese and his colleagues concluded that many prokaryotes once classified as
_____________________________________________________________________________
bacteria are actually more closely related to eukaryotes and belong in a domain of
their own. The domain Archaea was developed for these special prokaryotes.
_____________________________________________________________________________

10. What is the ecological significance of prokaryotes?
Decomposers – convert inorganic compounds into forms that can be taken up by
_____________________________________________________________________________
other organisms.
Nitrogen fixation, O2 production and symbiotic relationships with eukaryotes
_____________________________________________________________________________
(mutualism  intestines, etc.)
_____________________________________________________________________________

2

fungi) 3 . outline the key characteristics that distinguish the three domains. protists. Directions: Using Table 27.2 on page 512 and the information in the text. animals.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ PART 2. DOMAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE CHAPTER 28 – The Origins of Eukayotic Diversity DOMAIN CHARACTERISTICS Bacteria Nuclear envelope absent Membrane enclosed organelles absent Peptidoglycan in cell walls Unbranched hydrocarbons in membrane lipids 1 kind of RNA polymerase Formylmethionine for intiator of amino acids in protein synthesis Introns rare Antibiotics inhibit growth Circular chromosome EXAMPLE Alpha Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Chlamydias Spirochetes Cyanobacteria Gram-positive bacteria Archaea Nuclear envelope absent Membrane enclosed organelles absent Some branched hydrocarbons in membrane lipids Several kinds of RNA polymerase Methionine initiator amino acid for protein synthesis Introns present in some genes Antibiotics do not inhibit growth Have histones & circular chromosom Korarchaeotes Euryarchaeotes Crenarchaeotes Nanoarchaeotes Eukarya Nuclear envelope present Membrane bound organelles Unbranched hydrocarbons in membrane lipids Several kinds of RNA polymerase Methionine intiator amino acid for protein synthesis Antibiotics do not inhibit growth Histones present Eukaryotes (plants. Include examples of organisms in each domain.

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 12. What process is thought to be involved in the genesis of eukaryotes from prokaryotes? Endosymbiosis _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 13. Why do most systematists currently working on eukaryotic relationships consider Kingdom Protista and the five kingdom system obsolete? _____________________________________________________________________________ The Kingdom Protista is polyphyletic including members derived from 2 or more ancestral forms not common to all members & thus do not reflect phylogeny.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ PART 1. Why are Protists said to be the most diverse of all eukaryotes? They inhibit more structural & functional diversity than any other group of organisms. Their habitats are diverse. 11. 4 . Protista & Chromista) in place of the single kingdom Protista. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 14. a popular 8-kingdom system recognizes 3 protist kingdoms (Archaezoa. systematics has begun sorting out monophyletic _____________________________________________________________________________ groups. the less inclusive version of the Kingdom Protista is still polyphyletic. Among _____________________________________________________________________________ several alternate classifications. _____________________________________________________________________________ They are the most nutritionally diverse. Define serial endosymbiosis? _____________________________________________________________________________ A process in which certain unicellular organisms engulfed other cells. which become endosymbionts & ultimately organelles in the host cell. Using nucleic acid sequencing. _____________________________________________________________________________ However. Directions: All answers are to be completed on your own and neatly written.

8 on page 554 and the information in the text.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ PART 2. 5 4 6 3 2 1 5 . outline the key characteristics that distinguish the major branches of the Domain Eukarya identified on the diagram. Directions: Using Figure 28.

5. Flagella / No Flagella 3. 6. Flagella are long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion. Other developed vascular tissue in order to survive on land. Autotrophs can make their own food using light or chemical energy. 6 . Autotroph / Heterotrop h& Decompose rs 2. Decompose r/ Heterotrop hic consumer Heterotrophs are organisms that obtain organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products. Symbiosis with fungi Period _________ Date___________ CHARACTERISTICS Heterotrophs are organisms that obtain organic food molecules by eating other organisms or their by-products.Name __________________________________ BRANCH POINT 1. especially those lacking vascular tissue. Crystal rods in flagella / No rods 4. Other developed specialized adaptations for independent survival. Saprobes/fungi absorb nutrients from non-living organic material (decomposers). Saprobes/bacteria absorb nutrients from non-living organic material (decomposers). Organisms such as lichens developed symbiotic relationships with fungi in order to survive. Euglenozoa have the presence of a spiral or cystal rod of unknown function inside their flagella. Other protest members do not have these rod structures. Live in shallow water / live on land Some organisms require water for growth and reproduction.

