This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
PROMOTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY, ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GREENHOUSE GAS ABATEMENT (PREGA) Tajikistan
MICRO-HYDRO POWER STATION IN THE MOUNTAIN VILLAGE OF JORF
A Pre-Feasibility Study Report1
Prepared by the National Technical Experts, Imangazi Sariev and Yuri Nevenchanny under the supervision of the National Counterpart Agency Coordinator, Alaibek Obozov, Center of Renewable Energy Use
Table of Contents Page No. 1. 2. 3. 3.1 3.2 3.3 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction Objectives of the Project Brief Description of the Project An Estimation of Potential of Small Water-Power Engineering Us of Energy of the Small Rivers The Cost of Small Hydroelectric Power Stations (HEPS) Actions Expected Results The Project Implementation Plan Financial, Economic and Ecological Analyses 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 8. Annexes Budget Cost on sections Ecological analysis Works on construction of Mini HEPS Conclusion 3 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 12 13 13 15-19
The monthly average income per capita is 40 somoni (12 US dollars). Vanj and Pianj surround the Darvaz range. The amplitude of fluctuation of heights is more than 5000 m. narrow mountain ranges with sharp serrated ridges covered with eternal snows and alternating to deep gorges of the rough rivers are widespread. On the whole the population is engaged in agriculture 1. Yahsu. and East – Pamir. The valleys of the rivers Obihingou. Here there are two mountain areas: Western .Pamir.1. and their 3 . Introduction The village (kishlak) of Jorf is situated in the Darvaz district of GBAO region of Tajikistan. The western Pamir region is characterized by exclusive roughness of the surface in contrast of heights. The Darvaz mountain range is one of four high-mountainous spurs of the western side of the range of Academy of Science. The highest mount in the Eastern part is peak Arnavad (6083m). Forms of a relief are typically erosive. where the Jorf village is located. The bottom of the ranges lay at the height to 1700-1800 m above sea level. For the Western Pamir region. There are 600 people and 74 households in this kishlak.1 Location and Environment East of Tajikistan is occupied with the Pamir mountain system.
Therefore for spring month’s cloudbursts and thunderstorms are very frequent. However. Summer temperatures are high enough and it remains for two or two and a half months at the height of 2000m . The territory of the Western Pamir is a zone of a dry climate with moderately warm summers and moderately severe winters. Vanj and Yazgulem) in view of their significant height carry glaciers on their slopes.2 The Climate Depending on heterogeneity of physical and geographical conditions within the limits of Tajikistan it is possible to meet five climatic zones. Winter at places of heights up to 2000 m is moderately mild.July. The approach of spring is felt in the beginning of March when the day time air temperature rises up to +3° . on the Western Pamir there are places where the amount of precipitation is less than 600 mm per year. In January average monthly temperature of air is -5 to -8°. Higher rainfall characterizes the windward.+4°. Autumn is rather warm. All mountain ranges of the Western Pamir (and their four mountain ranges: Peter the Great. Darvaz. Winter begins at the end of November and lasts for about three and a half months. 1. 4 . western side of Northwest and Western Pamirs (Badakhshan). The maximum quantity of precipitation falls during the cold period of the year: on the average about 65 % of the annual quantity. Average daily temperatures in autumn months are positive. On the Western Pamirs. In the mountain areas of the Western Tajikistan the least quantity of precipitation falls in the summer months. the mid-annual sum of precipitation achieves 1192 mm.+24°. The mode of humidity of air in mountains in winter months considerably goes down (on the longterm average data by 10-12 %) in comparison with the adjoining plain. at night it is -10 to -11°. in very cold years the temperature of the air can drop to -30°. The quantity of precipitation in valleys is 100-200 mm and in West Badakhshan rises up to 300mm. The maximum of precipitation in high-mountainous areas falls in April . Daily fluctuations of temperature are insignificant: in the afternoon it does not rise above -3°. and in high mountains (about 4000 m) is already -15 to -20°. summer begins at the end of June. The warmest months are July and August. The mode of deposits in high-mountainous areas of Pamir is determined basically by orographical factors. and in separate days it is even lower. with temperatures of January from -2° up to -8°C. At the heights of from 2000m up to 3000m the temperature is +18° up to +20°. on Fedchenko glacier. higher than 3000 up to 4000m July temperatures do not fall below +8°С. Badakhshan has a mountainous Central Asian climate with long summer drought and a maximum of precipitation during the winter-spring period. Here. and in September at daytime it reaches +20°C.tops rise to 6000 m and higher. At this time of the year there is a big contrast of temperatures between coming cold airs and already significant warmed up spreading surface.