Because of this mode of nutrition. Directions: All answers are to be completed on your own and neatly written. How do fungi contribute to an ecosystem? Decomposers are responsible for keeping ecosystems stocked with the inorganic _____________________________________________________________________________ nutrients essential for plant growth. How do fungi acquire nutrients? They are heterotrophs. they digest their food while it’s still in the environment by _____________________________________________________________________________ secreting powerful hydrolytic enzymes. Some form symbiotic relationships with photosynthesizers. 15. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 17. used in molecular and biotechnology research. stop maternal bleeding. _____________________________________________________________________________ 18.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ CHAPTER 31 . _____________________________________________________________________________ Digestion = helps breakdown plant material in rumenants (eg. Food Source = mushrooms and beverages such as beer and wine (yeast). fungi have evolved what structure to provide for both extensive surface area and rapid growth? Hyphae that form an interwoven mass called mycelium. production of antibiotics (penicillium). cattle). Medical value = used for reducing high blood pressure. Give some examples of how fungi are important to humans. a strong but flexible nitrogen-containing polysaccharide that is also _____________________________________________________________________________ found in external skeletons of insects/arthropods. 7 . _____________________________________________________________________________ 19. (exoenzymes) into their surroundings. _____________________________________________________________________________ 16. They absorb their nutrients.FUNGI PART 1. Mycorrhizae = agriculture  provides essential nutrients to plants. How do the cell walls of fungi differ from the cell walls of plants? Made of chitin.

Directions: Using Figure 31. Morals. carbon fungus. Saprobes. form colonies w/hyphae or exists as spherical cells. Include several examples of organisms in division.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ PART 2. 8 . Mostly terrestrial & live in soil on decaying plant/animal material. have symbiotic relationships with algae (lichens). truffles. Have flagellated spores (zoospores) Chytridium (fruiting spores) Zygomycetes Live as parasites or symbionts with animals. Ascomycetes Sac fungi. pilobolus. share key enzymes and metabolic pathways with other fungal groups. page the each DIVISION CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE Chytrids Saprobes & Parasites.4 on 619 and the information in the text. Range in size & variety. outline key characteristics of each branch of the Kingdom Fungi identified on the diagram. Form mycorrhizae Fast growing molds. Have more extensive dikaryotic stage. Produce sexual spores (asci). cell walls of chitin. plant parasites. Rhizopus stolonifer (black bread mold).

puffballs. which was probably related to choanoflagellates.Name __________________________________ Basidiomycetes Period _________ Date___________ Club fungus. What is the significance of cephalization as an evolutionary trend? A trend toward the concentration of sensory equipment on the anterior region. 20. Most systematics now agree that all animal lineages are monophyletic. Also development of the central nervous system. The _____________________________________________________________________________ end of a traveling animal that is usually first to encounter food. Describe the two forms of symmetry of the Eumetazoa. we can _____________________________________________________________________________ trace all lineages back to a single common ancestor. that is. Mushrooms. List an hypothesis for the origin of animals. are _____________________________________________________________________________ triploblastic having 3 germs layers. Outline the major characteristics Campbell uses to define an animal. _____________________________________________________________________________ Bilateral which characterizes a body form with a central longitudinal plane that divides the body into two equal but opposite halves. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 21. 24. reproduction & development. 23. cell structure & specialization. Nutritional mode. The ancestor was probably a flagellated protest. danger. shelf fungi. CHAPTER 32 – INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL EVOLUTION PART 1. Mutualists & plant parasites. Decomposers of wood and other plant material. rusts & smuts. _____________________________________________________________________________ 9 . Adaptation for movement _____________________________________________________________________________ on land. How do the germ layers of Radiata and the other Eumetazoa differ? They are diploblastic (having 2 germ layers). All other eumetazoa. _____________________________________________________________________________ 22. with many equal parts radiating outward _____________________________________________________________________________ like the spokes of a wheel. and other stimuli. Directions: All answers are to be completed on your own and neatly written. the bilateria. _____________________________________________________________________________ Radial characterizes a body shape like a pie.

Pseudocoelomates _______________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ c. _____________________________________________________________________________ Deuterostomes – development is characterized by radial.development begins with spiral. a body cavity completely lined with tissue c. determinate cleavage. __________________________________________________________________________ d. b. List a number of the major differences between the Protostomes and Deuterostomes. The mouth forms from a secondary opening. The coelom blastocoel _____________________________________________________________________________ forms from splitscleavage in the mesoderm. Determines developmental fate of embryonic cells early on. The mouth forms in the blastopore. Deuterostomes development is characterized by radial. a. Coelomates ____________________________________________________________ derived from mesoderm. determinant cleavage – the planes of cell division are diagonal to the __________________________________________________________________________ vertical axis of the embryo. Radial. __________________________________________________________________________ rather than from the mesoderm. indeterminate cleavage ______________________________________________ h. Define the following terms and describe their significance in classifying animals. Label the stages of early embryonic development of animal. Spiral. The anus forms _____________________________________________________________________________ from the blastopore. determinate cleavage. Blastopore – the indentation that during gastrulation leads to the formation of the __________________________________________________________________________ archenteron. The ceolom forms from mesodermal outpocketings of the archenteron. indeterminate cleavage. __________________________________________________________________________ The coelom forms from mesodermal outpockets of the archenteron. a. indeterminate cleavage. 8 cell stage blastula zygote 27. The cleavage mouth forms from the blastopore. d. spiral.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ 25. blastopore ______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ 26. h. g. radial. Deuterostomes __________________________________________________________ f. Protostomes development begins with spiral. The anus develops from the blastopore. The coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm. blastocoel Cross section of blastula endoderm ectoderm 10 blastopore gastrula gastrulation . Acoelomates ____________________________________________________________ b. f. Coelomates possess a true coelom. Protostomes ____________________________________________________________ e. Protostomes . Acoelomates lack a coelom. determinate cleavage _______________________________________________ g. indeterminate cleavage – cleavage planes are either parallel or __________________________________________________________________________ perpendicular to the vertical axis of the egg. Each cell contains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo. e. Pseudocoelomates have a fully functional body cavity formed from the blastocoel.

outline the key characteristics of each branch of the Kingdom Animalia identified on the diagram. Directions: Using Figure 32. Use definitions from Question 25 to supply the details in your chart. Include examples of organisms in each division.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ PART 2.4 on page 636 and the information in the text. 11 .

Name __________________________________ DIVISION CHARACTERISITICS Period _________ Date___________ EXAMPLE 12 .

Cnidaria Share a distinctive body pattern that includes a gastrovascular cavity with a single opening that serves as both mouth and anus. planarians & flukes) 5. sponges 2. Nemertea Swim through water and burrow through sand. including an alimentary canal (digestive tract). Proboscis worms. Rotifers 6. Ctenophora Diploblastic. Nematoda Enormously abundant & diverse in the soil and aquatic habitats. Roundworms 7. Rotifers Specialized organ systems. They live as suspension feeders. Possess eight “combs” of cilia that propel the animals through the water. Flatworms (tapeworms. extending a unique proboscis to capture prey. They have no body cavity or organs for circulation. many species parasitize plants & animals. jellyfish & hydras 3. They have a tough cuticle that coats their body and protects them from their host. They lack a true coelom. trapping particles that pass through the internal channels of their bodies. Comb jellies 4. Porifera Simple. ribbon worms DIVISION CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE 13 . Platyhelminthes Bilateral symmetry & central nervous systemthat process information from eyes and other sensory structures. but have an alimentary canal.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ 1. Corals. sessile animals that lack true tissues. They also have a unique method for catching prey. They feed on microorganisms suspended in water.

cuttlefish 9. amphibians. Eumetazoa. many undergo metamorphosis during development. deuterostomes Sand dollars. sandworms. Hydrozoans 12. Chordata Dorsal hollow nerve cord. fish. and a muscular tail during at least part of development. tube feet. crab. water vascular system used in respiration. slugs. Marine worms 13. notochord.INVERTEBRATES 14 . often posses a hard. octopus. calcified shell secreted by the mantle. Body cavity enclosed by mesoderm (coelomate). chambered nautilus. largest animal phylum. sea stars. Live attached to the seafloor by stalk. Tunicates. hagfish. barnacle. digestive system with two openings and coelomates. pill bug. feather stars. Segmented worms. centipedes. closed circulatory system. squid. scorpions. endoskeleton. clams.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ 8. lobster 11. Snails. jointed appendages. spiders. but the two halves of the brachiopod shell are dorsal and ventral rather than lateral. leeches 10. Phoronida Live in tunnels in the sea floor. coelomate. muscular foot. larvae have bilateral symmetry. shrimp. extending tentacles out of the tunnel opening to trap food particles. Annelida Body composed of segments separated by internal partitions. Echinodermata Live in salt water. millipedes. & mammals CHAPTER 33 . pharyngeal pouches. feeding and locomotion. lancelets. insects. Brachiopoda Superficially resemble clams and other hinge-shelled mollusks. digestive system has two openings. open circulatory system. reptiles. excretion. birds. brittle stars. Mollusca Soft bodied. Bryozoan Coelom from cell masses (protostomes). earthworms. adults typically have radial symmetry. Lamp shells 14. Ticks. sea cucumbers and sea urchins 15. segmented bodies. Arthropoda Exoskeleton of chitin. Bilateral symmetry and triploblastic.