The rivers have high water content. • To the question of the questionnaire. The village Jorf is situated in the Eastern part of GBAO. and the absence of electric power in the settlements remote from the main electric lines makes the inhabitants of mountains use wood as fuel. difficulty of its delivery to the mountain areas of Tajikistan. For stable power supply of inhabitants of mountain village Jorf. The country’s energy laws and regulations are listed in Annex 1. 5 . “what kind of fuel do you use for preparation of food?” . Forests of the first category and fruit trees are cut down. which does not dry up throughout the year. results in reduction of the area and volume of large forests. it is possible to use the energy of the water of the local small river. Its length is 84km. which are flowing down as the rough mountain rivers from Pamir and Alai. the greatest charges of water are in July. uncovering of hillsides. On this small river it is possible to construct some HEPS with capacity of 100 kW. The high water lasts from April till October to November.3 The rivers The most important in the economic sense and largest in size are the inflows of the river Pjanj.4 Justification of the Problem The sharp shortage of organic fuel. Absence of adequate social and economic conditions compels people to irrational use of local natural resources and the migration of the able-bodied population from region.1. deterioration of health of the population. the second largest inflow of the river Pianj is the river Bartang.100 % of households have answered that they use topak and firewood. the river Yazgulem flows out from under powerful glaciers. For revealing the opinion of the local population to construction of a small HEPS in the village Jorf. and small shops for processing agricultural production can become consumers of the electric power. and decrease in educational levels. Two rivers are flowing across the village and one of them dries up in winter. with the length of 490 km. 1. in soil erosion. This deforestation creates the conditions for development of processes of desertification and reduces potential of lands and biomass for absorption of carbon dioxide from atmosphere. The rivers are fed from glaciers and snowmelt. less often in August. These problems can be partially solved by construction of small Hydroelectric Power Station (HEPS) in the village. is the river Gunt. to increase the risk of earth flows and soil erosion. To the north from Bartang. with a length of 94 km. The next large inflow of Pianj is the river Vanj. The inhabitants of mountain regions are the poorest in the republic. mills for grinding of flour from local wheat. desertification of the mountain lands. Private farms. the group carried out sociological interrogation (the questionnaire is applied). on the same gorge. Cutting down of forests and bushes for their subsequent use as fuel. All these factors result in infringement of ecology of mountain regions. and electric power.