parasites to humans. Define parthenogenesis. Some species consist only of females that produce more females from unfertilized eggs. They play an important role in the decomposition and recycling of nutrients. contributes to the _____________________________________________________________________________ development of more complex organs & organs systems. _____________________________________________________________________________ 32. diploblastic. _____________________________________________________________________________ 33. including true muscle tissues. with a gastrovascular cavity and it has a single opening. _____________________________________________________________________________ 30. In what way are Platyhelminthes significant to humans? _____________________________________________________________________________ Structure & function of ecosystems. 28. Research specimens (aging in humans). radial body plan. and then flows out the sponge through a large opening _____________________________________________________________________________ called the osculum. which _____________________________________________________________________________ typically resembles a sac perforated with pores. How does the structure of a sponge relate to its method of nutrition? They capture food particles suspended in the water that pass through their bodies. the mesoderm. What are some evolutionary advancements we see in the Platyhelminthes? Structurally more complex. Internal organs lie within the pseudocoelom. a digestive tube with a separate mouth and anus. What is a unique characteristic common to the Cnidarians? They exhibit a relatively simple. The 3rd embryonic layer. Directions: All answers are to be completed on your own and neatly written. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 34. Also include agricultureal pests that attack roots of plants. Their body plan is sac like _____________________________________________________________________________ with a central digestive compartment. 29.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ PART 1. List ways in which Nematodes impact humans. the spongocoel. 15 Parasites to humans (hookworms & pinworms) . What are the two forms of shape within the Cnidarians? _____________________________________________________________________________ Polyp & Medusa _____________________________________________________________________________ 31. What is unique in the structure and function of the Pseudocoelomates? _____________________________________________________________________________ They have a gastrovascular cavity with an alimentary canal. _____________________________________________________________________________ 35. Water is drawn through the pores into a central cavity.

a hydrostatic skeleton. Why do zoologists debate the relationship of Mollusks and Annelids? The life cycle of many marine mollusks includes a ciliated larvae called the trochophore. List common examples that could be classified as Coelomate Protostomes. But mollusks lack the one trait that most defines an annelid heritage – true segmentation. What is the evolutionary significance of the coelom as seen in the Annelids? _____________________________________________________________________________ The muscles work against the noncompressible coelomic fluid. and sheer numbers. & Arthropods _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 37. The muscles can alter the shape of each segment individually because the coelom is _____________________________________________________________________________ divided into separate compartments. Mollusks. distribution. 41. a visceral mass. & a mantle _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 38.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 36. _____________________________________________________________________________ 42. arthropods must be _____________________________________________________________________________ regarded as the most successful of all animal phyla. 40. 16 . What is the importance of segmentation? _____________________________________________________________________________ Each segment of a polychaete has a pair of paddle-like or ridge-like structures called parapodia (setae) that function in locomotion. What are the three major body regions of a Mollusk? Muscular foot. Why are the Arthropoda regarded as the most successful of all animal phyla? On the criteria of species diversity. Each segment has its own set of nephridia. hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages. Identify a characteristic that was most significant to Arthropod success. Annelids. Segmentation. _____________________________________________________________________________ which are kidney-like structures. _____________________________________________________________________________ also characteristic of marine annelids and other protostomes. _____________________________________________________________________________ 39.

7 on page 675 and the 17 . Directions: Using Table 32. _____________________________________________________________________________ Echindermata & Chordates _____________________________________________________________________________ 44.4 on page 636 and Table 33. _____________________________________________________________________________ PART 2. What traits are particularly unique to the Echinoderms? _____________________________________________________________________________ Water vascular system & tube feet.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 43. List common examples that could be classified as Coelomate Deuterostomes.