electricity is provided for 24 hours per day. but also to change qualitatively the structure of energy use. 100 % of the population has answered.100 % of the people have answered: During the autumn-winter period. such as CO. Annex 2 reflects the energy supply balance of the village Jorf and Annex 3 is the schedule of electricity supply and necessary capacity of energy users. two hours in the evening and 2 hours in the morning. and 1-2 tons of topak per one household. in this case construction of small HEPS in the high-mountainous village of Jorf.4 kWt per person that is twice lower. During the spring-andsummer period. 3-5 tons of coal.3-0. To the question whether there are debts for payment for the electricity supply?” . During the sociological survey it is revealed. water and space heating.2 % . To the question whether they will support a construction of small Hydroelectric Power Station in their village .82 % of the population have answered "no ".for 2 months. “what kind of fuel do you use for heating houses?” -77.coal and fire wood. seasonally use per day is 10-15 kg of dry wood for preparation of food. It is known. in view of reduction in quantity of the by-products negatively influencing human habitation and health. 2 kW per person is needed. that is 0.• • • • • • To the question of the questionnaire.475 kg of fire wood. “what quantity of fuel do you use for preparation of food?” .5 l of diesel oil for illumination with the help of a lamp. Hukumat of Darvaz district and Jorf Jamoat are ready to accept active participation in the construction of the HEPS and to bring the feasible contribution to its implementation. 7. “for how much time is the electricity currently provided per day?” . that the local population are ready to pay for regular supply of electric power. 15. and 18 % (9 households) have answered "yes". To the question “For what period do you have debts?” 7 households have answered that they have debts for a month and 2 households . that for creation of comfortable conditions of life. In the whole it corresponds to cumulative expenses of energy capacity of approximately 2 kw.100 % have answered "yes". "yes" to the question whether they are ready to pay for the more reliable electric power.5 Contribution to sustainable development One of the primary goals of construction of renewable energy source (RES). on the average. is reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases that promotes the global purpose of solution of the problem of climate change. NO. 6 . than average per capita consumption in the scale of the Earth (at calculation of average consumption of energy per capita 1 kw). as well as 0. To the question of the questionnaire.3 %-fire wood. Thus the RES projects lead to reduction of emissions of harmful substances. To the question of the questionnaire. because otherwise they should spend more money for purchase of coal and firewood. 1.5 % of households have answered that they use the electric power.They answered that they use per year 5. and methods of obtaining energy. For increase of the standard of living of inhabitants of mountain regions it is necessary not only to increase quantity of consumed energy. In this village the average family of 5 persons.
the republic has not been a party to the Kyoto Protocol until now. 3. (ii) Plan. mills. discuss and agree with the community the form of management.2 Use of Energy of the Small Rivers The immediate task represents the construction of a mini HEPS with a capacity of 100 kW. tariff and a suitable system of ownership. Taking into account climatic conditions of village Jorf from all renewable energy sources. 7 . Small Hydroelectric Power Stations can be used for various purposes. and improvement of vital conditions of inhabitants of the highland region. and on the other hand there is no potential for management of projects. The micro hydro’s output will be especially valuable during the autumn-winter period when the electricity from the overloaded grid comes according to a limited schedule. maintenance and operation. Effective power technologies provide resource saving. Verify water resources. When fully agreed then the project can proceed as below. street illumination. 3. (v) The creation of the network for the electric supply of the consumers. Objectives and Tasks of the Project Objective: To construct micro HEPS in the mountain village Jorf in Darvaz district of GBAO Tasks: Elaboration of the project of mini HEPS. the water content of which varies during the year. In Tajikistan. school. RES projects have not been implemented because on the one hand. 3. including initiation of a flow-rate monitoring plan. the most promising is the small Hydro Power station. In the republic there are good opportunities for attraction of the international investments/donors to RES. and other needs. (iii) Purchasing and manufacturing of parts and components for the mini HEPS. (iv) Installation and testing of the installation. The electric power micro Hydroelectric Power Station can be used as an addition to the existing distribution grid transformer (for which the service life for a long time has already been expired). Development of renewable energy sources promotes reduction of risk of deforestation. medical station and as a provision of reliable energy for small farmer enterprises for agricultural processing production.1 Brief Description of the Project An Estimation of Potential of Small Water-Power Engineering (i) Village Jorf of Darvaz GBAO is rich in hydro potential of the mountain rivers and inflows of the river Pianj. reduction of quantity of natural hazards.SO2 and dust. improving unique local ecology. 2. The micro hydro’s output will provide for illumination of houses.