CHAPTER 34 – VERTEBRATE EVOLUTION & DIVERSITY 18 .Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ information in the text. label the phylogenetic diagram of animals with significant characteristics that distinguish major branches.

Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ PART 1. Define paedogenesis. Common among groups of _____________________________________________________________________________ salamanders. 45. they have limbs that can support their weight on land & _____________________________________________________________________________ feet with digits that allow them to transfer muscle-genreated forces to the ground when they walk. Identify the significance of the amniotic egg and the amniote? Amniotic egg contains specialized membranes that protect the embryo. What characterizes the subphylum Vertebrata? _____________________________________________________________________________ They are craniates (having a more complex nervous sytem) with a backbone (more complex skeletal system). hollow dorsal nerve chord. pharyngeal gill slits and a muscular. What are the four characteristics of the Chordates? _____________________________________________________________________________ Notochord. Lancelets as larvae develop a notochord. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 19 . As adults they retain all four characteristics of chordates. _____________________________________________________________________________ 48. In the evolution of vertebrates. dorsal hollow nerve cord. Amniotes also have skin that’s less permeable and the ability to use the rib cage to ventilate the lungs. _____________________________________________________________________________ 49. _____________________________________________________________________________ Tunicates favor chordates as larvae. 47. An example is the mudpuppy which retains gills and other larval features when sexually mature. Directions: All answers are to be completed on your own and neatly written. pharyngeal slits and a _____________________________________________________________________________ post anal tail. identify the significance of being tetrapod? In place of pectoral & pelvic fins. As adults the tail and notochord are reabsorbed. List and describe an example of an invertebrate chordate. The precocious development of sexual maturity in a larva. _____________________________________________________________________________ 50. post anal tail. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 46. The shell around _____________________________________________________________________________ the egg slows dehydration.

7 on page 684 and the information in the text. 1 2 8 7 3 4 6 5 20 . outline the key characteristics that distinguish the major branches of the subphylum Vertebrata identified on the diagram.Name __________________________________ Period _________ Date___________ PART 2. Directions: Using Table 34. Include examples of organisms in each class.

many live in both salt water and fresh water during the course of their lives. which include most living species. turtles. chicken. internal fertilization. ectothermic. bones hollow and light-weight in flying species. most have three-chambered hearts. Lizards. & mammals 6. typically several gill slits. ectothermic. penguin. Chondrichthyes Have jaws. Owl. crocodilians & dinosaurs that took to the air 8. Monotremes. Sharks. eagle. stork. tough small scales with spines. Osteichthyes Bony endoskeleton. ectothermic. usually involving gills. possess swim bladder. divided into two groups – ray-finned fishes. two-chambered heart. tuataras. and eutherians 5. skates. eel. scalecovered skin. Aves Endothermic. tuna. four-chambered heart. Mammalia Endothermic. marlin. tuataras. paired fins. Cephalaspidomorphi Larvae filter feeders. male possess structures for internal fertilization. ostrich 21 . Diapsids Cladistic analysis provides strong evidence that birds are the closest living relatives of extinct dinosaurs. and lobe-finned fishes. catfish 4. Lizards. hair. Lampreys 2. four-chambered heart. Mammals also retain key features. sparrow. rays. duck. use lungs for respiration. turtles. scales o legs and feet. Reptilia Adapted to fully terrestrial life. feathered over much of body surface. aquatic. reptiles. amniotic eggs typically laid on land. marsupials. most have four legs. most live in salt water. Functions as a “self-contained pond” that enables vertebrates to complete their life cycles on land. some live in water. fins and endoskeleton of cartilage. well-developed respiratory system. Birds. Class reptilian does not have feathers that distinguish birds. snakes. adults parasites whose circular mouth is lined with rasping toothlike structures. goldfish. subcutaneous fat. suckle young with milk produced from mammary glands. which include the lungfish and coeloacanth. perch. tortoises. pigeon. Salmon. well-developed lungs and air sacs for efficient air exchange. tortoises. chimaera.Name __________________________________ CLASS Period _________ Date___________ CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLE 1. sawfish 3. snakes. extinct forms include dinosaurs and flying reptiles. bass. dry. Amniotes Have amniotic egg (shelled and water retaining egg). & crocodilians 7. most viviparous. sturgeon.

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