Drawing up of the engineering specifications on installation and hydraulic engineering system. (v) Transportation of units and details of destination. by decrease of expenses for purchase of energy carriers. their purchase and manufacturing. small power intensive heaters. development of business.000 and USD3. (vii) Assembling of installation. 3.000 per kW. time of operation before capital reconstruction is 20-25 years. charges on transportation and installation works add another 600-1200 USD per kW. The Government of Tajikistan pays attention to the development of small power projects. The Cost of Small Hydroelectric Power Stations Specific cost of small Hydroelectric Power Stations varies from 400 up to 800 USD per 1 kW of established capacity. improvement of 8 . specificity of transportation. The time of financial recovery of the outlay of small and mini HEPS is 3-8 years.3. The project is directed on supply public and private enterprises with the electric power in the mountain village Jorf. (viii) Test of installation and put it into operation. a suitable means of load management will need to be developed and agreed with the Jorf Village community to ensure that all individual electrical maximum loads do not all occur at the same time. creation of new workplaces. Actions The signing of the contract with local population and Khukumat about joint work on construction of small Hydroelectric Power Station. Expected Results The project will promote reduction of poverty. depending on the terrain. Internationally. and (ix) Creation of a network of electricity supply. technology used. small hydro installed costs would be expected to be between USD2. etc. (iii) Calculation of efficiency of installation and key parameters of mini Hydroelectric Power Station. the most suitable variant is realization of development of small power by attraction of local and foreign investors/donors. (iv) A choice of the basic units and details. (vi) Construction of a water-fence and the pipeline to destination. Expenses in many respects are determined by conditions of the district. (i) (ii) Monitoring of the area and drawing up ToR. however the republic now is not capable of providing the necessary financing in this sphere.At the same time the use of highly effective electric devices (fluorescent lamps.) can provide additional benefits and opportunities of preservation and use of energy. In the feasibility stage. etc. 5. In this connection. 4. to provide steady development and preservation of the environment.
2007 The beginning of work of Mini HEPS . development of an industrial base. improvement of professional skills of experts. • • • • • • 7.1.September. Creation and distribution of local energy installations will positively affect the position of women in the family and society. as follows: • The turbine • The generator • A speed regulator • The distribution and control equipment. and a school. and creation of a service infrastructure. The payment for the electric power will be accessible to local residents. The independent power supply will allow the population to have an alternative power supply and to be independent from dictatorship of the state centralized power supply systems. Information on peak and off-peak demands will be critical to ensure that the system is adequately sized. shop on manufacture of silk strings. 6. Additional benefits will include the further replication of modern effective technologies. electric mills). The further operation and service of installation will be provided by the Jamoat management. Economic and Ecological Analyses Budget The equipment is expected to comprise 62 % of the cost of the whole project. 2006 Studying and preparation of the Project (FS) . including power meters for each consumer • The transformer • Spare parts • An electric cable and connecting wires 9 .g. 2008 Service life (25 years) – 2033 Financial.October.December. The main beneficiaries of the electric power will be private enterprises and organizations (e. 7. preservation of ecology of mountain district. the exact mechanisms will need to be detailed in the more comprehensive feasibility study phase. Medical center. In the feasibility phase. 2006 Mini HEPS Installation .June. a more detailed energy study will need to be undertaken to estimate the expected loads.conditions of life of the population.January. 2006 Preparation of the technical project . However. It will promote democratization of society and creation for the remote mountain inhabitants of the republic equal conditions with city dwellers.January . (i) The Project Implementation Plan Preparation of the report under the Pre-project (PFS) . and reduction of the emission of GHG.
national construction specification for local distribution lines. 7. traveling and living expenses • Orders to the foreign organizations (vi) Spadework and management of the Project . armature. Pipes plastic m.5 % from the cost of the project • A water-in taking branch pipe • The pressure head pipeline • A pipe of tail water (iii) Building materials . angles. Cement t. Quantity Cost in US dollars 2000 1000 1000 Preparation of ToR – 10. 3. and may turn out to be higher once more detailed site investigations are undertaken in the feasibility study.10 % from the cost of the project are (v) necessary • Stationery • Transport. (ii) The pipeline . 000 USD 10 .) • Insulation and other auxiliary materials The personnel for Mini HEPS МГЭС . asbestine) m.2.It is recommended that the distribution system be constructed to the full.10 % from the cost of the project • The head of the project • The engineer .tester • Working builders (iv) During the work the following additional expenses . Pipes metal (cement.3 % from the cost of the project • Cement • Metal products (a channel. etc.10 % of the cost of the project The natural contribution of local residents and Jamoat is calculated in 10 % of the cost of the project. 2. The name 1. Cost on sections Materials and equipment Note that the following costs are initial estimates only.developer • The designer • The installer • The engineer .
4. Bearings (channels. auxiliary materials Total: 1000 1 1 1 35000 620 1000 500 71. The turbine (pieces) 6.900 Power meters for the hydro power plant’s output will also need to be included The Personnel Quantity of the persons 1 1 2 2 2 4 A payment per month 300 200 150 100 100 80 Quantity of months 12 12 3+3=6 3+3=6 2+2=4 4+4=8 10. A cable.000 110.) m. etc. A regulator of a voltage (pieces) 8.900 9.400 The Head (Manager) The engineer – developer The engineer – designer The engineer – installer The engineer – tester Builders Total: Preparation of ToR Materials and Equipment The Personnel Others • Orders to other organizations • Transport charges • Traveling and living expenses • Stationery • Contingencies Total: Local residents (in-kind contribution) Total Project Cost 11 . etc.400 3000 2000 3000 300 700 9. electric wires in m. 5.The generator (pieces) 7. 9.000 71.000 10. angle bars. insulating.300 USD A total sum 3600 2400 800 600 400 1600 9.
and independently .0 In principle. In $ 2000 7000 5000 600 Volume (mass).h (year) Summer 150000 Winter 100000 35000 50000 6000 Cost. However. tons per year 70 100 30 СО2 emissions per year (tons) 210 300 90 Diesel fuel Total Mini HEPS . 12 . before there can be a definite conclusion in this area there needs to be some analysis of the tariff and expected electricity sales. rWt.3 The ecological analysis Electric power of Mini HEPS in the village Jorf can be used.5 years. the initial financial and economic analysis shows that Mini HEPS in the village Jorf should be financially viable and economically effective. thousand USD 5$ per ton 10$ per ton 20$ per ton 3.Jorf 3000 344000 670000 2500 17000 5360 5 205 - 15 615 Income from the sale of СО2 saved Annual reduction of СО2 thousand tons Base line of the 0. and these need to be factored into the equation along with more accurate expected annual operating costs and expenses. Calculation of СО2 emissions Type of energy carrier Electric energy Coal Fire wood Topak Electric energy. Annex 4 indicates the HEPS Jorf payback period to be 17.0 12.when the state network does not supply energy in autumn-winter beyond two hours in the morning and tow hours in the evening.0 6.7.6 project Base line Estimated income. The baseline is: Fuel consumed by the population for the power supply and technology of power supply. either alongside the existing limited energy capacity electric system.
Due to the sharp fall of the water at the site.3 m3 per second) suitable plastic pipes can be used which are characterized by durability and reliability in operation. particularly in the autumn-winter period when the current grid electricity supply is only provided for 2 hours in the morning and two hours in the evening. For maintenance of the hydro unit with the necessary charge of water (0. the plan is to divert part of the water from the small river through the pipeline to the hydro power station. m / second 3 Electricity production kWh per year Mini HEPS Jorf Where 100 40 0.4 Works on construction of Mini HEPS At construction of the hydro installation. then this proposed mini hydropower project should be succesful. Due to the derivational channel (by-pass) for maintenance of Mini HEPS with water the channel of the river will not be blocked.32 670000 Н – head of water Q – Water design flow rate 8. So long as correct social mobilisation procedures are followed to ensure community education and awareness on basic management and operation. and that will promote the preservation of conditions of continued viability of local fauna. and the engineering is correctly done with no shortcuts. it is not expected to be necessary to construct a dam and a water basin. Rather. kWt Н. Jorf village has an excellent site for a mini hydro power plant (short penstock and high flow) and there is good community interest. 13 . a 40-50 meter water head can be created over a distance (penstock length) of less than 100 meters. The electricity generated would back up the currently limited availability of electricity from the grid. unsustainably harvested firewood.7. The hydro station would reduce the use of coal. and diesel used for lighting in autumn and winter evenings. Established capacity. Conclusion The Jorf mini-hydro project would utilize proven hydro engineering principles at a very promising hydro site with a nearby village that would be able to obtain suitable social and productive uses from the electricity generated. m Q. The civil works will be carried out with the use of small technical equipment and manually.
but without this information it is not yet possible to assess the true feasibility of the concept. using power meters Expected annual operating expenses Verification of details of existing power system. if any. it is possible to see a concept of this type progressing successfully.It is recommended that the feasibility study would provide more detail on issues including: • • • • • • Expected loads and demand patterns Expected tariff.g. pumped irrigation or off peak water heating during midnight hours) Additional detail of the community mobilization approach proposed With the additional data provided. Potential for utilisation of off peak power (e. 14 .
The law “ On Nature Protection” (1993. The law “About Power Supply” (2002) 3. The convention on climate change (1998). The law “On Ecological Examination” 6. The law “About amendments to the Law РТ “About Energy” (2005).) 8. 15 . Instruction for use of water objects for needs of waterpower engineering (2003). The Forestry Code 13. The Resolution of the Government of RT “About tariffs for electric energy” (2006. The Water Code 11. Regulations “About peculiarities of licensing of separate kinds of activity” (2005. The Resolution of the Government of RT “About development of small energy in the Republic of Tajikistan” (1997. The law “ About Energy” (2000. The Land Code 12.Annex 1 Законодательство Республики Таджикистан в области энергетики. The legislations of Republic of Tajikistan in the field of Energy Laws and Regulations of the Republic of Tajikistan 1.) 9. The Vienna Convention on protection of ozone layer (1996) 14.) 7.) 5. 10. 4.) 2.
038 Note: In the village Jorf the caoacity of HEPS will allow not only to supply every family but will supply a Scool. shop on processing of agricultural production and a shop for cocoon processing Price of one kWt*h 16 .008 – 0.Annex 2 Table 1: Energy supply balance of the village Jorf Institutions. Medical center.h 110300 4300 0. maintenance) D 50-80 kWt 10-20 kWt 74 3 3 100 10 670000 470000 500000 100000 130000 50000 70000 10-30 kWt kWt. Duration of the work. unit. (technical potential) kWt Energy consumption per year kWt*h Enterprises Households Installations Institutions Cost In USD Expenses per year (Operators salaries. unit. Enterprises. (months Energy production Capacity.office mill.
Annex 3 Table 2: Schedule of electricity supply and necessary capacity of energy users Month Households 50-80 kWt School 10-15 kWt Medical center 4-5 kWt Jamoat 3-5 kWt Mill 5-10 kWt Sop on processing of agricultural production 5-10 kWt Shop on processing of cocoon 5-10 kWt January February March April May June July August September October November December х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х х - х х х - 17 .
015 0.012 8040 3 25 670 0.018 12060 3 25 670 0.2 13400 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 USD USD USD USD USD USD 400 (600) 18 .009 6030 3 25 670 0.014 9380 3 25 670 0.008 5360 3 25 670 0.5 years Names of indicators Installed capacity of HEPS Quantity of working hours of HEPS per year Construction period Specific cost Construction cost Profit tax rate Capital investments Volume of produced ergy Price per 1 kWt Volume of production sold Quantity of workers Salary per 1 man per year Expenses: Salary Depreciation Annual summary expenses Profit Profit tax Net profit Unit. kWt Hour Month USD. Thousand kWt /hour USD USD 2 (3) USD. 200 Amount/ Cost 100 5000 12 1950 195000 0 670 500 0.011 7370 3 25 670 0.Annex 4 Table 4: HEPS JORF .016 10720 3 25 670 0. USD.01 6700 3 25 670 0.015 10050 3 25 670 0. % USD.Payback Period 17.
036 0. kWt Hour Month USD.024 0.Continuation Names of indicators Installed capacity of HEPS Quantity of working hours of HEPS per year Construction period Specific cost Construction cost Profit tax rate Capital investments Volume of produced ergy Price per 1 kWt Volume of production sold Quantity of workers Salary per 1 man per year Expenses: Salary Depreciation Annual summary expenses Profit Profit tax Net profit Equity at the end of the year Unit. Thousand kWt /hour USD USD 3 USD.03 0.034 0.028 0.032 0. USD. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 0.038 USD USD USD USD USD USD USD 19 . % USD.022 0.026 0.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?